Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Research

Current Issue» Volume 2, Number 1 (2014)

Article

Influence of the synthesis conditions of reduced graphene oxide on the electrochemical characteristics of the oxygen electrode

1Vernadskii Institute of General & Inorganic Chemistry of Nat. Acad. Sci., Kyiv, Ukraine

2Institute of Physics Nat. Acad. Sci., Kyiv, Ukraine


Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Research. 2014, 2(1), 12-17
DOI: 10.12691/nnr-2-1-3
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
M.O. Danilov, I.A. Slobodyanyuk, I.A. Rusetskii, G.I. Dovbeshko, G.Ya. Kolbasov. Influence of the synthesis conditions of reduced graphene oxide on the electrochemical characteristics of the oxygen electrode. Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Research. 2014; 2(1):12-17. doi: 10.12691/nnr-2-1-3.

Correspondence to: M.O.  Danilov, Vernadskii Institute of General & Inorganic Chemistry of Nat. Acad. Sci., Kyiv, Ukraine. Email: danilovmickle@rambler.ru

Abstract

Reduced graphene oxide (RGO) was obtained by chemical synthesis from multi walled carbon nanotubes. Using a suitable oxidant, we longitudinally “unzipped” nanotubes to form graphene oxide nanoribbons and then obtained RGO with a proper reductant. Standard redox potentials of carboxy groups were used for choosing oxidant and reductant. It has been shown that the required oxidant potential in acid medium should be more + 0.528 V and reductant potential in alkaline medium- less – 1.148 V. Current-potential curves for oxygen electrodes based on RGO, obtained by using the oxidants K2Cr2O7, KMnO4 and the reductants NaH2PO2, Na2SO3, were analyzed. The electrochemical characteristics of RGO in the oxygen reduction reaction were depended on the redox power of the reagents. We demonstrated that obtained RGO could be promising material for oxygen electrodes of fuel cells.

Keywords

References

[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[
[1]  Bidault, F., Brett, D.J.L., Middleton, P.H., Brandon, N.P., “Review of gas diffusion cathodes for alkaline fuel cells,” J Power Sources, 187 (1). 39-48. 2009.
 
[2]  Soehn, M., Lebert, M., Wirth, T., Hofmann, S., Nicoloso, N., “Design of gas diffusion electrodes using nanocarbon,” J Power Sources, 176 (2). 494-498. 2008.
 
[3]  Hsieh, C-T., Lin, J-Yi., Wei, J-L., “Deposition and electrochemical activity of Pt-based bimetallic nanocatalysts on carbon nanotube electrodes,” Int J Hydrogen Energy, 34 (2). 685-693. 2009.
 
[4]  Wang, X., Waje, M., Yan, Y., “CNT-Based Electrodes with High Efficiency for PEMFCs,” Electrochem Solid-State Lett, 8 (1). A42-A44. 2005.
 
[5]  Wang, G., Shen, X., , J., Park, J., “Graphene nanosheets for enhanced lithium storage in lithium ion batteries,” Сarbon, 47 (8). 2049-2053. 2009.
 
Show More References
[6]  Xin, Y., Liu, J., Jie, X., Liu, W., Liu, F., Yin, Y., Gu, J., Zou, Z., “Preparation and electrochemical characterization of nitrogen doped graphene by microwave as supporting materials for fuel cell catalysts,” Electrochimica Acta, 60. 354-358. 2012.
 
[7]  Lin, Z., Waller, G,, Liu, Y., Liu, M., Wong, C.P., “Facile synthesis of nitrogen-doped graphene via pyrolysis of graphene oxide and urea and its electrocatalytic activity toward oxygen reduction reaction,” Adv Energy Mater, 2 (7). 884-888. 2012.
 
[8]  Qu, L.T., Liu, Y., Baek, J.B., Dai, L.M., “Nitrogen-doped graphene as efficient metal-free electrocatalyst for oxygen reduction in fuel cells,” ACS Nano 4. 1321-1326. 2010.
 
[9]  Lin, Z.Y., Song, M.K., Ding, Y., Liu, Y., Liu, M.L., Wong, C.P., “Facile preparation of nitrogen-doped graphene as a metal-free catalyst for oxygen reduction reaction,” Phys Chem Chem Phys, 14. 3381-3387. 2012.
 
[10]  Shao, Y., Zhang, S., Wang, C., Nie, Z., Liu, J., Wang, Y., Lin, Y., "Highly durable graphene nanoplatelets supported Pt nanocatalysts for oxygen reduction," J Power Sources, 195. 4600-4605. 2010.
 
[11]  Cano-Márquez, A.G., Rodriguez-Macias, F.J., Campos-Delgado, J., et al., “Ex-MWNTs: Graphene sheets and ribbons produced by lithium intercalation and exfoliation of carbon nanotubes,” Nano Lett, 9. 1527-1533. 2009.
 
[12]  Kosynkin, D.V., Lu, W., Sinitskii, A., Pera, G., Sun, Z., Tour, J.M., “Highly conductive grapheme nanoribbons by longitudinal splitting of carbon nanotubes using potassium vapor,” ACS Nano, 5. 968-974. 2011.
 
[13]  Morelos-Gómez, A., Vega-Díaz, S.M., González, V.J., et al, “Clean nanotube unzipping by abrupt thermal expansion of molecular nitrogen: graphene nanoribbons with atomically smooth edges,” ACS Nano, 6. 2261-2272. 2012.
 
[14]  Jiao, L., Zhang, L., Wang, X., Diankov, G., Dai, H., “Narrow graphene nanoribbons from carbon nanotubes,” Nature, 458. 877-880. 2009.
 
[15]  Valentini, L., “Formation of unzipped carbon nanotubes by CF4 plasma treatment,” Diamond & Related Materials, 20. 445-448. 2011.
 
[16]  Mohammadi, S., Kolahdouz, Z., Darbari, S., Mohajerzadeh, S., Masoumi, N., “Graphene formation by unzipping carbon nanotubes using a sequential plasma assisted processing,” Carbon, 52. 451-463. 2013.
 
[17]  Janowska, , Ersen, O., Jacob, T., et al, “Catalytic unzipping of carbon nanotubes to few-layer graphene sheets under microwaves irradiation,” Appl Catal A, 371. 22-30. 2009.
 
[18]  Vadahanambi, S., Jung, J-H., Kumar, R., Kim, H-J., Oh, I-K., “An ionic liquid-assisted method for splitting carbon nanotubes to produce graphene nano-ribbons by microwave radiation,” Carbon, 53. 391-398. 2013.
 
[19]  Elías, A.L., Botello-Méndez, As.R., Meneses-Rodríguez, D., et al, “Longitudinal cutting of pure and doped carbon nanotubes to form graphitic nanoribbons using metal clusters as nanoscalpels,” Nano Lett, 10. 366-372. 2009.
 
[20]  , Bhandari, S., Srivastava, R.K., Jariwala, D., Srivastava, A., “Single step synthesis of graphene nanoribbons by catalyst particle size dependent cutting of multiwalled carbon nanotubes,” Nanoscale, 3. 3876-3882. 2011.
 
[21]  Jiao, L., Wang, X., Diankov, G., Wang, H., Dai, H., “Facile synthesis of high-quality graphene nanoribbons,” Nat Nanotechnol, 5. 321-325. 2010.
 
[22]  Xie, L., Wang, H., Jin, C., et al1, “Graphene nanoribbons from unzipped carbon nanotubes: Atomic structures, Raman spectroscopy, and electrical properties,” J Am Chem Soc, 133. 10394-10397. 2011.
 
[23]  Kumar, P., Panchakarla, L.S., Rao, C.N.R., “Laser-induced unzipping of carbon nanotubes to yield graphene nanoribbons,” Nanoscale, 3. 2127-2129. 2011.
 
[24]  Kim, K., Sussman, A., Zettl, A., “Graphene nanoribbons obtained by electrically unwrapping carbon nanotubes,” ACS Nano, 4. 1362-1366. 2010.
 
[25]  Talyzin, A.V., Luzan, S., Anoshkin, I.V., et al, “Hydrogenation, purification, and unzipping of carbon nanotubes by reaction with molecular hydrogen: Road to graphane nanoribbons,” ACS Nano, 5. 5132-5140. 2011.
 
[26]  , M.C., Xu, W., Proenca, M.F., Novais, R.M., Laegsgaard, E., Besenbacher, F., “Unzipping of functionalized multiwall carbon nanotubes induced by STM,” Nano Lett, 10. 1764-1768. 2010.
 
[27]  Shinde, D.B., Debgupta, J., Kushwaha, A., Aslam, M., Pillai, V.K., “Electrochemical unzipping of multi-walled carbon nanotubes for facile synthesis of high-quality graphene nanoribbons,” J Am Chem Soc, 133. 4168-4171. 2011.
 
[28]  Kosynkin, D.V., Higginbotham, A.L., Sinitskii, A., et al, “Longitudinal unzipping of carbon nanotubes to form graphene nanoribbons,” Nature, 458. 872-876. 2009.
 
[29]  Zhang, S., Zhu, L., Song, H., et al, “How graphene is exfoliated from graphitic materials: synergistic effect of oxidation and intercalation processes in open, semi-closed, and closed carbon systems,” J Mater Chem, 22. 22150-22154. 2012.
 
[30]  Zhu, Y., Murali, S., Cai, W., et al, “Graphene and graphene oxide: Synthesis, properties, and applications,” Adv Mater, 22. 3906-3924. 2010.
 
[31]  Pei, S., Cheng, H.-M., “The reduction of graphene oxide,” Carbon, 50. 3210-3228. 2012.
 
[32]  Danilov, M.O., Kolbasov, G.Ya., Rusetskii, I.A., Slobodyanyuk, I.A., “Electrocatalytic properties of multiwalled carbon nanotubes-based nanocomposites for oxygen electrodes,” Russian J Appl Chem, 85. 1536-1540. 2012.
 
[33]  Bratsch, S.G., “Standard electrode potentials and temperature coefficients in water at 298.15 K,” J Phys Chem, 18. 1-21. 1989.
 
[34]  Danilov, M.O., Slobodyanyuk, I.A., Rusetskii, I.A., Kolbasov, G.Ya., “Reduced graphene oxide: a promising electrode material for oxygen electrodes,” J Nanostructure Chemistry, . 2013.
 
[35]  , Introduction to Physic, Wiley, 8th Edition. 2004.
 
[36]  Nemanich, R.J., Solin, S.A., “Observation of an anomolously sharp feature in the 2nd order Raman spectrum of graphite,” Solid State Comm, 23. 417-420. 1977.
 
[37]  Nemanich, R., Solin, S., “First-and second-order Raman scattering from finite-size crystals of graphite,” Phys Rev B, 20. 392-401. 1979.
 
[38]  Vidano, R., Fishbach, D., “Observation of Raman band shifting with excitation wavelength for carbons and graphites,” Solid State Comm, 39. 341-344. 1981.
 
[39]  Ferrari, A., Basko, D., “Raman spectroscopy as a versatile tool for studying the properties of graphene,” Nature nanotechnology, 8. 235-246. 2013.
 
[40]  Cancado, L.G., Takai, K., Enoki, T., Endo, M., Kim, Y.A., Mizusaki, H., Jorio, A., Coelho, L.N., Magalhăes-Paniago, R., Pimenta, M.A., “General equation for the determination of the crystallite size La of nanographite by Raman spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys.Lett., 88163106. 2006.
 
[41]  Yanchuk, I.B., Koval′s′ka, E.O., Brichka, A.V., Brichka, S.Ya., “Raman scattering studies of the influence of thermal treatment of multi-walled carbon nanotubes on their structural characteristics,” Ukr. J. Phys., 54. 407-412. 2009.
 
Show Less References

Article

The Role of Magnetite Nanoparticles (ICNB) in Discovery New Factor Which Influence on Permeability of Erythrocytes and Eryptosis

1Laboratory of Applied Nanotechnology of Belousova Engineering Invest IF GmbH Kharkov Medical Academy of Postgraduate Education pr. Lenina, 31-v, fl. 32 Kharkov, 61072 Ukraine


Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Research. 2014, 2(1), 8-11
DOI: 10.12691/nnr-2-1-2
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Andrey Belousov. The Role of Magnetite Nanoparticles (ICNB) in Discovery New Factor Which Influence on Permeability of Erythrocytes and Eryptosis. Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Research. 2014; 2(1):8-11. doi: 10.12691/nnr-2-1-2.

Correspondence to: Andrey  Belousov, Laboratory of Applied Nanotechnology of Belousova Engineering Invest IF GmbH Kharkov Medical Academy of Postgraduate Education pr. Lenina, 31-v, fl. 32 Kharkov, 61072 Ukraine. Email: an.belousov2012@yandex.ua

Abstract

This paper presents original research studying the effects of biocompatible nanoparticles standardized (ICNB) on the permeability of erythrocytes and eryptosis. The presented evidence demonstrates that changing orientation and mobility protons of the hydrogen atoms in the pericellular fluid significantly modify the permeability and physiological activity of erythrocytes. The leading role of the state of cell membrane and transport activity enzymes (ATPase) in ensuring its permeability and functional activity is exaggerated. Magnetite nanoparticles (IСNB) act on the fluid of pericellular structure by changing the orientation and mobility of hydrogen protons that ultimately determines the permeability, and physiological activity of cells. These studies support the G. Ling’s theory of an "association-induction" and "multi-layered organization polarized water".

Keywords

References

[[[[[[
[1]  A.N. Belousov, The use of magnetite nanoparticles in applied medicine. International Journal of Nano Dimension. Vol. 2. Issue 1 (5). Summer 2011. P. 25-28.
 
[2]  A.N. Belousov, Belousova E.Yu. The first steps in discovery new mechanisms of cellular regulation in means by nanotechnology preparations // X International Conference New Information Technologies in Medicine and Ecology.-Yalta, Gursuf, 2002.-P. 420-425.
 
[3]  A.N. Belousov Effect of magnet controlled sorbent on parameters of acid-base balance of the blood and the processes of glycolysis in erythrocytes. Pain, anesthesia and intensive care.-Kiev.-2000.-№ 1. P. 263-265.
 
[4]  A.N. Belousov, Nevzorov V.P. Ultrastructure of cells in the kidneys and lungs of rabbits after administration of magnetite // International collection of scientific papers IV Scientific and Practical Conference on the Creation and Testing of New Drugs.-Moscow, 1997, V. 4.-P. 77-87.
 
[5]  A.N. Belousov, Nevzorov V.P. Ultrastructure of liver cells after administration of magnetite // International collection of scientific papers IV Scientific and Practical Conference on the Creation and Testing of New Drugs.-Moscow, 1997, V. 4.-P. 71-77.
 
Show More References
[6]  A.N. Belousov Spectrum of Application Magnetite Nanopaticles in Medicine. Nanotech 2009. Vol. 2 Chapter 3, pp. 154-157.
 
[7]  A.N. Belousov Effect on hemolysis and transport ATPase activity of erythrocytes by means nanopareticles of magnetit controlled sorbent (MCS-B). Pain, anesthesia and intensive care.-Kiev.-2012.-№ 1 (ad). P. 26-28.
 
[8]  A.N. Belousov Application Magnetite of Nanoparticles (ICNB Preparation) as Magnetically-Resonant Contrasting Means During Visualization of Tumours. Clean Technology and Sustainable Industries Organization, 2013. Chapter 10, p 379-381.
 
[9]  A.N. Belousov Investigation of the influence nanoparticles of magnetite controlled sorbent (MCS-B) on the functional activity of erythrocytes. Prospects Medicine and Biology.-LSMU. V. IY, № 1, 2012 (ad).-P. 94-97.
 
[10]  A.N. Belousov, Spectrum of Application Magnetite Nanopaticles in Medicine. Nanotech 2009. Vol. 2 Chapter 3, pp.154-157.
 
[11]  G.N. Ling. Life at the cell and below-cell level: the hidden history of a fundamental revolution in biology.-Sankt-Peterburg: Science, 2008.-376 p.
 
Show Less References

Article

Effect of the Electric Field on the Antibacterial Activity of Au Nanoparticles on Some Gram-positive and Gram-negative Bacteria

1Department of Physics, College of Sciences, AL-Nahrain University, Baghdad, Iraq

2Department of Biotechnology, College of Sciences, AL-Nahrain University, Baghdad, Iraq

3Department of Physics, College of Sciences, Baghdad University, Baghdad, Iraq


Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Research. 2014, 2(1), 1-7
DOI: 10.12691/nnr-2-1-1
Copyright © 2104 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Thamir Jumaa, Maysaa Chasib, Mazin K. Hamid, Raad Al-Haddad. Effect of the Electric Field on the Antibacterial Activity of Au Nanoparticles on Some Gram-positive and Gram-negative Bacteria. Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Research. 2014; 2(1):1-7. doi: 10.12691/nnr-2-1-1.

Correspondence to: Maysaa  Chasib, Department of Biotechnology, College of Sciences, AL-Nahrain University, Baghdad, Iraq. Email: dr.maysaa78@yahoo.com

Abstract

Metal nanoparticles are being extensively used in various biomedical applications due to their small size to volume ratio and extensive thermal stability. Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) are an obvious choice due to their amenability of synthesis and functionalization, less toxicity and ease of detection. The synthesis and bioactivity of gold nanoparticles has been extensively studied. The present study was focused on method to increase the activity and the efficacy of the antibacterial activity of gold nanoparticles which produced by laser ablation of 1064 nm wavelength and three energy powers (400,500,600) mJ were applied to produced gold nanoparticles with different sizes on Gram-positive isolate (Staphylococcus aureus) and the Gram-negative isolate(Pseudomonas aeroginosa). It was found that using the agar well diffusion assay method which showed that the individually of AuNPs of 0.2 mg/ml concentration have no synergistic effect on the studied Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas. So, a new modified technique was made on these AuNPs with the same concentration to increase their antibacterial activity, is exposure the gold nanoparticles colloidal to 1500 v/m applied electric field which resulting to be an effective AuNPs with inhibition properties against Gram-positive isolates (Staphylococcus aureus) contrary to nanoparticles that was not exposed to electric field with the same concentration.

Keywords

References

[[[[[[[[[
[1]  KOWSHIK, M.; ASHTAPUTRE, S.; KHARRAZI, S. Extracellular synthesis of silver nanoparticles by a silver-tolerant yeast strain MKY3. Nanotec, v. 14, n. 1, p. 95-100, 2003.
 
[2]  CHITRANI, B.D.; GHAZANI, A.A.; CHAN, W.C.W. Determining the size and shape dependence of gold nanoparticle uptake into mammalian cells. Nano Lett, v. 6, n.4, p. 662-668, 2006.
 
[3]  PISSUWAN, D.et al. Functionalised gold nanoparticles for controlling pathogenic bacteria. Trends in Biotechnology, v. 28, n.4, p. 207-13, 2010.
 
[4]  Strasak L, Vetterl V, Smarda J. Effects of low-frequency mAunetic fields on bacteria Escherichia coli. Bioelectrochemistry 2002; 55: 161-4.
 
[5]  C. F. Bohren and D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles~Wiley Interscience, New York, 1983.
 
Show More References
[6]  U. Kreibig and M. Vollmer, Optical Properties of Metal Clusters; Springer Series in Materials Science 25~Springer, Berlin, 1995.
 
[7]  Henglein, A. and Giersig, M., J. Phys. Chem. B., 104: 6767(2000).
 
[8]  Mclntosh, R.M. Laboratory Manual Experimental Microbiology.1st edition, Mosby-Year bok, Inc. (1996).
 
[9]  Mahmoud, M.J.; Jawad, A.J.; Hussain, A.M.; Al-Omeri, M.; and Al- Naib, A.; Invitro Antimicrobial activity of Sasolia rosmarinus and Adiantum capillusveneris. Int., J. Crude. Drug. Res. 27:14-16(1989).
 
[10]  Fricker S.P.; Medical Uses of Gold Compounds: Past, Present, Future, Gold Bulletin, 1996, 29(2) 53-64.
 
[11]  Grace NA, Pandian K: Antibacterial efficacy of aminoglycosidic antibiotics protected gold nanoparticles – A brief study. Colloids and surface A: Physico chem. Eng Aspects 2007; 297: 63-70.
 
[12]  Sobczak-Kupiec A, Malina D, Zimowskaa M, Wzorek Z: Characterization of gold nanoparticles for various medical applications. Dig J Nanomater Bios 2011; 6(2): 803-808.
 
[13]  O.R. Musaev, A.E. Midgley, J.M. Wrobel, M.B. Kruger (Laser ablation of alumina in water) Chemical Physics Letters 487 (2010) 81-83.
 
[14]  Rai A, Prabhune A, Perry CC. Antibiotic mediated synthesis of gold nanoparticles with potent antimicrobial activity and their application in antimicrobial coatings. J. Mater. Chem. 2010; 20: 6789-6798.
 
Show Less References