ISSN (Print): 2333-1178

ISSN (Online): 2333-1283


Editor-in-chief: Raluca-Ioana Stefan-van Staden

Currrent Issue: Volume 4, Number 1, 2016


Computer Modelling of the Concentration of Heavy Metals in Artificial Borings

1Department of Quality Control, Tel Water Industry, Jos Nigeria

2Chemistry Programme, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University Bauchi, Nigeria

3Computer & Statistics Programme, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University Bauchi, Nigeria

World Journal of Analytical Chemistry. 2016, 4(1), 6-10
doi: 10.12691/wjac-4-1-2
Copyright © 2016 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Timothy M. Akpomie, Eno O. Ekanem, Mohammed M. Adamu, Janet O. Akpomie. Computer Modelling of the Concentration of Heavy Metals in Artificial Borings. World Journal of Analytical Chemistry. 2016; 4(1):6-10. doi: 10.12691/wjac-4-1-2.

Correspondence to: Timothy  M. Akpomie, Department of Quality Control, Tel Water Industry, Jos Nigeria. Email:


This study describes the computer modelling of the concentrations of some heavy metals; Fe, Zn, Cd, Cu and Pb in a deep well, undertaken to simulate the subsequent concentrations of the metals with respect to the passage of time. This was with the view of providing further insight to the possibility of bio-accumulation and or bio-degradation of these heavy metals in the wells.With the aid of the Minitab computer software, time-series models (time-dependent) and multi-regression models (pH and temperature-dependent) were developed for each metal using quarterly measurements of concentrations obtained from spectrophotometric analysis of these heavy metals for a period of two years. The obtained models were of the form y = a + bt – ct2 (time-series or time-dependent) and y= a + b[pH] + c[T°C]. These models were shown to be reliable from statistical analysis at 95% confidence interval. Finally, by simulating the concentrations of the heavy metals from the respective models, it was found that bio-accumulation was on the increase in Cu and Cd while bio-reduction or bio-degradation was the case with Fe, Zn and Pb. This observation was a clear indication that underground seepage activities were going on, contrary to the believe, especially by rural dwellers, that borehole (deep well) water was very pure and fit for drinking.



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Health Risk Assessment for Exposure to Some Selected Heavy Metals via Drinking Water from Dadinkowa Dam and River Gombe Abba in Gombe State, Northeast Nigeria

1Department of Chemistry, Federal College of Education ( Tech.), P. M. B. 60, Gombe, Gombe State, Nigeria

2Department of Chemistry, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, Bauchi State, Nigeria

3Department of Chemistry, University of Maiduguri, Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria

World Journal of Analytical Chemistry. 2016, 4(1), 1-5
doi: 10.12691/wjac-4-1-1
Copyright © 2016 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Maigari A. U., Ekanem E. O., Garba I. H., Harami A., Akan J. C.. Health Risk Assessment for Exposure to Some Selected Heavy Metals via Drinking Water from Dadinkowa Dam and River Gombe Abba in Gombe State, Northeast Nigeria. World Journal of Analytical Chemistry. 2016; 4(1):1-5. doi: 10.12691/wjac-4-1-1.

Correspondence to: Maigari  A. U., Department of Chemistry, Federal College of Education ( Tech.), P. M. B. 60, Gombe, Gombe State, Nigeria. Email:


The concentrations of eight heavy metals (Fe, Mn, Cu, Pb, Cd, Ni, Co and Zn) were determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy in water from Dadinkowa dam and Kwadon boreholes which are the major sources of drinking water to Gombe town in Gombe State, North-East, Nigeria. The concentrations of metals in water from Dadinkowa dam were in the order: Fe (1.86mg/l), Mn(0.68mg/l), Cu(0.92mg/l), Pb(0.19mg/l), Cd(0.50mg/l), Ni(0.59mg/l), Co(0.42mg/l) and Zn(0.83mg/l).The concentrations of the metals in water from Gombe Abba River were in the order Fe(0.21 mg/l), Mn (0.24 mg/l), Cu (0.29 mg/l), Pb (0.02 mg/l), Cd (0.10 mg/l), Ni( 0.04 mg/l), Co(0.12 mg/l) and Zn (0.41 mg/l). The human health risk assessment was performed by determining the chronic daily intake (CDI), hazard quotient (HQ) and total hazard index (THI) of the metals through human oral consumption for both adults and children. The HQ of iron, manganese, nickel and cobalt in water from Dadinkowa dam were all greater than unity and thus pose a potential health risk for both adults and children while cobalt was the only heavy metal of concern in water from Gombe Abba River as its HQ was greater than unity. The THI of water from all the sampled sites assessed were of high risk. Further monitoring of these sites is recommended as well as research by biomedical experts to reveal the exact adverse effects that heavy metal contamination of water might induce in humans, particularly among individuals in vulnerable populations such as children.



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