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Synthesis and Characterization of Chitosan/Gum Arabic Nanoparticles for Bone Regeneration

1Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria

2Department of Restorative Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria

American Journal of Materials Science and Engineering. 2017, Vol. 5 No. 1, 28-36
DOI: 10.12691/ajmse-5-1-4
Copyright © 2017 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Chinenye Appolonia Ibekwe, Grace Modupe Oyatogun, Temitope Ayodeji Esan, Kunle Michael Oluwasegun. Synthesis and Characterization of Chitosan/Gum Arabic Nanoparticles for Bone Regeneration. American Journal of Materials Science and Engineering. 2017; 5(1):28-36. doi: 10.12691/ajmse-5-1-4.

Correspondence to: Chinenye  Appolonia Ibekwe, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria. Email:


Chitosan /gum arabic nanoparticles (C/G)have been prepared by ionic gelation method. This was with a view to enhance the mechanical properties and its application as bone graft scaffold. The cowry shells were washed, dried, pulverized and subsequently sieved with mesh No. 60, size 250 µm. It was deproteinized, Chitin was isolated from the synthesis by demineralising in 0.5 M Hydrochloric acid, and subsequently deacetylated by the addition of 40% (W/V) of Sodium hydroxide to synthesize chitosan. The raw chitosan was purified using 2% (v/v) acetic acid solution. The synthesized chitosan and gum arabic, a product of Acacia tree, were used to prepare chitosan/gum arabic nanoparticles by ionic gelation method. Mechanical characterization was carried out on the synthesized material using universal testing machine. Analysis of the chemical composition was carried out using Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR) and X-Ray fluorescence, (XRF). Furthermore, the morphology of the materials were studied using scanning electron microscopy, SEM and the dimension of the nanoparticles were characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Finally, an attempt was made to ascertain its suitability for bone regeneration. The FTIR spectra result confirmed that the nanoparticle was actually a derivative of chitosan by the observed shift in the peak 3462 to 3404cm-1. There is presence of a new peak at 1636 cm-1 and 1473 cm-1. Peak observed at 1080 cm-1, 860cm-1 and 712 cm-1 on C/G nanoparticles spectrum were similar to the native chitosan spectrum which shows that there was no change in the main backbone of chitosan structure. The scanning electron microscopy () study revealed chitosan as polymeric rods, while the chitosan /gum arabic nanoparticles in aggregate. The TEM was to confirm nanoparticles of average size of 200nm. The ultimate compressive strength was found to have increased by 78.21%, the Young Modulus by 54.4 % and percentage elongation by 7%. In overall assessment, mechanical properties of the chitosan/gum arabic nanoparticles were better than native chitosan. The study concluded that crosslinking of chitosan with gum arabic to form its nanoparticles derivative improved the mechanical properties of chitosan and consequently its application as a bone graft substitute for bone regeneration.