Journal of Polymer and Biopolymer Physics Chemistry: Latest Articles  More >>

Article

Knowledge of the Mechanism of Dreams can Aid in Problems Related to Room-Temperature Superconductivity

1A.V. Zhirmunsky Institute of Marine Biology, Far Eastern Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Vladivostok, Russia


Journal of Polymer and Biopolymer Physics Chemistry. 2014, 2(1), 6-11
DOI: 10.12691/jpbpc-2-1-2
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Delik. D. Gabaev. Knowledge of the Mechanism of Dreams can Aid in Problems Related to Room-Temperature Superconductivity. Journal of Polymer and Biopolymer Physics Chemistry. 2014; 2(1):6-11. doi: 10.12691/jpbpc-2-1-2.

Correspondence to: Delik.  D. Gabaev, A.V. Zhirmunsky Institute of Marine Biology, Far Eastern Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Vladivostok, Russia. Email: gabaevdd1@hotmail.com

Abstract

High – temperature superconductors are required in many fields of modern technology. However the difficulties related to creation of low temperature conditions for superconductors and the labor-intensive production and operation are hinder their widespread application. After analyzing the possible causative mechanism of dreams, I surmised that in order to signals from the information field penetrating through the sleeper’s eyes into a brain during the rapid eye movement sleep, axoplasm of neurons must possess a high conductivity. I then inferred that this high conductivity was due to the effect of the cranial bones. These bones apparently protect the brain not only from physical injuries but also from various kinds of wave “noise”; this noise produces oscillating motions of positive ions in the axoplasm of neurons, and, as a result, electrical resistance is increased. I measured the electrical resistance of a number of metallic conductors, which I coated with materials of various compositions and found that when nichrome wires were covered with clean bone glue, there was a conspicuous decrease in this resistance; in conductors containing iron, covered with clean bone glue, the resistance decreased to zero. If a thin layer of bone glue is covered with Moment rubber glue, the coating of ardent superconductor becomes elastic that makes the superconductor shockproof and resistant to moisture and magnetic fields and thus promising for modern engineering.

Keywords

References

[1]  Collins, G.P, “Ferrous clue”. V mire nauki (Sci Amer),10. 60-67. 2009.
 
[2]  Kamihara,Y., Watanabe, T., Hirano, M. and Hosono, H., “Iron-based layered superconductor La[O1-xFx]FeAs (x = 0.05-0.12) with Tc =26 K”, J Am Chem Soc, 130 (11). 3296-3297. Jan. 2008.
 
[3]  Garwin, L., “Whorls upon whorls”, Nature, 350 (6316). 277. 1991.
 
[4]  Matsuishi, S., Inoue, Y., Nomura, T., Yanagi, H., Hirano, M., and Hosono, H., “Supercon-ductivity induced by co-doping in quaternary fluoroarsenide CaFeAsF”, J Am Chem Soc, 130(44).14428-14429. Aug. 2008.
 
[5]  Imamura, N., Mizoguchi, H., and Hosono, H., “Superconductivity in LaTmBN and La3Tm2B2N3 (Tm = transition metal) synthesized under high pressure”, J Am Chem Soc, 134. 2516-2519. Jan. 2012.
 
Show More References
[6]  Scheidt. E-W., Hathwar, V.R., Schmitz, D., Dunbar, A., Scheree,W., et al., “Superconductivity at Tc = 44 K in LixFe2Se2(NH3)y”, Eur Phys J B, 85. 279–283. Aug. 2012.
 
[7]  Engelmann, J., Müller, K.H, Nenkov, K., Schultz, L., Holzapfel, B.,et al., “Metamagnetic effects in epitaxial BaFe1.8Cr0.2As2 thin films”, Eur Phys J B, 85. 406-409. Dec. 2012.
 
[8]  Gatsunaev, N.,” Rectification of space”, Be sound! 9.96-99. 1999.
 
[9]  Daou, R., Chang, J., LeBoeuf, D., Cyr- Choiniére, O., Laliberté, F., and Doiron-Leyrand, N., “Broken rotational symmetry in the pseudogap phase of a high-Tc superconductor”, Nature, 463(7280). 519-522. 2010.
 
[10]  Moler, K.A., “How the cuprates hid their stripes”, Nature, 468(7324).643-644. 2010.
 
[11]  Comarov, S.M., "Superconductor", Chem and life, 4.26-29. 2012.
 
[12]  Gerber, C., Anselmetti, D., Bednorz, J.G., Mannhart, J. and Schlom, D.G., ”Screw dislocations in high –Tc films”, Nature, 350(6316). 279-280. 1991.
 
[13]  Hawley, M., Raistrick, I.D., Beery, J.G., and Schlom, D.G., ”Growth mechanism of sputtered films of Yba2Cu3O7 studied by scanning tunneling microscopy”, Science, 251(5001). 49-51. 1991.
 
[14]  Taylor, D.J., Green, N.P.O., Stout, G.W., Biological Science. MIR, Moskow, 1-436. 2010.
 
[15]  Clarke, K.R., Green, R.H., “Statistical design and analisis for a “biological effects” study”, Mar Ecol Prog Ser, 46. 213-226. 1988.
 
[16]  Amato, I., “Spiral forest” may hold clue to thin-film superconductivity”, Science, 251(5001). 1564-1565. 1991.
 
[17]  Saper, C.B, Thomas, E., Lu, J. “Hypothalamic regulation of sleep and circadian rhythms”, Nature, 437.1257- 1263. Oct. 2005.
 
[18]  Mahowald, M., Schenck, C.H., “Insights from studying human sleep disorders”, Nature, 437. 1279-1285. Oct. 2005.
 
[19]  Nelson, S., McCarley, R., Hobson, S., “REM sleep burst neurons, PGO waves and eye movement information”, J Neuroph, 50(4). 784-797.1983.
 
[20]  Demkin, S., prophetic dreams. Be sound! 11.71-77. 2000.
 
[21]  Hobson, J.A., “Sleep is of the brain, by the brain and for the brain”, Nature, 437.1254-1256. Oct. 2005.
 
[22]  Martinez-Conde, S., Mechnik, S.L, “Window on the mind”, V mire nauki (Sci Amer), 11.52-59. 2011.
 
[23]  Shin, J., “The code of memory”, V mire nauki (Sci Amer), 11.18-25. 2007.
 
Show Less References

Article

Physicochemical, Spectroscopic and Rheological Studies on Eucalyptus Citriodora (EC) Gum

1Department of Chemistry, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria

2Department of Chemistry, Akwa Ibom State University, Ikot Akpaeden, Akwa Ibom State


Journal of Polymer and Biopolymer Physics Chemistry. 2014, 2(1), 12-24
DOI: 10.12691/jpbpc-2-1-3
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Nnabuk Okon Eddy, Inemesit Udofia, Adamu Uzairu, Anduang O. Odiongenyi, Clement Obadimu. Physicochemical, Spectroscopic and Rheological Studies on Eucalyptus Citriodora (EC) Gum. Journal of Polymer and Biopolymer Physics Chemistry. 2014; 2(1):12-24. doi: 10.12691/jpbpc-2-1-3.

Correspondence to: Nnabuk  Okon Eddy, Department of Chemistry, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria. Email: nabukeddy@yahoo.com

Abstract

Analysis of physicochemical properties of Eucalyptus citriodora gum revealed that the gum is mildly acidic, brownish in colour, ionic and has the potentials to swell four times its original volume. GCMS analysis of the gum indicated the presence of some carboxylic acids, pyran-4-one, 1,3-dioxolane, benzofuran and 1,2-ethanediyl acetate while analysis of its FTIR spectrum revealed functional groups that are common to polysaccharides. Scanning electron micrograph of the gum also revealed the existence of particle aggregations with some internal bridges within the system. Rheological properties of the gum were found to be affected by pH, concentration, temperature and by the presence of some electrolytes (KCl, CaCl2, AlCl3 and urea). Average value of intrinsic viscosity deduced from Huggins and Kraemer plots was 3.51 dL/g while the sum of their constants was 0.36 (i,e< 0.5 and suggested the absence of molecular association). Calculated value of the Power law constant was (b= 0.812) less than unity and pointed to a rod like conformation. From the Master’s curve, the existence of dilute and concentrated regimes, (corresponding to ηsp0α C1.04 (at C> C*) and ηsp0 α C0.95 (at C < C*) respectively) was established. Eucalyptus citriodora gum is a shear thinning, non-Newtonian polymer that is characterized by pseudoplastic behavior. The gum has some potentials for use as food additives and for other industrial applications.

Keywords

References

[1]  D. Verbeken, S. Diekx, K. Dewettinck, Applied Microbiological Biotechnology, 2003, 63, 10.
 
[2]  R.C.M de paula,.,S.A. Santana, J.F. Rodrigues, Carbohydrate Polymers, 2001, 44, 133.
 
[3]  G.S. Mhinzi, Food Chemistry, 2002, 77, 30.
 
[4]  L.R.C. Pablyana,, C.M.R. de Paula, P.A. Feitosa, International Journal of Biological macromolecules, 2007, 41, 324.
 
[5]  Q. Wang, P.R. Ellis, S.B. Ross-Murphy, W. Burchard, Carbohydrate Polymer, 1997, 33, 115.
 
Show More References
[6]  M.P.Yadav, N. Parris, D.B. Johnson, K.B. Hicks, Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 2008, 56, 4181.
 
[7]  M. Elmanan, S. Al-Assaf, G.O. Phillips, P.A. Williams, Food hydrocolloids, 2008, 22, 682.
 
[8]  S.E. Ahmed, B.E. Mohamed, K.A.Karamalla, Pakistan J. Nutrit. 2009, 8(6), 782.
 
[9]  M. Rinaudo, Food Hydrocolloids, 2001, 15, 433.
 
[10]  H.A. Khouryieh, T.J. Herald, F.Aramouni, S.Alavi, Food Research International, 2007, 40, 883.
 
[11]  A.R.R.Menon,. Iranian Polymer Journal, 2003, 12(4), 305.
 
[12]  N. O. Eddy, P. Ameh, C.E.Gimba, E.E.Ebenso, Asian Journal of Chemistry, 2012a, 25(3),1666.
 
[13]  D.M.W. Anderson, F.L. McDougal, Food additives and contaminants, 1983, 4(3), 257.
 
[14]  M.M.Jafar, E. Zahra, S. Mohammad, M. Mohammad, G.Babak, Iranian Journal of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, 2007, 26(3), 81.
 
[15]  K.A.Karamalla, N.E. Siddig,, M.E. Osman, Food Hydrocolloids, 1998, 12, 373.
 
[16]  O.H.M. Idris, P.A.Williams, G.O. Phillips, Food Hydrocolloids, 1998, 12, 379.
 
[17]  J.K. Lelon, I.O. Jumba, J.K. Keter, W. Chemuku, F.D.O. Oduor, African J. Phys. Chem., 2010, 4(4), 95.
 
[18]  N. E. Siddig, M.E.Osman, S. A-Assef, G.O. Phillips, P.A. Williams, Food Hydrocolloids, 2005, 19, 679.
 
[19]  JECFA-FAO, Specification for identity and purity of certain food additives. Food and Nutrition Paper No. 49, Rome, 1990.
 
[20]  E.I Nep, and B.R. Conway, Journal of Excipient and Food Chemistry, 2010, 1(1), 30.
 
[21]  S. D. Figueiro, J.C. Goes, R.A. Moreira, A.S.B. Sombra, Carbohydrate Polymers, 2004, 70(1), 15.
 
[22]  D.K Setua, R. Awasthi, S. Kumar, M. Prasad, K. Agarwal, Scanning electron microscopy of natural rubber surfaces: quantitative statistical and spectral texture analysis using digital image processing” Microscopy: Science, Technology, Applications and Education. A. Méndez-Vilas and J. Díaz (Eds.), 2010.
 
[23]  I. L. Acevedo, M. Katz, M..J. Solut. Chem. 1990, 19(10), 1041.
 
[24]  X. Ma, M. Pawlik, Carbohydrate Polymers, 2007, 70, 15
 
[25]  J. Higiro, T.J. Herald, S.Alavi, S. Bean. Food research international, 2006, 40, 435.
 
[26]  L.S Lai, J. Tung, P.S. Lin, Food Hydrocolloids, 2000, 14, 287.
 
[27]  R. Lapasin, S.Pricl, Rheology of Polysaccharide Systems. In: R Lapasin and S Pricl (eds.). Rheology of industrial polysaccharides: Theory and applications Blackie Academic and Professional, Glasgow, 1995.
 
[28]  E.R.Morris, A.N. Cutler, S.B. Ross-Murphy, D.A.Ress, J. Price, Carbohydrate Polymer, 2003, 1, 5.
 
[29]  S.V. Nair, Z. Oommen, S. Thomas. Materials Letters, 2002, 57, 475.
 
[30]  E.P. Varfolomeeva, V.Y. Grinberg, V.B. Toistogusov, Rheology of Polymer. Polymer Bulletins, 1980, 2, 613.
 
[31]  R.C.M. de Paula, J. F. Rodrigues, Carbohydrate Polymer, 1995, 26(3), 177.
 
[32]  A.G. Silva, J.F.Rodrigues, R.C.M. de Paula, PolimerosClencia e Technologia-ano VIII, 1998, 2, 34.
 
[33]  R.C.M. de Paula, S. A. Santana, J. F. Rodrigues, Food Res. Intern. 2006, 39, 165.
 
[34]  N.O Eddy, P.O. Ameh, C.E. Gimba, E.E. Ebenso, Journal of Chemistry, 2013.
 
[35]  N. Ahmad, A.Saeed, K.Ahad, M.S.Khan,. J. Chem. Soc. Pakistan, 1994, 16(2), 91.
 
[36]  F.D. Sanin, Water SA, 2002, 28(2), 207.
 
[37]  K. Khounvilay, W. Sittikijypthin, Food Hydrocolloids, 2012, 26(2), 334.
 
[38]  E.I.Yassen, T.J.. Herald, F.M.Aramouni, S. Alavi, Food Research International, 2005, 38, 111.
 
[39]  P. Ameh, N.O. Eddy, C.E.Gimba, Physiochemical and rheological studies on some natural polymers and their potentials as corrosion inhibitors. Lambert Academic Publishing. UK, 2012.
 
[40]  N. Triantafillopoulos, Measurement of Fluid Rheology and Interpretation of Rheograms” 2nd edition.Kaltec Scientific, Inc. USA, 1998.
 
[41]  J.S. Alakall, S,V.Irtwange, M. Mkavga, Afri. J. Food Sci., 2009, 3(9), 237.
 
[42]  F.F. Simas-Tosin, R.R.Barraza, C.L.O. Petkowicz, J.L.M. Silveira, G.L.Sassaki, E.M.R. Santos, P.A.J. Gorin, M.Iacomini, Food Hydrocolloids, 2010, 24, 486.
 
[43]  AOAC, Association of Official Agricultural Chemists. “Official Methods of Analysis”14th Edition. Washington, D.C., 1986.
 
Show Less References

Article

Variations in Specific Heat and Microstructure in Natural Rubber Filled with Different Fillers as Studied by Differential Scanning Calorimetry

1Physics Department, Visva-Bharati Central University, P.O.- Santiniketan, West Bengal, India

2Centre for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Mahatma Gandhi University, Kottayam, Kerala, India


Journal of Polymer and Biopolymer Physics Chemistry. 2014, 2(1), 25-28
DOI: 10.12691/jpbpc-2-1-4
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Arunava Mandal, Sandip Pan, Subrata Mukherjee, Achintya K. Saha, Sabu Thomas, Asmita Sengupta. Variations in Specific Heat and Microstructure in Natural Rubber Filled with Different Fillers as Studied by Differential Scanning Calorimetry. Journal of Polymer and Biopolymer Physics Chemistry. 2014; 2(1):25-28. doi: 10.12691/jpbpc-2-1-4.

Correspondence to: Asmita  Sengupta, Physics Department, Visva-Bharati Central University, P.O.- Santiniketan, West Bengal, India. Email: asmita_sengupta@hotmail.com

Abstract

The variation of specific heat (Cp) of natural rubber (NR) is studied by Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC). The NR samples are filled with different fillers (nanoclay, TiO2, and nanosilica) at different concentrations. The DSC measurements are done in N2 atmosphere with constant pressure of 0.3 bar to prevent any oxidation of the samples. The temperature has been varied up to 210°C from -40°C at a constant heating rate of 10°C \min throughout the experiment and Proteus analysis software is used to study the variation of specific heat (Cp) as function of both temperature and filler concentrations. The investigation shows that the Cp values increase with the increase of filler concentrations. Due to nanometer range diameter, these fillers fill up some of the free volume holes of NR sample. The fillers also make cross-link with NR chains causing an increase the molecular weight of NR as well as the Cp values. Thus the fillers act as active fillers for NR sample.

Keywords

References

[1]  Dlubek, G., Sengupta, A., Pionteck, J., Krause-Rehberg, R., Kaspar Harald and Helmut Lochhaas, K., “Temperature Dependence of the Free Volume in Fluoroelastomers from Positron Lifetime and PVT Experiments”, Macromolecules, 37. 6606-6618. 2004
 
[2]  Vleeshouwers, S., Kluin, J. E., McGervey, J. D., Jamieson, A. M., and Simha, R., “Monte Carlo calculations of hole size distribution: simulation of positron annihilation spectroscopy” J. Polym. Sci., Part B. Polym. Phys., 30. 1429. 1992.
 
[3]  Schmitz, H. and Muller- Plathe, F., “Calculation of the lifetime of positronium in polymers via molecular dynamics simulations”, J. Chem. Phys., 11. 1040. 2000.
 
[4]  Wang, J., Vincent, J. and Quarles, C. A., “Review of positron annihilation spectroscopy studies of rubber with carbon black filler”, Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B, 241. 271-275. 2005.
 
[5]  Mandal, A., Mukherjee, S., Pan, S. and Sengupta, A., “positron lifetime measurements in natural rubber with different fillers” Int. Journal of Modern Physics, 22. 112-117. 2013.
 
Show More References
[6]  Mandal, A., Mukherjee, S., Pan, S., Saha, A. K. and Sengupta, A., “PALS and DSC studies in high energy electron irradiated semicrystalline polypropylene” Int. Conf. on Recent Trends in Applied Physics and Ma terial Science. AIP Conf. Proc. 1536. 839. 2013.
 
[7]  Mandal, A., Pan, S., Mukherjee, S., Saha, A. K. Ranganathaiah, C. and Sengupta, A. “High energy electron irradiated polystyrene: free volume and thermal properties studied by PALS and DSC”, Journal of Polymer and Biopolymer Physics Chemistry, 1. No. 1, 26-30. 2013.
 
[8]  Mogensen, O. E, Positron Annihilation in Chemistry, Springer-Verlag, Barlin, vol. 58, 1995.
 
[9]  Dallas D. Parker , J. L. Koenig , Makio Mori, “Correlation of 13 C NMR Analysis and Physical Testing Results of Natural Rubber” Rubber Chem. Technol. 68. 551. 1995.
 
[10]  Nesterov, A. E. and Lipatov, Y. S., “Compatibilizing effect of filler in binary polymer mixtures” Polymer, 40. 1347-1349. 1999.
 
[11]  Saad A. L. G., El-Sabbagh S.: Compatibility studieson some polymer blend systems by electrical and mechanical techniques. Journal of Applied Polymer Science, 79, 60- 71 2001.
 
[12]  Sae-oui1, P., Sirisinha, C. and Hatthapanit, K., “Effect of blend ratio on aging, oil and ozone resistance of silica-filled chloroprene rubber/natural rubber (CR/NR) blends” Express Polymer Letters 1, No. 1. 8-14. 2007.
 
[13]  Ramesan M. T., Alex R., Khanh N. V., “Studies on the cure and mechanical properties of blends of natural rubber with dichlorocarbene modified styrene-butadi-ene rubber and chloroprene rubber”. Reactive & Functional Polymers, 62, 41-50 2005.
 
[14]  Ismail H., Leong H. C., “Curing characteristics and mechanical properties of natural rubber/chloroprene rubber and epoxidized natural rubber/chloroprene rub-ber blends”, Polymer Testing, 20, 509- 516, 2001.
 
[15]  Kueseng, P.; Sae-oui, P. and Rattanasom, N., “Mechanical and electrical properties of natural rubber and nitrile rubber blends filled with multi-wall carbon nanotube,” Polymer Testing. 32, 731- 738, 2013.
 
[16]  Zhang, P., Shi, X., Yu, G. and Zhao, S., “The structure change of dynamically fatigued unfilled natural rubber vulcanizates,” Journal of Applied Polymer Science, 115. No. 6. 3535- 3541, 2010.
 
[17]  Yehia, A. A.; Mansour, A. A. and Stoll, B. J. “Detection of compatibility of some rubber blends by DSC.” J Thermal Analysis. 48. 1299. 1997.
 
[18]  Pyda, M., “Conformational Heat Capacity of Interacting Systems of Polymer and Water”, Macromolecules, 35. 4009-4016. 2002.
 
[19]  Reading, M. and Hourston, D. J., “Modulated Temperature Differential Scanning Calorimetry: Theoretical and Practical Application in Polymer characterization”, Springer, 2006.
 
[20]  O’Neill, M. J., “Measurement of Specific Heat Functions by Differential Scanning Calorimetry”, Analytical Chemistry, 38 (10). 1331. 1966.
 
Show Less References

Article

Nuclear Waste Reduction Using Molecularly Imprinted Polymers

1University of Pittsburgh, USA


Journal of Polymer and Biopolymer Physics Chemistry. 2014, 2(2), 29-36
DOI: 10.12691/jpbpc-2-2-1
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Joe Nero, Jon Bartczak. Nuclear Waste Reduction Using Molecularly Imprinted Polymers. Journal of Polymer and Biopolymer Physics Chemistry. 2014; 2(2):29-36. doi: 10.12691/jpbpc-2-2-1.

Correspondence to: Jon  Bartczak, University of Pittsburgh, USA. Email: jab331@pitt.edu

Abstract

Nuclear power accounts for just over twenty percent of America’s electrical output and does not contribute to greenhouse gas emissions. Unfortunately, nuclear power does produce a deleterious by-product known as radioactive waste. One of the primary goals of nuclear power proponents is the development of methods that reduce the volume of radioactive waste, such as cobalt. Radioactive cobalt is usually accompanied by non-radioactive iron, making it more difficult to solely extract the harmful cobalt atoms. The application of molecularly imprinted polymers and chitosans increase the effectiveness of the removal of radioactive cobalt from cooling medium in order to reduce the overall volume of nuclear waste by having a high selectivity for the radioactive cobalt ions even in the presence of similar particles. This method’s efficacy will be analyzed and compared to the current procedures for removing radioactive cobalt from cooling medium. A relevant explanation of a nuclear reactor’s inner workings, radioactive waste formation, along with societal implications of cleaner nuclear power, and the benefits of its successful implementation, will also be discussed.

Keywords

References

[1]  P. Hodgeson. (2008, October). “Nuclear Power and the Energy Crisis.” First Principles. [Online.] Available: http://www.firstprinciplesjournal.com/articles.aspx?article=1110&loc=qs.
 
[2]  P. Hodgeson. (2008, October). “The Energy Crisis” First Principles. [Online.] Available: http://www.firstprinciplesjournal.com/articles.aspx?article=1080&loc=fs.
 
[3]  M. Jason. (2012, Feb 10). “Energy Density and Waste Comparison of Energy Production.” Nuclear Fissionary. [Online Article]. Available: http://nuclearfissionary.com/2010/06/09/energy-density-and-waste-comparison-of-energy-production/
 
[4]  J. Wiley. “Nuclear Fission Basics” [Online]. http://www.dummies.com/how-to/content/nuclear-fission-basics.html.
 
[5]  B. Cohen. (2012, March). “Risks of Nuclear Power.”
 
Show More References
[6]  A. Bhaskarapillai, S. Narashima, B. Sellergren. (2009, April). “Synthesis and Characterization of Imprinted Polymers for Radioactive Waste Reduction.” Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Research. [Online]. Available: http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/detail?vid=4&hid=17&sid=cee5d4a5-7e9c-451f-aa38-0a613f704e9c%40sessionmgr12&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZQ%3d%3d#db=aph&AN=37374694
 
[7]  D. D. Ebbing, S. D. Gammon. (2009). General Chemistry: Ninth edition. Belmont, Ca: Brooks/Cole. Page 821-857.
 
[8]  (2011, August). “Radiation Basics.” Health Physics Society. [Online]. Available: http://hps.org/publicinformation/ate/faqs/radiation.html.
 
[9]  (2012, January 22). “Nuclear Dawn.” The Economist [Online]. Available: http://www.economist.com/node/9719029.
 
[10]  A. Martin-Esteban. (2010, September). “Molecular Imprinting.” Sciverse. [Online]. http://www.scitopics.com/Molecular_Imprinting.html
 
[11]  “Polymer Structure” Case Western Reserve University. [Online]. Available: http://plc.cwru.edu/tutorial/enhanced/files/polymers/struct/struct.htm.
 
[12]  N. Lemcoff, S. Zimmerman. (2004, May). “Synthetic Hosts Via Molecular Imprinting—are Universal Synthetic Antibodies Realistically Possible?” Chem. Comm. [Online]. Available: http://www.rsc.org/Publishing/Journals/cc/article.asp?Type=Issue&Journalcode=CC&Issue=1&SubYear=2004&Volume=0&Page=0&GA=on.
 
[13]  D. Blauch. (2009). “Elemental Analysis: Carbon and Hydrogen.” Davidson College. [Online]. Available: http://www.chm.davidson.edu/vce/stoichiometry/ch.html.
 
[14]  B. Tissue. (2012, March). “Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy.” Virginia Technical Institute. [Online]. Available: http://www.files.chem.vt.edu/chem-ed/spec/atomic/aa.html
 
[15]  S. Luca. “Flame Photometry.” Standard Base. [Online]. Available: http://www.standardbase.com/tech/FinalHUTechFlame.pdf.
 
[16]  (2008) “Chain-Growth Polymerization.” Steinwall Inc. [Online]. Available: http://www.steinwall.com/ART-chain-growth-polymerization.html.
 
[17]  N. Abdul, B. Anupkumar, V. Sankaralingam, N. Sevilimedu. (2012, March). “Cobalt Imprinted Chitosan for Selective Removal of Cobalt During Nuclear Reactor Decontamination.” Carbohydrate Polymers. [Online]. Available: http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/detail?vid=6&hid=107&sid=a55a330c-edfa-4024-a955-9e59f81bc796%40sessionmgr14&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZQ%3d%3d#db=aph&AN=70039845.
 
[18]  A.Azapagic, C. Greenhalgh. (2009, December). “Review of Drivers and Barriers for Nuclear Power in the UK.” Environmental Science and Policy. [Online]. Available: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1462901109000987.
 
[19]  L. Warren. (1998, September). “Public Perception of Radioactive Wastes.” Interdisciplinary Science Revies. [Online]. Available: https://sremote.pitt.edu/content/maney/isr/1998/00000023/00000003/,DanaInfo=www.ingentaconnect.com+art00004?token=003f13882d47b76504c48663b252c232b6c533142595e6a333f257666954838.
 
Show Less References

Article

Mark-Houwink Parameters for Aqueous-Soluble Polymers and Biopolymers at Various Temperatures

1Laboratorio de Membranas, Instituto de Física Aplicada, CONICET, Facultad de Química, Bioquímica y Farmacia, Universidad Nacional de San Luis, Chacabuco, San Luis, Argentina


Journal of Polymer and Biopolymer Physics Chemistry. 2014, 2(2), 37-43
DOI: 10.12691/jpbpc-2-2-2
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Martin Alberto Masuelli. Mark-Houwink Parameters for Aqueous-Soluble Polymers and Biopolymers at Various Temperatures. Journal of Polymer and Biopolymer Physics Chemistry. 2014; 2(2):37-43. doi: 10.12691/jpbpc-2-2-2.

Correspondence to: Martin  Alberto Masuelli, Laboratorio de Membranas, Instituto de Física Aplicada, CONICET, Facultad de Química, Bioquímica y Farmacia, Universidad Nacional de San Luis, Chacabuco, San Luis, Argentina. Email: masuelli@unsl.edu.ar

Abstract

The intrinsic viscosity measurements used to calculate the Mark-Houwink (M-H) parameters are generally performed for different molecular weights at a constant temperature, with the standard value of this temperature being 25°C, or else 37°C in the case of mammalian proteins, or else under theta conditions for polymers and biopolymers. In the polymer industry, polysaccharides and proteins must circulate through pipes during transport processes where pumps have a very high-energy expenditure and where temperatures must be greatly increased, and at this point calculation of the Mark-Houwink parameters becomes important. The M-H parameters are calculated at standardized temperatures and in many cases, these are not useful because of the errors they carry, and it then becomes very difficult to calculate the molecular weight. It is therefore necessary to know the change in molecular weight as evidence of a change in the product obtained, as this may create a need to halt the production process, transport, or extrusion. The basic criterion is that the molecular weight does not change with temperature, or at least within one discrete range of temperatures, but that there is hydrodynamic change (intrinsic viscosity). The method is simple and requires iterative mathematical processing and measurement of intrinsic viscosity at different temperatures.

Keywords

References

[1]  Haurowitz, F. The Chemistry and Functions of Proteins, Academic Press, 1963.
 
[2]  Matsuoka, S.; Cowman, M.K. 2002. Equation of state for polymer solution. Polymer 43, 3447-3453.
 
[3]  van Holde, K.E. Physical Biochemistry, Foundations of Modern Biochemistry Series, Prentice-Hall, 1971.
 
[4]  Sun, S.F. Physical chemistry of Macromolecules. John Wiley & Sons, 2004.
 
[5]  Teraoka, Iwao. Polymer Solutions: An Introduction to Physical Properties. John Wiley & Sons, 2002.
 
Show More References
[6]  Utracki, L.; Simha, Robert. Molecular Weight and Temperature Dependence of Intrinsic Viscosities in very Poor Solvents. J. Phys. Chem. 1963; 67: 1056-1061.
 
[7]  Dohmen, Monique P. J.; Pereira, Ana M.; Timmer, J. Martin K.; Benes, Nieck E.; Keurentjes, Jos T. F. Hydrodynamic Radii of Polyethylene Glycols in Different Solvents Determined from Viscosity Measurements. J. Chem. Eng. Data 2008; 53: 63-65.
 
[8]  Rahmat Sadeghi, Mohammed Taghi Zafarani-Moattar. Thermodynamics of aqueous solutions of polyvinylpyrrolidone. J. Chem. Thermodynamics 2004; 36: 665-670.
 
[9]  Guner A. Unperturbed dimensions and theta temperature of dextran in aqueous solutions. Journal of Applied Polymer Science 1999; 72: 871-876.
 
[10]  Catiker Efkan, Guner Ali. Unperturbed dimensions and the theta temperature of dextran in ethylene glycol solutions. European Polymer Journal 2000; 36: 2143-2146.
 
[11]  Kasaai, Mohammad R. Calculation of Mark-Houwink-Sakurada (MHS) equation viscometric constants for chitosan in any solvent-temperature system using experimental reported viscometric constants data. Carbohydrate Polymers 2007; 68: 477-488.
 
[12]  Rong Huei Chen, Wei Yu Chen, Shang Ta Wang, Chu Hsi Hsu, Min Lang Tsai. Changes in the Mark-Houwink hydrodynamic volume of chitosan molecules in solutions of different organic acids, at different temperatures and ionic strengths. Carbohydrate Polymers 2009; 78: 902-907.
 
[13]  Rong Huei Chen, Min Larng Tsai. Effect of temperature on the intrinsic viscosity and conformation of chitosans in dilute HCl solution. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules 1998; 23: 135-141.
 
[14]  Masuelli, Martin Alberto. Viscometric study of pectin. Effect of temperature on the hydrodynamic properties. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules 2011; 48: 286-291.
 
[15]  Huggins M.L. The Viscosity of Dilute Solutions of Long-Chain Molecules. IV. Dependence on Concentration. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1942; 64, 11: 2716-2718.
 
[16]  Staudinger, H. Die hochmolekularen organischen Verbindungen. Berlin: Julius Springer, 1932.
 
[17]  Mark, H. in Der feste Körper (ed. Sänger, R.), 65-104 (Hirzel, Leipzig, 1938).
 
[18]  Houwink, R. Zusammenhang zwischen viscosimetrisch und osmotisch bestimm-ten polymerisationsgraden bei hochpolymeren. J. Prakt. Chem. 1940; 157: 15.
 
[19]  García de la Torre, J.; Carrasco, B. Universal size-independent quantities for the conformational characterization of rigid and flexible macromolecules. Progress in Colloid Polymers Science 1999; 113: 81-86.
 
[20]  Harding, Stephen E. The Viscosity Intrinsic of Biological Macromolecules. Progress in Measurement, Interpretation and Application to Structure in Dilute Solution. Progress in Biophysical Molecules Biological 1997; 68: 207-262.
 
[21]  Flory, P.J; Leutner, F.S. “Occurrence of Head-to-Head Arrangements of Structural Units in Polyvinyl Alcohol”, J. Polym. Sci. 1948; 3: 880.
 
[22]  Carather Jr., C.E. Generation of Poly (vinyl alcohol) and Arrangement of Structural Units, J. Chem. Edu. 1978; 55: 473-475.
 
[23]  Rehana Saeed, Fahim Uddin, Arshad Fazal. Effect of Electrolyte Concentration on Viscous Flow of Polymer Solutions. J. Chem. Eng. Data 2002; 47: 1359-1362.
 
[24]  Misra, G. S., Mukherjee, P. K. The relation between the molecular weight and intrinsic viscosity of polyvinyl alcohol. Colloid & Polymer Sci. 1980; 258: 152-155.
 
[25]  Tinland, B.; Rinaudo, M. Dependence of the Stiffness of the Xanthan Chain on the External Salt Concentration. Macromolecules 1989; 22: 1863-1865.
 
[26]  Masuelli, Martin Alberto & Sansone, Maria Gabriela. Hydrodynamic properties of Gelatin. Studies from intrinsic viscosity measurements. Chapter 5 of book: Biopolymers, INTECH, 2012, ISBN 979-953-307-229-5, Croatia.
 
[27]  Pouradier, J. & Venet, M. Contribution a l'etude de la structure des gélatines V.-Dégradation de la gélatine en solution isoélectrique, Journal de Chimie Physique et de Physico-Chimie Biologique 1952; 49: 85-91.
 
[28]  Bohidar, H.B. Hydrodynamic properties of gelatin in dilute solutions. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules 1998; 23: 1-6.
 
[29]  Gomez-Estaca, J., Montero, P., Fernandez-Martin, F., & Gomez-Guillen, M. C. (2009). Physico-chemical and film forming properties of bovine-hide and tuna-skin gelatin: a comparative study. Journal of Food Engineering, 2009, 90, 4: 480-486.
 
[30]  Zhao, W. B. Gelatin. Polymer Data Handbook. Oxford University Press, 1999.
 
[31]  Qing Shen, Di Mu, Li-Wei Yu, Liang Chen. A simplified approach for evaluation of the polarity parameters for polymer using the K coefficient of the Mark-Houwink-Sakurada equation. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science 2004; 275: 30-34.
 
[32]  Masuelli, Martin Alberto. Study of Bovine Serum Albumin Solubility in Aqueous Solutions by Intrinsic Viscosity Measurements. Advances in Physical Chemistry, Volume 2013, Article ID 360239, 8 p.
 
[33]  Masuelli, Martin A.; Takara, Andres; Acosta, Adolfo. Hydrodynamic properties of tragacanthin. Study of temperature influence. The Journal of the Argentine Chemical Society, 2013, 100: 25-34.
 
[34]  Masuelli, Martin A. Hydrodynamic properties of whole arabic gum. American Journal of Food Science and Technology, 2013, 1, 3: 60-66.
 
[35]  Masuelli, Martin Alberto. Dextrans in Aqueous Solution. Experimental Review on Intrinsic Viscosity Measurements and Temperature Effect. Journal of Polymer and Biopolymer Physics Chemistry, 2013, 1, 1: 13-21.
 
[36]  Masuelli, Martin Alberto & Illanes, Cristian Omar. Review of the characterization of sodium alginate by intrinsic viscosity measurements. Comparative analysis between conventional and single point methods. International Journal of BioMaterials Science and Engineering, 2014, 1, 1: 1-11.
 
Show Less References

Article

Comparatively Study of Natural and Polymeric Cotton

1Department of Textile Engineering, KIOT, Wollo University, South Wollo, Ethiopia

2Department of Chemical Engineering, KIOT, Wollo University, Kombolcha, Ethiopia


Journal of Polymer and Biopolymer Physics Chemistry. 2014, 2(3), 44-49
DOI: 10.12691/jpbpc-2-3-1
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Karthikeyan M. R, Omprakash Sahu. Comparatively Study of Natural and Polymeric Cotton. Journal of Polymer and Biopolymer Physics Chemistry. 2014; 2(3):44-49. doi: 10.12691/jpbpc-2-3-1.

Correspondence to: Omprakash  Sahu, Department of Chemical Engineering, KIOT, Wollo University, Kombolcha, Ethiopia. Email: ops0121@gmail.com

Abstract

An Investigation of the properties of weft knitted fabrics produced from organically made cotton vis-à-vis regular cotton knitted fabric is reported. The yarn is made with organically produced cotton and regular cotton and the fabric was knitted using single jersey machines. The fabrics were subsequently dyed using natural dyes. The naturally dyed knitted fabrics were examined for shrinkage, bursting strength, abrasion resistance, colour fastness properties. The result show that the knitted fabrics produced from organically grown cotton is superior in performance in comparing with fabrics produced from regular cotton.

Keywords

References

[1]  AATCC, (1995), ‘Technical manual of the American Association of Textile Chemist and Colorist’, Col 70, American associations of Textile Chemists and Colorists, Canada. P. 23.
 
[2]  Bhavasar. A.M, (2004),’Dyeing and Finishing of Cotton’, Man Made Textile in India Journal, L. Simson publications, pp. 580.
 
[3]  Chemical finishing of textiles (2004), edited by S.D. Wolfgang, Wood Head Publishing.
 
[4]  Wickens hetty, ‘Natural Dye for Spinners and Weavers’, BT Batsford Limited, London.
 
[5]  Priyank Dasgupta Brahma, ‘Cotton Organic Orientations’, Modern Textile Journal, Oct-Nov. 2007, pp. 19-23.
 
Show More References
[6]  Natural dyes February 2008, ‘Colourage’ – Gahlot, Mumbai-79.
 
[7]  Environment production –April 2006, ‘Colourage’, pp. 52-54.
 
[8]  Organic cotton – July 2006, ‘Asian Textile Journal’, pp. 75-79.
 
[9]  Ravichandran. P, (2002), Colourage, Vol – XLIX. No. 11, The Future of Cotton, p. 1.
 
[10]  Kaplan. N. S (2001), Textile Fibers, Abshishek Publication, Chandigar, pp. 203.
 
[11]  Mary D. Boundrea and Frenderick A. Beleand (2006), the Journal of Environmental Science and Health, Part C, pp. 103-154.
 
[12]  Mishra. S. P (2000), A Text Book of Fiber Science and Technology, New Age International Publishers, pp. 2.
 
[13]  Natural Colored Cotton – July 2006, ‘Colourage’, pp. 57.
 
[14]  Globalize Organic Cotton – November 2006, ‘Apparel Online’, pp. 16-30.
 
[15]  Environment production – November 2006, ‘Colourage’, pp. 38-42.
 
[16]  Iyer. N. D, (2001), ‘Cotton the King of Fibers’, Colourage, May, Colourage publications, pp. 75-76.
 
[17]  Teli. M. D, Paul Roshan, Pardeshi. P.P, (2001) Natural Dyes, Classification Chemistry and Extraction Methods, Colourage, April 2001, 51.
 
Show Less References

Article

Rheological Behaviour of Eco-friendly Drilling Fluids from Biopolymers

1Department of Environmental Engineering/Industrial Safety, Imo State Polytechnic, Umuagwo, Nigeria

2Department of Polymer and Textile Engineering, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria


Journal of Polymer and Biopolymer Physics Chemistry. 2014, 2(3), 50-54
DOI: 10.12691/jpbpc-2-3-2
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
O.U. Nwosu, C. M. Ewulonu. Rheological Behaviour of Eco-friendly Drilling Fluids from Biopolymers. Journal of Polymer and Biopolymer Physics Chemistry. 2014; 2(3):50-54. doi: 10.12691/jpbpc-2-3-2.

Correspondence to: C.  M. Ewulonu, Department of Polymer and Textile Engineering, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria. Email: cm.ewulonu@unizik.edu.ng

Abstract

The rheological properties of drilling fluids modified with three biopolymers – carboxylmethyl cellulose (CMC), xanthan gum polysaccharide (xanplex D), and polyanionic cellulose (PAC-R) have been studied. The effect of concentration of the biopolymers on the drilling fluid was also reported. The modified drilling fluids were found to obey Herschel-Bulkley rheological model. The fluids were also found to be pseudo-plastic with shear thinning behaviour. Polyanionic cellulose showed the highest shear rate and shear stress than carboxylmethyl cellulose and xanplex D. This can be attributed to the straight open long chain structure of PAC-R and its ability to interact with water, solids and with itself. It also acted as a better viscosifier because of the more negative charge it carries. Also, the formulation of biopolymer drilling fluid with bentonite has proven to improve the viscosity than that encountered in normal conventional drilling fluids.

Keywords

References

[1]  R. B. Watson, P. Viste, and J. R. Lauritzen, “The influence of fluid loss additives in high temperature reservoirs”, Society of Petroleum Engineers Conference Paper, 2012.
 
[2]  B. K. Warren, T. R. Smith, K. M. Ravi, “Static and dynamic fluid-loss characteristics of drilling fluids in a full-scale wellbore”, Society of Petroleum Engineers Conference Paper, 1993.
 
[3]  National Iranian Oil Company (NIOC) manual, “Drilling formation”, Department of Drilling Chemistry, Ahwaz, Iran, 2002.
 
[4]  S. Z. Kassab, A. S. Ismail, and M. M. Elessawi, “Drilling fluid rheology and hydraulics for oil fields”, European Journal of Scientific Research, Vol. 57, Issue 1, p68, 2011.
 
[5]  Deily et al., “New biopolymer low-solids mud speeds drilling operation”, The Oil and Gas Journal, vol. 65, No. 26, pp. 62-70, 1967.
 
Show More References
[6]  H. C. H. Darley, and G. R. Gray, “Composition and properties of drilling and completion fluids”, 5th ed. Gulf Professional Publishing, Houston, USA, pp. 66-67, 561-562, 1988.
 
[7]  J. L. Lummus, and J. J. Azar, “Drilling fluids optimization: A practical field approach”, PennWell Books, Tulsa-Oklahoma, USA, pp. 3-5, 1986.
 
[8]  J. F. Douglas, J. M. Gas-lorek, and J. A. Swaffield, “Fluid mechanics”, 3rd ed. ELBS with Longman, 1995.
 
[9]  American Petroleum Institute, “Drilling fluid testing procedure manual”, USA, 2000.
 
[10]  TEAP-ENIAgip Division, “Drilling fluid and waste disposal manual”, Nigeria, 2000.
 
[11]  T. Hamida, E. Kuru, and M. Pickard, “Rheological characteristics of aqueous waxy hull-less barley (WHB) solutions”, Journal of Petroleum Science and Technology, 69, pp 163-173, 2009.
 
[12]  T. Adam, Jr. Bourgoyne, E. C. Martin, F. S. Keithk, and Jr. Young, “Applied drilling engineering”, Society of Petroleum Engineers Text Book Series, Vol. 2, pp. 4082, 1991.
 
[13]  L. M. Zhang, Y. B. Tan, and Z. M. Li, “New water-soluble ampholytic polysaccharides for oilfield drilling treatment: A preliminary study” Carbohydr. Polym.44, pp. 255-260, 2001.
 
[14]  E. Lucas, C. Mansur, and L. Spinelli, Pure and Applied Chemistry, 81, pp. 473, 2009,
 
[15]  A. Przepasniak and P. Clark, Society of Petroleum Engineers, Conference paper SPE-39461, Lafayette, EUA, 1998.
 
[16]  A. Martins, A. Waldman, and D. Ribeiro, Society of Petroleum Engineers, Conference paper SPE-94287, Madrid, Spain, 2005.
 
[17]  N. J. Alderman, D. R. Babu, T. L. Hughes, and G. C. Maitland, “Rheological properties of water-based drilling muds”, in 4th International Congress on Rheology, Sydney, 1988.
 
[18]  M. V. Kok, T. Alikaya, “Rheological evaluation of polymers as drilling fluids”, Petroleum Science Technology, Vol. 21, Nos. 1-2, pp. 133, 2003.
 
[19]  M. V. Kok, T. Alikaya, “Effect of polymers on the rheological properties of KCl/polymer type drilling fluid”, Energy Sources, 27: 405, 2005.
 
[20]  F. H. D Outmans, “Mechanics of static and dynamic filtration”, Society of Petroleum Engineer Journal, 63: 210, 1963.
 
[21]  J. Mewis, J. F. Willaim, A. S. Trevor, and W. B. Russel, “Rheology of suspensions containing polymerically stabilized particles”, Journal of Chemical Engineering Research Development, 19: 415, 1989.
 
[22]  G. V. Chilingarian, and P. Varabutre, “Drilling and drilling muds” Development in Petroleum Science, 44, Elsevier, Amsterdam, 2000.
 
[23]  M. N. Okafor, and J. F. Evers, “Experimental comparison of rheology models for drilling fluids”, SPE Western Regional Meeting, California, Paper ID. SPE-24086-MS, 1992.
 
[24]  T. Hemphill, W. Campos and A. Pilehvari, "Yield-power law model more accurately predicts mud rheology”, Oil & Gas Journal, Vol. 91, No. 34, pp. 45-50, 1993.
 
[25]  M. Khalil, and B. M. Jan, “Herschel-Bulkley rheological parameters of a novel environmentally friendly lightweight biopolymer drilling fluid from xanthan gum and starch”, Journal of Applied Polymer Science, Vol. 124, Issue 1, pp. 595-606, 2012.
 
[26]  C. O. Chike–Onyegbula, O. Ogbobe, and S. C. Nwanonenyi, “Biodegradable polymer drilling mud prepared from guinea corn”, Journal of Brewing and Distilling Vol. 3, No. 1, pp. 6-14, 2012.
 
[27]  C. W. Hoogendam, A. de Keizer, M. A. Cohen Stuart, B. H. Bijsterbosch, J. A. M. Smit, J. A. P. P. Van Dijk, P. M. Vander Horst and J. G. Batelann (1998). “Persistence length of carboxymethyl cellulose as evaluated from size exclusion chromatography and potentiometric titrations.” Macromolecules 31, 6297-6309.
 
[28]  J. Kelly and J. John (1983). “Drilling fluid selection, performance and quality control.”Petroleum Technology, p889.
 
[29]  B. L. Browning (1967). “Viscosity and molecular weight.”In Methods of wood chemistry, Vol. 2. B. L. Browning ed., Interscience Publishers, New York, Ch. 25, 519-557.
 
Show Less References

Article

Comparative Experimental Studies on the Physico-mechanical Properties of Jute Caddies Reinforced Polyester and Polypropylene Composites

1Institute of Radiation and Polymer Technology, Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission, Dhaka, Bangladesh

2Department of Chemistry, Shahjalal University of Science and Technology, Sylhet, Bangladesh


Journal of Polymer and Biopolymer Physics Chemistry. 2014, 2(3), 55-61
DOI: 10.12691/jpbpc-2-3-3
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Rezaul K Khan, S. M. Shauddin, S. S. Dhar. Comparative Experimental Studies on the Physico-mechanical Properties of Jute Caddies Reinforced Polyester and Polypropylene Composites. Journal of Polymer and Biopolymer Physics Chemistry. 2014; 2(3):55-61. doi: 10.12691/jpbpc-2-3-3.

Correspondence to: S.  M. Shauddin, Institute of Radiation and Polymer Technology, Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission, Dhaka, Bangladesh. Email: sms.baec@gmail.com

Abstract

Non-woven jute caddies (JC, jute wastage) reinforced unsaturated polyester resin (UPR) and polypropylene (PP)-based randomly oriented discontinuous fibre composites with fibre loading 40-65% were fabricated by compression molding. The influence of the addition of fibre loadings on the mechanical properties such as tensile strength (TS) and tensile modulus (TM), bending strength (BS) and bending modulus (BM) and impact strength (IS) of the composites was investigated. Based on the fiber loading, around 55% JC reinforced UPR composite yielded better mechanical properties compared to the JC/PP composite. To improve the compatibility between fibre and matrix, the composites were irradiated with gamma rays (Co-60) of dose varied from 2.5 kGy to 12.5 kGy. Tensile and flexural properties of the composites were found to be improved significantly after irradiation. TS and BS of JC/UPR composites increased 29.86 and 14.60% respectively at 7.5 kGy while for JC/PP composites the increments were 21.69 and 7.78% respectively at 5.0 kGy. Water uptake tests of untreated and irradiated composites were carried out in deionized water where, the water-resistance properties of both kinds of irradiated composites were found to improve almost equally. Degradation tests of the composites were performed in soil medium and it was observed that JC/UPR composites lost much of its original strength and modulus compared to that of the JC/PP composites.

Keywords

References

[1]  Mahapatra, B. S., M. Sabyasachi, M. K. Sinha and A. K. Ghorai, 2009. Research and development in jute (Corchorus sp.) and allied fibres in India: A review. Indian J. Agron., 54: 361-373.
 
[2]  Available online: http://www. jute. org (accessed on 20/09/2014).
 
[3]  Ganguly, P. K., S. K. Bhaduri and A. Day, 2004. Jute caddies: A potential raw material for handmade paper. J. Sci. Ind. Res., 63: 417-419.
 
[4]  J. T. Fang, B. Liao, S. Lee; New. Biotechnol, 2010, 27, 32.
 
[5]  C. Azeri, U. A. Tamer, M. Oskay; Afr. J. Biotech, 2010, 9, 72.
 
Show More References
[6]  Daniel, Isaac M., and Ori Ishai. Engineering Mechanics of Composite Materials. Second Edition. New York: Oxford University Press, Inc., 2006. Print
 
[7]  Mitra, B. C., R. K. Basak and M. Sarkar, 1998. Studies on jute-reinforced composites, it’s laminations and some solutions through chemical modifications of fibres. J. Applied Polym. Sci., 67: 1098-1100.
 
[8]  Rana, A. K., A. Mondal and K. Jayachandran, 1999. Jute composites: Properties and applications in packaging. Packag. India, 3: 15-19.
 
[9]  Bharat Dholakiya, September 26, 2012. Unsaturated Polyester Resin for Specialty Applications, Chapter-7: 167-202.
 
[10]  Zaman HU, Khan AH, Hossain MA, Khan MA, Khan RA. Mechanical and electrical properties of jute fabrics reinforced polyethylene/polypropylene composites: Role of gamma radiation. Polymer-Plastics Technology and Engineering. 2009; 48: 760-6.
 
[11]  Khan MA, Hinrichsen G, Drzal LT. Influence of novel coupling agents on mechanical of jute reinforced polypropylene composite. Journal of Material Science Letters. 2001; 20: 1711-3.
 
[12]  Czvikovszky T. Reactive recycling of multiphase polymer systems. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms. 1995; 105: 233-7.
 
[13]  Karmaker AC, Hinrichen G. Processing and characterization of jute fiber reinforced thermoplastic polymers. Polymer-Plastics Technology and Engineering. 1991; 30 (5-6): 609-29.
 
[14]  A. A. Kafi, M. Z. Abedin, M. D. H. Beg, K. L. Pickering and M. A. Khan, “Study on the Mechanical Properties of Jute/Glass Fiber-Reinforced Unsaturated Polyester Hy-brid Composite: Effect of Surface Modification by Ultra-violet Radiation,” Journal of Reinforced Plastics and Composites, Vol. 25, No. 6, 2006, pp. 575-588.
 
[15]  Indicula, M. and Thomas, S. (2004). Effect of Fiber Loading and Fiber Ration on the Mechanical Properties of Intimately Mixed Banana/Sisal Hybrid Fiber reinforced Composites, In: 5th Global Wood and Natural Fiber Composites Symposium, 27-28 April, Kessel/Germany.
 
[16]  Saheb, D. N., Jog, J. P., 1999. Natural fiber polymer composites: a review. Adv. Polym. Technol. 18 (4), 351-363.
 
[17]  Valdez-Gonzalez, A., Cervantes-Uea, J. M., Oleyob, R., Herrera-Franco, P. J., 1999. Effect of fiber-surface treatment on the fiber-matrix bond strength of natural fiber reinforced composites. Composites: Part B 3, 309-320.
 
[18]  Wolcott, M. P., 1993. Wood-Fiber/Polymer Composites. Forest Product Society, Madison, WI, USA 24-32.
 
[19]  Haydaruzzaman, Ruhul A. Khan, Mubarak A. Khan, A. H. Khan, M. A. Hossain Effect of gamma radiation on the performance of jute fabrics-reinforced polypropylene composites, Radiation Physics and Chemistry 78 (2009) 986-993
 
[20]  Mubarak A. Khan, Ruhul A. Khan, Haydaruzzaman, Abul Hossain and A. H. Khan “Effect of Gamma Radiation on the Physico-Mechanical and Electrical Properties Jute Fiber-Reinforced Polypropylene Composites” Journal of Reinforced Plastics and Composites 2009; 28; 1651 originally published online Jul 31, 2008.
 
[21]  M. A. Khan, C. Kopp and G. Hinrichsen, “Effect of Vinyl and Silicon Monomer on Mechanical and Degradation Properties of Bio-Degradable Jute-Biopol® Composite,” Journal of Reinforced Plastics and Composites, Vol. 20, No. 16, 2001, pp. 1414-1429.
 
Show Less References

Article

Fabrication of Poly(Caprolactone) Nanofibers by Electrospinning

1Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering Laboratory, Department of Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, India


Journal of Polymer and Biopolymer Physics Chemistry. 2014, 2(4), 62-66
DOI: 10.12691/jpbpc-2-4-1
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Athira K. S., Pallab Sanpui, Kaushik Chatterjee. Fabrication of Poly(Caprolactone) Nanofibers by Electrospinning. Journal of Polymer and Biopolymer Physics Chemistry. 2014; 2(4):62-66. doi: 10.12691/jpbpc-2-4-1.

Correspondence to: Athira  K. S., Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering Laboratory, Department of Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, India. Email: athiraiisc@gmail.com

Abstract

Nanofibers at 466 ± 242 nm average diameter were fabricated due to phase separation caused by polarizability difference under static electric field. Fibre morphology was observed under a scanning electron microscopy. An insight into the process of electrospinning of the polymer, poly(caprolactone) was systematically evaluated and discussed the effects of the solution parameter of concentration of the polymer solution and process parameters of voltage, flow rate and drop height to fabricate poly(caprolactone) electrospun fibers with desired morphologies in this manuscript. Of all combinations, the best nanofibres with the fewest beads and finest fibers could be electrospun with a more uniform distribution in with a 15 kV applied voltage of on poly(caprolactone) solution of 12 per cent concentration at a 0.5 ml/h flow rate, from a drop height of 15 cm and the structure of nanofibres was found completely dry and stabilized.

Keywords

References

[1]  Sukigara, S., Gandhi, M., Ayutsede, J., Micklus, M. and Ko, F, “Regeneration of Bombyx morisilk by electrospinning-part 1: processing parameters and geometric properties,” Polymer, 44, 5721-5727, 2003.
 
[2]  Haghi, A.K. and Akbari, M, “Trends in electrospinning of natural nanofibers,” Phys Status Solidi., 204, 1830–1834, 2007.
 
[3]  Ki, C.S., Baek, D.H., Gang, K.D., Lee, K.H., Um, I.C. and Park, Y.H, “Characterization of gelatin nanofiber prepared from gelatin-formic acid solution,” Polymer., 46, 5094-5102, 2005.
 
[4]  Jun, Z., Hou, H., Schaper, A., Wendorff, J.H. and Greiner, A, “Poly-L-lactide nanofibers by electrospinning-influence of solution viscosity and electrical conductivity on fiber diameter and fiber morphology,” e-Polym., 9, 1-9, 2003.
 
[5]  Deitzel, J.M., Kleinmeyer, J., Harris, D. and Tan, N.C.B, “The effect of processing variables on the morphology of electrospun nanofibers and textiles,” Polymer., 42, 261-272, 2001.
 
Show More References
[6]  Baumgarten, P.K, “Electrostatic spinning of acrylic microfibers,” J Colloid Interface Sci., 36, 71-79, 1971.
 
[7]  Reneker, D.H. and Chun, L, “Nanometre diameters of polymer, produced by electrospinning,” Nanotechnology, 7, 216-223, 1996.
 
[8]  Zhang, C., Yuan, X., Wu, L., Han, Y. and Sheng, J, “Study on morphology of electrospun poly(vinyl alcohol) mats,” Eur Polym J., 41, 423-432, 2005.
 
[9]  Demir, M.M., Yilgor, I., Yilgor, E. and Erman, B, “Electrospinning of polyurethanefibers,” Polymer., 43, 3303-3309, 2002.
 
[10]  Larrondo, L. and Manley, R.S.J, “Electrostatic fiber spinning from polymer melts. II. Examination of the flow field in an electrically driven jet,” J Polym Sci Polym Phys Ed., 19, 921-932, 1981.
 
[11]  Yordem, O.S., Papila, M. and Menceloğlu, Y.Z, “Effects of electrospinning parameters on polyacrylonitrile nanofiber diameter: an investigation by response surface methodology,” Mater Des., 29, 34-44, 2008.
 
[12]  Yuan, X.Y., Zhang, Y.Y., Dong, C.H. and Sheng, J, “Morphology of ultrafine polysulfone fibers prepared by electrospinning,” Polym Int., 53, 1704-1710, 2004.
 
[13]  Zuo, W.W., Zhu, M.F., Yang, W., Yu, H., Chen, Y.M. and Zhang, Y, “Experimental study on relationship between jet instability and formation of beaded fibers during electrospinning,” Polym Eng Sci., 45, 704-709, 2005.
 
[14]  Bharadwaj, N. and Kundu, S.C, “Electrospinning: A fascinating fiber fabrication technique,” Biotechnology Advances., 28, 325-347, 2010.
 
[15]  Jalili, R., Hosseini, S.A. and Morshed, M, “The effects of operating parameters on the morphology of electrospun polyacrilonitrile nanofibres,” Iran Polym J., 14, 1074-1081, 2005.
 
[16]  Lee, J.S., Choi, K.H., Ghim, H.D., Kim, S.S., Chun, D.H. and Kim, H.Y, “Role of molecular weight of a tactic poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA) in the structure and properties of PVA nanofabric prepared by electrospinning,” J Appl Polym Sci., 93, 1638-1646, 2004.
 
[17]  Buchko, C.J., Chen, L.C., Shen, Y. and Martin, D.C, “Processing and microstructural characterization of porous biocompatible protein polymer thin films,” Polymer., 40, 7397-7407, 1999.
 
[18]  Pham, Q.P., Sharma, U. and Mikos, A.G, “Electrospun poly (ε-caprolactone) microfiber and multilayer nanofiber/microfiber scaffolds: characterization of scaffolds and measurement of cellular infiltration,” Biomacromolecules., 7, 2796-2805, 2006.
 
[19]  Zhao, Z.Z., Li, J.Q., Yuan, X.Y., Li, X., Zhang, Y.Y. and Sheng, J, “Preparation and properties of electrospun poly (vinylidenefluoride) membranes,” J Appl Polym Sci., 97, 466-474, 2005.
 
Show Less References

Article

The Determination of the Solubility Parameter (δ) and the Mark-Houwink Constants (K & α) of Food Grade Polyvinyl Acetate (PVAc)

1Department of Chemistry, Hofstra University, Hempstead, New York


Journal of Polymer and Biopolymer Physics Chemistry. 2014, 2(4), 67-72
DOI: 10.12691/jpbpc-2-4-2
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Ronald P. D’Amelia, Jaksha C. Tomic, William F. Nirode. The Determination of the Solubility Parameter (δ) and the Mark-Houwink Constants (K & α) of Food Grade Polyvinyl Acetate (PVAc). Journal of Polymer and Biopolymer Physics Chemistry. 2014; 2(4):67-72. doi: 10.12691/jpbpc-2-4-2.

Correspondence to: Ronald  P. D’Amelia, Department of Chemistry, Hofstra University, Hempstead, New York. Email: Ronald.P.Damelia@hofstra.edu

Abstract

Polyvinyl alkyl ester of carboxylic acids are a family of macromolecules in which the side chain esters (pendant groups) increase in molar mass and hydrophobicity and decrease in structural polarity as the number of carbons in the carboxylic acid increases. The most important polymer in this family is Polyvinyl Acetate (PVAc). The Solubility Parameter (δ) is a unique physical property of any polymeric material and can be a useful guide to understanding the miscibility or compatibility of two polymeric substances. It is therefore essential in working with polymeric blends of PVAc that the experimental solubility parameter be accurately and precisely known. We have experimentally determined the solubility parameter of food grade PVAc by measuring the intrinsic viscosity of several different molecular weight PVAc samples (ranging from 11K -75K Daltons) in four different solvents (acetone, methanol, tetrahydrofuran, toluene,) at 25°C using glass capillary viscometry. We also estimated the solubility parameter using the principles of group additivity contribution due to the atoms, groups and bonds present in PVAc based on the theories of Small, Hoy, and Van Krevelen. The Mark-Houwink constants for PVAC in the four solvents were also experimentally determined. Our experimentally determined solubility parameter was 9.35 (cal/cm3)1/2 which compared well with the computational values obtained by Hoy (9.56), Small (9.45) and Van Krevelen (9.27).

Keywords

References

[1]  Burrell, H., Off. Dig. Fed. Paint. Varn. Prod., 27, 726, 1955.
 
[2]  Gee, G., “Swelling and Solubility in Mixed Liquids”, Trans. Faraday Soc., 40, 468-480, 1944.
 
[3]  Mangaraj, D., Patra, S., Roy, P.C., “Cohesive Energy Densities of High Polymers: V- C.E.D. of Polyacrylates”, Makromol. Chem., 81, 173-175, 1965
 
[4]  Burrell, H. Solubility Parameter Values, Polymer Handbook, 2nd ed, (eds Brandrup & Immergut), J. Wiley, 1975, IV: 337-359.
 
[5]  Kurata, M., Tsunashima, Y., et. al., Viscosity – Molecular Weight Relationships & Unperturbed Dimensions of Linear Chain Molecules, Polymer Handbook 2nd ed., (eds. Brandrup & Immergut), J.Wiley, 1975, IV: 1-60.
 
Show More References
[6]  Barton, A. F. M., CRC Handbook of Polymer-Liquid Interaction Parameters and Solubility Parameters, CRC Press, Boca Raton, 1990, 297-342.
 
[7]  Hansen, C.M., CRC Handbook – Hansen Solubility Parameters: A User’s Handbook, 2nd edition, CRC Press, Boca Raton, 2007, 1-33
 
[8]  Flory P. J., Principles of Polymer Science, Wiley-Interscience,. Cornel University Press, Ithaca, N.Y 1953, chapters 12 & 13.
 
[9]  Billmeyer, F., Textbook of Polymer Science, Wiley-Interscience, New York, 1966, chapter 3E.
 
[10]  Rabek, J.F., Experimental Methods in Polymer Chemistry, J. Wiley, New York, 1980, chapter 9, 123-140.
 
[11]  Masuelli, M.A., “Mark-Houwink Parameter for Aqueous-Soluble Polymers & Biopolymers at Various Temperatures”, Journal of Polymer & Biopolymer Physics, 2, 2, 37-43, 2014.
 
[12]  Chee, K.K., “Huggins’ Constant and Unperturbed Parameter of Dilute Polymer Solutions”, J. Applied Polym. Sci., 27, 5, 1675-1680, 1982.
 
[13]  Braun, J. L., Kadia, J.F., “A Relative Simple Method for Calculating Mark-Houwink Parameters using Basic Definitions”, J. of Applied Polym. Sci., 114, 5, 3303-3309, 2009.
 
[14]  Huggins, M.L. “The Viscosity of Dilute Solutions of Long-Chain Molecules, IV- Dependence on Concentration”, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 64, 11, 2716-2718, 1942.
 
[15]  Kraemer, E.O., Ind. Eng. Chem., 30, 1200, 1938.
 
[16]  Chinai, S.N., Scherer, P.C. and Levi, D.W.,” Molecular Weight pf Polyvinyl Acetate by Light Scattering and Viscosity Techniques”, J. Polym. Sci. 17 117-124, 1955.
 
[17]  DiPaola-Baranyi, G., Guillet, J.E., Klein, J. Jeberien, H.W., “Estimation of the Solubility Parameters for Poly (vinyl acetate) by Inverse Gas Chromatography”, J. of Chromatogr. A, 166, 2, 349-356, 1978.
 
[18]  Fernandez-Berridi, M.J., Guzman, G.M., Elorza, J.M., Garijo, L., “Study by Gas-Liquid Chromatography of the Thermodynamics of the Interaction of Poly (vinyl acetate) with various Solvents”, Eur. Polym. J., 19, 5, 445-450, 1983.
 
[19]  Daoust, H, Rinfret, M.,” Solubility of Polymethymethacrylate and Polyvinylacetate”, J. Colloid Si., 7, 1, 11-19, 1952.
 
[20]  Wagner, R. H., “Intrinsic Viscosities and Molecular Weights of Polyvinylacetates”, J. Polym. Sci. 2, 1, 21-35, 1947.
 
[21]  Merk, W., Lichtenthaler, R. N., Prausnitz, J.M., “Solubilities of Fifteen Solvents in Copolymers of Poly(vinyl acetate) and Poly(vinyl Chloride) from gas Chromatography: Estimation of Polymer Solubility Parameters”, J.Phys. Chem, 84, 13, 1694-1698, 1980.
 
[22]  Lindermann, M.K. Physical Constants of Polyvinyl Acetate, Polymer Handbook 2nd ed, (eds Brandrup & Immergut), J. Wiley 1975 V51-55.
 
[23]  Small, P.A. J. Appl. Chem, 3, 71, 1953.
 
[24]  Scatchard, G. Chem Rev, 8, 821, 1931.
 
[25]  Hoy, K.L. J. Paint Technol., 42, 76, 1970.
 
[26]  Van Krevelen, D.W., Properties of Polymers:Their Estimation and Correlation with Chemical Structures, Elsevier 2nd ed, 1976.
 
[27]  CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics 67th ed.; Weast, R.C. Eds,: CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fl., 1986.
 
Show Less References