ISSN (Print): 2333-8903

ISSN (Online): 2333-8911

Website: http://www.sciepub.com/journal/materials

Editor-in-chief: Serge Samper

Currrent Issue: Volume 4, Number 1, 2016

Article

Effect of pH on Production Process and Characteristics of Zirconium Carbide Nano Particles Synthesized by Sol-Gel Method

1Department of Material Science and Engineering, Imam Khomeini International University, Ghazvin, Iran


American Journal of Materials Engineering and Technology. 2016, 4(1), 6-10
doi: 10.12691/materials-4-1-2
Copyright © 2016 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Saeid Baghshahi, Mahmoud Shayestefar, Bahman Mirhadi. Effect of pH on Production Process and Characteristics of Zirconium Carbide Nano Particles Synthesized by Sol-Gel Method. American Journal of Materials Engineering and Technology. 2016; 4(1):6-10. doi: 10.12691/materials-4-1-2.

Correspondence to: Mahmoud  Shayestefar, Department of Material Science and Engineering, Imam Khomeini International University, Ghazvin, Iran. Email: m.shayestefar@gmail.com

Abstract

Zirconium carbide nanoparticles were synthesized by a sol–gel method. Zirconium n-Propoxide and sucrose were used as sources of zirconium and carbon, respectively. The influence of pH value of solution on the properties of the resultant powder was investigated. The reactions were substantially completed at a relatively low temperature (1400°C). X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy were used to study crystal structure and morphology of the synthesized powder. XRD analysis showed that at the highest pH, only ZrC phase could be observed. Results also show that pH has a strong effect on the particles size range of ZrC powder so that at pH 4.2, 5.2 and 6.2, the size range of 130–190, 90–150 and 50–100 nm were obtained, respectively. It was also found that pH variation had no effect on the morphology of the sphere-shaped particles.

Keywords

References

[1]  Arya A and Carter EA, “Structure, bonding and adhesion at the ZrC (100) / Fe (110) interface from first principles,” Surface Sci, 560(1-3), 103-120, Jul 2004.
 
[2]  Storms EK, The refractory carbides, Academic Press, New York, 1967.
 
[3]  Pierson HO, Handbook of Refractory Carbides and Nitrides, Properties, Characteristics, Processing and Applications, Noyes Publications, New Jersey, 19996.
 
[4]  Minato K, Ogwa T, Sawa K, Ishikawa A, Tomita T, Lida S and Sekino H, “Irradiation Experiment on ZrC-Coated Fuel Particle for High Temperature gas-Coaled Reactors,” Nucl Technol 130(3), 272-281, Jun 2000.
 
[5]  Bandyopadhyay TK and Das K, “Processing and characterization of ZrC-renforced steel-based composites,”J Mater Process Technol, 178(1-3), 335-341, Sep 2006.
 
Show More References
[6]  Toth LE, Transition Metal Carbides and Nitrides, Academic Press, New York, 1971.
 
[7]  Zheng YF, Liu XL and Zhang HF, “Properties of Zr-ZrC-ZrC/DLC Gradient Films on TiNi alloy PllD by the Technique Combined with PECVD,” Sur Coat Technol, 202(13), 3011-3016, Mar 2008.
 
[8]  Chen CS and Liu CP, “Characterization of Sputtered nano-Crystalline Zirconium Carbide as a Diffusion Barrier for Cu Metallization,” Journal of Electronic Materials, 34(11), 1408-1413, Nov 2005.
 
[9]  Li J, Fu ZY, Wang WM, Wang H, Lee SH and Niihara K, “Preparation of ZrC by Self Propagating High Temperature Synthesis," Ceram Int, 36(5), 1681-1686, Jul 2010.
 
[10]  Maitre A and Lefort P, “Solid state reaction of zirconia with carbon,” Solid State Ionics, 104(1-2), 109-122, Dec 1997.
 
[11]  Liu Q, Zhang L, Cheng L and Wang Y, “Morphologies and growth mechanisms of zirconium carbide films by chemical vapor deposition,” J. Coat. Technol. Res, 6(2), 269-273, Jun 2009.
 
[12]  Tao XY, Qiu WF, Li H and Zhao T, “One pot synthesis of a soluble polymer for zirconium carbide,” Chinese Chemical Letters, 21(5), 620-623, May 2010.
 
[13]  Hasegawa I, Fukuda Y and Kajiwara M, “Inorganic-organic hybrid route to synthesis of ZrC and Si-Zr-C fibers,”Ceram Int, 25(6), 523-527, Aug 1999.
 
[14]  Lopez Guerrero MM, Torres AG, Alonso EV, Siles Cordero MT and Pavon JMC, “Quantitative determination of ZrC in new ceramic materials by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy,” Ceram Int, 37(2), 607-613, Mar 2011.
 
[15]  Sacks MD, Wang C, Yang Z and Jain A, “Carbothermal reduction synthesis of nano crystalline zirconium carbide and hafnium carbide powders using solution-derived precursors,” Journal of Materials Science, 39(19), 6057-6066, Oct 2004.
 
[16]  Yan Y, Huang Z, Liu X and Jiang D, “Carbothermal synthesis of ultrafine zirconium carbide powders using inorganic precursors via sol-gel method,” J Sol-Gel Sci Technol, 44(1), 81-85, Oct 2007.
 
[17]  Dolle M, Gosset D, Bogicevic C, Karolak F, Simeone D and Baldinozzi G , “Synthesis of nano sized zirconium carbide by a sol-gel route,” J Eur Ceram Soc, 27(4), 2061-2067, Jan 2007.
 
Show Less References

Article

Experimental Investigation on Surface Finish during Turning of Aluminum under Dry and Minimum Quantity Lubrication Machining Conditions

1Mechanical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Benha University, Cairo, Egypt


American Journal of Materials Engineering and Technology. 2016, 4(1), 1-5
doi: 10.12691/materials-4-1-1
Copyright © 2016 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
A Hemaid, Tarik Tawfeek, A. A. Ibrahim. Experimental Investigation on Surface Finish during Turning of Aluminum under Dry and Minimum Quantity Lubrication Machining Conditions. American Journal of Materials Engineering and Technology. 2016; 4(1):1-5. doi: 10.12691/materials-4-1-1.

Correspondence to: Tarik  Tawfeek, Mechanical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Benha University, Cairo, Egypt. Email: tariktewfic@yahoo.co.uk

Abstract

In the last decades, light materials, such as aluminum, are increasing their use in wide range ‎of industrial applications. The growing use of aluminum encourages the study of its use under ‎different production processes. In this sense, the present study shows an experimental investigation in turning of aluminum, with the use of dry and minimum quantity lubrication (MQL) system. To evaluate turning process, continuous bars was used. The process is evaluated taking the surface roughness as response variable. The cutting conditions include feed rate, cutting speed and the coolant flow rate. The work-piece material and its size, the cutting tool (HSS) and the depth of cut were kept constant for the study. It has been observed that a small amount of supply of coolant at the point of cutting, largely improves the surface finish. In many cases further amount of coolant administration has very little effect on the surface quality. Thus Minimum Quantity Lubrication (MQL) can achieve the required surface quality eliminating the problems of flood cooling.

Keywords

References

[1]  Nourredine Boubekri and Vasim Shaikh, “Minimum Quantity Lubrication (MQL) in Machining: Benefits and Drawbacks,” Journal of Industrial and Intelligent Information, Vol. 3, No. 3, , 2015, 205-209.
 
[2]  Vishal S. Sharma, Manu Dogra, N.M. Suri, International Journal of Machine Tools and Manufacture, Volume 49, Issue 6, May 2009, Pages 435-453.
 
[3]  Kuan-Ming Li and Steven Y. Liang George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology,” Minimum Quantity Lubrication in Machining”, Atlanta, GA 30332-0405, USA, 2006.
 
[4]  Thanhtrung Dang1, Thanhnghia Nguyen2 and Tronghieu Nguyen1”An Experimenatl Study on Heat Transfer Behaviors of A Welded - Aluminum Minichannel Heat Exchanger”, International Journal of Computational Engineering Research (IJCER), Vol, 05, February 2015, 39-45.
 
[5]  Ranganath M S, Vipin, R S Mishra,”Optimization of Surface Roughness and Material Removal Rate on Conventional Dry Turning of Aluminium” International Journal of Advance Research and Innovation Volume 1, 2014, 62-71.
 
Show More References
[6]  H. Yanda, J. A. Ghani, M. N. A. M. Rodzi, K. Othman, C.H.C. Haron, “Optimization of Material Removal Rate, Surface Roughness and Tool Life on Conventional Dry Turning Of FCD700”, International Journal of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, 5(2), 2010, 182-190.
 
[7]  Klocke, F., Eisenblatter, G., “Dry Cutting” Annals of the CIRP, 46 (2), 1997, 519-526.
 
[8]  MaClure, T. F., Adams, R. and Gugger, M. D, Comparison of Flood vs. Micro lubrication on Machining Performance, website: http://www.unist.com/techsolve.html, 2001.
 
[9]  Brockhoff, T. and Walter, A., “Fluid Minimization in Cutting and Grinding”. Abrasives, October 1998. 38-42.
 
[10]  Aronson, R. B. “Why Dry Machining”, Manufacturing Engineering, , January 1995, 33-36.
 
[11]  U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Occupational Exposure to Metalworking Fluids, NIOSH Publication, January 1998, 98-102.
 
[12]  R. A. Patil1, V. D. Shinde2, H. V. Shete3, Prof. S. P. Nevagi, “Effect of high pressure coolant on surface finish in turning operation”. International Journal of Innovative Research in Science, Engineering and Technology, Volume 2, Issue 7, July 2013, 3182-3189.
 
Show Less References