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W. Feller, An Introduction to Probability Theory and Its Applications, Vol 1 Ch 7 (Wiley, 1970).

has been cited by the following article:


Is CMB just an Observational Effect of a Universe in Accelerated Expansion?

1B&E Scientific Ltd, BN25 4PA, United Kingdom

International Journal of Physics. 2013, Vol. 1 No. 6, 133-137
DOI: 10.12691/ijp-1-6-1
Copyright © 2013 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Arne Bergstrom. Is CMB just an Observational Effect of a Universe in Accelerated Expansion?. International Journal of Physics. 2013; 1(6):133-137. doi: 10.12691/ijp-1-6-1.

Correspondence to: Arne Bergstrom, B&E Scientific Ltd, BN25 4PA, United Kingdom. Email:


Consider a universe in which an observer is surrounded by an infinite, roughly uniform distribution of luminous objects (stars or primeval stars), and assume further that each such object is opaque to those directly behind it. To the observer it would then seem as if he is surrounded by a distant, opaque wall emitting radiation. In addition, the requirement of Lorentz-covariant quantum transport has been shown to force the universe to be perceived to be in a state of apparent, exponentially accelerated expansion, producing redshifts in the spectra of the individual distant objects that together form the cosmic microwave background (CMB). The present article illustrates that under these two conditions, the observer would perceive the apparent distant luminous wall around him to radiate with an accurate blackbody spectrum, as observed. This suggests that the cosmic microwave background radiation might thus possibly be just an observational effect of this type (with traditional blackbody radiation as a limiting case), and hence may not necessarily have any connection to how the universe was created.