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Kavanaugh Paul F.. Engineering Design: Incinerators Mobilization Construction. US Department of the Army Corps of Engineers, Washington, D.C., April 1984.

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Municipal Solid Waste Incinerator Design: Basic Principles

1Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Maiduguri, Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria

2Department of Mechanical Engineering, Ramat Polytechnic, Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria

Sustainable Energy. 2018, Vol. 6 No. 1, 11-19
DOI: 10.12691/rse-6-1-2
Copyright © 2018 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Mohammed Ben Oumarou, Alhaji Bukar Abubakar, Sahabo Abubakar. Municipal Solid Waste Incinerator Design: Basic Principles. Sustainable Energy. 2018; 6(1):11-19. doi: 10.12691/rse-6-1-2.

Correspondence to: Mohammed  Ben Oumarou, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Maiduguri, Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria. Email:


The paper presents some basics and the steps required when the design of an incinerator for heat recovery or waste treatment is being thought of. It is mostly important for designers in developing countries and students where the advanced design tools and computer modelling are not easily accessible. Waste management has become a major concern world‐wide and amidst various waste treatment methods like recycling, composting; incineration is the method that treats the non-reusable and non-organic portion of wastes. Incineration is a complex process due to the heterogonous nature of wastes. Incinerators cannot be designed properly without the knowledge of the combustion science involved and the characteristics of the wastes. Aspects of prime importance in design to be considered are: the incineration mechanisms and their selection, the grate firing systems, furnace geometries, secondary air injection, the 3Ts, the heating value or calorific value of the waste, theoretical Air to Fuel ratio and the excess air requirement. The incinerator internal sizing requirements, chamber sizing, incinerator residence time and retention time, the air injection, as well as the estimation of fuel requirements and the flame temperatures need to be assessed. No one method can be used alone to handle all waste streams effectively, thus an integrated waste management system which not only deals with different methods of treating wastes but also issues such as waste streams, collection, environmental benefits, economic optimization and social acceptability.