ISSN (Print): 2333-1178

ISSN (Online): 2333-1283

Website: http://www.sciepub.com/journal/wjac

Editor-in-chief: Raluca-Ioana Stefan-van Staden

Currrent Issue: Volume 4, Number 2, 2016

Article

Heavy Metals Contamination Profile in Soil from Automobile Workshops in Sapele, Nigeria

1Department of Chemistry, Federal University Otuoke, Nigeria

2Department of Chemistry, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, Bauchi, Nigeria


World Journal of Analytical Chemistry. 2016, 4(2), 26-28
doi: 10.12691/wjac-4-2-3
Copyright © 2016 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
A.A Chokor, E.O. Ekanem. Heavy Metals Contamination Profile in Soil from Automobile Workshops in Sapele, Nigeria. World Journal of Analytical Chemistry. 2016; 4(2):26-28. doi: 10.12691/wjac-4-2-3.

Correspondence to: A.A  Chokor, Department of Chemistry, Federal University Otuoke, Nigeria. Email: aachokor@gmail.com

Abstract

Soils samples taken at depths, 0 – 15, 15 – 30, 30 – 45, and 45 – 60cm from five automobile workshops in Sapele metropolis were analysed for heavy metals. The total heavy metal pollution status, within the depths and between the locations was determined by method adopted by Lacatusu. At all locations considered, the heavy metals (Pb, Cu, Cr, and Cd) found were much higher than that from the control sample. The concentrations of Cu and Cd at most locations and depths were also higher than the recommended critical limits for several countries. Cadmium was not detected in control soil but values ranging from 1.35 to 9.97mg/kg were recorded for the automobile workshops soils. The degree of metal pollution was in order: Okerigwre > Gana New Rd. > Shell Rd. > Ajogodo > Akintola.

Keywords

References

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Article

Assessment of Health Hazards of Passive Tobacco Smoking in School-age Children; Role of Oxidative Stress Biomarkers and Nitric Oxide Metabolites

1Medical Biochemistry Department, Faculty of Medicine, Alexandria University, Egypt

2Forensic Medicine and Clinical Toxicology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Alexandria University, Egypt, currently working at College of Biotechnology, University of Modern Sciences, UAE

3Community Medicine Department, South Valley University, Egypt


World Journal of Analytical Chemistry. 2016, 4(2), 19-25
doi: 10.12691/wjac-4-2-2
Copyright © 2016 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Hanan Nomeir, Rania Gomaa, Sameh Zaytoun. Assessment of Health Hazards of Passive Tobacco Smoking in School-age Children; Role of Oxidative Stress Biomarkers and Nitric Oxide Metabolites. World Journal of Analytical Chemistry. 2016; 4(2):19-25. doi: 10.12691/wjac-4-2-2.

Correspondence to: Hanan  Nomeir, Medical Biochemistry Department, Faculty of Medicine, Alexandria University, Egypt. Email: nomeir_2100@yahoo.com

Abstract

Background: Oxidative stress is thought to be produced by cigarette smoking whether by active or passive exposure. For assessment of smoking related health hazards, several oxidative stress biomarkers have been in use. The aim of the present work is to investigate the impact of passive smoking on the health of school age children who had first degree relative smokers at home. Assessment of smoking related health hazards was done by measurement of malondialdehyde (MDA) as a biomarker of oxidative stress, in addition to measurement of the total antioxidant capacity (TAC), nitric oxide (NO) metabolites and cotinine levels in urine. The state of children’ exposure to tobacco smoke was assessed via parents' questionnaire. Methods: The current study involved participation of a total of 183 Egyptian school age children ranged from 6-15 years old in the period from September 2012 to June 2013. They were grouped into two groups group I cases; Second Hand Smoke (SHS) (n=132) were exposed to cigarette smoke at home (one of the first degree relatives was a heavy smoker; smokes 15-25 cigarettes per day. Group II control group (n=51) were not exposed to cigarette smoke at home. A morning urine sample was collected from all participants for colorimetric measurements of MDA, TAC, NO metabolites and cotinine levels. Results: MDA, NO metabolites and urinary cotinine levels were significantly higher in SHS cases compared to the control group (p<0.0001) while total antioxidant were significantly lower in SHS cases compared to control group (p<0.0001). TAC was significantly higher in males than in females (p=0.003). A negative correlation was found between NO metabolites (nitrite) and the TAC (r =-0.34, P<0.0001). Positive correlation was found between NO metabolites (nitrite) and MDA levels (r =0.44, P<0.0001), between MDA and urinary cotinine (r=0.26, P<0.0001) and between MDA levels and the age (r =0.22, P<0.0001). Grouping of the participated children according to their age group and studying its relation to the different studied biomarkers using one way ANOVA test followed by post hoc test the least significant difference (LSD); NO metabolites was statistically significant between the age group 1 (from 6 to 9 years) and age group 3 (from12 to 15years) (p =0.05). Conclusion: passive parental smoking is associated with significant changes in the balance between oxidant / antioxidant leading to oxidative stress and associated with elevated levels of NO but impaired its action.

Keywords

References

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Article

Estimating the Degradation Half-life of Herbicides in the Soil Using Computer-developed Models

1Federal University Lafia, Lafia, Nigeria

2Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, Bauchi, Nigeria

3Tel Water Factory KM 7 Zaria Road, Jos, Nigeria


World Journal of Analytical Chemistry. 2016, 4(2), 17-18
doi: 10.12691/wjac-4-2-1
Copyright © 2016 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Timothy M. Akpomie, Eno O. Ekanem, Janet O. Akpomie. Estimating the Degradation Half-life of Herbicides in the Soil Using Computer-developed Models. World Journal of Analytical Chemistry. 2016; 4(2):17-18. doi: 10.12691/wjac-4-2-1.

Correspondence to: Timothy  M. Akpomie, Federal University Lafia, Lafia, Nigeria. Email: akpomiet@yahoo.com, akpomie.timothy@fulafia.edu.ng

Abstract

The researchers carried out this study in order to develop an appropriate model for estimating the degradation half-life of soil-applied herbicide. The results of the effect of pH and time on the degradation of atrazine in untreated Ningi soil of Bauchi State, Nigeria, was used as the input to a Minitab computer programme. The software or programme was used to develop the model for estimating or forecasting the degradation half-life of the herbicide in the soil. The developed model: T1/2(days) = 175 - 5.63C(ppm) - 12pH was found to be remarkable and provided insight as to how long half of the initial Concentration of the applied herbicide would remain un-degraded. This obviously would be an invaluable index in estimating the extent of persistence of the herbicide in the soil, water (due to leaching through the soil profile) or even plant uptake.

Keywords

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