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Article

Influence of Urban Pollution on the Water Quality of the Groundwater of Six Municipalities of Abidjan

1Laboratoire de thermodynamique et de physico-chimie du milieu, (UFR-SFA), Université Nangui Abrogoua, Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire

2Unité de formation et de recherche en Environnement, Université Jean Lorougnon Guédé de Daloa Côte d’Ivoire

3Laboratoire des Sciences de l’Environnement, (UFR-SGE), Université Nangui Abrogoua, Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire

4Laboratoire Central de l’Environnement du Centre Ivoirien Anti-pollution (CIAPOL), Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire


American Journal of Environmental Protection. 2018, Vol. 6 No. 3, 68-76
DOI: 10.12691/env-6-3-3
Copyright © 2018 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Gnahoua Magloire OKOU, Marie-Jeanne Adélaïde OHOU-Yao, Dompé Ghislain AHOULÉ, Agness Essoh Jean Eudes Yves GNAGNE, Ossey Bernard YAPO, Nahossé ZIAO. Influence of Urban Pollution on the Water Quality of the Groundwater of Six Municipalities of Abidjan. American Journal of Environmental Protection. 2018; 6(3):68-76. doi: 10.12691/env-6-3-3.

Correspondence to: Gnahoua  Magloire OKOU, Laboratoire de thermodynamique et de physico-chimie du milieu, (UFR-SFA), Université Nangui Abrogoua, Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire. Email: gnahoua.okou@gmail.com

Abstract

The groundwater, through the use of domestic wells, is for many populations the source of water they use daily. These wells are located mainly in neighbourhoods where sanitary conditions are very precarious and inadequate sanitation. It is therefore appropriate to highlight the influence of this unhealthy environment on the quality of the waters of the groundwater of Abidjan. Four sampling campaigns spread over the four climatic seasons were carried out. The analyzes of the water samples collected focused on the physicochemical and microbiological parameters commonly used for the quality of drinking water. The precariousness of the protection parameters and the proximity of the probable sources of pollution have been highlighted. Indeed, more than half of the wells are not covered. 55.86% of the septic tanks and 59.29% of the latrines are located upstream of the wells. 77.77% of latrines and 73.83% of septic tanks are below the safe distance of WHO (15 m). 30.17% of the wells and 34.48% have, respectively, nitrate and ammonium concentrations that are above the WHO standards 2011 (50 mg / L for nitrate and 0.01 mg / L for ammonium). This indicates that the well waters are of poor quality for drinking because of the possible impact of urban insalubrity. 41.38% of the wells provide turbid water (turbidity> 5 NTU), of which 21.55% contain organic matter beyond WHO standards 2011 (P.I.> 5 mg / L) and 100% contain excessive suspended matter. 98.27% of the wells are contaminated with total coliforms, 92.24% with faecal coliforms and 90.21% with faecal streptococci. This situation results in a faecal contamination index which varies between 9 and 12, it follows that 96.55% of the wells provide water from high to very high faecal contamination. All this indicates that the poor quality of the waters studied is related to the precarious health conditions of the study area.

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