Research in Psychology and Behavioral Sciences

Current Issue» Volume 2, Number 3 (2014)

Article

Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy for First Episodes of Psychosis: A Case Report on the Application of a Multicomponent Treatment Protocol in Italy

1Department of Mental Health of Florence Healthcare Services, Via Fanfani, Florence, Italy

2Department of Experimental and Clinical Medicine, University of Florence, Largo Brambilla, Florence, Italy;Miller Institute of Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy, Corso Torino, Genoa, Italy


Research in Psychology and Behavioral Sciences. 2014, 2(3), 66-74
DOI: 10.12691/rpbs-2-3-3
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Sandro Domenichetti, Andrea Pozza. Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy for First Episodes of Psychosis: A Case Report on the Application of a Multicomponent Treatment Protocol in Italy. Research in Psychology and Behavioral Sciences. 2014; 2(3):66-74. doi: 10.12691/rpbs-2-3-3.

Correspondence to: Andrea  Pozza, Department of Mental Health of Florence Healthcare Services, Via Fanfani, Florence, Italy. Email: andrea.pozza@unifi.it, apsycho@hotmail.it

Abstract

Objectives: Although pharmacotherapy with antipsychotic medication is an effective intervention for early psychosis (EP), drop out from treatment and relapse rates appear still relatively high. In the last decade, there is growing interest in Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy (CBT) as early intervention for EP. Some studies suggest that CBT may be an effective adjuvant to pharmacotherapy to reduce risk of development of chronic psychosis in individuals who experienced first episodes. Symptoms of depression and social anxiety are very common among patients experiencing first episode psychosis, thus impairing quality of life and functioning. This aspect may create a negative vicious cycle, that may reinforce feelings of learned helplessness and hopelessness with regard to psychosis diagnosis, thus increasing vulnerability to relapse in further episodes. However, there is little knowledge on the use of CBT to target both reoccurrence of psychotic episodes and symptoms of depression and social anxiety secondary to first psychotic episodes. The current case report presents the administration of a modular CBT semi-manualized intervention to a young patient to enhance prevention of psychosis and target symptoms of social anxiety and depression following first psychotic episodes. Methods: Treatment consisted in 21 individual weekly sessions, delivered in an outpatient setting, involving two phases. The first one targeted prevention of psychotic episodes. Case formulation was developed according to cognitive behavioural model of psychosis. Psychoeducation on early signs and vulnerability factors of relapse in psychotic episodes was delivered in order to promote patient’s self-monitoring and insight on positive symptoms prodromes. The second treatment phase targeted symptoms of depression and social anxiety. Homework based on behavioural activation were assigned in order to address depressive symptoms, and cognitive restructuring was used to normalize dysfunctional beliefs. A social skills and assertiveness training was used to target social anxiety. CBT treatment was delivered in combination with medication. Clinical interviews were conducted at pre-, immediate post-treatment, and at 5-month-follow-up, to evaluate reoccurrence of psychotic episodes, and changes in depression, social anxiety, and functioning. Results: As observed by clinical interviews, the patient did not experience further relapse in psychotic episodes. In addition, it was observed a reduction in depressive symptoms and social anxiety through the increase of the number of daily activities, social relations, work and academic engagement. Conclusions: Important limitations of the study are discussed. Future research using large randomized controlled trials with longer follow-up assessments should evaluate the effectiveness of CBT to target depressive symptoms and social anxiety for patients with EP.

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References

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Article

Connection of Subjective Entropy Maximum Principle to the Main Laws of Psych

1Mechanics Department, Mechanical-Energetical Faculty, Aero-Space Institute, National Aviation University, Kyiv, Ukraine


Research in Psychology and Behavioral Sciences. 2014, 2(3), 59-65
DOI: 10.12691/rpbs-2-3-2
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Kasianov Vladimir Aleksandrovich, Goncharenko Andriy Viktorovich. Connection of Subjective Entropy Maximum Principle to the Main Laws of Psych. Research in Psychology and Behavioral Sciences. 2014; 2(3):59-65. doi: 10.12691/rpbs-2-3-2.

Correspondence to: Goncharenko  Andriy Viktorovich, Mechanics Department, Mechanical-Energetical Faculty, Aero-Space Institute, National Aviation University, Kyiv, Ukraine. Email: andygoncharenco@yahoo.com

Abstract

Herein it has been made an attempt to find some mathematical models of the main laws of psychology on the basis of the variational principle of the subjective entropy maximum. On the basis of the subjective entropy of an individual preferences extremization principle, using the necessary conditions for extremums of a functional to exist, we get the widely known main fundamental laws of psychophysics: the Bouguer-Weber, Weber-Fechner, Stevens, Zabrodin laws. It has been considered a few special cases of the models for the aggregating functions for sensations and perceptions, as well as cognitive functions for preferences and desires. Also it was obtained expressions for canonical distributions in the case of two-dimensional distribution of sensations and perceptions. The proposed approach, postulating the extremality of human’s psych functioning, has the theoretically substantiated value for researches with the use of the principle for the general empirical laws in applied psychology.

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Article

Food for Thought: the Efficiency of Glucose Metabolism Predicts the Self-generation of Temporally Distant Cognition

1Department of Psychology, Northumbria University, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK

2Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital, Perth, Western Australia

3Centre for Brain Ageing and Vitality, Newcastle University, UK

4Centre for Human Psychopharmacology, Swinburne University, Melbourne, Australia

5Department of Psychology, University of York, UK


Research in Psychology and Behavioral Sciences. 2014, 2(3), 54-58
DOI: 10.12691/rpbs-2-3-1
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Riby L.M., Orme E., Greer J., Gillan A., Griffiths R., Aspray T., Scholey A., Smallwood J.. Food for Thought: the Efficiency of Glucose Metabolism Predicts the Self-generation of Temporally Distant Cognition. Research in Psychology and Behavioral Sciences. 2014; 2(3):54-58. doi: 10.12691/rpbs-2-3-1.

Correspondence to: Riby  L.M., Department of Psychology, Northumbria University, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK. Email: leigh.riby@northumbria.ac.uk

Abstract

The generation of thought independent of environmental input occupies almost half of mental life and is important for skills such as creativity and planning. To understand how this ubiquitous cognitive process relates to the brain's ‘energy budget’, a cross-sectional study is carried out to examine how the capacity for mental time travel relates to the efficiency with which adults metabolize glucose, the brain’s primary source of fuel. On day 1 the ability of a group of 36 younger and 36 older individuals to metabolize glucose was assessed using the gold standard two-hour glucose tolerance test. Twenty-four hours later, the same group of participants returned to the laboratory to perform a non-demanding choice reaction time task during which experience sampling was used to assess the frequency with which they generated thoughts that were unrelated to the here and now. Analysis indicated that younger individuals who were the most efficient at metabolizing glucose exhibited mental time travel that spanned longer time periods. Given the importance of self-generated thought in daily life these results suggest that the capacity to mentally simulate events not present in the immediate environment is highly dependent on efficient glucose metabolism.

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