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Baggaley RF Boily MC White RG Alary M (2006). Risk of HIV-1 transmission for parenteral exposure and blood transfusion: a systematic review and meta-analysis. AIDS. 20: 805-812.

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Article

Molecular Detection of Human Immunodeficiency Virus from Healthy Blood Donors at Two Tertiary Hospitals in Nigeria

1Microbiology and Immunology Department, University of Abuja Teaching Hospital, Gwagwalada, Abuja, Nigeria

2Medical Laboratory Science Department, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nnewi, Campus, Anambra State, Nigeria

3Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Imo State University, Owerri, Nigeria

4Laboratory Service, University of Abuja Teaching Hospital, Gwagwalada, Abuja, Nigeria


American Journal of Infectious Diseases and Microbiology. 2019, Vol. 7 No. 1, 18-25
DOI: 10.12691/ajidm-7-1-4
Copyright © 2019 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Ahaneku Iherue Osuji, Nneka Regina Agbakoba, Martin Ositaodinma Ifeanyichukwu, Aloy-Amadi Oluchi Chinwe, Babandina Muhammad Musa, Amos Dangana. Molecular Detection of Human Immunodeficiency Virus from Healthy Blood Donors at Two Tertiary Hospitals in Nigeria. American Journal of Infectious Diseases and Microbiology. 2019; 7(1):18-25. doi: 10.12691/ajidm-7-1-4.

Correspondence to: Ahaneku  Iherue Osuji, Microbiology and Immunology Department, University of Abuja Teaching Hospital, Gwagwalada, Abuja, Nigeria. Email: ahanekuos@gmail.com

Abstract

Introduction: Human Immunodeficiency virus (HIV), a retrovirus and enveloped RNA virus is one of the infectious agents been tested before a blood donor is qualified for donation based on its negativity. The aim of the study was to detect and identify HIV genotypes of healthy blood donors certified fit for donation at University of Abuja Teaching Hospital (UATH) Abuja, Nigeria and Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital (NAUTH) Nnewi, Nigeria. Methodology: Blood samples from 197 apparently healthy blood donors (98- UATH and 99-NAUTH) were screened using rapid test kit (Determine HIV Kit). All samples that were negative by rapid test kit were retested using 4th generation HIV ELISA (Fortress Diagnostics UK). Twenty two positive and negative samples by ELISA each were tested using nested RT-PCR to detect HIV RNA. Eight samples positive for HIV RNA were amplified and V3 gene sequenced to identify HIV genotypes. Results: Out of 197 samples that tested negative by rapid test, 27 (13.7%) were positive by ELISA. Twenty two samples negative by HIV ELISA were negative for HIV RNA and 8 (36.4%) of 22 samples positive by ELISA were positive by HIV RNA. Of the 8 HIV RNA positive samples sequenced, 4 (50%) were successfully sequenced. The DNA sequencing and phylogenetic analysis showed that the isolates sequenced belonged to HIV-1 with gene sequences similar to HIV isolates from Cameroon, Senegal and Italy. Conclusion: High prevalence of HIV infection among blood donors that tested negative by rapid test kit signified that blood recipients could be transfused with infected blood units unknowingly testing for anti-HIV. HIV type 1 is the most prevalent genotype among the blood donors with gene sequences similar to isolates from Cameroon, Italy and Senegal. It is recommended that 4th generation HIV ELISA be used for screening blood donor to reduce HIV transfusion risk.

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