World Journal of Environmental Engineering

ISSN (Print): 2372-3076

ISSN (Online): 2372-3084

Website: http://www.sciepub.com/journal/WJEE

Current Issue» Volume 3, Number 1 (2015)

Article

Study on Water Supply System at Rangamati Municipal Area, Chittagong Hill Tracts

1World University of Bangladesh, Dhanmondi, Dhaka


World Journal of Environmental Engineering. 2015, 3(1), 15-22
DOI: 10.12691/wjee-3-1-3
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Zahid Husain Khan. Study on Water Supply System at Rangamati Municipal Area, Chittagong Hill Tracts. World Journal of Environmental Engineering. 2015; 3(1):15-22. doi: 10.12691/wjee-3-1-3.

Correspondence to: Zahid  Husain Khan, World University of Bangladesh, Dhanmondi, Dhaka. Email: drzhusain@yahoo.com

Abstract

Rangamati is a district town of Bangladesh in Chittagong hill tracts located at south-eastern side of Bangladesh. This is the largest district of Bangladesh in terms of area and the area is about 6116 square kilometer. Rangamati is 77 kilometer away from Chittagong district headquarters. 52 percent of the population is indigenous and divided into more than twelve different tribes. The people of this region have limited source of pure water and depends on natural sources like rivers, canals, lakes and springs for domestic uses. From the study it is revealed that in the municipal area of Rangamati ninety percent people are using tube well water for drinking purpose. Fifty five percent people installed tube well by their own cost and rest of the people are using tube well of different sources like NGO, CHTDB etc. Quality of municipal supply water is not potable and it is used only for bathing, washing etc. Municipal authority cannot supply sufficient water and there is no water treatment plant at Rangamati. Collection of rain water is not satisfactory and people have no idea about rain water harvesting.

Keywords

References

[[[
[1]  Abul Barkat, et al. (2009), Socio-Economic Baseline Survey of Chittagong Hill Tracts, United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), Bangladesh.
 
[2]  Aziz, M.A (1975), Water Supply Engineering, Hafiz Book Centre, Dhaka.
 
[3]  Ahmed, M Feroze & Rahman, Mujibur (2000) Water Supply and Sanitation, ITN Bangladesh.
 
[4]  Chakma, Kabita (2008), Proposal for Improving Water, Sanitation, Health and the Environment of the Kaptai Lake, Chittagong Hill Tracts (CHT), Bangladesh.
 
[5]  DevCon, (2009), Sector Development Plan (FY201125), Working document no-2, Addendum on Chittagong Hill Tracts, Bangladesh.
 
Show More References
6]  Halder, Joseph & Juel, ASM (2007), Serving the Unserved: Consolidation of WatSan Success in CHT, NGO Forum, Dhaka.
 
7]  Roy, Rajkumari Chandra (2000) - Land Rights of the Indigenous Peoples of the Chittagong Hill Tracts, Bangladesh.
 
8]  Tripura, Purna Hari (2012) Development and Conflict in the Chittagong Hill Tracts, Bangladesh: An Analysis.
 
Show Less References

Article

Catalytic Energy Production from Municipal Solid Waste Biomass: Case Study in Perlis-Malaysia

1Team of Environmental Engineering and Biotechnology, Faculty of Mining Surveying and Environmental Engineering, AGH University of Science and Technology, Krakow, Poland

2The Center of Energy, AGH University of Science and Technology, Krakow, Poland


World Journal of Environmental Engineering. 2015, 3(1), 7-14
DOI: 10.12691/wjee-3-1-2
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Obid Tursunov, Jan Dobrowolski, Wojciech Nowak. Catalytic Energy Production from Municipal Solid Waste Biomass: Case Study in Perlis-Malaysia. World Journal of Environmental Engineering. 2015; 3(1):7-14. doi: 10.12691/wjee-3-1-2.

Correspondence to: Obid  Tursunov, Team of Environmental Engineering and Biotechnology, Faculty of Mining Surveying and Environmental Engineering, AGH University of Science and Technology, Krakow, Poland. Email: obidtursunov@gmail.com

Abstract

A study of energy recovery from municipal solid waste was undertaken. The energy content of the solid waste is 2388 kcal/kg. The elemental composition shows that the municipal solid waste contains 53.84% of carbon and 5.73% of hydrogen. The energy flow (exothermic and endothermic) and thermal degradation analysis were carried out using calorimeter (model: c2000basic) and ASTM standards respectively. It has been observed that municipal solid waste is less reactive to combustion as compared to coal and biomass, but its reactivity can be improved through pre-treating process so as to reduce noncombustible materials such as oxygen and ash content. Also pyrolysis and gasification can be used to convert MSW to liquid or gaseous fuel. This paper also presents analysis of chemical properties and concentration of raw dolomite, calcined dolomite and zeolite for catalytic cracking of tar and enhancing bio-yield production from technologies such as pyrolysis and gasification of municipal solid waste.

Keywords

References

[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[
[1]  A. Mustapha, Mahathir’s Vision 2020: Towards a Developed and Industrialized Society. Malaysia Entrepreneurship. 1996, pp. 11-19.
 
[2]  C. Visvanathan, J. Trankler, P. Kuruparan, B. F. A. Basnayake, C. Chiemchaisri, J. Kurian, Z. Gonming, Asian Regional Research Programme on Sustainable Solid Waste Landfill Management in Asia. Proceeding Sardinia 2005. Tenth International Waste Management and Landfilling Symposium S. Margherita di Pula Cagliari, Italy. 3-7 Oct.
 
[3]  O.Tursunov, Production of catalytic and non-catalytic gases from pyrolysis of municipal solid waste (MSW). M.Sc. Thesis. University Malaysia Perlis (UniMAP): Malaysia, 2012.
 
[4]  R.S.Timpe, B.C. Young, A comparison of zeolite and dolomite as gasification tar-cracking catalyst. Energy and Environment Research Center. University of North Dakota. 1995, ND 58202-9018.
 
[5]  T. Milne, R. Evans, Biomass gasifier “Tars”: their nature, formation, and conversion. National Renewable Energy Laboratory. 1998, pp. 253-257. NREL/TP-570.
 
Show More References
6]  M. Asadullah, T. Miyazawa, S. Ito, K. Kunimori, M. Yamada, Tomishige Keiichi, Catalyst development for the gasification of biomass in the dual-bed gasifier. Appl Catal A Gen. 255 (2) (2003) 169-180.
 
7]  P. Weerachanchai, M. Horio, C. Tangsathitkulchai, Effects of gasifying conditions and bed materials on fluidized bed steam gasification of wood biomass. Biores Technol. 100 (3) (2009) 1419-1427.
 
8]  A. Olivares, M.P. Aznar, M.A. Caballero, J. Gil, E. Francés, J. Corella, Biomass gasification: produced gas upgrading by in-bed use of dolomite. Indus Eng Chem Res. 36 (12) (1997) 5220-5226.
 
9]  O. Tursunov, A comparison of catalysts zeolite and calcined dolomite for gas production from pyrolysis of municipal solid waste (MSW). Elsevier Applied Science. Science Direct. J. Ecological Engineering. 69 (2014) 237-243.
 
10]  O.Tursunov, K. Isa, S. Ong, Review paper of catalyst (dolomite) analysis for MSW pyrolysis (gasification). International Postgraduate Conference on Engineering (IPCE). Perlis, Malaysia, 2011.
 
11]  G. Hu, S. Xu, S. Li, C. Xiao, S. Liu, Steam gasification of apricot stones with olivine and dolomite as downstream catalysts. Fuel Process Technol. 87 (5) (2006) 375-382.
 
12]  I. Narvaez, A. Orio, M.P. Aznar, J. Corella, Biomass gasification with air in an atmospheric bubbling fluidized bed. Effect of six operational variables on the quality of the produced raw gas. Indus Eng Chem Res. 35 (7) (1996) 2110-2120.
 
13]  J. Gil, M.A. Caballero, J.A. Martin, M.P. Aznar, J. Corella, Biomass gasification with air in a fluidized bed: effect of the in-bed use of dolomite under different operation conditions. Indus Eng Chem Res. 38 (11) (1999) 4226-4235.
 
14]  F. Miccio, B. Piriou, G. Ruoppolo, R. Chirone, Biomass gasification in a catalytic fluidized reactor with beds of different materials. Chem Eng J. 154 (1-3) (2009) 369-374.
 
15]  B. Smit, L.M. Theo, Towards a molecular understanding of shape selectivity. J. Nature. 451 (2008) 671-678.
 
16]  J.W. Dobrowolski, M. Sliwka, R. Mazur, Laser biotechnology for more efficient bioremediation, protection of aquatic ecosystems and reclamation of contaminated areas. J. Chem Technol Biotechnol. 87 (2012). 1354-1359.
 
17]  J.W. Dobrowolski, Perspectives of application of laser biotechnology in management of the natural environment. Polish Journal of Environmental Studies. 10 (2000) 7-9.
 
18]  J.W. Dobrowolski, Ecotoxicology, human ecology, laser biotechnology in primary prevention of environmental health hazard. J. Przeglad Lekarski. 58 (2001) 7.
 
19]  J.W. Dobrowolski, B. Rozanowski, A. Zielinska-Loek, M. Sliwka, K. Gowin, R. Mazur, P. Lewicki, A. Zakrewska, A. Slazak, Perspectives of application of laser biostimulation for more bioremediation of soil and wastewater. Intl Conference on Bioremediation of Soil and Groundwater. Politechnika Slaska, Krakow, 2004, p 133-148.
 
20]  ASTM, Standard Test method for Determination of the Composition of Unprocessed MSW, American Society for Testing and Materials. US, 1998, 5231-5292.
 
21]  H. Maoyun, B. Xiao, L. Shiming, H. Zhiquan, G. Xianjun, L. Siyi, Y. Fan, Syngas production from pyrolysis of municipal solid waste (MSW) with dolomite as downstream catalysts. Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis. 87 (2010) 181-187.
 
22]  K. Amin, G.S. Yang, Identification of the MSW Characteristics and Potential of Plastic Recovery at Bakri Landfill. Journal of Sustainable Development. 5 (2012) 11-17.
 
23]  M.O. Edema, V. Sichamba, F.W. Ntengwe, (2012). Solid Waste Management-Case Study of Ndola, Zambia. International Journal of Plant, Animal and Environmental Sciences. 2 (2012) 248-255.
 
24]  M. Reilly, K. Churney, D. Kirklin, A. Ledford, E. Comalski, An oxygen flow calorimeter for kilogram-size samples of MSW, J. Resour Conserv. 8 (1982) 147-157.
 
25]  P. Vessilind, W. Martello, B. Gullett, Calorimeteric of refuse derived fuels, J. Waste Mgmt Res, 4 (1981) 89-97.
 
26]  A.C. Caputo, P.M. Pelagagge, RDF production plants: I Design and costs. Applied Thermal Engineering. 22 (2002) 423-437.
 
27]  M.R. Mahishi, D.Y. Goswami, An experimental study of hydrogen production by gasification of biomass in the presence of CO2 sorbent. International Journal Hydrogen Energy. 32 (2007) 2803-2808.
 
28]  M. Grosso, M. Giugliano, G. Lonati, L. Rigamonti, Energy recovery from MSW: assessment of practicable options. In: Proceedings of the International Symposium of Sanitary-Environmental Engineering, Taormina, 2004, 23-26 June.
 
Show Less References

Article

Interpolation of Climatic Parameters By Using Barycentric Coordinates

1Department of Civil Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Kyushu Univ., 774 Motooka, Nishi-ku, Fukuoka 819-0395 JAPAN


World Journal of Environmental Engineering. 2015, 3(1), 1-6
DOI: 10.12691/wjee-3-1-1
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Khurshidbek MAKHMUDOV, Yasuhiro MITANI, Tetsuya KUSUDA. Interpolation of Climatic Parameters By Using Barycentric Coordinates. World Journal of Environmental Engineering. 2015; 3(1):1-6. doi: 10.12691/wjee-3-1-1.

Correspondence to: Khurshidbek  MAKHMUDOV, Department of Civil Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Kyushu Univ., 774 Motooka, Nishi-ku, Fukuoka 819-0395 JAPAN. Email: xurshid@doc.kyushu-u.ac.jp

Abstract

In this paper, we propose a new method of interpolation of climatic parameters territory spread values point measurements of meteorological data on the territories of its space. The method is based on the representation of territories affected by hydro-meteorological stations as the mechanical integrity of the system, consisting of a set of material particles having a common centre of motion. An example of such a centre is known in practice barycenter (center of pressure). Similarity features of change in the value space of meteorological parameters:pressure, rainfall, humidity and other parameters allowed us to develop an interpolation method, based on the well -known method of classical mechanics, a method for finding centers systems. Centers Systems: barycenter, center humidity, precipitation, etc., are reference points from which climate data set gradients (gradient is a vector indicating the direction of change of a scalar quantity. The pressure, rainfall, temperature and humidity are known as scalars). Gradients and equation are describing the basis methods for the proposed interpolation. Graphical method of calculations carried applicability straight-line equation for the interpolation of climate data. The method is entirely based on the use of proven analytical dependences and therefore reliable results. Calculations are made with specific parameters for the territory of the proposed method and the results of their tests are set to points to the checked area. Humidity value for the calculated period (average statistical value according to meteorological stations) is taken 72.25%, while the real value according to the results of our estimations is 59.34%. In this instance the climate accuracy value is used by 17.4%. For the atmospheric pressure value, error currently used in pressure standards which is estimated (assessed) during this period is 5.7%. Our proposed method contributes with sufficiently high accuracy set the values of the climatic parameters of the territory at any point.

Keywords

References

[[[[[[[
[1]  I. Blyutgen, Geography climates, 2nd ed. Moscow, Russia: Progress, 1973, p. 402
 
[2]  M. A. German, Space methods of research in meteorology. Leningrad, Russia: Gidrometeoizdat, 1985, p. 310
 
[3]  V.F. Zhuravlev, Foundations of Theoretical Mechanics, 2nd ed. Moscow. Russia: FIZMATLIT, 2001, p 23.
 
[4]  M. Valipour, "Comparative Evaluation of Radiation-Based Methods for Estimation of Potential Evapotranspiration." J. Hydrol. Eng., 04014068., Sept.19, 2014.
 
[5]  Phillips N.A., A coordinate system having some special advantages for numerical forecasting, J.Meteorol, 1957.-N14.-PP.J. Padhye.
 
Show More References
6]  M. Valipour,“Analysis of potential evapotranspiration using limited weather data”, J. Applied Water Science, Springer Berlin Heidelberg, Sept.27, 2014.
 
7]  E. N. Lorenz, Nature and the theory of the general circulation of the atmosphere. Leningrad, Russia: Gidrometeoizdat, 1970, p. 259.
 
8]  "Atmosphere". Directory. Leningrad, Russia: Gidrometeoizdat, 1991, p. 510.
 
9]  V. Petrov, H. Egamberdiev, B. Kholmatzhonov, T. Alaudinov. Meteorology. Tashkent, Uzbekistan: NUU, 2006, p. 330.
 
10]  L.A. Khandozhko, Meteorological Service of the economy. Leningrad, Russia: Gidrometeoizdat, 1981, p. 232.
 
11]  E. I. Zielinski, Data interpolation methods. Dnepropetrovsk, Ukraine: National Mining University, 1998.
 
12]  Zhuravlev VF Foundations of theoretical mechanics. 2nd ed. - M.: Fizmatlit, 2001. - 320.
 
Show Less References