Currrent Issue: Volume 3, Number 2, 2015


Article

Leachate Percolation through Failed Geomembrane of a Geo-Composite Soil Barrier

1Department of Civil Engineering Science, University of Johannesburg, South Africa

2Department of Geography, Environmental Management and Energy Studies, University of Johannesburg, South Africa


World Journal of Environmental Engineering. 2015, 3(2), 52-57
doi: 10.12691/wjee-3-2-4
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Agbenyeku Emem-Obong Emmanuel, Sam Akintayo Akinseye. Leachate Percolation through Failed Geomembrane of a Geo-Composite Soil Barrier. World Journal of Environmental Engineering. 2015; 3(2):52-57. doi: 10.12691/wjee-3-2-4.

Correspondence to: Agbenyeku  Emem-Obong Emmanuel, Department of Civil Engineering Science, University of Johannesburg, South Africa. Email: kobitha2003@yahoo.com

Abstract

Sequence of laboratory tests on geo-composite barriers under the influence of leachate transport through failed geomembrane were conducted in a small-scale model device. A 24mm thick soil barrier liner, 2mm thick polyethylene plastic with 5mm hole to simulate failed geomembrane and a 225mm thick Attenuation profile (AP) constituted the model setup. Leachate transport through the barrier-AP system was measured for tests under pressure of up to 150kPa. Measured flow rates for good geomembrane/soil interface contact conditions were considered in this study. Results and analysis however, shows significant reduction in leachate flow rates with increased pressure, p, on the defected geomembrane. The reduction in flow rates are accounted for by the reduced barrier system transmissivity, θ, and the soil barrier densification. The measured concentration of selected contaminant species/ions in the AP after every test confirmed the flow through the failed geomembrane/mineral barrier layer and showed the three natural soils investigated in this study to have good buffering capabilities towards the selected chemical species/ions.

Keywords

References

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Article

Weathered Layer Determination and Its Effects on Engineering Structures: Case Study of Parts of the Niger Delta

1Department of Geosciences, Federal University of Technology, PMB 1526 Owerri

2Department of Physics and Industrial Physics, Federal Polytechnic Nekede, Owerri

3Department of Physics Industrial Physics, Imo State University, Owerri


World Journal of Environmental Engineering. 2015, 3(2), 40-51
doi: 10.12691/wjee-3-2-3
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Agoha C.C., Opara A.I., Okereke C.N., Onwubuariri C.N., Emberga T.T., Inyang G.E., Ugwuegbu I.E., Chilaka J.C. Weathered Layer Determination and Its Effects on Engineering Structures: Case Study of Parts of the Niger Delta. World Journal of Environmental Engineering. 2015; 3(2):40-51. doi: 10.12691/wjee-3-2-3.

Correspondence to: Emberga  T.T., Department of Physics and Industrial Physics, Federal Polytechnic Nekede, Owerri. Email: terhemba4sure@yahoo.com

Abstract

Failures associated with civil engineering structures in the study area with specific reference to roads and buildings have been attributed to lack of proper understanding of the weathered layer characteristics. This study was therefore carried out using downhole seismic refraction data from twenty borehole locations within parts of PortHarcourt, Niger Delta, Nigeria to determine the weathered layer characteristics of the area. The survey was carried out with the Geometrics Stratavisor NZ11 instrument using a set of hydrophones arranged in a definite manner in each of the boreholes. The data was processed using Udysys software and analyzed graphically using the seismic refraction interpretation technique. Several contour and analytical maps were generated for the weathered and consolidated layers. Similarly, four interpretative cross sections namely NW-SE, NE-SW, N-S and E-W were used for the purpose of correlation. Results of the study revealed that the velocity of the weathered layer ranged between 144 and 996m/s with a regional average of 407 m/s. The results also revealed that the thickness of the weathered layer ranged between 3.0 and 9.6m with a regional average of 5.0m. Velocity of the consolidated layer varied between 1449 and 1812m/s with a regional average of 1738m/s which is adjudged sufficiently competent to withstand engineering structures. It is therefore recommended that construction of heavy buildings and roads especially bridges in the area should have their foundations laid to a minimum depth of 9.6m to enable the infrastructure sit on the consolidated layer.

Keywords

References

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Article

Disinfection of Intermitted Water Supply System and Its Health Impact: Um Al Nasser Village as a Case Study

1M.Sc Infrastructure Engineering, The Islamic University of Gaza. P.O.Box 108

2The Islamic University of Gaza, P.O.Box 108


World Journal of Environmental Engineering. 2015, 3(2), 32-39
doi: 10.12691/wjee-3-2-2
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Hanafi Sadallah, Husam Al-Najar. Disinfection of Intermitted Water Supply System and Its Health Impact: Um Al Nasser Village as a Case Study. World Journal of Environmental Engineering. 2015; 3(2):32-39. doi: 10.12691/wjee-3-2-2.

Correspondence to: Husam  Al-Najar, The Islamic University of Gaza, P.O.Box 108. Email: halnajar@iugaza.edu.ps

Abstract

The main objective of the research is to study the effect of chlorine depletion in intermitted municipal water supply networks on the proliferation of water-borne diseases in marginalized communities. WaterCad model was built to investigate the behavior of the water systems under the action of intermittent supply and the distance from nine testing points from the chlorination source based on the flow direction. The measurements of residual chlorine in the drinking water network in the period between January 2010 until December 2013, of nine sampling points were conducted. At the same time, the prevalence of waterborne diseases amongst the local residents was registered. Results show that 68% of the sampling points in the water supply network have residual chlorine concentrations lower than the recommended values given by The World Health Organization. One variable exponential regression model is used to estimate the effect of distance on the residual chlorine decaying in intermitted water distribution system. A significant correlation between the distance and the decrease of chlorine concentration is shown, R² for 2010 is 0.75, while for 2011, 2012 and 2013 the R² is 0.81, 0.72 and 0.58, respectively. Among four water borne diseases, a significant correlation was found only for increasing the number of incidences of Diarrhea in Winter and Summer with a decrease of average residual chlorine in drinking water networks R² = 0.65 and 0.61 (ANOVA test 0.003 and 0.003), respectively. The investigation and four years monitoring are important to the water and public health relevant institutions to improve the public water supply sector.

Keywords

References

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Article

Identification of Potential Vertical Gas Migration Pathways above Gas Storage Reservoirs

1Department of Geography-Geology, Illinois State University, Normal, IL, USA

2CH2M Hill, Chicago, IL USA


World Journal of Environmental Engineering. 2015, 3(2), 23-31
doi: 10.12691/wjee-3-2-1
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Eric W. Peterson, Lauren I. Martin, Dave H. Malone. Identification of Potential Vertical Gas Migration Pathways above Gas Storage Reservoirs. World Journal of Environmental Engineering. 2015; 3(2):23-31. doi: 10.12691/wjee-3-2-1.

Correspondence to: Eric  W. Peterson, Department of Geography-Geology, Illinois State University, Normal, IL, USA. Email: ewpeter@ilstu.edu

Abstract

Natural gas is stored underground in geologic structures throughout the United States. However, complexities associated with these geologic structures may provide vertical pathways for gas migration, and thus gas loss. Possible upward migration (loss) of natural gas in an underground gas storage field in stimulated this investigation that aims to identify potential migration pathways. Spatial analysis of volume of shale (Vsh) and formation porosity (n) values were conducted in conjunction with high-resolution shallow seismic surveys to identify potential vertical pathways. Surficial gas accumulations within glacial deposits were confirmed by the seismic surveys. These gas pockets accumulated by migration along steeply inclined structural discontinuities, most likely faults and fracture zones within the underlying shallow bedrock units. With the seismic technique limited to a depth of 100 m, Vsh data were used to assess the reservoir’s seal rocks ability to limit vertical gas migration. The Vsh data indicate that the seal rocks are best classified as heterogeneous siltstones. Spatial analysis highlights an aligned pattern of low Vsh values in both the reservoir rocks and the seal rocks. The low Vsh values lie beneath the faults and fracture zones and the documented surficial gas deposit. Higher n values for the sandstones in the reservoir area as opposed to other areas suggest porosity enhancement associated with deformation. Structural deformation, faults and fracture zones, appears to provide a pathway for vertical gas migration. However, stratigraphic (lateral) heterogeneities associated with the reservoir and seal rocks may provide additional vertical pathways.

Keywords

References

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