World Journal of Analytical Chemistry

ISSN (Print): 2333-1178

ISSN (Online): 2333-1283


Current Issue» Volume 2, Number 2 (2014)


Determination of Some Physicochemical Parameters and Some Heavy Metals in Boreholes from Fagge L.G.A of Kano Metropholis Kano State- Nigeria


World Journal of Analytical Chemistry. 2014, 2(2), 42-46
DOI: 10.12691/wjac-2-2-4
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
SA’EED M.D, MAHMOUD A.M. Determination of Some Physicochemical Parameters and Some Heavy Metals in Boreholes from Fagge L.G.A of Kano Metropholis Kano State- Nigeria. World Journal of Analytical Chemistry. 2014; 2(2):42-46. doi: 10.12691/wjac-2-2-4.



There are some settlements in Fagge L.G.A of Kano metropolis that are located along Jakara river and thus there’s the fear that the drinking water they consume could be hazardous, as such, there’s a need for a study to be carried out to assess the levels of some physicochemical parameters and some heavy metals in borehole water that is meant for drinking and domestic purposes. Thirty water samples were randomly collected from different sampling sites and were analyzed using standard methods of analysis. The results showed that pH had a mean level of 7.26±0.43, Conductivity mean level was 856.1±388.6 µScm-1, the mean total hardness was 295.9 ±137.2 mg/l, turbidity had a mean level of 0.98±0.73 NTU, the total dissolved Solid mean levels was 509.4±200.9 mg/l. The heavy metals analyzed include Lead, Cadmium, and Chromium using Buck scientific model 210 VGP atomic absorption spectrometer and they had mean levels of 0.103±0.07, 0.012±0.03 and 0.065±0.095 respectively. As the results indicated all the physicochemical parameters and heavy metals are within the maximum contaminant levels set by WHO, 2005. Except for pH level in Weather head and Lead level in Kwarin Gogau sampling sites respectively. The statistical analysis of Anova showed that there is a significant difference between the physicochemical parameters and heavy metals analyzed as probability factor p<0.05.



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Solid Phase Extraction, Preconcentration and Sequential Separation of U(VI), Th(IV), La(III) and Ce(III) by Octa-O-methoxy resorcin[4]arene based Amberlite XAD-4 Chelating Resin

1Department of Chemistry, B.V. Shah Science College, C.U. Shah University, Wadhwan-City, India

2Department of Chemistry, School of Sciences, Gujarat University, Ahmedabad, India

World Journal of Analytical Chemistry. 2014, 2(2), 31-41
DOI: 10.12691/wjac-2-2-3
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Keyur D. Bhatt, Disha J. Vyas, Hrishikesh S. Gupte, Bharat A. Makwana, Savan M. Darjee, Vinod K Jain. Solid Phase Extraction, Preconcentration and Sequential Separation of U(VI), Th(IV), La(III) and Ce(III) by Octa-O-methoxy resorcin[4]arene based Amberlite XAD-4 Chelating Resin. World Journal of Analytical Chemistry. 2014; 2(2):31-41. doi: 10.12691/wjac-2-2-3.

Correspondence to: Keyur  D. Bhatt, Department of Chemistry, B.V. Shah Science College, C.U. Shah University, Wadhwan-City, India. Email:


Amberlite XAD-4 was covalently linked with octa-O-methoxy resorcin[4]arene through - N=N- to form chelating resin, which has been duly characterized and successfully used for separation and preconcentration of rare-earth metal ions like U(VI), Th(IV), La(III) and Ce(III). Various physiochemical parameters like pH, flow rate, sorption capacity, breakthrough studies, distribution coefficient, preconcentration factor, concentration of eluting agents responsible for quantitative extraction of metal ions were optimized. The resin possessed good binding affinity towards U(VI), Th(IV), La(III) and Ce(III) under selective pH conditions and were quantitatively eluted with suitable eluants like HCl and HNO3. Amount of metal ions was determined by spectrophotometry or inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry. Fast exchange kinetics and good breakthrough capacity of the resin lead to effective separation of metal ions from their binary and ternary mixture by column method on the basis of pH and eluting agents. The resin could be reused for 8-10 cycles with recoveries of analytes higher than 98%. Proposed method having analytical data with the relative standard deviation (RSD) < 2%, reflect upon the reproducibility and reliability of the method which has been effectively used for separation and determination of U(VI), Th(IV), La(III) and Ce(III) ions from monazite sand and standard reference materials.



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Design of Experiment Assisted UV-Visible Spectrophotometric and RP-HPLC Method Development for Ambrisentan Estimation in Bulk and Formulations

1Department of Pharmaceutical Analysis, Nirmala College of Pharmacy, Guntur, India

2School of Medical Science & Technology, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharaghpur, India

3Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Zawia, Az Zawiyah, Libya

4Division of Biotechnology, Netaji Subhas Institute of Technology, New Delhi, India

World Journal of Analytical Chemistry. 2014, 2(2), 23-30
DOI: 10.12691/wjac-2-2-2
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Shanta K. Adiki, Prashanti M, Baishakhi Dey, Prakash Katakam, Fathi H. Assaleh, Nagiat T. Hwisa, Rajeev K. Singla, Babu R. Chandu. Design of Experiment Assisted UV-Visible Spectrophotometric and RP-HPLC Method Development for Ambrisentan Estimation in Bulk and Formulations. World Journal of Analytical Chemistry. 2014; 2(2):23-30. doi: 10.12691/wjac-2-2-2.

Correspondence to: Prakash  Katakam, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Zawia, Az Zawiyah, Libya. Email:


Design of experiment (DOE) approach reinforces the robustness of the method being developed. This was employed for UV-visible (200-400 nm and 400-800 nm respectively) and RP-HPLC method development using C18 inertsil column and optimization of variables for ambrisentan (ABN) estimation in bulk and formulations. A two-level full factorial design assisted development of a visible spectroscopic method based on the principle of oxidation and coupling reaction of ABN with 3-methyl-2-benzothiazolinone hydrazone (MBTH reagent) in presence of FeCl3 to form bluish-green chromogen which is detectable in the visible range. second method estimates ABN in bulk and tablet dosage forms in the UV range using pH 7.4 phosphate buffer and the third one is a rapid, simple, stability indicating RP-HPLC method using a degassed mixture of orthophosphoric acid (OPA, 0.05M): acetonitrile (40:60) as mobile phase with water: acetonitrile (30:70) as diluent using PDA detector set at 264 nm for routine estimation of ABN in bulk and pharmaceutical dosage forms. Experimental design, data analysis and contour plots were developed using Minitab® 16.2.4 trial version (Minitab Inc). The percent assay of ABN detected by visible spectroscopy was 100.58±101.37% with RSD value 0.38%, by UV spectroscopy it was 99.1±99.8% with 0.5% RSD value and by RP-HPLC it was found 100.9%. The values of method validation parameters of three methodologies were found within the acceptance limits. The three methodologies could be regarded as specific, accurate, precise, with significant stability and robustness for routine estimation of ABN in bulk and tablet dosage forms.



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A New Simple and Rapid Method for the Determination of Sodium Hyaluronate in Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient and Ophthalmic Formulations by DP5 Photorode

1Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Anna University of Technology, Thiruchirapalli, Trichy, Tamilnadu, India

2Department of Analytical Research & Development, Jamjoom Pharmaceuticals, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

World Journal of Analytical Chemistry. 2014, 2(2), 15-22
DOI: 10.12691/wjac-2-2-1
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
K. Ruckmani, Saleem Z. Shaikh, Pavne Khalil, Aamer Khatri, Javed Akmal. A New Simple and Rapid Method for the Determination of Sodium Hyaluronate in Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient and Ophthalmic Formulations by DP5 Photorode. World Journal of Analytical Chemistry. 2014; 2(2):15-22. doi: 10.12691/wjac-2-2-1.

Correspondence to: Saleem  Z. Shaikh, Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Anna University of Technology, Thiruchirapalli, Trichy, Tamilnadu, India. Email:


A new, simple, rapid and reliable turbidimetric routine method for the determination of sodium hyaluronate in active pharmaceutical ingredient and ophthalmic solution is described by using DP5 Phototrode. The turbidity of an aqueous ophthalmic sample solution was measured using a DP5 Phototrode™ for photometric indicated titration. Near the equivalence point, a precipitate between titrant and analyte is formed, and the solution becomes turbid. The method involves measurement of the equivalence point at minimum light transmission through the sample, containing cationic quaternary ammonium compound, cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) solution as a dispersing agent, is measured at 520 nm. The results obtained for in-house prepared formulation and other marketed ophthalmic solution are compared with those obtained by the published HPLC method. A calibration curve was obtained from 0.08 to 0.122 mg mL–1 (r > 0.9998). Within-day % RSD was 1.08 and between-day % RSD was 1.10. Specificity/ selectivity experiments revealed the absence of interference from excipients, recovery from spiked samples for sodium hyaluronate was 98.3–100.9%. The developed method was applied to the determination of sodium hyaluronate in pharmaceutical drug substance and drug product.



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