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N. Dounskaia, “Control of Human Limb Movements: The Leading Joint Hypothesis and Its Practical Applications”, Exerc Sport Sci Rev. vol. 38, no. 4. pp.201-208, 2010.

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Growth and Advancements in Neural Control of Limb

1Department of Biomedical Engineering, North Eastern Hill University, Shillong, Meghalaya, India

Biomedical Science and Engineering. 2015, Vol. 3 No. 3, 46-64
DOI: 10.12691/bse-3-3-1
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Bablu Lal Rajak, Meena Gupta, Dinesh Bhatia. Growth and Advancements in Neural Control of Limb. Biomedical Science and Engineering. 2015; 3(3):46-64. doi: 10.12691/bse-3-3-1.

Correspondence to: Dinesh  Bhatia, Department of Biomedical Engineering, North Eastern Hill University, Shillong, Meghalaya, India. Email:


Centuries of study has unfolded our understanding regarding different bodily movement routinely performed. It has been observed that all these movements require intricate communication between the brain and associated muscles. Our sensory systems help in guiding this communication by providing information about the external environment and surroundings, thereby helping the motor system plan the different movements leading to controlled action by the muscles. Billions of neuron with quadrillion connections between them and muscles are responsible for coordinated movements that humans perform routinely. Though our knowledge and understanding about motor neuron diseases and neuro-degeneration disorders are limited, yet efforts have been made to overcome or improve the present state of these disorders either by drugs, artificial prosthetic devices, robotics, stimulation or stem cell therapy. These treatments are attempts to help relieve symptoms, improve functionality, provide support and effectively slow down the disease's progression. Furthermore, disabled individuals were aided with walking stick, wheelchair or stroller till recently; however, significant technological advancements in the past few decades have brought in more of man-machine interactive devices such as deployment of artificial prosthetics, improved brain-computer interactions and advanced neuroprosthetics for supporting activities of daily living in these patients. Additionally, new tools like computer simulations, medical imaging and computational models are being used to simulate simple movement tasks and compare the outcomes with real limb control and neural elements, thereby testing how brain signals are processed to achieve sophisticated motor control. Researchers are regularly improving existing devices for ease of use and efficiency, and new ones are being developed such that it can mimic the maneuverability of the natural limb.