Journal of Sociology and Anthropology
ISSN (Print): ISSN Pending ISSN (Online): ISSN Pending Website: Editor-in-chief: Apply for this position
Open Access
Journal Browser
Journal of Sociology and Anthropology. 2021, 5(1), 1-8
DOI: 10.12691/jsa-5-1-1
Open AccessArticle

Legal and Institutional Bases of Child Labour in Zambia

Royd Malisase1,

1Department of Political and Administrative Studies, University of Zambia, Lusaka, Zambia

Pub. Date: January 12, 2021

Cite this paper:
Royd Malisase. Legal and Institutional Bases of Child Labour in Zambia. Journal of Sociology and Anthropology. 2021; 5(1):1-8. doi: 10.12691/jsa-5-1-1


While most research on child labour focus on socio-economic cause of child labour, this study examined legal and institutional bases of child labour in Zambia. This followed recognition of the prevalence of the vice and the adverse effects it had on children. Using a qualitative design, the study interviewed four government officials from the Ministry of Gender and Child Development and Ministry of Labour and Social Securities as well as reviewed relevant literature. Data was analysed using Thematic and Document Analysis. The study found that laws neither agreed on legal definition of a child nor protected children against being economically exploited by family members. Due to the National Child Policy not being backed by a Child Labour Act, implementation of child protection programs was challenging. Key institutions lacked structures at provincial, district and community levels, making coordination of child protection from the grassroots difficult. Influx of participating ministries also led to functional overlaps and confusions. The legal and institutional framework was therefore unable to eliminate child labour.

Child Labour Legal Framework Institutional Framework Structure Functions Zambia

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit


[1]  International Labour Organisation, Global Estimates of Child Labour: Results and Trends, 2012-2016, International Labour Office (ILO), Geneva, 2017.
[2]  Republic of Zambia, National Child Policy, Government Printers, Lusaka, 2006.
[3]  Understanding Children's Work, Towards Ending Child Labour in Zambia: An Assessment of Resource Requirements, International Labour Organisation, Lusaka, 2012.
[4]  Latif, A., Ali, S., Awan, A and Kataria, J.A, "Socio-economic and Political Determinants of Child Labor at Brick Kilns: A Case Study of Jhang District," A Research Journal of South Asian Studies, 31 (1). 161-174. Jun.2016.
[5]  International Labour Organisation, Causes of Child Labour, International Labour Organisation, Geneva, 2016.
[6]  International Labour Organisation, Zambia Child Labor Survey Country Report, International Labour Organisation, Lusaka, 2013a.
[7]  Bureau of International Labor Affairs, Child Labor and Forced Labor Reports, Zambia: 2018 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor, Bureau of International Labor Affairs, New York, 2019.
[8]  Children International, Zambia: A Country in Crisis, Children International, Lusaka, 2014.
[9]  Bureau of International Labor Affairs, Zambia 2013 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor, Bureau of International Labor Affairs, New York, 2014.
[10]  Osment, L, Child Labour: The Effect on Child, Causes and Remedies to the Revolving Menace, University of Lund, Lund, 2014.
[11]  Chanda, P, "Impact of Child Domestic Labour on Child Poverty: A Case Study of Lusaka City in Zambia," European Scientific Journal, Special Edition. 294-303. Aug.2014.
[12]  Bhat, B.A, "Child Labour in the Cotton Industry of Uzbekistan: A Sociological Study," Centre of Central Asian Studies, 54 (1). 84-99. 2011.
[13]  International Labour Organisation, Zambia Child Labor Survey Country Report, International Labour Organisation, Lusaka, 2006.
[14]  Moyi, P, "Child Labor and School Attendance in Kenya," Educational Research and Reviews, 6 (1). 26-35. Jan.2011.
[15]  Republic of Zambia, National Child Labour Policy, Government Printers, Lusaka, 2011.
[16]  Republic of Zambia, National Action Plan for the Elimination of the Worst Form of Child Labour 2010-2015, Government Printers, Lusaka, 2010.
[17]  International Labour Organisation, Zambia-Social Protection Expenditure and Performance Review and Social Budget, International Labour Organisation, Geneva, 2008.
[18]  Saunders, M., Lewis, P., and Thornhill, A, Research Methods for Business Students, 7th Ed., Pearson Education Limited, London, 2016.
[19]  Fowler, F.J, Survey Research Methods, 8th Ed, SAGE Publications, Los Angeles, 2014.
[20]  Central Statistical Office, Zambia Labour Force Survey Report 2018, Central Statistical Office, Lusaka, 2019.
[21]  Creswell, J.W, Research Design: Qualitative, Quantitative, and Mixed Methods Approaches, 4th Ed, Sage Publications, Los Angeles, 2014.
[22]  Braun, V., and Clarke, V, "Using Thematic Analysis in Psychology," Qualitative Research in Psychology, 3 (2), 77-101. Jan.2008.
[23]  Bowen, G.A, "Supporting a Grounded Theory with an Audit Trail: An Illustration," International Journal of Social Research Methodology, 12 (4). 305-316. Sep.2009.
[24]  O'Leary, Z, The Essential Guide to Doing Your Research Project, 2nd ed, Sage Publications, Thousand Oaks, CA, 2014.
[25]  Alshenqeeti, H, "Interviewing as a Data Collection Method: A Critical Review," English Linguistics Research, 3 (1). 39-45. Mar.2014.
[26]  Mwale, C, PPP Approach against Child Labour. Zambia Daily Mail Limited, 12 December, 2017. Available at:
[27]  Ministry of Education, The 2003-2007 Strategy Plan for Education, Government Printer, Lusaka, 2003.
[28]  International Labour Organisation, Zambia-Social Protection Expenditure and Performance Review and Social Budget, ILO Social Department, Geneva, 2012.
[29]  Central Statistical Office, Zambia in Figures-2018, Central Statistical Office, Lusaka, 2018.
[30]  Republic of Zambia, Constitution of Zambia, Government Printers, Lusaka, 2016.
[31]  Republic of Zambia, Structure and Functions of the Department of Child Protection and Development, Government Printers, Lusaka, 2014.
[32]  Malisase, R, Privatisation of State Owned Enterprises in Zambia: Winners and Losers, World Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities, 7 (1): 10-17.
[33]  Malisase, R, Public Sector Reforms' Contribution to Poor Public Service Delivery in Zambia: Poor Implementation or Defective Programmes? ZANGO: Zambian Journal of Contemporary Issues, 32: 59-76. Nov.2016.
[34]  Republic of Zambia, The 2004 Employment of Young Persons and Children Act, CAP 274, Government Printers, Lusaka, 2004.
[35]  Sports in Action, Renovation and Creation of Sports Facilities, Sports in Action, Lusaka, 2014.
[36]  International Labour Organisation, Presentation at the TACKLE End-of-Project Workshop on the Achievements of the Project in Zambia, International Labour Organisation, Lusaka, 2013b.
[37]  Republic of Zambia, National Health Policy: A Nation of Healthy and Productive People, Government Printers, Lusaka 2012.
[38]  Republic of Zambia, 2013 Budget Yellow Book, Government Printers, Lusaka, 2013.
[39]  International Labour Organisation, Child Labour Information Kit for the Media in Zambia, United Nations, Lusaka, 2011.
[40]  Lusaka District Heath Management Team, 2013 Lusaka District Health Statistics, Ministry of Health, Lusaka, 2014.