ISSN (Print): 2333-4371

ISSN (Online): 2333-438X

You are here

Currrent Issue: Volume 4, Number 2, 2016

Article

The Correlates of Quality Of Life among Jordanian Patients with Major Depressive Disorder

1Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing, Zarqa University

2Clinical Nurse Specialist, Psychiatric Outpatient Clinic at King Abdullah University Hospital


Research in Psychology and Behavioral Sciences. 2016, 4(2), 28-33
doi: 10.12691/rpbs-4-2-3
Copyright © 2016 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Ahmad Rayan, Maryam Husnee Mahroum. The Correlates of Quality Of Life among Jordanian Patients with Major Depressive Disorder. Research in Psychology and Behavioral Sciences. 2016; 4(2):28-33. doi: 10.12691/rpbs-4-2-3.

Correspondence to: Ahmad  Rayan, Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing, Zarqa University. Email: Ahmed_rayan87@yahoo.com

Abstract

Background: Despite the increasing rates of patients diagnosed with major depression in Jordan, there is little knowledge available about the factors associated with quality of life (QOL) among this population in particular. This knowledge is needed to implement relevant supporting programs to improve their quality of life. Purpose: This study aims to assess the level of quality of life among Jordanian patients with major depressive disorder, and to examine the possible relationship between quality of life and other factors (demographic variables, stigma of mental illness, and severity of depressive symptoms) in this population. Methodology of the Study: A descriptive correlational design was used. A convenience sample of 161 Jordanian outpatients suffering from Major Depression Disorder (MDD) completed the study. Participants completed the demographic questionnaire, the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), Percieved Devaluation-Discrimination Scale, and Medical Outcomes Study 36-item Short Form (SF-36). Results: Participants reported poor QOL in all domains. Age, income, stigma toward mental illness, and severity of depressive symptoms were significantly correlated with QOL among the study sample. Multiple hierarchical regression analysis revealed that the severity of depressive symptoms is the strongest correlate of QOL, which accounted for 24% additional variance above and beyond the 18% variance accounted for by all other variables. Conclusion: This is the first study to assess QOL in an Arab population with major depression. Replication of the current study in other Arab samples is emphasized. Psychotherapy and other interventions are still needed even after the acute symptoms of the clinical depression are remitted.

Keywords

References

[1]  Al-Modallal, H. (2010). Screening Depressive Symptoms in Jordanian Women: Evaluation of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D), Issues in Mental Health Nursing, 31:537-544.
 
[2]  Årdal, G., Lund, A., & Hammar, Å. (2013). Health-related quality of life in recurrent major depressive disorder-A 10-year follow-up study. Nordic journal of psychiatry, 67(5), 339-343.‏
 
[3]  Aydemir, Ö., Ergün, H., Soygür, H., Kesebir, S., & Tulunay, C. (2009). Major depresif bozuklukta yaşam kalitesi: kesitsel bir çalışma. Türk Psikiyatri Dergisi, 20(3), 205-212.‏
 
[4]  Bonicatto, S., Dew, M., Zaratiegui, R., Lorenzo, L., & Pecina, P. (2001). Adult outpatients with depression: worse quality of life than in other chronic medical diseases in Argentina. Soc. Sci.Med. 52, 911-919.
 
[5]  Bair, M. J., Robinson, R. L., Eckert, G. J., Stang, P. E., Croghan, T. W., & Kroenke, K. (2004). Impact of pain on depression treatment response in primary care. Psychosomatic medicine, 66(1), 17-22.‏
 
Show More References
[6]  Boulos, M., Murray, B., Corrigan, B., Wortsman, J., Black, S., & Swartz, R. (2013). Restless Legs Syndrome Is Associated with Lower Quality of Life and Depression in Acute Phase TIA/Minor Stroke (P05. 025). Neurology,80(Meeting Abstracts 1), P05-025.‏
 
[7]  Brazier, J., Harper, R., Jones, N., O'Cathain, A., Thomas, J., Usherwood, T., Westlake, L. (1992). Validating the SF-36 health survey questionnaire: new outcome measure for primary care. British Medical Journal, 305, 160-164.
 
[8]  Brown, K. W., & Ryan, R. M. (2003). The benefits of being present: Mindfulness and its role in psychological well-being. Journal of Personality and Social Psycholog, 84(4), 822-848.
 
[9]  Caracci, G., & Mezzich, J. E. (2001). Culture and urban mental health.Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 24(3), 581-593.
 
[10]  Carmody, J., & Baer, R. A. (2009), How long does a mindfulness-based stress reduction program need to be? A review of class contact hours and effect sizes for psychological distress. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 65(6), 627-638.
 
[11]  Cao, Y., Li, W., Shen, J., Malison, R. T., Zhang, Y., & Luo, X. (2013). Health‐related quality of life and symptom severity in Chinese patients with major depressive disorder. AsiaPacific Psychiatry, 5(4), 276-283.‏
 
[12]  Chambers, R., Gullone, E., Hassed, C., Knight, W., Garvin, T., & Allen, N. (2014), Mindful emotion regulation predicts recovery in depressed youth. Mindfulness, 1-12.
 
[13]  Demet, U., Ferhan, S., Ahmet, O., & Selcuk, M. (2008). Comparison of SF-36 and WHOQOL-100 in patients with stroke. Neurology India, 56(4), 426-432.
 
[14]  Fayers, P., & Machin, D. (2013). Quality of life: the assessment, analysis and interpretation of patient-reported outcomes. John Wiley & Sons.‏
 
[15]  Hays, R, Wells, K., Sherbourne, C., Rogers, W., & Spritzer, K. (1995). Functioning and ll-being outcomes of patients with depression compared with chronic general medical illnesses. Arch Gen Psychiatry, 52, 11-9.
 
[16]  IsHak, W. W., Balayan, K., Bresee, C., Greenberg, J. M., Fakhry, H., Christensen, S., & Rapaport, M. H. (2013). A descriptive analysis of quality of life using patient-reported measures in major depressive disorder in a naturalistic outpatient setting. Quality of Life Research, 22(3), 585-596.‏
 
[17]  Lambert, V., Lambert, C., & Ito, M. (2004). Workplace stressors, ways of coping and demographic characteristics as predictors of physical and mental health of Japanese hospital nurses. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 41, 85-97.
 
[18]  Lasalvia, A., Zoppei, S., Van Bortel, T., Bonetto, C., Cristofalo, D., Wahlbeck, K., ... & Germanavicius, A. (2013). Global pattern of experienced and anticipated discrimination reported by people with major depressive disorder: a cross-sectional survey. The Lancet, 381(9860), 55-62.‏
 
[19]  Lepine, J.-P., Gastpar, M., Mendlewicz, J., et al (1997) Depression in the community: the first pan European study DEPRES (Depression Research in European Society). International Clinical Psychopharmacology, 12, 19-29.
 
[20]  Link, B. G. (1987). Understanding labeling effects in the area of mental disorders: An assessment of the effects of expectations of rejections. American Sociological Review, 52, 96-112.
 
[21]  Hamdan-Mansour, A. M., & Wardam, L. A. (2009). Attitudes of Jordanian mental health nurses toward mental illness and patients with mental illness.Issues in Mental Health Nursing, 30(11), 705-711.‏
 
[22]  Marsh, M. (2002). The SF-36 quality-of-life instrument: updates and strategies for critical care research.Critical Care Nurse, 22, 35-43.
 
[23]  Moons, P., Budts, W., Geest, S. (2006) Critique on the conceptualization of quality of life: A review and evaluation of different conceptual approaches. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 43, 891-901.
 
[24]  Nicholson, W. K., Setse, R., Hill-Briggs, F., Cooper, L. A., Strobino, D., & Powe, N. R. (2006). Depressive symptoms and health-related quality of life in early pregnancy. Obstetrics & Gynecology, 107(4), 798-806.‏
 
[25]  Novick, D., Montgomery, W., Kadziola, Z., Moneta, V., Peng, X., Brugnoli, R., & Haro, J. M. (2013). Do concomitant pain symptoms in patients with major depression affect quality of life even when taking into account baseline depression severity. Patient Prefer Adherence, 7, 463-470.‏
 
[26]  Orley, J., Saxena, S., & Herrman, H. (1998). Quality of life and mental illness: reflections from the perspective of the WHOQOL. British journal of psychiatry, 172, 291-3.
 
[27]  Ormel, J., VonKorff, M., Oldehinkel, A.J., Simon, G., Tiemens, B.G., Ustun, T.B. (1999). Onset of disability in depressed and nondepressed primary care patients. Psychol. Med. 29, 847-853.
 
[28]  Papakostas, I., Petersen, T., Mahal, Y. (2004) Quality of life assessments in major depressive disorder: a review of the literature. General Hospital Psychiatry, 26:13-17.
 
[29]  Radloff, L., & Locke, B.( 2000). Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) Modified From: Rush J, et al: Psychiatric Measures, APA, Washington, DC.
 
[30]  Radloff, L. (1977). The CES-D Scale: a self-report depression scale for research in the general population. Applied Psychological Measurement. 1, 385-401.
 
[31]  Rayan, A., & Ahmad, M. (2016). Effectiveness of mindfulness-based interventions on quality of life and positive reappraisal coping among parents of children with autism spectrum disorder. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 55, 185-196.‏
 
[32]  Rayan, A., & Jaradat, A. (2016). Stigma of Mental Illness and Attitudes Toward Psychological Help-seeking in Jordanian University Students. Research in Psychology and Behavioral Sciences, 4(1), 7-14.‏
 
[33]  Rayan, A., Qurneh, A., Elayyan, R., & Baker, O. (2016). Developing a policy for workplace violence against nurses and health care professionals in Jordan: A plan of action. American journal of public health research, 4(2), 47-55.‏
 
[34]  Rayan, A., Dadoul, A. M., Jabareen, H., Sulieman, Z., Alzayyat, A., & Baker, O. (2016). Internet Use among University Students in South West Bank: Prevalence, Advantages and Disadvantages, and Association with Psychological Health. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction, 1-12.‏
 
[35]  Roberts, R. (1980). Reliability of the CES-D in different ethnic contexts. Psychiatry Researsh. 2, 125-134.
 
[36]  Saarijarvi, S., Salminen, J., Toikka, T., & Raitasalo, R. (2002) Health-related quality of life among patients with major depression. Nord J Psychiatry. 56, 261-264.
 
[37]  Stewart, A. L., Greenfield, S., Hays, R. D., Wells, K., Rogers, W. H., Berry, S. D., ... & Ware, J. E. (1989). Functional status and well-being of patients with chronic conditions: results from the Medical Outcomes Study. Jama, 262(7), 907-913.‏
 
[38]  Ware, J. (1989). Functional status and well-being of patients with chronic conditions. Medical Outcomes Study. JAMA. 62. 907-913.
 
[39]  Weissman, M., Klerman, G., Paykel, E., Prusoff, B., & Hanson, B.( 1974). Treatment effects on the social adjustment of depressed patients. Archives of General Psychiatry, 30. 771-778.
 
[40]  Woo, J. M., Jeon, H. J., Noh, E., Kim, H. J., Lee, S. W., Lee, K. K., ... & Hong, J. P. (2014). Importance of remission and residual somatic symptoms in health-related quality of life among outpatients with major depressive disorder: a cross-sectional study. Health and quality of life outcomes, 12(1), 1.‏
 
[41]  World Health Organization Group (1995). The World Health Organization quality of life assessment: position paper from the World Health Organization. Society Science & Medicine, 41(10), 1403-1409.
 
[42]  World Health Organization Group (1998). Development of the World Health Organization WHOQOL-BREF quality of life assessment . The WHOQOL Group. Psychol. Med. 28, 551-558.
 
Show Less References

Article

Self-Reliance and Relations with Parents as Predictors of Anxiety and Depression in College Students

1Department of Psychology, Coastal Carolina University, Conway, South Carolina, USA

2Department of Psychology, Francis Marion University, Florence, South Carolina, USA


Research in Psychology and Behavioral Sciences. 2016, 4(2), 24-27
doi: 10.12691/rpbs-4-2-2
Copyright © 2016 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Kerry A. Schwanz, Linda J. Palm, Samuel F. Broughton, Crystal R. Hill-Chapman. Self-Reliance and Relations with Parents as Predictors of Anxiety and Depression in College Students. Research in Psychology and Behavioral Sciences. 2016; 4(2):24-27. doi: 10.12691/rpbs-4-2-2.

Correspondence to: Kerry  A. Schwanz, Department of Psychology, Coastal Carolina University, Conway, South Carolina, USA. Email: kaschwan@coastal.edu

Abstract

The transition to college can be stressful for young adults. Researchers have investigated factors related to students’ mental health as they adjust to college life. The current study examined the relative contributions of measures of self-reliance and parent relations to the prediction of anxiety and depression in college students. A sample of 153 college students enrolled in introductory psychology courses at a southeastern university completed the self-reliance and parent relations scales of the BASC-2 SRP-COL, the State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), and the Hamilton Depression Inventory (HDI). Multiple regression analyses indicated that self-reliance and parent relations were significant predictors of anxiety and depression with self-reliance scores making a greater contribution to the prediction of each of the outcome variables.

Keywords

References

[1]  Abe, J. A., “Self-esteem, perception of relationships, and emotional distress: A cross-cultural study” Personal Relationships, 11(2), 231-247. Jun 2004.
 
[2]  American College Health Association.(2000). American College Health Association-National College Health Assessment; Reference Group Executive Summary Spring 2000. American College Health Association. Retrieved February 22, 2016 from http://www.acha-ncha.org/docs/ACHA-NCHA_Reference_Group_ExecutiveSummary_Spring2000.pdf.
 
[3]  American College Health Association.(2015). American College Health Association-National College Health Assessment; Reference Group Executive Summary Spring 2015. American College Health Association. Retrieved February 22, 2016 from http://www.acha-ncha.org/docs/ACHA-NCHA_Reference_Group_ExecutiveSummary_Spring2015.pdf.
 
[4]  American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). Arlington, VA: Author.
 
[5]  Carney-Hall, K.C. “Managing parent partnerships: Maximizing influence, minimizing interference, and focusing on student success.” New Directions for Student Services, 122. 2008.
 
Show More References
[6]  Cooley, E. L., Van Buren, A., & Cole, S. P., “Attachment styles, social skills, and depression in college women” Journal of College Counseling, 13(1), 50-62. 2010.
 
[7]  Donovan, J. A. & McKelfresh, D. A. “In Community with Students' Parents and Families” Journal of Student Affairs Research and Practice, 45(3), Article 6. 2008.
 
[8]  Eisenbarth, C. “Does self-esteem moderate the relations among perceived stress, coping, and depression?” College Student Journal, 46(1), 149-157. Mar 2012.
 
[9]  Eisenberg, D. Gollust, S. E., Golberstein, E., & Hefner, J. L., “Prevalence and correlates of depression, anxiety, and suicidality among university students” American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 77(4), 534-542. Oct. 2007.
 
[10]  Eklund, K., Dowdy, E., Jones, C., & Furlong, M., “Applicability of the dual-factor model of mental health for college students” Journal of College Student Development, 25, 79-92. 2011.
 
[11]  Garlow, S. J., Rosenberg, J., Moore, J. D., Haas, A. P., Koestner, B., Hendin, H., & Nemeroff, C. B. “Depression, desperation, and suicidal ideation in college students: Results from the American foundation for suicide prevention college screening project at Emory University” Depression and Anxiety, 25, 482-488. 2008.
 
[12]  Hertel, J. B., “College student generational status: Similarities, differences, and factors in college adjustment” The Psychological Record, 52 (1), 3-18. 2002.
 
[13]  Hirsch, J. K. & Barton, A. L. “Positive social support, negative social exchanges, and suicidal behavior in college students” Journal of American College Health, 59(5), 393-398. 2011.
 
[14]  Howell, A. N., Leyro, T. M., Hogan, J., Buckner, J. D., & Zvolensky, M. J. “Anxiety sensitivity, distress tolerance, and discomfort intolerance in relation to coping and conformity motives for alcohol use and alcohol use problems among young adult drinkers” Addictive Behaviors, 35, 1144-1147. 2010.
 
[15]  Ibrahim, A. K., Kelly, S. J., Adams, C. E., & Glazebrook, C. “A systematic review of studies of depression prevalence in university students” Journal of Psychiatric Research, 47, 391-400. 2013.
 
[16]  Li, S. T., Albert, A. B., & Dwelle, D. G. “Parental and peer support as predictors of self-esteem among college students” Journal of College Student Development, 55(2), 120-138. Mar 2014.
 
[17]  Mahmoud, J. S. R., Staten, R., Hall, L. A., & Lennie, T. A., “ The relationship among young adult college students’ depression, anxiety, stress, demographics, life satisfaction, and coping styles” Issues in Mental Health Nursing, 33, 149-156. Feb. 2012.
 
[18]  Mahmoud, J. S. R., Staten, R., Lennie, T. A., & Hall, L. A. “The relationships of coping, negative thinking, life satisfaction, social support, and selected demographics with anxiety of young adult college students” Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Nursing, 28, 97-108. 2015
 
[19]  Moreno, M. A., Jelenchick, L. A., Egan, K. G., Cox, E., Young, H., Gannon, K. E., & Becker, T. “Feeling bad on Facebook: Depression disclosures by college students on a Social Networking Site” Depression and Anxiety, 28(6), 447-455. Jun 2012.
 
[20]  Mounts, N., Valentiner, D., Anderson, K., & Boswell, M. S., “Shyness, sociability, and parental support for the college transition: Relation to adolescents’ adjustment” Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 35(1), 71-80. Feb. 2006.
 
[21]  Player, M. S. & Peterson, L. E. “Anxiety disorders, hypertension, and cardiovascular risk: A review” International Journal of Psychiatry in Medicine, 41(4), 365-377. 2011.
 
[22]  Reynolds C. R., & Kamphaus, R. W. (2004). Behavior Assessment System for Children (2nd ed.). Circle Pines, MN: American Guidance Services.
 
[23]  Reynolds, W. M., & Kobak, K. A. (1995). Hamilton Depression Inventory, Lutz, FL:Psychological Assessment Resources.
 
[24]  Schwanz, K. A., Palm, L. J., Hill-Chapman, C. R., & Broughton, S. F., “College students’ perceptions of relations with parents and academic performance” American Journal of Educational Research, 2(1), 13-17. Jan. 2014.
 
[25]  Sowislo, J. F. & Orth, U. “Does low self-esteem predict depression and anxiety? A meta-analysis of longitudinal studies” Psychological Bulletin, 139(1), 213-240. 2013.
 
[26]  Spielberger, D. C., Gorsuch, L. R., Lushene, R., Vagg, R. P., & Jacobs, A. G. (1983). State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for Adults. Menlo Park, CA: Mind Garden.
 
[27]  Shoup, R., Gonyea, R. M., & Kuh, G. D. (2009). Helicopter Parents: Examining the Impact of Highly Involved Parents on Student Engagement and Educational Outcomes. Paper presented at the 49th Annual Forum of the Association for Institutional Research Atlanta, Georgia June 1, 2009.
 
[28]  Wartman, K.L., & Savage, M. “Parental involvement in higher education: Understanding the relationship among students, parents, and the institution.” ASHE Higher Education Report, 33(6), 1-125. 2008.
 
[29]  Wright, S.L. & Perrone, K. M. An Examination of the Role of Attachment and Efficacy in Life Satisfaction The Counseling Psychologist August 2010 38: 796-823, first published on March 11, 2010.
 
Show Less References

Article

Hypothetical Future Orientated Positive Imagery Reduces Feelings of Social Anxiety in a Healthy Population

1School of Social Sciences & Law, Teesside University, UK

22Department of Psychology, Northumbria University, UK


Research in Psychology and Behavioral Sciences. 2016, 4(2), 19-23
doi: 10.12691/rpbs-4-2-1
Copyright © 2016 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Oldfield L., Reay J., Wilson C, Riby L.M. Hypothetical Future Orientated Positive Imagery Reduces Feelings of Social Anxiety in a Healthy Population. Research in Psychology and Behavioral Sciences. 2016; 4(2):19-23. doi: 10.12691/rpbs-4-2-1.

Correspondence to: Reay  J., School of Social Sciences & Law, Teesside University, UK. Email: j.reay@tees.ac.uk

Abstract

Negative mental imagery has been shown to be involved in the onset and maintenance of numerous clinical disorders and as a result there has been growing scientific study of the therapeutic role of positive mental imagery, with studies reporting favourable results. However, with regard to social anxiety (SA) disorder the conventional approach to induce positive mental imagery has been suggested to be too demanding due to impairment in the retrieval of such episodes. Therefore, researchers have called for controlled studies to explore alternative inducement techniques with specific focus upon future orientated methods (a method more suitable for patients with SA). In the current study, we compare the conventional inducement technique (past) to a future orientated inducement technique (future) and a control condition (no imagery) and measure the impact upon self-reported levels of anxiety in a non-clinical population. Seventy-Eight younger students were randomly allocated to one of the two imagery inducement techniques or the control condition (and completed anxiety scales before and after imagery inducement or control task). To capture situational anxiety, phobia and broader short and long term (state versus trait) dysfunction the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory were the chosen measures. Results confirmed that positive mental imagery reduces feelings of anxiety and demonstrated, for the first time, the effectiveness of a hypothetical future orientated technique to induce positive mental imagery. These data will provide the groundwork for intervention development in clinical populations with known difficulties capitalising on past based mental imagery.

Keywords

References

[1]  Pearson, D. G., Deeprose, C., Wallace-Hadrill, S. M., Heyes, S. B., & Holmes, E. A. Assessing mental imagery in clinical psychology: A review of imagery measures and a guiding framework. Clinical Psychology Review, 33 (1), 1-23. 2013.
 
[2]  Holmes, E. A., Arntz, A., & Smucker, M. R. Imagery rescripting in cognitive behaviour therapy: Images, treatment techniques and outcomes. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 38 (4), 297-305. 2007.
 
[3]  Giesen-Bloo, J., van Dyck, R., Spinhoven, P., van Tilburg, W., Dirksen, C., van Asselt, T., et al. Outpatient psychotherapy for borderline personality disorder: A randomized clinical trial of schema focused therapy versus transference focused psychotherapy. Archives of General Psychiatry, 63(6), 649-658. 2006.
 
[4]  Holmes, E. A., Mathews, A., Dalgleish, T., & Mackintosh, B. Positive interpretation training: Effects of mental imagery versus verbal training on positive mood. Behavior Therapy, 37 (3), 237-247. 2006.
 
[5]  Ng, A. S., Abbott, M. J., & Hunt, C. The effect of self-imagery on symptoms and processes in social anxiety: A systematic review. Clinical Psychology Review, 34 (8), 620-633. 2014.
 
Show More References
[6]  Stopa, L., Brown, M. A., & Hirsch, C. R. The effects of repeated imagery practice onself-concept, anxiety and performance in socially anxious participants. Journal of Experimental Psychopathology, 3(2), 223-242. 2012.
 
[7]  Nilsson, J., Lundh, L., & Viborg, G. Imagery rescripting of early memories in social anxiety disorder: An experimental study. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 50, 387-392. 2012.
 
[8]  Lee, S. R., & Kwon, J. The efficacy of imagery rescripting (IR) for social anxiety disorder: A randomized controlled trial. Journal of Behavioural Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 44 (4), 351-360. 2013.
 
[9]  Stopa, L., & Jenkins, A. Images of the self in social anxiety: Effects on the retrieval of autobiographical memories. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 38 (4), 459-473. 2007.
 
[10]  Vassilopoulos, S. Social Anxiety and the Effects of Engaging in Mental Imagery. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 29 (3), 261-277. 2005.
 
[11]  Hulme, N., Hirsch, C., & Stopa, L. Images of the self and self-esteem: do positive self-images improve self-esteem in social anxiety?. Cognitive behaviour therapy, 41 (2), 163-173. 2012.
 
[12]  Pictet, A. Looking on the bright side in social anxiety: the potential benefit of promoting positive mental imagery. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 9. 2014.
 
[13]  Hirsch, C. R., Clark, D. M., Mathews, A., & Williams, R. Self-images play a causal role in social phobia. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 41 (8), 909-921. 2003.
 
[14]  Moscovitch, D. A., Gavric, D. L., Merrifield, C., Bielak, T., & Moscovitch, M. Retrieval properties of negative vs. positive mental images and autobiographical memories in social anxiety: outcomes with a new measure. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 49 (8), 505-517. 2011.
 
[15]  Liebowitz, M. R. Social phobia. Modern Problems of Pharmacopsychiatry, 22, 141-173. 1987.
 
[16]  Brown, E. J., Heimberg, R. G., & Juster, H. R. Social phobia subtype and avoidant personality disorder: Effect on severity of social phobia, impairment, and outcome of cognitive behavioral treatment. Behavior Therapy, 26 (3), 467-486. 1995.
 
[17]  Heimberg, R. G., Horner, K. J., Juster, H. R., Safren, S. A., Brown, E. J., Schneier, F. R., & Liebowitz, M. R. Psychometric properties of the Liebowitz social anxiety scale. Psychological Medicine, 29 (01), 199-212. 1999.
 
[18]  Rytwinski, N. K., Fresco, D. M., Heimberg, R. G., Coles, M. E., Liebowitz, M. R., Cissell, S., ... & Hofmann, S. G. Screening for social anxiety disorder with the self‐report version of the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale. Depression and Anxiety, 26(1), 34-38. 2009.
 
[19]  Fresco, D. M., Coles, M. E., Heimberg, R. G., Liebowitz, M. R., Hami, S., Stein, M. B., & Goetz, D. The Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale: a comparison of the psychometric properties of self-report and clinician-administered formats. Psychological Medicine, 31 (06), 1025-1035. 2001.
 
[20]  Spielberger CD, Gorsuch RL, Lushene R, Vagg PR, Jacobs GA. Manual for the state-trait anxiety scale. Consulting Psychologists. 1983.
 
[21]  Conway, M. A., & Pleydell-Pearce, C. W. The construction of autobiographical memories in the self-memory system. Psychological Review, 107 (2), 261. 2000.
 
[22]  Schacter, D. L., Addis, D. R., & Buckner, R.. Remembering the past to imagine the future: the prospective brain. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 8 (9), 657-661. 2007.
 
[23]  Byrne, P., Becker, S., & Burgess, N. Remembering the past and imagining the future: a neural model of spatial memory and imagery. Psychological review, 114 (2), 340. 2007.
 
[24]  Morewedge, C. K., Gilbert, D. T., & Wilson, T. D. The least likely of times how remembering the past biases forecasts of the future. Psychological Science, 16 (8), 626-630. 2005.
 
[25]  Carroll, J. S. The effect of imagining an event on expectations for the event: An interpretation in terms of the availability heuristic. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 14 (1), 88-96. 1978.
 
[26]  Tulving, E. Episodic memory: from mind to brain. Annual review of psychology, 53 (1), 1-25. 2002.
 
[27]  Wells, A., Clark, D. M., & Ahmad, S. How do I look with my minds eye: Perspective taking in social phobic imagery. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 36 (6), 631-634. 1998.
 
Show Less References