World Journal of Analytical Chemistry

ISSN (Print): 2333-1178

ISSN (Online): 2333-1283

Website: http://www.sciepub.com/journal/WJAC

Current Issue» Volume 3, Number 1 (2015)

Article

Seasonal Evaluation of Mineral Elements, Heavy Metals, Essential Amino Acids, Proximate Compositions and Pesticides in Goat Milk

1Department of Chemistry, Nigerian Defence Academy (NDA), Kaduna, Nigeria

2Federal College of Education, Kano, Nigeria


World Journal of Analytical Chemistry. 2015, 3(1), 1-9
DOI: 10.12691/wjac-3-1-1
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Adetutu O. Aliyu, Muhammad D. Faruruwa, Aminuddeen H. Abdu. Seasonal Evaluation of Mineral Elements, Heavy Metals, Essential Amino Acids, Proximate Compositions and Pesticides in Goat Milk. World Journal of Analytical Chemistry. 2015; 3(1):1-9. doi: 10.12691/wjac-3-1-1.

Correspondence to: Aminuddeen  H. Abdu, Federal College of Education, Kano, Nigeria. Email: abduaminuddeen@yahoo.com

Abstract

Samples of goat milk were collected from different locations of Kano state in wet and dry seasons. The samples were analysed for mineral elements, heavy metals, essential amino acids, proximate compositions and persistent organic pollutants using standard methods of chemical analysis. The flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) results indicated that the mean concentrations of calcium and magnesium in the samples are 329±15.66 mg/kg and 118±8.75 mg/kg respectively. These values are above the National Environmental Standards Regulations Enforcement Agency (NESREA) set values for food, drug and beverages. The mean concentrations of zinc, copper and nickel in the samples were 2.01±0.29, 0.69±0.02 and 0.89±0.12 mg/kg respectively. These values were slightly above the standard. The mean levels of lead, cadmium and chromium in the samples were 0.02±0.003, 0.02±0.004 and 0.01±0.003 mg/kg respectively. This implies that the samples were rich in mineral elements and essential metals and safe from toxic metals contaminations. The chromatographic analysis for essential amino acids in the samples revealed high concentrations of lysine, histidine, threonine, valine, methionine, leucine, isoleucine and phenylalanine of 7.58, 2.78, 4.22, 5.23, 3.31, 6.99, 9.04 and 4.00 in g/100 g protein respectively compared to Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and World Health Organization (WHO) standards values. The Pearson correlation coefficient analysis was performed using MATLAB student version IV software, the results indicated strong and moderate positive correlations between mineral elements and essential amino acids while weak and low correlations were observed between essential metals and toxic metals, this showed the strong metal binding property between the amino acids, mineral elements and essential heavy metals, all the values were determined at significant level of P≥0.05. The gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of the organochlorine pesticides in the samples indicated that the level of pesticides were below the detection limit (BDL) for both seasons. This indicated that the samples of this study were free from the pesticides contamination; this could be attributed to restriction and compliance for the usage or the economy because most of these pesticides are very expensive.

Keywords

References

[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[
[1]  Schanbacher, F.L., Talhouk, R.S., Murray, F.A., Gherman, L.I., and Willet, L.B, Milk–born bioactive peptides. Int. Dairy J. 8: 393-403.1998.
 
[2]  Korhonen, H., and Pihlanto - Leppälä, A, Milk - derived bioactive peptides: Formation and prospects for health promotion. In: Handbook of Functional Dairy Products C. Shortt and J. O ’ Brien (eds). CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, Pp: 109-124.2004.
 
[3]  Gobbetti, M., Minervini, F., and Rizzello, C.G, Bioactive peptides in dairy products In: Handbook of Food Products Manufacturing Y.H. Hui (ed). John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Hoboken, NJ. Pp: 489-517.2007.
 
[4]  Haenlein, G.F.W. and Caccese, R, Goat milk versus cattle milk. In: Extension Goat Handbook. G.F.W. Haenlein and D.L. Ace, eds. USDA Publ. Washington, D.C. E - 1: 1-4. 1984.
 
[5]  Park, Y.W, Goat milk - Chemistry and Nutrition. In: Handbook of Milk of Non – Bovine Mammals. Y.W. Park and G.F.W. Heinlein, eds. Blackwell Publishers. Ames, Iowa, and Oxford, England. Pp: 34-58.2006.
 
Show More References
6]  Park, Y.W. Nutrient profiles of commercial goat milk cheeses manufactured in the United States. J. Dairy Sci. 73: 3059-3067. 1990.
 
7]  Zervas, G. and Tsiplakou, E, The effect of feeding systems on the characteristics of products from small ruminants. Small Ruminant Research 101: 140-149.2011.
 
8]  Devendra, C, Dairy goats in Asia: multifunctional relevance and contribution to food and nutrition security. In: Proceedings of the First Asia Dairy Goat Conference, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, 9-12 April 2012 (eds R. Abdullah et al.), Pp. 1=6. Institute Tropical Agriculture Publ., University Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia.
 
9]  Seifert, J, IDF perspectives on the global dairy situation and development perspectives for non-cattle milk. In: Proceedings of the First Asia Dairy Goat Conference, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, 9-12 April 2012 (eds R. Abdullah et al.), Pp: 27-31. Institute Tropical Agriculture Publ., University Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia.
 
10]  Park, Y.W. and Haenlein, G.F.W, Goat milk, its products and nutrition. In: Handbook of Food Products Manufacturing (ed. Y.H. Hui), John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ. Pp: 449-488. 2007.
 
11]  Harman, A, U.S dairy goat inventory holds steady. Dairy Goat Journal 90:8-9. 2012.
 
12]  Pandya, A.J. and Ghodke, K.M, Goat and sheep milk products other than cheeses and yoghurt. Small Ruminant Research, 68:193-206.2007.
 
13]  Park, Y.W., Ju á rez, M., Ramos, M., and Haenlein, G.W, Physico – chemical characteristics of goat and sheep milk. Small Ruminant Research, 68: 88-113. 2007.
 
14]  Morgan, F., Massouras, T., Barbosa, M., Roseiro, L., Ravasco, M., Kandarakis, J., Bonnin, V., Fistorakis, M., Anifantakis, E., Janbert, G. and Raynal-Ljntovac, K, Characteristic of goat milk collected from small and medium enterprises in Greece, Portugal and France. Small Ruminant Research, 47: 39–49.2003.
 
15]  Morand-Fehr, P., Bas, P., Blanchart, G., Paccord, R., Giger-Reverdin, S., Gihad, E.A., Hadjipanagiotou, M., Mowlem, A., Remeuf, F. and Sauvant, Influence of feeding on goat milk composition and technological characteristics. In: Goat Nutrition (ed. P. Morand-Fehr), Pp: 209-224.1991. Pudoc Wageningen, Wageningen, the Netherlands.
 
16]  Malhotra, V.K, Biochemistry for Students. Tenth Edition.1998. Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) Ltd, New Delhi, India.
 
17]  Eruvbetine, D. Canine Nutrition and Health. A paper presented at the seminar organized by Kensington Pharmaceuticals Nig. Ltd., Lagos on August 21, 2003.
 
18]  Hays, V.W, and Swenson, M.J, Minerals and Bones. In: Dukes’ Physiology of Domestic Animals, Tent Edition Pp: 449-466.1985.
 
19]  Ozcan, M, Mineral Contents of some Plants used as condiments in Turkey. Food Chemistry 84:437- 440.2003.
 
20]  Duffus, J.H, Heavy metals-a meaningless term?. Pure Appl. Chem. 74:793-807. 2002.
 
21]  Alloway, B, Heavy Metals in Soils-Trace Metals and Metalloids in Soils and their Bioavailability. Springer Dordrecht Heidelberg New York London, Pp:613.2013.
 
22]  Alloway, B.J, The origins of heavy metals in soils. Pp: 38-57. In: Alloway, B.J. (ed.), Heavy Metals in Soils. Blackie Academic and Professional, London, UK. 38-57.1995.
 
23]  Selim, H. M. and D. L. Sparks, Heavy Metals Release in Soils. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL:310. 2001.
 
24]  Sherameti, A. and Varma, A, Soil Heavy Metals. Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg, 492. 2010.
 
25]  Selim, H. M, Competitive Sorption and Transport of Trace Elements in Soils and Geological Media.CRC/Taylor and Francis, Boca Raton, FL 425.2012.
 
26]  Thornton, I, Metals in the Global Environment-Facts and Misconceptions, ICME, Ottawa. 1995.
 
27]  Berkowitz, B., Dror, I and Yaron, B, Contaminant Geochemistry: Interactions and Transport. In: The Subsurface Environment. Springer, Heidelberg, Pp: 412. 2008
 
28]  Venugopal, B. and Luckey, T.D, Toxicology of nonradio-active heavy metals and their salts. In: Luckey, T. D., B. Venugopal, and D. Hutcheson (Eds.). 1975. Heavy Metal Toxicity, Safety and Hormology, George Thieme, Stuttgart.
 
29]  Lyman, W. J, Transport and transformation processes, In: G. M. Rand (Ed.). 1995. Fundamentals of Aquatic Toxicology, Taylor & Francis, Washington, DC.
 
30]  Swaisgood, H.E. and Catignani, G.L, Protein digestibility: in vitro methods of assessment. Adv Food Nutr Res 35: 185-236. 1991.
 
31]  Anantharaman, K. and Finot, P.A, Nutritional aspects of food proteins in relation to technology. Food Rev Intl, 9: 629-655. 1993,
 
32]  Friedman, M, Nutritional value of proteins from different food sources. A review. J Agric Food Chem 44: 6.1996.
 
33]  Reig, M. and Toldra, F, Protein nutritional quality of muscle foods. Recent Res Devel Agric Food Chem, 2:71–78.1998.
 
34]  FAO, International Code of Conduct on the Distribution and use of Pesticide, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, Pp: 6.2003.
 
35]  Hamilton, D. and Crossley, S, Pesticide Residues in Food and Drinking Water, Wiley, Chichester, Pp: 1-25. 2004.
 
36]  Tomlin, C, The Pesticide Manual, 13th ed. 2003. British Crop Protection Council, Surrey, UK and the Royal Society of Chemistry, Cambridge,UK.
 
37]  I.A.R, Institute for Agricultural Research, Meteorological Station, weather Report. 2013. Kano office. Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria.
 
38]  IDF, Trace Element in Milk and Milk products. Bull. Int. Dairy Fed. 57:278.1992a.
 
39]  IDF, Milk and Milk products. Determination of heavy metals content. Flame atomic absorption method. IDF standard 119.1992b
 
40]  AOAC, Official Methods of Analysis. 15thEdition. 2000. Association of official Analytical Chemists, Inc, Arlington.VA.
 
41]  Benitez, L.V, Amino Acid And Fatty Acid Profiles In Aquaculture Nutrition Studies. In S.S. De Silva (ed). Fish Nutrition. Research in Asia. Proceedings Of The Third Asian Fish Nutrition Network Meeting. Asian Fish Society Special Publication. 4:166.1984 Asian Fisheries Society, Manila Philliphines.
 
42]  Anastassiades, M., Lehotay, S. J., Stajnbaher, D. and Schenck, F. J, Fast and easy multiresidue method employing acetonitrile extraction/partitioning and ‘‘Dispersive Solid-Phase Extraction’’ for the determination of pesticide residues in produce. Journal of AOAC International, 86: 412-431. 2003.
 
43]  O’Connor, D.L, Folate in Goat Milk Products With Reference To Other Vitamins And Minerals: A review small Rum.Res,4:143-149.1994.
 
44]  WHO/FAO, SEnvironmental Health Criteria 165.1996 Inorganic Lead, WHO, Geneva.
 
45]  Abou-Arab, A. A. K, Microbiological and compositional quality of dairy products in relation to some pollutants. 1991. MSc. Thesis. Faculty of Agriculture, Ain- Shams University.
 
46]  Jarette, W.D, A review of the important trace elements in dairy review products. Aust. J. Dairy Technol, 34:28-34. 1979.
 
47]  Mitchell, G.E, Trace metal in Queensland dairy products. Aust J. Dairy Technol, 6: 70-73.1981.
 
48]  Wahab A., El-Rjoob, O., Adnan, A., Massadeh, A and Mohammad, N. O, Evaluation of Pb, Cu, Zn, Cd, Ni and Fe In Rosmarinus Officinalis Labaiatae (Rosemary) Medicinal Plant And Soils In Selected Zones In Jordan. Environ. Monit. Assess, 140:61-68. 2006.
 
49]  Meisel, H. and Olieman, C, Estimation of calcium - binding constants of casein phosphopeptides by capillary zone electrophoresis. Analytica Chimica Acta, 372: 291-297.1998.
 
50]  Zahradeen, I.S., Butswat, R and Mba, S.T, Evaluation of Some Factors Affecting Milk Composition of Indigenous Goat in Nigeria Livest. Res. Rural Dev.19.2007.
 
51]  Alawa, J.P. and Oji, U.I, Effect of Pendulous Udder Enlargement On Yield And Proximate Composition of Milk from Red Sokoto Goats. J. Anim. Vet Adv., 7:870-872.2008.
 
52]  Mba, A.U., Bayo, B.S. and Oyenuga, V.A, Studies on Milk Composition of West African Dwarf Red Sokoto and Saanen Goats At Different Stages of Lactation1.Total Solid, Butter Fat, Solid Not Fat, Protein, Lactose and Energy Content Of Milk. J. Dairy res. 42: 217-226.1975.
 
53]  Sankey, L.B, Milking Potential of Red Sokoto Does at First Parity. Bsc Thesis. 1991. Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria-Kaduna Nigeria.
 
54]  Akinsoyinu, A.O., Tewe, O.O., Ngere, L.O., and Mba, A.U, Milk Composition and Yield of Red Sokoto (Maradi Goats). Dairy science 43: 83-84.1982.
 
55]  Ehoche, O.W. and Buranendran, V, The Yield and Composition of Milk And Pre-weaning Growth Rate Of Red Sokoto Goats In Nigeria. World Rev. Anim. Prod. 19:19-24.1983.
 
56]  Park, Y.W. and Haenlein, G.F.W, Milk production. In: Goat Science and Production (ed. S.G. Solaiman), Blackwell Publishing, Ames, IA. Pp: 275-292.2010.
 
57]  Haenlein, G.F.W. and Wendorff, W.L, Sheep milk: production and utilization of sheep milk. In: Handbook of Milk of Non-bovine Mammals (eds Y.W. Park and G.F.W. Haenlein), Pp:137–194. 2006. Blackwell Publishing Professional, Ames, IA.
 
58]  Gootwine, E. and Pollott, G.E, Factors affecting milk production in Improved Awassi dairy ewes. Animal Science Vol.71: 607-615. 2000.
 
59]  Posati, L.P. and M.L. Orr, Composition of foods. Agric. Handbook No. 8-1. 1976. ARS, USDA, Washington, D.C.
 
60]  Jenness, R, Composition and characteristics of goat milk: Review 1968-1979. J. Dairy Sci. 63:1605.1980.
 
Show Less References