eng
Science and Education Publishing
International Journal of Physics
2333-4576
2021-08-23
9
5
240
244
10.12691/ijp-9-5-3
IJP2021953
article
On the Origin of the CMB Radiation
Jarl-Thure Eriksson
jarl.thure.eriksson@gmail.com
1
?bo Akademi University, Finland
According to the standard model the CMB radiation is a relict of the Big Bang. Even if the temperature has varied over the years, we now have an accurate figure, 2,72548 K. The radiation exhibits an almost perfect black body spectrum, which causes some confusion, the number of photons required does not match the number available at a distant moment in the past. Several scattering mechanisms have been suggested to give the photon number the necessary gain. It is assumed that the last scattering at ca 380.000 yr after the big bang has left the radiation pattern we now observe. Some notable physicists have expressed doubts about the last scattering and emphasized that the photons originate from positron-electron (e+-e-) annihilations and that scattering would not preserve the black body spectrum. Based on known laws of physics a theory, CBU for the Continuously Breeding Universe, has been developed. The theory incorporates important ideas from the past. The universe is a complex emerging system, which starts from the single quantum fluctuation of a positron-electron pair. Expansion is driven by the emersion of new pairs. Typically, the gravitational parameter G is inversely proportional to the radius. The theory predicts correctly the radius of the observable universe, the Hubble parameter, the energy content and gives a plausible explanation to dark energy. The CBU theory postulates that the primordial universe undergoes a transition from a black hole to a photon filled universe. After the transition one half of the energy is bound to a great multitude of ¡®small¡¯ black holes, while the other half propagate as the CMB radiation in the free space. It is presumed that the CMB photons are due to e+-e- annihilations. The frequency-energy (hf) of the photons decreases according to ac2, where ac is the scale factor of the transition. As a characteristic feature the CMB photons are pairwise entangled and in a state of superposition. If we assume that photons in a superposition cannot give off energy, they compensate the hf loss by increasing the number of photons. As they move in all directions the gain will be 1/ac3. In addition, when the photons enter the observable universe at afl (first light), the Doppler effect lengthens the wavelength, whereby the 1-dimensional photon ray to be observed on Earth gets a number gain of 1/afl in compensation, the total gain being 1/afl ac3. The gain effect and the half-energy at the CMB transition result in an energy density of 4,173·10-14 J/m3, equal to BT04, where B is the Stefan-Boltzmann black body energy density constant.
http://pubs.sciepub.com/ijp/9/5/3/ijp-9-5-3.pdf
cosmic microwave background radiation
general relativity
black holes
Doppler effect