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Article

Hepatoprotective Effect of Ethanolic Leaf Extract of Vernonia amygdalina and Azadirachta indica against Acetaminophen-Induced Hepatotoxicity inSprague-Dawley Male Albino Rats

1Department of Science Laboratory Technology (Biochemistry units), School of Pure and Applied Sciences, Lagos State Polytechnic, Ikorodu, Lagos, Nigeria

2Department of Science Laboratory Technology (Chemistry units), School of Pure and Applied Sciences, Lagos State Polytechnic, Ikorodu, Lagos, Nigeria

3Department of Science Laboratory Technology (Environmental Biology units), School of Pure and Applied Sciences, Lagos State Polytechnic, Ikorodu, Lagos, Nigeria


American Journal of Pharmacological Sciences. 2015, Vol. 3 No. 3, 79-86
DOI: 10.12691/ajps-3-3-5
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Momoh Johnson, Longe Adeteju Olufunmilayo, Damazio Olanrewaju Anthony, Eleyowo Oluwole Olusoji. Hepatoprotective Effect of Ethanolic Leaf Extract of Vernonia amygdalina and Azadirachta indica against Acetaminophen-Induced Hepatotoxicity inSprague-Dawley Male Albino Rats. American Journal of Pharmacological Sciences. 2015; 3(3):79-86. doi: 10.12691/ajps-3-3-5.

Correspondence to: Momoh  Johnson, Department of Science Laboratory Technology (Biochemistry units), School of Pure and Applied Sciences, Lagos State Polytechnic, Ikorodu, Lagos, Nigeria. Email: mjohnson_2008@yahoo.com

Abstract

Acetaminophen (paracetamol) is a commonly and widely used analgesic and antipyretic agent, but at high dose it leads to undesirable side effects, such as hepatotoxicity. The study investigate the hepatoprotective effect of ethanolic leaf extract of Vernonia amygdalina and ethanolic leaf extract of Azadirachta indica against acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity in Sprague -Dawley male albino rats. Male albino rats were randomly divided into six groups each consisting of five albino rats. Group A rats served as the normal control and were given water daily for a period of 14 days. Hepatotoxicity was induced in-vivo to all animals of Groups B, C, D, E, and F orally by administering 2g /kg body weight of paracetamol once a day for a period of 14 days. Group C, D, E and F were orally administered silymarin (100 mg/kg B.W), Vitamin C (100 mg/kg B.W), ethanolic leaf extract of V. amygdalina (300 mg/kg B.W) and A. indica (300 mg/kg B.W) respectively daily for a period of 14 days. Group B animals served as the paracetamol control and they were not treated. The result of this study shows that animals treated with silymarin, V. amygdalina and A. indica extracts significantly (P<0.05) have reduced WBC count compared to paracetamol control group. HGB, RBC and HCT values in all the groups administered with silymarin, Vitamin C, V. amygdalina and A. indica extracts were significantly (P<0.05) increased when compared to the paracetamol- intoxicated animals without treatment. Oral administration of acetaminophen caused marked liver damage as noted by the significant increased (P<0.05) in activities of plasma AST, ALT, ALP and GGT as well as the level of cholesterol, triglyceride and a reduction in plasma total protein. The drug also resulted to a significant increase (P<0.05) in liver MDA content, decrease in liver GSH content, decrease in SOD and CAT activities. Treatment with silymarin, Vitamin C, V. amygdalina and A. indica extracts showed effective hepatoprotective effect as evidence in the decrease in the plasma levels of liver biomarker enzymes and reduction in oxidative stress parameters. Histopathological evaluation of the liver architecture also revealed that all the treated animals have reduced the incidence of paracetamol- induced liver lesions.

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