World Journal of Environmental Engineering

ISSN (Print): 2372-3076

ISSN (Online): 2372-3084

Website: http://www.sciepub.com/journal/WJEE

Current Issue» Volume 3, Number 2 (2015)

Article

Disinfection of Intermitted Water Supply System and Its Health Impact: Um Al Nasser Village as a Case Study

1M.Sc Infrastructure Engineering, The Islamic University of Gaza. P.O.Box 108

2The Islamic University of Gaza, P.O.Box 108


World Journal of Environmental Engineering. 2015, 3(2), 32-39
DOI: 10.12691/wjee-3-2-2
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Hanafi Sadallah, Husam Al-Najar. Disinfection of Intermitted Water Supply System and Its Health Impact: Um Al Nasser Village as a Case Study. World Journal of Environmental Engineering. 2015; 3(2):32-39. doi: 10.12691/wjee-3-2-2.

Correspondence to: Husam  Al-Najar, The Islamic University of Gaza, P.O.Box 108. Email: halnajar@iugaza.edu.ps

Abstract

The main objective of the research is to study the effect of chlorine depletion in intermitted municipal water supply networks on the proliferation of water-borne diseases in marginalized communities. WaterCad model was built to investigate the behavior of the water systems under the action of intermittent supply and the distance from nine testing points from the chlorination source based on the flow direction. The measurements of residual chlorine in the drinking water network in the period between January 2010 until December 2013, of nine sampling points were conducted. At the same time, the prevalence of waterborne diseases amongst the local residents was registered. Results show that 68% of the sampling points in the water supply network have residual chlorine concentrations lower than the recommended values given by The World Health Organization. One variable exponential regression model is used to estimate the effect of distance on the residual chlorine decaying in intermitted water distribution system. A significant correlation between the distance and the decrease of chlorine concentration is shown, R² for 2010 is 0.75, while for 2011, 2012 and 2013 the R² is 0.81, 0.72 and 0.58, respectively. Among four water borne diseases, a significant correlation was found only for increasing the number of incidences of Diarrhea in Winter and Summer with a decrease of average residual chlorine in drinking water networks R² = 0.65 and 0.61 (ANOVA test 0.003 and 0.003), respectively. The investigation and four years monitoring are important to the water and public health relevant institutions to improve the public water supply sector.

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References

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Article

Identification of Potential Vertical Gas Migration Pathways above Gas Storage Reservoirs

1Department of Geography-Geology, Illinois State University, Normal, IL, USA

2CH2M Hill, Chicago, IL USA


World Journal of Environmental Engineering. 2015, 3(2), 23-31
DOI: 10.12691/wjee-3-2-1
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Eric W. Peterson, Lauren I. Martin, Dave H. Malone. Identification of Potential Vertical Gas Migration Pathways above Gas Storage Reservoirs. World Journal of Environmental Engineering. 2015; 3(2):23-31. doi: 10.12691/wjee-3-2-1.

Correspondence to: Eric  W. Peterson, Department of Geography-Geology, Illinois State University, Normal, IL, USA. Email: ewpeter@ilstu.edu

Abstract

Natural gas is stored underground in geologic structures throughout the United States. However, complexities associated with these geologic structures may provide vertical pathways for gas migration, and thus gas loss. Possible upward migration (loss) of natural gas in an underground gas storage field in stimulated this investigation that aims to identify potential migration pathways. Spatial analysis of volume of shale (Vsh) and formation porosity (n) values were conducted in conjunction with high-resolution shallow seismic surveys to identify potential vertical pathways. Surficial gas accumulations within glacial deposits were confirmed by the seismic surveys. These gas pockets accumulated by migration along steeply inclined structural discontinuities, most likely faults and fracture zones within the underlying shallow bedrock units. With the seismic technique limited to a depth of 100 m, Vsh data were used to assess the reservoir’s seal rocks ability to limit vertical gas migration. The Vsh data indicate that the seal rocks are best classified as heterogeneous siltstones. Spatial analysis highlights an aligned pattern of low Vsh values in both the reservoir rocks and the seal rocks. The low Vsh values lie beneath the faults and fracture zones and the documented surficial gas deposit. Higher n values for the sandstones in the reservoir area as opposed to other areas suggest porosity enhancement associated with deformation. Structural deformation, faults and fracture zones, appears to provide a pathway for vertical gas migration. However, stratigraphic (lateral) heterogeneities associated with the reservoir and seal rocks may provide additional vertical pathways.

Keywords

References

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