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World Health Organisation. World Health Assembly 57.17. Global strategy on diet and physical activity. Geneva: World Health Organisation. May 2004.

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Prevalence of Physical Inactivity, Hypertension, Obesity and Tobacco Smoking: A Case of NCDs Prevention among Adults in Maiduguri, Nigeria

1University of Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria

2University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital, Maiduguri, Nigeria

American Journal of Medical Sciences and Medicine. 2015, Vol. 3 No. 4, 39-47
DOI: 10.12691/ajmsm-3-4-1
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Salamatu Umar Aliyu, Abubakar Samaila Chiroma, Abdurrahman Mohammad Jajere, Fatima Kachalla Gujba. Prevalence of Physical Inactivity, Hypertension, Obesity and Tobacco Smoking: A Case of NCDs Prevention among Adults in Maiduguri, Nigeria. American Journal of Medical Sciences and Medicine. 2015; 3(4):39-47. doi: 10.12691/ajmsm-3-4-1.

Correspondence to: Salamatu  Umar Aliyu, University of Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria. Email:


Background: The prevalence of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) is at an all time high. In fact these diseases result from prolong exposure to one or more risk factors, Population measurement of risk factors can be used to describe the distribution of future diseases and knowledge of risk factors can then be applied to shift population distribution of these risk factors. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of Non-communicable diseases risk factors among adults in Maiduguri, Nigeria. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among a representative sample of 498 adults (age, 20–65 years) living in Maiduguri, Nigeria. Participants comprised of 167 (34%) female and 331 (66%) males. Physical activity was measured using the international physical activity questionnaire (IPAQ) short version. Using the World Health Organization (WHO) guideline, participants were classified as physically inactive, moderately active and highly active. Blood pressure was measured using standardized procedures and recorded as hypertensive blood pressure if measures ≥140/90 mmHg and non hypertensive if it is 120/80 ± 10mmHg. Body mass index (BMI) was measured as a ratio of participants’ weight in kilogram by the square of their height in meter (kg/m2). BMI was classified based on World Health Organization criteria, as underweight if < 18kg/m2, normal weight if 18.5-24.9 kg/m, overweight if 25-29.9 and obese if ≥ 30 kg/m. information on tobacco smoking was also recorded as smoking or not smoking. Results: Overall, 15.3%, 4.6%, 19.2% and 13.1% and 68.6% of Nigerian adults were hypertensive, obese, physically inactive and tobacco smokers respectively. Hypertension significantly increases with age (p<0.001). Significant difference (p<0.01) was found between prevalence of obesity, age and marital status. Physical inactivity significantly increases with increased age (p<0.001). Also prevalence of physical inactivity was significantly higher among females than males, among married, by religion educational status (p<0.01). Prevalence of smoking was found to be significantly higher among the male than the female smokers (p<0.001). Significant difference was also observed in smoking by marital status and religion. Conclusion: High prevalence of NCDs risk factors were reported in this study. Health promotion with regard to smoking cessation, weight loss, and increasing physical activity may be accentuated among people in Nigeria.