You are here:

Research in Psychology and Behavioral Sciences

ISSN (Print): 2333-4371

ISSN (Online): 2333-438X


Current Issue» Volume 3, Number 1 (2015)


Psychometric Evidence of the Italian Anxiety Sensitivity Index-3 (ASI-3) in Patients with Anxiety Disorders and Psychosis

1Department of Experimental and Clinical Medicine, University of Florence, Italy

2Miller Institute for Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy, Genoa, Italy

3Department of Health Sciences, University of Florence, Italy

Research in Psychology and Behavioral Sciences. 2015, 3(1), 7-17
DOI: 10.12691/rpbs-3-1-3
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Andrea Pozza, Davide Dèttore. Psychometric Evidence of the Italian Anxiety Sensitivity Index-3 (ASI-3) in Patients with Anxiety Disorders and Psychosis. Research in Psychology and Behavioral Sciences. 2015; 3(1):7-17. doi: 10.12691/rpbs-3-1-3.

Correspondence to: Andrea  Pozza, Department of Experimental and Clinical Medicine, University of Florence, Italy. Email:


The Anxiety Sensitivity Index-3 (ASI-3) is an 18-item measure, recently developed to assess AS, based, consisting of Physical Concerns (eg, the belief that palpitations lead to a cardiac arrest), Social Concerns (eg, the belief that publicly observable anxiety reactions will elicit social refusal), and Cognitive Concerns (eg, the belief that cognitive difficulties lead to insanity). In the Italian context there is a lack of a validated measure of AS, to date.The current study assessed factor structure, reliability, and validity of the Italian ASI-3 in large community and clinical samples. The Italian ASI-3, the Beck Depression Inventory-II, and the State and Trait Anxiety Inventory-trait subscale were administered to 547 community individuals and 146 patients with a primary panic disorder (PD) (n= 30), generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) (n= 33), social phobia (SPh) (n= 25), or psychosis (PSY) (n= 28). Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses supported the three dimensions of AS in the community sample. All the ASI-3 dimensions showed good to excellent internal consistency, and moderate correlations with depression and trait anxiety measures. Physical Concerns discriminated PD patients from community individuals and the other clinical groups. Social Concerns discriminated SPh patients from community individuals and the other clinical groups. Patients with anxiety disorders had comparable scores on Cognitive Concerns and higher than community individuals. Patients with GAD endorsed higher scores than patients with PSY, specifically. Theoretical explanations, implication for research, and limitations are discussed.



[1]  Reiss S, McNally RJ. Expectancy model of fear. In S. Reiss & R.R. Botzin (Eds.), Theoretical issues in behavior therapy (pp. 107-121). San Diego, CA: Academic Press, 1985.
[2]  Reiss S, Peterson RA, Gursky DM, McNally RJ. Anxiety sensitivity, anxiety frequency, and the prediction of fearfulness. Behav Res Ther 1986; 24: 1-8.
[3]  Taylor SE. Anxiety sensitivity: Theory, research, and treatment of the fear of anxiety. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers: Mahwah, NJ, 1999.
[4]  Deacon B, Abramowitz JS. Anxiety sensitivity and its dimensions across the anxiety disorders. J Anxiety Disord 2006; 20: 837-857.
[5]  Taylor S, Cox BJ, Holaway RM, Stewart SH, Eng W, Arrindell WA, Zvolensky MJ, Deacon B, Abramowitz, JS, Sandin B, Coles M, Daly ES, Bouvard M. Robust dimensions of anxiety sensitivity: Development and initial validation of the Anxiety Sensitivity Index-3. Psychological Assessment 2007; 19: 176-188.
Show More References
6]  Sandìn B, Chorot P, McNally RJ. Validation of the Spanish version of the Anxiety Sensitivity Index in a clinical sample. Behav Res Ther 1996; 34: 283-290.
7]  Maruta T, Yamate Ito K, Sato M, Iimori M, Kato M. Reliability and validity of the Japanese version of the Anxiety Sensitivity Index. Compr Psychiatry 2007; 48: 289-292.
8]  Taylor S, Cox BJ. (1998). An expanded Anxiety Sensitivity Index: Evidence for a hierarchic structure in a clinical sample. J Anxiety Disord 1998; 12: 463-483.
9]  Deacon BJ, Abramowitz JS, Woods CM, Tolin DF. The Anxiety Sensitivity Index-Revised: psychometric properties and factor structure in two nonclinical samples. Behav Res Ther 2003; 41: 1427-1449.
10]  Kemper CJ, Lutz J, Bähr T, Rüddel H, Hock M. Construct validity of the anxiety sensitivity index–3 in clinical samples. Assessment 2012; 19: 89-100.
11]  Wheaton MG, Deacon BJ, McGrath PB, Berman NC, Abramowitz JS. Dimensions of anxiety sensitivity in the anxiety disorders: Evaluation of the ASI-3. J Anxiety Disord 2012; 26: 401-408.
12]  Luzón O, Harrop C, Nolan F. Cognitive Processes during Acute Psychosis: The Role of Heightened Responsibility and Catastrophic Misinterpretations. Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy 2009; 37: 357.
13]  Naragon-Gainey K. Meta-analysis of the relations of anxiety sensitivity to the depressive and anxiety disorders. Psychol Bull 2010; 136: 128.
14]  Cosoff SJ, Hafner RJ. The prevalence of co-morbid anxiety in schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder and bipolar disorder. Austr N Z J Psychiatry 1998; 32: 67–72.
15]  Michail M, Birchwood M. Social anxiety disorder and shame cognitions in psychosis. Psychol Med 2013; 43: 133-142.
16]  Barlow DH. Anxiety and its disorders: The nature and treatment of anxiety and panic. New York: The Guilford Press, 2002.
17]  Spielberger CD. Manual for the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press, 1983.
18]  Beck AT, Steer RA, Brown GK. Beck Depression Inventory Second Edition Manual. San Antonio, TX: The Psychological Corporation Harcourt Brace Company, 1996.
19]  Behling O, Law KS. (Eds.). Translating questionnaires and other research instruments: Problems and solutions. Thousand Oaks: Sage, 2000.
20]  Hu LT, Bentler PM. Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural Equation Modeling: A Multidisciplinary Journal 1999; 6: 1-55.
21]  Nunnally J, Bernstein I. Psychometric theory. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1994.
22]  Meng XL, Rosenthal R, Rubin DB. Comparing correlated correlation coefficients. Psychol Bull 1992; 111: 172-175.
23]  Cohen J. Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciencies. Routledge: New York, 1998.
24]  Tabachnick BG, Fidell LS. Using multivariate statistics. New York: Harper Collins, 2001.
25]  Velicer WF, Jackson DN. Component analysis versus common factor analysis: Some issues in selecting an appropriate procedure. Multivariate Behavioral Research 1990; 25: 1-28.
26]  Rector NA, Szacun-Shimizu K, Leybman M. Anxiety sensitivity within the anxiety disorders: Disorder-specific sensitivities and depression comorbidity. Behav Res Ther 2007; 45: 1967-1975.
27]  Olthuis JV, Watt MC, Stewart SH. Anxiety Sensitivity Index (ASI-3) subscales predict unique variance in anxiety and depressive symptoms. J Anxiety Disord 2014; 28: 115-124.
28]  Mantar A, Yemez B, Alkin T. The Validity and Reliability of the Turkish Version of the Anxiety Sensitvity Index-3. Turkish Journal of Psychiatry 2010; 21: 1-9.
29]  Taylor S, Koch WJ, Woody S, McLean P. Anxiety sensitivity and depression: how are they related? J Abnorm Psychol 1996; 105: 474.
30]  Cox BJ, Enns MW, Taylor S. The effect of rumination as a mediator of elevated anxiety sensitivity in major depression. Cognitive Therapy and Research 2001; 25: 525-534.
31]  Rosellini AJ, Fairholme CP, Brown TA. The temporal course of anxiety sensitivity in outpatients with anxiety and mood disorders: relationships with behavioral inhibition and depression. J Anxiety Disord 2011; 25: 615-621.
32]  Osman A, Gutierrez PM, Smith K, Fang Q, Lozano G, Devine A. The Anxiety Sensitivity Index–3: Analyses of Dimensions, Reliability Estimates, and Correlates in Nonclinical Samples. J Pers Assess 2010; 92: 45-52.
33]  Ho MHR, Auerbach RP, Jun HL, Abela JR, Zhu X, Yao S. Understanding anxiety sensitivity in the development of anxious and depressive symptoms. Cognitive Therapy and Research 2011; 35: 232-240.
34]  Olatunji BO, Wolitzky-Taylor KB. Anxiety sensitivity and the anxiety disorders: a meta-analytic review and synthesis. Psychol Bull 2009; 135: 974.
35]  Schmidt NB, Zvolensky MJ, Maner JK. Anxiety sensitivity prediction of panic attacks and Axis I pathology. J Psychiatr Res 2006; 40: 691-699.
36]  Plehn K, Peterson RA. Anxiety sensitivity as a predictor of the development of panic symptoms, panic attacks, and panic disorder: a prospective study. J Anxiety Disord 2002; 16: 455-474.
37]  Clark DM. A cognitive approach to panic. Behav Res Ther 1986; 24: 461-470.
38]  Wells A. The metacognitive model of GAD: assessment of meta-worry and relationship with DSM-IV generalized anxiety disorder. Cognitive Therapy and Research 2005; 29: 107-121.
Show Less References


Refusal of Food Ingestion of Old Male BUF/Mna Rats in Metabolic Cages

1Department of Cell Biology and Anatomy, Fujita Health University School of Medicine, 1-98 Dengakugakubo, Kutsukake-cho, Toyoake-shi, Aichi-ken Japan

2Department of Pathology, Chubu Rousai Hospital, 1-10-6 Komei, Minato-ku, Nagoya-shi, Aichi-ken 455-8530, Japan

Research in Psychology and Behavioral Sciences. 2015, 3(1), 5-6
DOI: 10.12691/rpbs-3-1-2
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Mutsushi Matsuyama, Kazuo Kato. Refusal of Food Ingestion of Old Male BUF/Mna Rats in Metabolic Cages . Research in Psychology and Behavioral Sciences. 2015; 3(1):5-6. doi: 10.12691/rpbs-3-1-2.

Correspondence to: Mutsushi  Matsuyama, Department of Cell Biology and Anatomy, Fujita Health University School of Medicine, 1-98 Dengakugakubo, Kutsukake-cho, Toyoake-shi, Aichi-ken Japan. Email:


Forty-four percent of old male BUF/Mna rats showed refusal of food intake when they were isolated in metabolic cages.



[1]  Akiyama K., Morita H., Suetsugu S. et al. Actin-related protein 3 (Arp3) is mutated in proteinuric BUF/Mna rats. Mamm. Genome 2008; 19, 41-50.
[2]  Amo H., Saito M., Nagao S. et al. Genetic regulation of slowly progressing mild muscle atrophy in fast-twitch muscles of BUF/Mna rats. Muscle Nerve 1997; 20, 1258-1263.
[3]  Graham M., Shutter J.R., Sarmiento U., et al. Over expression of Agrt leads to obesity in transgenic mice. Nat. Genet. 1997; 17: 273-274.
[4]  Matsuyama M. Thymoma, Lymphocytic, Rat. In: Hemopoietic System. 1990; pp. 275-280 (eds T.C. Jones, J.M. Ward, U. Mohr, R.D. Hunt), Berlin: Springer-Verlag.
[5]  Matsuyama M, Amo H. Host origin of lymphoid cells in thymomas developed from subcutaneous thymus grafts in Buffalo rats. Gann 1977; 293-300.
Show More References
6]  Matsuyama M. & Nagayo T. Development of thymoma and myasthenia in Buffalo/Mna rats. Proc. Jpn. Cancer Assoc. 36th Ann Meet. 1977; 36, 30.
7]  Matsuyama M., Yamada C., Hiai H. A single dominant susceptible gene determines spontaneous development of thymoma in BUF/Mna rat. Jpn. J. Cancer Res. (Gann) 1986; 77; 1066-1068.
8]  Matsuyama M., Matsuyama T., Ogiu T. et al. Nodular development of spontaneous epithelial thymoma in (ACI/NMs × BUF/Mna)F1 rats. Jpn. J. Cancer Res. Cancer Res (Gann) 1988; 79, 1031-1038.
9]  Matsuyama M., Kojima A., Katoh H. et al. (1989) Establishment of a congenic nude strain of rats, BUF/Mna-rnu. Suppression of thymomagenesis in heterozygous rats. In: Immune-deficient Animals in Experimental Medicine. eds B-q. Wu & J. Zheng. Basel Karger pp 27-31.
10]  Murakumo Y., Takahashi M., Sharma N. et al. Mapping of two genetic loci, Ten-1 and Ten-2, associated with thymus enlargement in BUF/Mna rats. Mamm. Genome 1996, 7, 505-508.
11]  Murayama S., Yagyu S., Higo K. et al. A genetic locus susceptible to the overt proteinuria in BUF/Mna rat. Mamm. Genome 1998; 9: 886-8.
12]  Oyabu A., Higo K., Ye C. et al. (1999) Genetic mapping of the thymoma susceptible locus, Tsr1, in BUF/Mna rats. J Natl Cancer Cancer Inst 91 279-82.
13]  Shutter J. R., Graham M., Kinsey A. C. et al. Hypothalamic expression of ART, a novel gene related to agouti, is up-regulated in obese and diabetic mutant mice. Genes Dev. 1997. 11 593-602.
14]  Taguchi O., Kontani K., Ikeda H. et al. (1992) An intrinsic thymic epithelial abnormality is responsible for the spontaneous development of predominantly lymphocytic thymomas in BUF/Mna rats. Jpn. J. Cancer Res 1992; 83: 1161-71.
Show Less References


Ingratiation, Attractiveness, and Interpretational Relation of Youths

1Faculty of Art, Hong Kong Institute of Technology, Hong Kong

Research in Psychology and Behavioral Sciences. 2015, 3(1), 1-4
DOI: 10.12691/rpbs-3-1-1
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Kwok Kuen Tsang. Ingratiation, Attractiveness, and Interpretational Relation of Youths. Research in Psychology and Behavioral Sciences. 2015; 3(1):1-4. doi: 10.12691/rpbs-3-1-1.

Correspondence to: Kwok  Kuen Tsang, Faculty of Art, Hong Kong Institute of Technology, Hong Kong. Email:


The aim of the research is to understand the relationships between ingratiation, attractiveness, and interpersonal relation. To achieve the aim, the research interviews 109 Hong Kong youths by using the method of online questionnaire survey. The research findings first suggest that self-presentation, other enhancement, favor rendering, and modesty are the ingratiatory tactics among the youths, but self-presentation and favor rendering have significant impacts on interpersonal relation of the youths. Second, the findings show that attractiveness consists of two factors, which are social attraction and physical attraction. The physical attraction is positively related to interpersonal relation, but social attraction does not. However, the physical attraction does not determine the youths’ interpersonal relation because a regression analysis illustrates an insignificant effect of physical attraction to interpersonal relation. Accordingly, ingratiation may not necessarily increase one’s attractiveness and then interpersonal relation. Based on the findings, the research gives recommendations to improve the social life of the youths.



[1]  Bohra, K. A., & Pandey, J. (1984). Ingratiation toward strangers, friends, and bosses. The Journal of Social Psychology, 122, 217-222.
[2]  Cooper, C. D. (2005). Just joking around? Employee humor expression as an ingratiatory behavior. Academy of Management Review, 30(4), 765-776.
[3]  Gu, Y. (1990). Politeness phenomena in modern Chinese. Journal of Pragmatics, 14(2), 237-257.
[4]  Hewson, C., Yule, P., Laurent, D., & Vogel, C. (2003). Internet research methods: A practical guide for the social and behavioral sciences. London: Sage Publications.
[5]  Hwang, K. K. (1987). Face and favor: The Chinese power game. The American Journal of Sociology, 92(2), 944-974.
Show More References
6]  Jones, E. E. (1964). Ingratiation: A social psychological analysis. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts.
7]  Jones, E. E., & Wortman, C. (1973). Ingratiation: An attributional approach. Morristown: General Learning Press.
8]  Liu, L. (2001). Utilization of guanxi (ties) in immigrant groups – A case study of pingjiang village in Shenzhen. Social Sciences in China, 5, 112-124. (in Chinese).
9]  Marin, D. D., & Wilson, J. L. (2012). Apple-polishers, ass-kisser and suck-up: Towards a sociology of ingratiation. The Qualitative Report, 17, 1-19.
10]  McCroskey, J. C., & McCain, T. A. (1974). The measurement of interpersonal attraction. Speech Monographs, 41(3), 261-266.
11]  Pandey, J. (1981). Ingratiation tactics in India. The Journal of Social Psychology, 113, 147-148.
12]  Ralston, D. A. (1985). Employee ingratiation: The role of management. Academy of Management Review, 10(3), 477-487.
13]  Singh, V., Kumra, S., & Vinnicombe, S. (2002). Gender and impression management: Playing the promotion game. Journal of Business Ethics, 37, 77-89.
14]  Spencer-Oatey, H., & Ng, P. (2001). Reconsidering Chinese modesty: Hong Kong and mainland Chinese evaluative judgments of compliment responses. Journal of Asian Pacific Communication, 11(2), 181-201.
15]  Strutton, D., Pelton, L. E., & Lumpkin, J. R. (1995). Sex differences in ingratiatory behavior: An investigation of influence tactics in the salesperson - customer dyad. Journal of Business Research, 34, 34-45.
16]  Tsang, K. K. (2009a). Ingratiation among Hong Kong Youth. International Journal of Adolescence and Youth, 15, 277-288.
17]  Tsang, K. K. (2009b). Ingratiation practices among Chinese from a guanxi perspective. Hong Kong Journal of Social Sciences, 37, 39-73. (in Chinese).
18]  Tsang, K. K. (2014). Chinese ingratiation: A social psychological analysis from guanxi perspective. Saarbrucken: Lambert Academic Publishing.
19]  Tsang, K. K., & Lian, Y. (2010). The impacts of ingratiation on interpersonal attraction and interpersonal relation of Hong Kong youth. Journal of Youth Studies, 13(2), 165-177. (in Chinese).
20]  Tsang, K. K., Ng, T. K., & Wang, Y. (2013). Ingratiation, renqing, mianzi and attraction: A guanxi perspective. Scientific Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences, 2(2), 95-105.
21]  Varma, A., Toh, S. M., & Pichler, S. (2006). Ingratiation in job applications: Impact on selection decision. Journal of Management Psychology, 21(3), 200-210.
22]  Yang, K. S. (1995). Chinese social orientation: An integrative analysis. In T. Y. Lin, W. S. Tseng & E. K. Yeh (Eds.), Chinese societies and mental health (pp. 19-39). Hong Kong: Oxford University Press.
23]  Zhai, X. (2011). The principles of Chinese guanxi: Time-space order, life desire and their changes. Peking: Peking University Press. (in Chinese).
Show Less References