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H. Marecos do Monte and A. Albuquerque, "Analysis of constructed wetland performance for irrigation reuse," Water Science and Technology, vol. 61, pp. 1699-1705, 2010.

has been cited by the following article:

Article

Rural Domestic Wastewater Treatment by Small-scale Horizontal Subsurface Flow Constructed Wetlands at Different Temperatures

1School of Energy and Environment, Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096, PR China

2College of Natural Resources and Environmental studies, Department of Environmental Studies, University of Juba / South Sudan

3Department of Environmental Science, Balochinstan University of Information Technology, Engineering and Management Science, Quetta, Pakistan


Applied Ecology and Environmental Sciences. 2019, Vol. 7 No. 1, 28-34
DOI: 10.12691/aees-7-1-4
Copyright © 2019 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Stanislaus Tombe Venusto Lako, Xiwu Lu, John Leju Celestino Ladu, Ittehad Hussain, Javid Hussain. Rural Domestic Wastewater Treatment by Small-scale Horizontal Subsurface Flow Constructed Wetlands at Different Temperatures. Applied Ecology and Environmental Sciences. 2019; 7(1):28-34. doi: 10.12691/aees-7-1-4.

Correspondence to: Xiwu  Lu, School of Energy and Environment, Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096, PR China. Email: xiwulu@seu.edu.cn

Abstract

This study assessed the performance of a small-scale horizontal sub-surface flow constructed wetland (HSSF-CWs) for rural domestic wastewater treatment with different species of vegetative plants capsicum annuum (A), Allium sativum (B), Apium graveolens (C), Spinacia oleracea (X), Apium graveolens (Y) & cilantro (Z).The system operational time was over three months as a tertiary treatment for both summer and winter season to improve the effluent quality before disposal. The average temperatures during the experimental operation were 27°C and 11.6°C in summer and winter respectively. The average pH value ranges between 6.98-7.19 and 6.72-6.98 respectively. The average hydraulic residence time (HRT) of 2 and three days with the hydraulic loading rate (HLR) set to 180ml/min in summer and winter respectively. The average removal efficiency (RE) concentrations for plants A, B & C in summer were 77.2%, 77.2%, 81.4% & 93% for TN, NO3-N, NH4+N & TP. Whereas in the winter season the RE were 67.6%, 65%, 69.4% & 86.6% for TN, NO3-N, NH4+N & TP for plants X,Y,& Z respectively. All the vegetative plants almost performed similarly in nutrient removal under HRT of two and three days with the best performance revealed in summer. HSSF-CW successfully achieved high removal efficiency due to its self-adaptability, low-cost, secure operations and maintenance and above all is high effluent quality reuses and self-remediation. HSSF-CW is a good alternative for wastewater treatment system.

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