ISSN (Print): 2333-1178

ISSN (Online): 2333-1283

Website: http://www.sciepub.com/journal/wjac

Editor-in-chief: Raluca-Ioana Stefan-van Staden

Currrent Issue: Volume 4, Number 1, 2016

Article

Spectrophotometry Method for the Determination of Terazosin in Tablet Formulation

1Department of Pharmaceutics, Institute of Biomedical Education and Research, Mangalayatan University, Beswan, Aligarh, India

2B.R. Nahata College of Pharmacy, Mhow-Neemuch Road, Mandsaur (M.P), India


World Journal of Analytical Chemistry. 2016, 4(1), 11-16
doi: 10.12691/wjac-4-1-3
Copyright © 2016 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Alankar Shrivastava, Lalita Dhakad. Spectrophotometry Method for the Determination of Terazosin in Tablet Formulation. World Journal of Analytical Chemistry. 2016; 4(1):11-16. doi: 10.12691/wjac-4-1-3.

Correspondence to: Alankar  Shrivastava, Department of Pharmaceutics, Institute of Biomedical Education and Research, Mangalayatan University, Beswan, Aligarh, India. Email: alankar.shrivastava@mangalayatan.edu.in

Abstract

Terazosin (TRZ) is indicated in the symptomatic relief of benign prostatic hyperplasia. The presented study is spectrophotometry method for the determination of terazosin in tablet dosage forms. Bromophenol blue was used for ion pair complex with the drug in 1:1 ratio. The linear range, limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantitation (LOQ) were found to be 1-10, 0.001 and 0.012 μg/ml respectively. The method was found to be specific when applied with some excipients and accurate enough to be applied in tablet formulation.

Keywords

References

[1]  Cornu, J.N. “Current advances in male lower urinary tract symptoms assessment and management: more and more questions.” Curr Opin Urol. 2016 Jan,26(1), 1-2.
 
[2]  Yuan, J.Q., Mao, C., Wong, S.Y., Yang, Z.Y., Fu, X.H., Dai, X.Y., Tang, J.L. “Comparative Effectiveness and Safety of Monodrug Therapies for Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms Associated With Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia: A Network Meta-analysis.” Medicine (Baltimore). 2015, 94(27), e974.
 
[3]  Kim, E.H., Larson, J.A., Andriole, G,L. “Management of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia.” Annu. Rev. Med. 2016, 67, 8.1-8.15. doi: 10.1146/annurev-med-063014-123902.
 
[4]  Shrivastava, A. “Various Analytical Methods for the Determination of Terazosin in Different Matrices.” World J Analy Chem, 2013, 1(4), 80-86.
 
[5]  European Pharmacopoeia. European Directorate for the Quality of Medicines. Strasbourg, 2007.
 
Show More References
[6]  USP29-NF24, Pharmacopeial Forum : Volume No. 29(5) Page 1580.
 
[7]  Terazosin hydrochloride dehydrate. British Pharmacopoeia. 2012.
 
[8]  Sonders, R,C. “Pharmacokinetics of terazosin.” Am J Med. 1986, 80(5B), 20-4.
 
[9]  Wilde, M.I., Fitton, A., Sorkin, E.M. “Terazosin: A Review of its Pharmacodynamic and Pharmacokinetic Properties, and Therapeutic Potential in Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia.” Drugs & Aging 1993, 3(3), 258-277.
 
[10]  Titmarsh, S., Monk, J.P. “Terazosin. A review of its pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties, and therapeutic efficacy in essential hypertension.” Drugs. 1987; 33(5):461-77.
 
[11]  Nirmalani-Gandhy, A., Sanchez, D., Catalano, G. “Terazosin for the treatment of trauma-related nightmares: a report of 4 cases.” Clin Neuropharmacol. 2015, 38(3), 109-11.
 
[12]  Shrivastava, A., Saxena, P., Gupta, V.B. “Spectrophotometric estimation of tamsulosin hydrochloride by acid-dye method.” Pharm Methods. 2011, 2(1), 53-60.
 
[13]  ICH Q2B. Validation of Analytical Procedures: Methodology (International Conference on Harmonization of Technical Requirements for the Registration of Drugs For Human Use, Geneva, Switzerland, May 1997).
 
[14]  Sankar, V., Raghuraman, S., Sivanand, V., Ravichandran, V., “Spectrophotometric method for the estimation of Terazosin in Tablets.” Ind J Pharm Sci, 2000, 61(6): 463-464.
 
[15]  Prasad, C.V.N., Gautham, A., Bhardwaj, V., Praimoo, P. “Quantitative determination of Terazosin HCl in tablet preparation by fluorimetry”. Ind J Pharm Sci, 1998, 60(3), 167-9.
 
[16]  Zeeb, M., Sadeghi, M., “Sensitive Determination of Terazosin in Pharmaceutical Formulations and Biological Samples by Ionic-Liquid Microextraction Prior to Spectrofluorimetry.” Inter J Anal Chem 2012, 1-7.
 
[17]  Jiang, C.J., Gao, M.X., He, J.X., “Study of the interaction between terazosin and serum albumin synchronous fluorescence determination of terazosin.” Anal Chim Acta, 2002, 452, 185-189.
 
[18]  Wang, C.C., Luconi, M.O., Masi, A.N., Fernández, L., “Determination of terazosin by cloud point extraction-fluorimetric combined methodology.” Talanta, 2007, 72(5), 1779-85.
 
[19]  Abdine, H.H., El-Yazbi, F.A., Blaih, S.M., Shaalan, R.A., “Spectrophotometric and spectrofluorimetric methods for the determination of terazosin in dosage forms.” Spectrosc Lett: Int J Rapid Communication, 1998, 31(5), 969-980.
 
[20]  El, Sheikh., R., Esmail, N.S., Gouda, A.A., Basset, W.A., “Extractive spectrophotometric determination of some α-adrenergic antagonists in pure forms and in pharmaceutical formulations.” CI & CEQ, 2012, 18(2), 179-191.
 
[21]  Ismail, N.S., Mohamed, T.A. “Potentiometric and Fluorimetric Methods for the Determination of Terazosin HCl in Drug Substance and Dosage Forms.” Int. J. Electrochem. Sci., 2014, 9, 7394-7413.
 
[22]  Shrivastava, A., Gupta, V.B., “Ultra violet spectrophotometric method: Not possible for the simultaneous estimation of alpha one adrenoreceptor blockers.” J Pharm Negative Results, 2011, 2, 115-120.
 
[23]  Mohamed, T.A., Ismail, N.S. “Fluorimetric Methods for the Determination of Terazosin HCl in Drug Substance and Dosage Forms.” Iranian J Pharma Sci. 2014, 10 (1), 15-26.
 
[24]  Setty, K.N., Reddy, G.V.R., Reddy, N.R. “Spectrophotometric determination of terazosin in tablet dosage forms.” World J Pharma Res 2014, 4(1), 875-881.
 
[25]  Taguchi, K., Scha¨fers, R.F., Michel, M.C., “Radioreceptor assay analysis of tamsulosin and terazosin pharmacokinetics.” Br J Clin Pharmacol, 1998, 45, 49-55.
 
[26]  Cheah, P.Y., Yuena, K.H., Liong, M.L. “Improved high performance liquid chromatographic analysis of terazosin in human plasma.” J Chromatogr B, 2000, 745, 439-443.
 
[27]  Zavitsanos, A.P., Alebic-Kolbah, T., “Enantioselective determination of terazosin in human plasma by normal phase high-performance liquid chromatography–electrospray mass spectrometry.” J Chromatogr A, 1998, 794, 45-56.
 
[28]  Zou, H.Y., Wu, H.L., Ou Yang, L.Q., Zhang, Y., Nie, J.F., Fu, H.Y., Yu RQ., “Fluorescent quantification of terazosin hydrochloride content in human plasma and tablets using second-order calibration based on both parallel factor analysis and alternating penalty trilinear decomposition.” Analy Chim Acta, 2009, 650, 143-149.
 
[29]  Bauer, J.F., Krogh, S.K, Chang, Z.L., Wong, C.F., “Determination of minor impurities in terazosin by high performance liquid chromatography.” J Chromatography, 1993, 648, 175-181.
 
[30]  Bakshi, M., Ojha, T., Singh, S., “Validated specific HPLC methods for determination of prazosin, terazosin and doxazosin in the presence of degradation products formed under ICH-recommended stress conditions.” J Pharm Biomed Anal 2004, 34, 19-2.
 
[31]  Ojha, T., Bakshi, M., Chakraborti, A.K., Singh, S., “The ICH guidance in practice: stress decomposition studies on three piperazinyl quinazoline adrenergic receptor-blocking agents and comparison of their degradation behaviour.” J Pharm Biomed Anal, 2003, 31, 775-783.
 
[32]  EY Oh, SK Bae, JW Kwon, M You, DC Lee, MG Lee. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic consequences of inhibition of terazosin metabolism via CYP3A1 and/or 3A2 by DA-8159, an erectogenic, in rats. Br J Clin Pharmacol, 2007, 151, 24-34.
 
[33]  Wei, X., Yin, J., Yang, G., He, C., Chen, Y., “On-line solid-phase extraction with a monolithic weak cation-exchange column and simultaneous screening of α1-adrenergic receptor antagonists in human plasma.” J Sep Sci, 2007, 30, 2851-2857.
 
[34]  Chen, D., Zhao, C., “Determination of Terazosin in Human Plasma by High performance Liquid Chromatography with Ultraviolet Detection.” Asian J Traditional Med. 1-3.
 
[35]  Shrivastava, A., Gupta, V.B., “Stability-Indicating RP-HPLC Method for the Simultaneous Determination of Prazosin, Terazosin, and Doxazosin in Pharmaceutical Formulations.” Sci Pharm, 2012, 80, 619-631.
 
[36]  Shrivastava, A., Gupta, V.B., “Simultaneous Determination of Two Alpha-One Adrenoreceptor Blockers Terazosin and Prazosin Using Tamsulosin as Internal Standard.” Inter J Pharm Pharma Sci, 2012, 4(3), 752-756.
 
[37]  Ahmed, S., Mohamed, N.A., El Zohny, S.A. “A sensitive and reliable method for therapeutic monitoring of α1-blockers in rabbit plasma by ion-pair chromatography with enhanced fluorescence detection.” Microchemical J. 2015.
 
[38]  Li, A.P., Peng, H., Peng, J.D., Zhou, M.Q., Zhang, J. “Rayleigh light scattering detection of three α1-adrenoceptor antagonists coupled with high performance liquid chromatograph.” Spectrochimica acta. Part A, Molecular and biomolecular spectroscopy.Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc.2015 Aug 5; 147: 178-84.
 
[39]  Zadeh, S.E., Qomi, M., Saadat, M.R., Piroozi, F. “Three-Phase Hollow fiber Liquid-Phase Micro Extraction for Determination and Analysis of Terazosin in Biological Fluids via High Performance Liquid Chromatography at Trace Levels.” Current Analytical Chemistry. 2016, 12(6), 1-7.
 
[40]  Shrivastava, A., Gupta, V.B., “Validated HPLC and HPTLC Methods for Simultaneous Determination of Some α1-Adrenoreceptor Blockers.” Lat Am J Pharm, 2012, 31(2), 279-86.
 
[41]  Chang Zui, L., Bauer, J.F. “Analytical Profile of Drug Substances”, 20th volume, Academic Press, Elsevier; 2005, 717-720.
 
[42]  Shrivastava, A., Patel, A., Gupta, V.B., “Stability Indicating HPTLC Determination of Terazosin in Tablet Formulation, World J Anal Chem, 2013, 1(3), 31-36.
 
[43]  Belal, T.S., Mahrous, M.S., Abdel-Khalek, M.M., Daabees, H.G., Khamis, M.M. “Validated HPTLC method for the simultaneous determination of alfuzosin, terazosin, prazosin, doxazosin and finasteride in pharmaceutical formulations.” Analytical Chemistry Research 2014;1:23-31.
 
[44]  Mohamed, N.A., Ahmed, S., El Zohny, S.A. “A Specific High-Performance Thin-Layer Chromatography with Fluorescence Detection for the Determination of Some α1-Blockers” J Liquid Chromatogr & Related Technologies, 2015;38:2:271-282.
 
[45]  Badawey, A.M., Abd El-Aleem, A.E.B., Lamie, N.T., “Membrane sensors for the selective determination of terazosin hydrochloride dihydrate in presence of its degradation product.” Inter J Comp Pharm, 2011, 2(7), 1-5.
 
[46]  Ganjali, M.R., Faridbod, F., Larijani, B., Riahi, S., Hosseini, M., Nasli-Esfahani, E et al. Terazosin potentiometric sensor for quantitative analysis of terazosin hydrochloride in pharmaceutical formulation based on computational study. Int. J. Electrochem. Sci., 2010, 5, 200-214.
 
[47]  Atta, N.F., Darwish, S.A., Khalil, S.E., Galal, A. “Effect of surfactants on the voltammetric response and determination of an antihypertensive drug.” Talanta 2007, 72, 1438-1445.
 
[48]  Zayed, S.I.M., Khalil, M.M., Issa, Y.M., Khalefa, H.R. “Flow Injection Potentiometric Determination of Terazosin Hydrochloride Using Modified Carbon Paste Electrodes.” Int. J. Electrochem. Sci., 2014, 9, 2327-2340.
 
[49]  Madrakian, T., Ghasemi, H., Afkhamia, A. “Haghshenas E. ZnO/rGO nanocomposite/carbon paste electrode for determination of terazosin in human serum samples” RSC Adv., 2016, 6, 2552-2558.
 
Show Less References

Article

Computer Modelling of the Concentration of Heavy Metals in Artificial Borings

1Department of Quality Control, Tel Water Industry, Jos Nigeria

2Chemistry Programme, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University Bauchi, Nigeria

3Computer & Statistics Programme, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University Bauchi, Nigeria


World Journal of Analytical Chemistry. 2016, 4(1), 6-10
doi: 10.12691/wjac-4-1-2
Copyright © 2016 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Timothy M. Akpomie, Eno O. Ekanem, Mohammed M. Adamu, Janet O. Akpomie. Computer Modelling of the Concentration of Heavy Metals in Artificial Borings. World Journal of Analytical Chemistry. 2016; 4(1):6-10. doi: 10.12691/wjac-4-1-2.

Correspondence to: Timothy  M. Akpomie, Department of Quality Control, Tel Water Industry, Jos Nigeria. Email: akpomiet@yahoo.com

Abstract

This study describes the computer modelling of the concentrations of some heavy metals; Fe, Zn, Cd, Cu and Pb in a deep well, undertaken to simulate the subsequent concentrations of the metals with respect to the passage of time. This was with the view of providing further insight to the possibility of bio-accumulation and or bio-degradation of these heavy metals in the wells.With the aid of the Minitab computer software, time-series models (time-dependent) and multi-regression models (pH and temperature-dependent) were developed for each metal using quarterly measurements of concentrations obtained from spectrophotometric analysis of these heavy metals for a period of two years. The obtained models were of the form y = a + bt – ct2 (time-series or time-dependent) and y= a + b[pH] + c[T°C]. These models were shown to be reliable from statistical analysis at 95% confidence interval. Finally, by simulating the concentrations of the heavy metals from the respective models, it was found that bio-accumulation was on the increase in Cu and Cd while bio-reduction or bio-degradation was the case with Fe, Zn and Pb. This observation was a clear indication that underground seepage activities were going on, contrary to the believe, especially by rural dwellers, that borehole (deep well) water was very pure and fit for drinking.

Keywords

References

[1]  Wikipedia, the free encyclopaedia.
 
[2]  “Pivate Ground Water Wells” from Centers for Disease control and Prevention, viewed in www.cdc.gov/healthywater/drinking/pivate wells.
 
[3]  http:www./heavymetaltest.us/
 
[4]  William, R.M,. “Pollution of Groundwater”. Water Encylopedia
 
[5]  Water Pollution-Natural Sources, (2015) @ inspectApedia.com. Online Encyclopedia of building and environmental inspection,testing,diagnosis, repair and problem prevention advice
 
Show More References
[6]  Nassehi, V. & Bikangaga, J. H. (1993). A mathematical model for hydrodynamics and pollutant transport in long and narrow tidal rivers. Appl. Math Modell. J. 17, 415-422.
 
[7]  Hogan, C.M. (2014). Water Pollution. Encyclopedia of earth tropics.Published November 17, 2014 Ed. Mark McGinley.
 
[8]  Shrestha, P. L. & Orlob, G. T. (1996). Multiphase distribution of cohesive sediments and heavy metals in estuarine systems. J. Environ. Eng. 122 (8), 730-740.
 
[9]  Wu, Y., Falconer, R. A. & Lin, B. (2001). Hydro-environmental modelling of heavy metal fluxes on an estuary. In Proceedings of XXIX IAHR Congress, Theme b: Environmental Hydraulics,
 
[10]  Wu, Y., Falconer, R. A. & Lin, B. (2005). Modelling trace metal concentration distributions in estuarine waters. J.Estuarine, Coastal Shelf Sci. 64, 699-709.
 
[11]  Floyd, W.B., Hezekiah, S. Analysis of coal ash by atomic absorption spectrometric and spectrophotometric methods, in Methods for sampling and inorganic Analysis of Coal.US Geological Survey Bulletin 1823. . (1997) Golightly, D.W., Simon F.O. (Ed).1-20.
 
[12]  Hogan, C.M. (2014). Water Pollution. Encyclopedia of earth tropics.Published November 17, 2014 Ed. Mark McGinley.
 
[13]  Ng, B., Turner, A., Tyler, A. O., Falconer, R. A. & Millward, G. E. (1996).
 
[14]  Minitab Inc., (1996). Viewed in http://www.minitab.com.
 
[15]  Radojevic, M and Bashkin, V.N. (1999). “Practical Environmental Analysis”, Royal Society of Chemistry, Cambridge, 466.
 
[16]  Modelling contaminant geo-chemistry in estuaries. Water Res. 30, 63-74.pp. 732-739. Tsinghua University Press, Beijing.
 
[17]  Hussein, K. Hussein, Osama Abdullah Abu-Zinadah, Haddad Abdel Samie El Rabey and Mohamed Fareez Meerasahib. Environmental assessment of ground water pollution by heavy metals and bioaccumulation of mercury residues in chicken tissues. African Journal of Biotechnology Vol. 10(71), pp. 16089-16100, 14 November, 2011 Available online at http://www.academicjournals.org/AJB.
 
[18]  www.buzzle.com/articles/ground water-pollution-html.
 
Show Less References

Article

Health Risk Assessment for Exposure to Some Selected Heavy Metals via Drinking Water from Dadinkowa Dam and River Gombe Abba in Gombe State, Northeast Nigeria

1Department of Chemistry, Federal College of Education ( Tech.), P. M. B. 60, Gombe, Gombe State, Nigeria

2Department of Chemistry, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, Bauchi State, Nigeria

3Department of Chemistry, University of Maiduguri, Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria


World Journal of Analytical Chemistry. 2016, 4(1), 1-5
doi: 10.12691/wjac-4-1-1
Copyright © 2016 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Maigari A. U., Ekanem E. O., Garba I. H., Harami A., Akan J. C.. Health Risk Assessment for Exposure to Some Selected Heavy Metals via Drinking Water from Dadinkowa Dam and River Gombe Abba in Gombe State, Northeast Nigeria. World Journal of Analytical Chemistry. 2016; 4(1):1-5. doi: 10.12691/wjac-4-1-1.

Correspondence to: Maigari  A. U., Department of Chemistry, Federal College of Education ( Tech.), P. M. B. 60, Gombe, Gombe State, Nigeria. Email: aishamaigari@yahoo.com

Abstract

The concentrations of eight heavy metals (Fe, Mn, Cu, Pb, Cd, Ni, Co and Zn) were determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy in water from Dadinkowa dam and Kwadon boreholes which are the major sources of drinking water to Gombe town in Gombe State, North-East, Nigeria. The concentrations of metals in water from Dadinkowa dam were in the order: Fe (1.86mg/l), Mn(0.68mg/l), Cu(0.92mg/l), Pb(0.19mg/l), Cd(0.50mg/l), Ni(0.59mg/l), Co(0.42mg/l) and Zn(0.83mg/l).The concentrations of the metals in water from Gombe Abba River were in the order Fe(0.21 mg/l), Mn (0.24 mg/l), Cu (0.29 mg/l), Pb (0.02 mg/l), Cd (0.10 mg/l), Ni( 0.04 mg/l), Co(0.12 mg/l) and Zn (0.41 mg/l). The human health risk assessment was performed by determining the chronic daily intake (CDI), hazard quotient (HQ) and total hazard index (THI) of the metals through human oral consumption for both adults and children. The HQ of iron, manganese, nickel and cobalt in water from Dadinkowa dam were all greater than unity and thus pose a potential health risk for both adults and children while cobalt was the only heavy metal of concern in water from Gombe Abba River as its HQ was greater than unity. The THI of water from all the sampled sites assessed were of high risk. Further monitoring of these sites is recommended as well as research by biomedical experts to reveal the exact adverse effects that heavy metal contamination of water might induce in humans, particularly among individuals in vulnerable populations such as children.

Keywords

References

[1]  Al-Busaidi, M., Yesudhanon, P., Al-Mughairi, S., Al-Rahbi, W. A. K., Al-Harthy, K. S., Al-Mazrooei, N. A. and Al-Habsi, S. H.(2011). Toxic metals in commercial marine fish in Oman with reference of national and international standards. Chemosphere 85:67-73.
 
[2]  Al-Othman, Z. A., Naushad, M. U., and Inamuddin, (2011). Organic- Inorganic type composite cation-exchanger poly o-toluidine Zr(IV) tungstate: preparation, physicochemical characterization and its application in separation of heavy metals.
 
[3]  Ata, S., Moore, F., and Modabberi, S. (2009). Heavy metal contamination and distribution in the Shiraz Industrial Complex Zone Soil, South Shiraz, Iran. World Applied Sciences Journal (6):413-425.
 
[4]  ATSDR (Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry), (1993). Toxicological Profile for Cadmium in Atlanta, US Dept. of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service.
 
[5]  Basta, N. T., Ryan,, J. A. And Chaney, R. L. (2005). Trace element chemistry in residual-treated soil: key concepts and metal bioavailability. Journal of Environmental Quality 34(1): 49-63.
 
Show More References
[6]  Bhagure, G. R. and Mirgane, S. R. (2011). Heavy metal concentrations in groundwater and soils of Thane Region of Maharashtra, India. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 173: 643-652.
 
[7]  Chrowtoski, P. C., (1994). Exposure assessment principles. In: Patrick, D. R. (ED), Toxic Air Pollution Handbook. Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, NY, P154.
 
[8]  Duran, A., Tuzen, M., and Soylak, M. (2007). Trace element levels in some dried fruit samples from Turkey. International Journal of Food Science and Nutrition 59: 581-589.
 
[9]  Dudka, S., and Miller, W. P. (1999). Permissible concentrations of arsenic and lead in soils basedon risk assessment. Water, Air and Soil Pollution 113:127-132.
 
[10]  Fytianos, K., Katsianis, G., Triantafyllou, P., and Zachariadis, G. (2001). Accumulation of heavy metals in vegetables grown in an industrial area in relation to soil. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 67:423-430.
 
[11]  Galadima, A., Garba, Z.N., Leke, L., Almustapha, M.,and Adams, I. K. (2011). Domestic water pollution among local communities in Nigeria- Causes and Consequences. Euro Jounal of of Scientific Research. 52:592-563.
 
[12]  Grzetic, I., and Ghariani, R. A. H. (2008). Potential health risk assessment for soil heavy metal contamination in the central zone of Belgrade (Serbia). Journal of Serbian Chemical Society 73(8-9): 923-934.
 
[13]  Guerra, K., Konz, J., Lisi, K. and Neebrem, C. (2010). Exposure Factors Handbook. USEPA, Washington DC.
 
[14]  Kavcar, P., Sofuoglu, A., and Sofuoglu, S. C. (2009). A health risk assessment for exposure to trace metals via drinking water ingestion pathway. International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health 212:216-227.
 
[15]  Khan, S., Cao, Q., Zheng, Y. M., Huang, Y. Z. And Zhu, Y. G. (2008). Health risks of heavy metals in contaminated soils and food crops irrigated with wastewater in Beijing, China. Environmental Pollution 152(3):686-692.
 
[16]  Liu, W. H., Zhao, J. Z., Ouyang, Z. Y., Soderlund, L. And Liu, G. H. (2005). Impacts of sewage irrigation on heavy metal distribution and contamination in Beijing, China. Environment International 31:805-812.
 
[17]  Nwachukwu, E. R., Ihedioha, J. F., Eze, I. S. And Agbazue, V. E. (2014). Health risk assessment in relation to heavy metals in water sources in rural regions of South East Nigeria. International Journal of Physical Sciences 9(6): 109-116.
 
[18]  Radwan, M. A. And Salama, A. K., (2006). Market basket survey for some heavy metals in Egyptian fruits and vegetables. Food and Chemical Toxicology 44: 1273-1278.
 
[19]  Rai, U. N., Tripathi, R. d., Vajpayee, P., Vidyanath, J. H. A., and Ali, M. B. (2002). Bioaccumulation of toxic toxic metals (Cr, Cd, Pb and Cu) by seeds of Euryale feroxsalisb (Makhana). Chemosphere 46: 267-272.
 
[20]  Santos, E. E., Lauri, D. C. And Silveira, P. C. L. (2006). Assessment of daily intake of trace elements due to consumption of food stuffs by adult inhabitants of Rio de Janeiro city. Science of the Total Environment 327: 69-79.
 
[21]  Sardar, K., Ali, S., Hameed, S., Afzal, S., Samar, F., Shakoor, M. B., Bharwana, S. A., and Tauqeer, H. M. (2013). Heavy Metals Contamination and what are the Impacts on Living Organisms. Greener Journal of Environmental Management and Safety 2(4): 172-179.
 
[22]  Suruchi and Khanna, P. (2011). Assessment of heavy metal contamination in different vegetables grown in and around urban areas. Research Journal of of Environmental Toxicology 5: 162-179.
 
[23]  Tuzen, M. And Soylak, M. (2007). Evaluation of trace element contents in canned foods marketed from Turkey. Food Chemistry 102: 1089-1095.
 
[24]  USEPA (1992). Guidelines for Exposure Assessment. EPA/600/Z-92/001. US Environmental Protection Agency, Risk Assessment Forum, Washington, DC.
 
[25]  USEPA (2005). Guidelines For Carcinogen Risk Assessment. EPA/630/P-03?001F. US Environmental Protection Agency Risk Assessment Forum, Washington, DC.
 
[26]  Zhang, M. K., Liu, Z. Y., and Wang, H. (2010). Use of a single extraction methods to predict bioavailabilty of heavy metals in polluted soils to rice. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis 5(4):708-711.
 
Show Less References