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Article

Mark-Houwink Parameters for Aqueous-Soluble Polymers and Biopolymers at Various Temperatures

1Laboratorio de Membranas, Instituto de Física Aplicada, CONICET, Facultad de Química, Bioquímica y Farmacia, Universidad Nacional de San Luis, Chacabuco, San Luis, Argentina


Journal of Polymer and Biopolymer Physics Chemistry. 2014, 2(2), 37-43
DOI: 10.12691/jpbpc-2-2-2
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Martin Alberto Masuelli. Mark-Houwink Parameters for Aqueous-Soluble Polymers and Biopolymers at Various Temperatures. Journal of Polymer and Biopolymer Physics Chemistry. 2014; 2(2):37-43. doi: 10.12691/jpbpc-2-2-2.

Correspondence to: Martin  Alberto Masuelli, Laboratorio de Membranas, Instituto de Física Aplicada, CONICET, Facultad de Química, Bioquímica y Farmacia, Universidad Nacional de San Luis, Chacabuco, San Luis, Argentina. Email: masuelli@unsl.edu.ar

Abstract

The intrinsic viscosity measurements used to calculate the Mark-Houwink (M-H) parameters are generally performed for different molecular weights at a constant temperature, with the standard value of this temperature being 25°C, or else 37°C in the case of mammalian proteins, or else under theta conditions for polymers and biopolymers. In the polymer industry, polysaccharides and proteins must circulate through pipes during transport processes where pumps have a very high-energy expenditure and where temperatures must be greatly increased, and at this point calculation of the Mark-Houwink parameters becomes important. The M-H parameters are calculated at standardized temperatures and in many cases, these are not useful because of the errors they carry, and it then becomes very difficult to calculate the molecular weight. It is therefore necessary to know the change in molecular weight as evidence of a change in the product obtained, as this may create a need to halt the production process, transport, or extrusion. The basic criterion is that the molecular weight does not change with temperature, or at least within one discrete range of temperatures, but that there is hydrodynamic change (intrinsic viscosity). The method is simple and requires iterative mathematical processing and measurement of intrinsic viscosity at different temperatures.

Keywords

References

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Article

Comparatively Study of Natural and Polymeric Cotton

1Department of Textile Engineering, KIOT, Wollo University, South Wollo, Ethiopia

2Department of Chemical Engineering, KIOT, Wollo University, Kombolcha, Ethiopia


Journal of Polymer and Biopolymer Physics Chemistry. 2014, 2(3), 44-49
DOI: 10.12691/jpbpc-2-3-1
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Karthikeyan M. R, Omprakash Sahu. Comparatively Study of Natural and Polymeric Cotton. Journal of Polymer and Biopolymer Physics Chemistry. 2014; 2(3):44-49. doi: 10.12691/jpbpc-2-3-1.

Correspondence to: Omprakash  Sahu, Department of Chemical Engineering, KIOT, Wollo University, Kombolcha, Ethiopia. Email: ops0121@gmail.com

Abstract

An Investigation of the properties of weft knitted fabrics produced from organically made cotton vis-à-vis regular cotton knitted fabric is reported. The yarn is made with organically produced cotton and regular cotton and the fabric was knitted using single jersey machines. The fabrics were subsequently dyed using natural dyes. The naturally dyed knitted fabrics were examined for shrinkage, bursting strength, abrasion resistance, colour fastness properties. The result show that the knitted fabrics produced from organically grown cotton is superior in performance in comparing with fabrics produced from regular cotton.

Keywords

References

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Article

Rheological Behaviour of Eco-friendly Drilling Fluids from Biopolymers

1Department of Environmental Engineering/Industrial Safety, Imo State Polytechnic, Umuagwo, Nigeria

2Department of Polymer and Textile Engineering, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria


Journal of Polymer and Biopolymer Physics Chemistry. 2014, 2(3), 50-54
DOI: 10.12691/jpbpc-2-3-2
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
O.U. Nwosu, C. M. Ewulonu. Rheological Behaviour of Eco-friendly Drilling Fluids from Biopolymers. Journal of Polymer and Biopolymer Physics Chemistry. 2014; 2(3):50-54. doi: 10.12691/jpbpc-2-3-2.

Correspondence to: C.  M. Ewulonu, Department of Polymer and Textile Engineering, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria. Email: cm.ewulonu@unizik.edu.ng

Abstract

The rheological properties of drilling fluids modified with three biopolymers – carboxylmethyl cellulose (CMC), xanthan gum polysaccharide (xanplex D), and polyanionic cellulose (PAC-R) have been studied. The effect of concentration of the biopolymers on the drilling fluid was also reported. The modified drilling fluids were found to obey Herschel-Bulkley rheological model. The fluids were also found to be pseudo-plastic with shear thinning behaviour. Polyanionic cellulose showed the highest shear rate and shear stress than carboxylmethyl cellulose and xanplex D. This can be attributed to the straight open long chain structure of PAC-R and its ability to interact with water, solids and with itself. It also acted as a better viscosifier because of the more negative charge it carries. Also, the formulation of biopolymer drilling fluid with bentonite has proven to improve the viscosity than that encountered in normal conventional drilling fluids.

Keywords

References

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Article

Comparative Experimental Studies on the Physico-mechanical Properties of Jute Caddies Reinforced Polyester and Polypropylene Composites

1Institute of Radiation and Polymer Technology, Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission, Dhaka, Bangladesh

2Department of Chemistry, Shahjalal University of Science and Technology, Sylhet, Bangladesh


Journal of Polymer and Biopolymer Physics Chemistry. 2014, 2(3), 55-61
DOI: 10.12691/jpbpc-2-3-3
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Rezaul K Khan, S. M. Shauddin, S. S. Dhar. Comparative Experimental Studies on the Physico-mechanical Properties of Jute Caddies Reinforced Polyester and Polypropylene Composites. Journal of Polymer and Biopolymer Physics Chemistry. 2014; 2(3):55-61. doi: 10.12691/jpbpc-2-3-3.

Correspondence to: S.  M. Shauddin, Institute of Radiation and Polymer Technology, Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission, Dhaka, Bangladesh. Email: sms.baec@gmail.com

Abstract

Non-woven jute caddies (JC, jute wastage) reinforced unsaturated polyester resin (UPR) and polypropylene (PP)-based randomly oriented discontinuous fibre composites with fibre loading 40-65% were fabricated by compression molding. The influence of the addition of fibre loadings on the mechanical properties such as tensile strength (TS) and tensile modulus (TM), bending strength (BS) and bending modulus (BM) and impact strength (IS) of the composites was investigated. Based on the fiber loading, around 55% JC reinforced UPR composite yielded better mechanical properties compared to the JC/PP composite. To improve the compatibility between fibre and matrix, the composites were irradiated with gamma rays (Co-60) of dose varied from 2.5 kGy to 12.5 kGy. Tensile and flexural properties of the composites were found to be improved significantly after irradiation. TS and BS of JC/UPR composites increased 29.86 and 14.60% respectively at 7.5 kGy while for JC/PP composites the increments were 21.69 and 7.78% respectively at 5.0 kGy. Water uptake tests of untreated and irradiated composites were carried out in deionized water where, the water-resistance properties of both kinds of irradiated composites were found to improve almost equally. Degradation tests of the composites were performed in soil medium and it was observed that JC/UPR composites lost much of its original strength and modulus compared to that of the JC/PP composites.

Keywords

References

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Article

Fabrication of Poly(Caprolactone) Nanofibers by Electrospinning

1Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering Laboratory, Department of Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, India


Journal of Polymer and Biopolymer Physics Chemistry. 2014, 2(4), 62-66
DOI: 10.12691/jpbpc-2-4-1
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Athira K. S., Pallab Sanpui, Kaushik Chatterjee. Fabrication of Poly(Caprolactone) Nanofibers by Electrospinning. Journal of Polymer and Biopolymer Physics Chemistry. 2014; 2(4):62-66. doi: 10.12691/jpbpc-2-4-1.

Correspondence to: Athira  K. S., Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering Laboratory, Department of Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, India. Email: athiraiisc@gmail.com

Abstract

Nanofibers at 466 ± 242 nm average diameter were fabricated due to phase separation caused by polarizability difference under static electric field. Fibre morphology was observed under a scanning electron microscopy. An insight into the process of electrospinning of the polymer, poly(caprolactone) was systematically evaluated and discussed the effects of the solution parameter of concentration of the polymer solution and process parameters of voltage, flow rate and drop height to fabricate poly(caprolactone) electrospun fibers with desired morphologies in this manuscript. Of all combinations, the best nanofibres with the fewest beads and finest fibers could be electrospun with a more uniform distribution in with a 15 kV applied voltage of on poly(caprolactone) solution of 12 per cent concentration at a 0.5 ml/h flow rate, from a drop height of 15 cm and the structure of nanofibres was found completely dry and stabilized.

Keywords

References

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[16]  Lee, J.S., Choi, K.H., Ghim, H.D., Kim, S.S., Chun, D.H. and Kim, H.Y, “Role of molecular weight of a tactic poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA) in the structure and properties of PVA nanofabric prepared by electrospinning,” J Appl Polym Sci., 93, 1638-1646, 2004.
 
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Article

The Determination of the Solubility Parameter (δ) and the Mark-Houwink Constants (K & α) of Food Grade Polyvinyl Acetate (PVAc)

1Department of Chemistry, Hofstra University, Hempstead, New York


Journal of Polymer and Biopolymer Physics Chemistry. 2014, 2(4), 67-72
DOI: 10.12691/jpbpc-2-4-2
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Ronald P. D’Amelia, Jaksha C. Tomic, William F. Nirode. The Determination of the Solubility Parameter (δ) and the Mark-Houwink Constants (K & α) of Food Grade Polyvinyl Acetate (PVAc). Journal of Polymer and Biopolymer Physics Chemistry. 2014; 2(4):67-72. doi: 10.12691/jpbpc-2-4-2.

Correspondence to: Ronald  P. D’Amelia, Department of Chemistry, Hofstra University, Hempstead, New York. Email: Ronald.P.Damelia@hofstra.edu

Abstract

Polyvinyl alkyl ester of carboxylic acids are a family of macromolecules in which the side chain esters (pendant groups) increase in molar mass and hydrophobicity and decrease in structural polarity as the number of carbons in the carboxylic acid increases. The most important polymer in this family is Polyvinyl Acetate (PVAc). The Solubility Parameter (δ) is a unique physical property of any polymeric material and can be a useful guide to understanding the miscibility or compatibility of two polymeric substances. It is therefore essential in working with polymeric blends of PVAc that the experimental solubility parameter be accurately and precisely known. We have experimentally determined the solubility parameter of food grade PVAc by measuring the intrinsic viscosity of several different molecular weight PVAc samples (ranging from 11K -75K Daltons) in four different solvents (acetone, methanol, tetrahydrofuran, toluene,) at 25°C using glass capillary viscometry. We also estimated the solubility parameter using the principles of group additivity contribution due to the atoms, groups and bonds present in PVAc based on the theories of Small, Hoy, and Van Krevelen. The Mark-Houwink constants for PVAC in the four solvents were also experimentally determined. Our experimentally determined solubility parameter was 9.35 (cal/cm3)1/2 which compared well with the computational values obtained by Hoy (9.56), Small (9.45) and Van Krevelen (9.27).

Keywords

References

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Article

Acoustical Investigations of Molecular Interactions in Polymer Solution of Pan/Clay Nano Composites and Dmso

1Acoustics Research Centre, 4-215, Mississauga Valley Blvd., Mississauga, L5A 1Y7, ON, Canada

2Department of Physics, Rayat Bahra Institute of Engg. & Nano Technology, Hoshiarpur-146001, Punjab, India


Journal of Polymer and Biopolymer Physics Chemistry. 2014, 2(4), 73-77
DOI: 10.12691/jpbpc-2-4-3
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
D. P. Singh, Arun Upmanyu. Acoustical Investigations of Molecular Interactions in Polymer Solution of Pan/Clay Nano Composites and Dmso. Journal of Polymer and Biopolymer Physics Chemistry. 2014; 2(4):73-77. doi: 10.12691/jpbpc-2-4-3.

Correspondence to: D.  P. Singh, Acoustics Research Centre, 4-215, Mississauga Valley Blvd., Mississauga, L5A 1Y7, ON, Canada. Email: drdpsn@hotmail.com

Abstract

Acoustical studies of intermolecular interactions in the polymer solution of PAN / clay nanocomposites and DMSO have been done at 30 degree Celsius using experimental ultrasonic velocity and density data taken from literature. Several acoustical and thermo-dynamical parameters such as isothermal compressibility, adiabatic compressibility, specific heat ratio, volume expansivity, surface tension, specific sound velocity, specific adiabatic compressibility, intermolecular free length, pseudo-Gruneisen parameter and classical absorption coefficient have been evaluated. Some elastic parameters such as Young modulus, shear modulus, bulk modulus and Poisson ratio have also been determined. Non linear parameters such as Moelwyn-Hughes parameter, reduced volume, reduced compressibility, Sharma’s constants, Huggins parameter, isobaric acoustical parameter, isochoric acoustical parameter, isothermal acoustical parameter, fractional free volume, repulsive exponent, thermo acoustical parameter such as A*and B*, Bayer’s non-linear parameter, internal pressure, isochoric thermo-acoustical parameter and isochoric temperature coefficient of internal pressure have also been calculated. The Moelwyn-Hughes parameter has been utilized to establish relation between the Bayer’s non linear parameter, internal pressure and Sharma constant. Relationships among the isobaric, isothermal and isochoric thermo-acoustical parameter have been studied and analyzed for PAN/clay nano composites. The obtained results have been compared with the experimental results as available in literature. The non-ideal behavior of the polymer solution has been explained in terms of its composition and variation of its acoustical and thermo-dynamical parameters. The present treatment offers a convenient method to investigate thermo-acoustic properties and anharmonic behavior of the system under study.

Keywords

References

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Article

Review on the Fundamentals of Polymer Combustion and Flammability Characteristics for Hybrid Propulsion

1School of Mechanical and Power Engineering, Henan Polytechnic University, Jiaozuo, China


Journal of Polymer and Biopolymer Physics Chemistry. 2014, 2(4), 78-83
DOI: 10.12691/jpbpc-2-4-4
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Junjie Chen, Xuhui Gao. Review on the Fundamentals of Polymer Combustion and Flammability Characteristics for Hybrid Propulsion. Journal of Polymer and Biopolymer Physics Chemistry. 2014; 2(4):78-83. doi: 10.12691/jpbpc-2-4-4.

Correspondence to: Junjie  Chen, School of Mechanical and Power Engineering, Henan Polytechnic University, Jiaozuo, China. Email: comcjj@163.com

Abstract

Hybrid Propulsion is an attractive alternative to conventional liquid and solid rocket engines. This is an active area of research and technological developments. The potential wide application of the hybrid engines opens the possibility for safer and more flexible space vehicle launching and manoeuvring. The fundamental combustion issues related to further development of hybrid rockets are discussed in the present paper. The emphasis is made on the properties of the potential polymeric fuels and their modification. The fundamentals of polymeric fuel combustion and the flammability Characteristics are discussed.

Keywords

References

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Article

Bioplastics: Its Timeline Based Scenario & Challenges

1Department of Biotechnology, Sapthagiri College of Engineering, Bangalore- 57, Karnataka, India


Journal of Polymer and Biopolymer Physics Chemistry. 2014, 2(4), 84-90
DOI: 10.12691/jpbpc-2-4-5
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Swati Pathak, CLR Sneha, Blessy Baby Mathew. Bioplastics: Its Timeline Based Scenario & Challenges. Journal of Polymer and Biopolymer Physics Chemistry. 2014; 2(4):84-90. doi: 10.12691/jpbpc-2-4-5.

Correspondence to: Blessy  Baby Mathew, Department of Biotechnology, Sapthagiri College of Engineering, Bangalore- 57, Karnataka, India. Email: blessym21@gmail.com

Abstract

There has been substantial interest in the advancement and production of biodegradable polymer to solve the current problem of pollution triggered by the continuous use of synthetic polymer of petroleum origin. The likelihood of producing these bio- polymers commercially and at comparable cost has been the key focus in this area. The most promising way of making plastics from other abundant renewable sources like corn, soy beans, sugarcane etc. is the avenue of Bio plastics. This paper is a comparative study that confers the likelihood of the conventional petro-plastics being substituted by the new-age degradable and renewable bio-derived polymers. It presents the keynote issues that support findings of the benefits these materials have in relation to conventional, petrochemical based counterparts. It is the view of the authors that biodegradable plastic materials are most apt for single-use disposable applications where the post-consumption waste can be locally composted.

Keywords

References

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Article

Effects of Fiber Inclusion and γ Radiation on Physico-mechanical Properties of Jute Caddies Reinforced Waste Polyethylene Composite

1Institute of Radiation and Polymer Technology, Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission, Dhaka, Bangladesh

2Department of Chemistry, Jahangirnagar University, Dhaka, Bangladesh


Journal of Polymer and Biopolymer Physics Chemistry. 2014, 2(4), 91-97
DOI: 10.12691/jpbpc-2-4-6
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Sardar M Shauddin, Chironjit. Effects of Fiber Inclusion and γ Radiation on Physico-mechanical Properties of Jute Caddies Reinforced Waste Polyethylene Composite. Journal of Polymer and Biopolymer Physics Chemistry. 2014; 2(4):91-97. doi: 10.12691/jpbpc-2-4-6.

Correspondence to: Sardar  M Shauddin, Institute of Radiation and Polymer Technology, Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission, Dhaka, Bangladesh. Email: sms.baec@gmail.com

Abstract

In spite of banning thin polyethylene bag, it has been used in Bangladesh by both retailer and consumer for its convenience and affordability and most utility comes from packaging retailed goods. There is a serious concern among consumers and environmentalists about the environmental impacts on plastic bags. Due to lack of proper plastic waste management our environment is becoming more and more polluted day by day. In the present study, an eco-friendly technique was adopted for reducing such type of pollution by reusing polyethylene shopping bag as polymer matrix in composite. Jute mill wastage which is commonly known as jute caddies (JC) reinforced waste polyethylene (WPE) based low cost randomly oriented discontinuous fibrous composite was fabricated using traditional hand layup method. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) was used to investigate the chemical composition of both raw jute and jute caddies. Jute caddies content in the composite was varied from 20 to 45% where, 32% JC enriched composite showed the best performance in mechanical tests. Mechanical properties such as tensile and bending of composites were evaluated following several standard tests and methods. Jute caddies reinforced low density polyethylene (LDPE) based another type composite (JC/LDPE) was also fabricated to compare with JC/WPE. In order to increase the bonding strength between fiber and matrix, both types of composites were irradiated with gamma rays of dose varied from 2.5 to 12.5 kGy where, composites irradiated with 5 kGy dose delivered the best results. Water absorption tests of the composites according to the fiber content were done successfully for knowing the water resistance properties.

Keywords

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