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G.S. Guralnik, C.R. Hagen, T.W.B. Kibble (1964). “Global Conservation Laws and Massless Particles”. Physical Review Letters 13 (20): 585-587.

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Unified Field Theory and the Configuration of Particles

1Shanghai Jiaotong University

2Wayne State University

3Deerfield High School, Deerfield

International Journal of Physics. 2013, Vol. 1 No. 6, 151-161
DOI: 10.12691/ijp-1-6-4
Copyright © 2013 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Zhiliang Cao, Henry Gu Cao. Unified Field Theory and the Configuration of Particles. International Journal of Physics. 2013; 1(6):151-161. doi: 10.12691/ijp-1-6-4.

Correspondence to: Zhiliang  Cao, Shanghai Jiaotong University. Email:


The Standard Model of particle physics is a theory concerning electromagnetic, weak, and strong nuclear interactions, which mediate the dynamics of known subatomic particles. The current formulation was finalized based on the existence of quarks. Because of its success in explaining a wide variety of experimental results, the Standard Model is sometimes regarded as a "theory of almost everything". Mathematically, the standard model is a quantized Yang-Mills theory. Therefore, the Standard Model falls short of being a complete theory of fundamental fields. It neither explains force hierarchy nor predicts the structure of the universe. Fortunately, Unified Field Theory (UFT) explains fundamental forces and structures of sub-atomic particles and grand universe. One of the important applications of the Unified Field Theory is that the mass of each sub-atomic particle has a formula. These formulas are structural formulas which can calculate mass of the particles. The mass of a particle decides its structure and characteristics.