Article citationsMore >>

Guth, A., The Inflationary Universe: The quest for a new theory of cosmic origins. Perseus Books, 1997.

has been cited by the following article:


Quantum Fluctuations and Variable G Return Einstein’s Field Equation to Its Original Formulation

1Åbo Akademi University, Finland

International Journal of Physics. 2021, Vol. 9 No. 3, 169-177
DOI: 10.12691/ijp-9-3-4
Copyright © 2021 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Jarl-Thure Eriksson. Quantum Fluctuations and Variable G Return Einstein’s Field Equation to Its Original Formulation. International Journal of Physics. 2021; 9(3):169-177. doi: 10.12691/ijp-9-3-4.

Correspondence to: Jarl-Thure  Eriksson, Åbo Akademi University, Finland. Email:


The standard ΛCDM model has successfully depicted most of the astronomical observations. However, the model faces several question marks such as, what was the cause of the Big Bang singularity, what is the physics behind dark matter? The origin of dark energy is still unclear. The present theory, CBU, standing for the Continuously Breeding Universe, has been developed along with known principles of physics. The theory incorporates important ideas from the past. The universe is a complex emerging system, which starts from the single fluctuation of a positron-electron pair. Expansion is driven by the emersion of new pairs. The gravitational parameter G is inversely proportional to the Einsteinian curvature radius r. The Planck length and Planck time tP are dependent of the curvature and accordingly by the size of the universe. It is shown that the solution to the Schrödinger equation of the initial positron-electron fluctuation includes an exponential function parameter equal to the Planck length of the initial event. The existence of a wave function provides a link between quantum mechanics and the theory of general relativity. The fast change of momentum increases the Heisenberg uncertainty window thereby enhancing the positron-electron pair production, especially strong in the early universe. When these findings are introduced in the energy-momentum tensor of Einstein’s Field Equation, the equation acquires a simple configuration without G and a cosmological constant. The universe is a macroscopic manifestation of the quantum world.