Article citationsMore >>

Richter, C. P., and R.Stamminger (2012). Water consumption in the kitchen: A case study in four European countries, Water Resour. Manage. Vol. 26, pp. 1639-1649.

has been cited by the following article:


Determinants of Safe Drinking Water Supply in Nowshera District of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa

1Department of Rural Development, AMKC, Mardan, The University of Agriculture, Peshawar

2Department of Environmental Sciences COMSATE Abbottabad, Pakistan

American Journal of Water Resources. 2017, Vol. 5 No. 3, 63-71
DOI: 10.12691/ajwr-5-3-2
Copyright © 2017 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Muhammad Israr, Anas Faraz, Shakeel Ahmad. Determinants of Safe Drinking Water Supply in Nowshera District of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. American Journal of Water Resources. 2017; 5(3):63-71. doi: 10.12691/ajwr-5-3-2.

Correspondence to: Muhammad  Israr, Department of Rural Development, AMKC, Mardan, The University of Agriculture, Peshawar. Email:


Safe water supply can altogether enhance the personal satisfaction and is a wellspring of and the condition for economic development and water is at the core of sustainable development. Water resources, and the range of services they provide, underpin poverty reduction, economic growth and environmental sustainability. The issue of water is observed as a general problem for both the urban and the rural population and lack of access to safe and clean water is locked in the heart of the poverty. Looking in to this research report was design with the objectives to access to safe drinking water supply and to find out the problems of households with respect to safe drinking water availability after the 2010 floods in Pirsabaq village of Nowshera by randomly selected 2761 households and was interviewed for the data through structured questioners. Findings revealed that majority of the respondents were of young age and literate having different level of education. Drinking water sources i.e. piped, protected dug well, unprotected dug well, and hand pump. The general methods of water storage were at household level were container with lid, container without lid, water tank on roof, drum, jeri cans, water cooler and pitcher. The household clean drinking water storage source were daily 75.26%, once a week 16.04%, once a month 5.61%, once a year 2.11%, never 0.98% and the reasons for not cleaning were the no time, no mean and not important respectively. The reason of long interval is, that the majority of water is clean is 30.49%. The drawing method of drinking water from the storage source were divided into four categories dipping a glass/jug or mug, long handle scoop, taps and drawing water from the container, 82.08% of the household have touch hand with water. The different water cleaning methods of the respondents were boiling (30.38%), water purification tablet/chlorine, use sachet/ packets and use ceramic/other filters. The study as whole concludes that provision of safe drinking water is still a challenge to the residents of the area and the households are still facing different challenges in it provision which can be overcome by rising awareness, introducing new methods of water treatment and strong monitoring of the water quality for different contents.