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Roopesh Ojha, Astronomy and Astrophysics, June 2011, – as referenced by, Ron Cowen, Science News, July 2, 2011, vol 180 no 1, p10.

has been cited by the following article:


Novel Descriptions of the Big Bang, Inflation, Galactic Structure and Energetic Quasars

1Chevron Research, Richmond, CA, USA

Frontiers of Astronomy, Astrophysics and Cosmology. 2016, Vol. 2 No. 1, 24-34
DOI: 10.12691/faac-2-1-4
Copyright © 2016 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Jay D. Rynbrandt. Novel Descriptions of the Big Bang, Inflation, Galactic Structure and Energetic Quasars. Frontiers of Astronomy, Astrophysics and Cosmology. 2016; 2(1):24-34. doi: 10.12691/faac-2-1-4.

Correspondence to: Jay  D. Rynbrandt, Chevron Research, Richmond, CA, USA. Email:


Black holes (BH) hold immense energy. In most cases, when BH collide, they release a sufficient pulse of energy that they do not combine. These collisions are supra elastic so that BH leave them with extra kinetic energy. With mutual BH rejection, new mechanisms emerge for the big bang (BB), inflation, galaxy formation and quasars. Mutual BH rejection also held separate, highly energetic, ultra-massive, (galaxy-acquired) black holes (UMBH), of a dying universe, as they accelerated their collapse into a universal black hole. However, an instant before complete collapse, UMBH reached a critical temperature/pressure and detonated the big bang (BB) to consume all UMBH. The BB released energy, mass and space constrained by billions of UMBH. The relativistic mass, that had been created with as galactic components fell into their UMBH, enlarged this succeeding universe. The freed space produced inflation, and the matter mass steered the new universe toward continued matter domination. But a few hundred billion, much smaller (and previously far more numerous) stellar BH (stBH) survived both the collapse and BB, aligned themselves at the intersections of inflation bubbles, grew to super-massive size (due to BB pressure) and then began building galaxies as continuing inflation converted accretion disk trajectories into galactic orbits, which were stabilized by rotating space. These galaxies retained filament associations, which their central BH had established earlier. In rare cases, super massive BH (SMBH) also survived the BB, grew into astoundingly massive black holes (~10+13 solar mass, AMBH) and then organized clusters of galaxies, like the Coma cluster, to orbit about themselves. Also rarely, the extreme differential energy/mass accretion pressures following the BB held some colliding BH together while they paired as intimately-coupled, binary SMBH. We see them today as ancient, energetic quasars spewing immense plasma radiation, or as younger, radio frequency, active galactic nuclei (AGN) -- depending their SMBH-orbital separation. Plasma quasars orbit each other within their reactive (surface disruptive) distance, and radio AGN exceed this distance. BH precursors needed to be present at the time of the BB to be pressure-joined as close-coupled, equal-mass, SMBH pairs, and the high efficiency of their plasma-based, light-generating mechanism suggests that current quasar size estimates may be high. Plasma quasars expire when their SMBH separation distance exceeds their surface-disruptive distance; and they leave behind energetic, radio frequency AGN. As this paired AGN whips their intense, intertwined magnetic fields through the narrow gap between them, their compressed fields tear electrons from their atomic nuclei and eject both as relativistic, radio frequency electrons and as extreme energy cosmic rays, respectively.