ISSN (Print): 2372-3076

ISSN (Online): 2372-3084

Currrent Issue: Volume 3, Number 4, 2015

Article

Optimization and Modeling of Glyphosate Removal by Nanofiltration at a Pilot Scale, Using Response Surface Methodology

1Facultad de Química, Bioquímica y Farmacia-Universidad Nacional de San Luis, Chacabuco 915, 5700 - San Luis, Argentina


World Journal of Environmental Engineering. 2015, 3(4), 126-132
doi: 10.12691/wjee-3-4-4
Copyright © 2016 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Javier Rigau, Hugo Saitua. Optimization and Modeling of Glyphosate Removal by Nanofiltration at a Pilot Scale, Using Response Surface Methodology. World Journal of Environmental Engineering. 2015; 3(4):126-132. doi: 10.12691/wjee-3-4-4.

Correspondence to: Hugo  Saitua, Facultad de Química, Bioquímica y Farmacia-Universidad Nacional de San Luis, Chacabuco 915, 5700 - San Luis, Argentina. Email: hsaitua@unsl.edu.ar

Abstract

The removal of glyphosate by nanofiltration of contaminated water with a glyphosate commercial formulation at a pilot scale was studied. The combined effect of glyphosate concentration in feed [Gly], pH and the transmembrane pressure (TMP) at 20 °C was investigated and optimized for the first time using Response Surface Methodology. The optimum values of these factors were 160 mg/L, 10 and 4 bar respectively. A rejection of glyphosate of 99.6% was estimated and verified under these optimal conditions. Glyphosate remaining in permeate was below the limit established by the U.S. EPA (0.7 mg/L). The acute toxicity tests with fish in permeate showed that the rest of the toxic components of the glyphosate formulation were also removed. The high rejections of glyphosate despite its molecular weight below the molecular weight cut-off of the membrane were related to the combined effect of Donnan Exclusion and Dielectric Exclusion. The adjusted model was adequate with an R2 = 0.96. The linear and quadratic effects of pH and [Gly] factors were statistically significant (pvalue <0.05), as well as the antagonistic interaction between the two factors. The pH was the factor with major effect on rejection, followed by [Gly], the TMP effects were not relevant from the practical point of view.

Keywords

References

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Article

Three-Dimensional Geologic Model of the Pecatonica Gas Storage Field, Winnebago County, Illinois

1Department Geography-Geology, Illinois State University, Normal, IL, USA


World Journal of Environmental Engineering. 2015, 3(4), 121-125
doi: 10.12691/wjee-3-4-3
Copyright © 2016 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Nicole D. Kron, David H. Malone, Eric W. Peterson. Three-Dimensional Geologic Model of the Pecatonica Gas Storage Field, Winnebago County, Illinois. World Journal of Environmental Engineering. 2015; 3(4):121-125. doi: 10.12691/wjee-3-4-3.

Correspondence to: Nicole  D. Kron, Department Geography-Geology, Illinois State University, Normal, IL, USA. Email: ewpeter@ilstu.edu

Abstract

This study involves the construction of a three-dimensional (3D) geologic model of Paleozoic strata that are part of an underground gas storage field in northern, Illinois, USA. The Pecatonica Anticline trends 60W and plunges gently to the southeast. It is 10 km long and 3 km wide, and verges to the NE. Six water wells and 22 gas wells were used to create the 3-D geologic model in Petrel using well tops as determined from wire-line logs. The following horizons were created for the Cambrian and Ordovician strata: the Ancell, Trempealeau, Franconia, Ironton-Galesvilles, Eau Claire Proviso A and B, Eau Claire Proviso C “Ligthsville (top), and Eau Claire Proviso C “Lightsville (bottom). The horizons, edges, and intersections were then color-coded and an initial model was created. In the model area, the “Lightsville”, which is the principal layer used for gas storage, has about 10 m of closure over 0.80 Km2 with a volume 199x10-3 km3. No faults or other structural discontinuities that may influence gas migration are evident in the model area.

Keywords

References

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Article

Spatio-temporal Drought Characterization for the Upper Tana River Basin, Kenya Using Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI)

1Egerton University, Department of Agricultural Engineering, Kenya

2Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, SWEEN


World Journal of Environmental Engineering. 2015, 3(4), 111-120
doi: 10.12691/wjee-3-4-2
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Raphael M. Wambua, Benedict M. Mutua, James M. Raude. Spatio-temporal Drought Characterization for the Upper Tana River Basin, Kenya Using Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI). World Journal of Environmental Engineering. 2015; 3(4):111-120. doi: 10.12691/wjee-3-4-2.

Correspondence to: Raphael  M. Wambua, Egerton University, Department of Agricultural Engineering, Kenya. Email: wambuarm@gmail.com

Abstract

Drought occurrence in the upper Tana River basin in Kenya has impacted negatively on water resources, hydro-power generation and agricultural production within the basin. Although this is an important river basin in Kenya, there is limited research work that has been done to assess and characterize drought to provide feasible mitigation measures and /or coping mechanics for water resources management. The Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) was used to assess the spatio-temporal drought characteristics within the upper Tana River basin based on precipitation data for 41 years for eight gauging stations within the basin. The Kriging interpolation technique was applied to estimate spatially drought occurrence within the basin while the non-parametric Mann-Kendall (MK) trend test was used for trend detection. Results show that the south-eastern parts of the basin exhibit the highest drought severities while the north-western parts have the lowest drought values with averages of 2.140 and 4.065, and 2.542 and 4.812 in 1970 and 2010 respectively. The areal-extend of drought severities in both the south-eastern and north-western areas increased from 4868.7 km2 to 6880 km2, and 6163.9 km2 to 6985.5 km2 from 1970 to 2010 respectively. The drought trend increased in the south-eastern parts of the basin at 90% and 95% significant levels while no significant trend was detected in the north-western areas. The results presented in this paper are useful in formulating a drought early warning system that can be used to assist water resources managers in developing timely mitigation measures in planning and managing water resources within the basin.

Keywords

References

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Article

Kinetic Thermal Degradation of Cellulose, Polybutylene Succinate and a Green Composite: Comparative Study

1Laboratory of Applied Chemistry and Environment- Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, Mohammed Premier University, Oujda, Morocco

2Laboratory of Physical Chemistry of Natural Resources and Environment - Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, Mohammed Premier University, Oujda, Morocco

3The chemical measuring room - Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, Mohammed Premier University, Oujda, Morocco


World Journal of Environmental Engineering. 2015, 3(4), 95-110
doi: 10.12691/wjee-3-4-1
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Benarbia Abderrahim, Elidrissi Abderrahman, Aqil Mohamed, Tabaght Fatima, Tahani Abdesselam, Ouassini Krim. Kinetic Thermal Degradation of Cellulose, Polybutylene Succinate and a Green Composite: Comparative Study. World Journal of Environmental Engineering. 2015; 3(4):95-110. doi: 10.12691/wjee-3-4-1.

Correspondence to: Benarbia  Abderrahim, Laboratory of Applied Chemistry and Environment- Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, Mohammed Premier University, Oujda, Morocco. Email: benarbia111@hotmail.com

Abstract

Polybutylene succinate (PBS), classed as biopolymer, was synthesized by condensation of succinic acid with a lower excess of (1, 4) butanediol. The synthesized polymer was analyzed by FTIR, RMN, DSC and ATG/ATD. Thermal degradation kinetics was investigated for cellulose, polybutylene succinate, physical blend of both polymers (cellulose (80%) + PBS (20%)) and compared with polycaprolactone by dynamic thermogravimetry, under nitrogen atmosphere from room temperature to 480 °C, at constant nominal heating rates: 5, 10 and 15 °C/min, respectively. The Kissinger, Friedman, Flynn-Ozawa-Wall and Coatse - Redfern (modified) methods were developed and the corresponding activation energies, frequency factors and reaction orders were determined.

Keywords

References

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