@article{ijp2014244,
author={Bergstrom, Arne},
title={Dark Energy, Exponential Expansion, CMB, Wave/Particle Duality ??All Result from Lorentz-Covariance of Boltzmann¡¯s Transport Equation},
journal={International Journal of Physics},
volume={2},
number={4},
pages={112--117},
year={2014},
url={http://pubs.sciepub.com/ijp/2/4/4},
issn={2333-4886},
abstract={The Boltzmann transport equation is the rigorous continuity equation for the angular flux *f*(**r**, *t*, **v**) of photons at positions **r**, time *t*, moving in direction **v**, and interacting with a surrounding medium by localized collisions. This equation is not necessarily Lorentz-covariant, but can be specialized to a Lorentz-covariant equation describing the propagation of a photon distribution through space. However, this requirement of Lorentz-covariance of the Boltzmann transport equation then leads to a wave-particle duality, in which an ensemble of photons behave as waves, but in which each individual photon interferes only with itself. Applied on cosmological scales, this requirement of Lorentz-covariance of the Boltzmann transport equation also leads to an apparent quantum multiplication, which could explain the existence of the huge amounts of the mysterious ¡°dark energy¡± that appears to permeate the universe. In addition, it also requires the universe to appear subjected to an exponential expansion as observed, similar to a perspective distortion in time, and then also as a consequence to appear surrounded by a cosmic microwave background radiation (CMB) with an exact Planck spectrum, as observed.},
doi={10.12691/ijp-2-4-4}
publisher={Science and Education Publishing}
}