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World Bank. Kenya Country Economic Memorandum: From Economic Growth to Jobs and Shared Prosperity. The World Bank Group, Nairobi, 2016. Available: httpt:// 54/pdf/103822-WP-Kenya-Country-Economic-Memorandum- PUBLIC.pdf Accessed: Sept. 17 2020.

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Nexus between Urban Food System and Other Urban Systems: Exploring Opportunities for Improving Food Security in Kisumu, Kenya

1Kisumu Local Interaction Platform (KLIP), Kisumu, Kenya

2Jaramogi Oginga Odinga University of Science and Technology, Bondo, Kenya

Social and Economic Geography. 2020, Vol. 5 No. 1, 20-28
DOI: 10.12691/seg-5-1-4
Copyright © 2020 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Paul Otieno Opiyo, Stephen Gaya Agong. Nexus between Urban Food System and Other Urban Systems: Exploring Opportunities for Improving Food Security in Kisumu, Kenya. Social and Economic Geography. 2020; 5(1):20-28. doi: 10.12691/seg-5-1-4.

Correspondence to: Paul  Otieno Opiyo, Kisumu Local Interaction Platform (KLIP), Kisumu, Kenya. Email:


The world population is growing and shifting in character from to predominantly rural to increasingly urban. It is projected that by 2050, two thirds of the world’s population will be living in urban areas. The food system of cities has an impact on the health and wellbeing of residents. This study is a review of data and integration of findings from two projects done in Kisumu from 2016 - 2020: Consuming Urban Poverty (CUP) project and Nourishing Spaces (NS) project. The two projects employed both qualitative and quantitative methods of data collection, which were supplemented by desktop research involving an analysis of published literature. Peri-urban households were found to be more food insecure as compared to residents of core urban areas, attributed to urban sprawl. Municipal markets were located in areas less accessible to poor residents leading to the growth of informal food retail in the city. Distant production sources and poor road network drive up the cost of food in the city. More than 65 per cent of residents live in informal settlements in poor housing units with inadequate food storage and kitchen facilities, promoting consumption of processed foods. Inadequate water, sanitation and energy at both household and market levels was found to hinder food security. Unemployment contributed to food insecurity. Thirty one per cent of residents 20 years and above were unemployed in a city in which 67 per cent bought more than 75 percent of the total food consumed from the market. Most residents have a rural home due to cultural reasons and they occasionally obtain food from their rural homes. The food system of Kisumu city is influenced by other urban systems and it is important to consider the whole system in policy conversations to alleviate food insecurity in the city.