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Currrent Issue: Volume 4, Number 2, 2016


The Correlates of Quality Of Life among Jordanian Patients with Major Depressive Disorder

1Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing, Zarqa University

2Clinical Nurse Specialist, Psychiatric Outpatient Clinic at King Abdullah University Hospital

Research in Psychology and Behavioral Sciences. 2016, 4(2), 28-33
doi: 10.12691/rpbs-4-2-3
Copyright © 2016 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Ahmad Rayan, Maryam Husnee Mahroum. The Correlates of Quality Of Life among Jordanian Patients with Major Depressive Disorder. Research in Psychology and Behavioral Sciences. 2016; 4(2):28-33. doi: 10.12691/rpbs-4-2-3.

Correspondence to: Ahmad  Rayan, Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing, Zarqa University. Email:


Background: Despite the increasing rates of patients diagnosed with major depression in Jordan, there is little knowledge available about the factors associated with quality of life (QOL) among this population in particular. This knowledge is needed to implement relevant supporting programs to improve their quality of life. Purpose: This study aims to assess the level of quality of life among Jordanian patients with major depressive disorder, and to examine the possible relationship between quality of life and other factors (demographic variables, stigma of mental illness, and severity of depressive symptoms) in this population. Methodology of the Study: A descriptive correlational design was used. A convenience sample of 161 Jordanian outpatients suffering from Major Depression Disorder (MDD) completed the study. Participants completed the demographic questionnaire, the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), Percieved Devaluation-Discrimination Scale, and Medical Outcomes Study 36-item Short Form (SF-36). Results: Participants reported poor QOL in all domains. Age, income, stigma toward mental illness, and severity of depressive symptoms were significantly correlated with QOL among the study sample. Multiple hierarchical regression analysis revealed that the severity of depressive symptoms is the strongest correlate of QOL, which accounted for 24% additional variance above and beyond the 18% variance accounted for by all other variables. Conclusion: This is the first study to assess QOL in an Arab population with major depression. Replication of the current study in other Arab samples is emphasized. Psychotherapy and other interventions are still needed even after the acute symptoms of the clinical depression are remitted.



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Self-Reliance and Relations with Parents as Predictors of Anxiety and Depression in College Students

1Department of Psychology, Coastal Carolina University, Conway, South Carolina, USA

2Department of Psychology, Francis Marion University, Florence, South Carolina, USA

Research in Psychology and Behavioral Sciences. 2016, 4(2), 24-27
doi: 10.12691/rpbs-4-2-2
Copyright © 2016 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Kerry A. Schwanz, Linda J. Palm, Samuel F. Broughton, Crystal R. Hill-Chapman. Self-Reliance and Relations with Parents as Predictors of Anxiety and Depression in College Students. Research in Psychology and Behavioral Sciences. 2016; 4(2):24-27. doi: 10.12691/rpbs-4-2-2.

Correspondence to: Kerry  A. Schwanz, Department of Psychology, Coastal Carolina University, Conway, South Carolina, USA. Email:


The transition to college can be stressful for young adults. Researchers have investigated factors related to students’ mental health as they adjust to college life. The current study examined the relative contributions of measures of self-reliance and parent relations to the prediction of anxiety and depression in college students. A sample of 153 college students enrolled in introductory psychology courses at a southeastern university completed the self-reliance and parent relations scales of the BASC-2 SRP-COL, the State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), and the Hamilton Depression Inventory (HDI). Multiple regression analyses indicated that self-reliance and parent relations were significant predictors of anxiety and depression with self-reliance scores making a greater contribution to the prediction of each of the outcome variables.



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Hypothetical Future Orientated Positive Imagery Reduces Feelings of Social Anxiety in a Healthy Population

1School of Social Sciences & Law, Teesside University, UK

22Department of Psychology, Northumbria University, UK

Research in Psychology and Behavioral Sciences. 2016, 4(2), 19-23
doi: 10.12691/rpbs-4-2-1
Copyright © 2016 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Oldfield L., Reay J., Wilson C, Riby L.M. Hypothetical Future Orientated Positive Imagery Reduces Feelings of Social Anxiety in a Healthy Population. Research in Psychology and Behavioral Sciences. 2016; 4(2):19-23. doi: 10.12691/rpbs-4-2-1.

Correspondence to: Reay  J., School of Social Sciences & Law, Teesside University, UK. Email:


Negative mental imagery has been shown to be involved in the onset and maintenance of numerous clinical disorders and as a result there has been growing scientific study of the therapeutic role of positive mental imagery, with studies reporting favourable results. However, with regard to social anxiety (SA) disorder the conventional approach to induce positive mental imagery has been suggested to be too demanding due to impairment in the retrieval of such episodes. Therefore, researchers have called for controlled studies to explore alternative inducement techniques with specific focus upon future orientated methods (a method more suitable for patients with SA). In the current study, we compare the conventional inducement technique (past) to a future orientated inducement technique (future) and a control condition (no imagery) and measure the impact upon self-reported levels of anxiety in a non-clinical population. Seventy-Eight younger students were randomly allocated to one of the two imagery inducement techniques or the control condition (and completed anxiety scales before and after imagery inducement or control task). To capture situational anxiety, phobia and broader short and long term (state versus trait) dysfunction the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory were the chosen measures. Results confirmed that positive mental imagery reduces feelings of anxiety and demonstrated, for the first time, the effectiveness of a hypothetical future orientated technique to induce positive mental imagery. These data will provide the groundwork for intervention development in clinical populations with known difficulties capitalising on past based mental imagery.



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