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Journal of Cancer Research and Treatment

ISSN (Print): 2374-1996

ISSN (Online): 2374-2003


Current Issue» Volume 3, Number 1 (2015)


Expression of Molecular Markers and Risk Categorization in Pre-neoplastic and Non-neoplastic Cervical Lesions

1Department of Pathology and Cancer Screening, Chittaranjan National Cancer Institute, Kolkata, India

2Department of Pathology, Hospital Wing, Chittaranjan National Cancer Institute, Kolkata, India

3Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Chittaranjan National Cancer Institute, Kolkata, India

4Department of Signal Transduction and Biogenic Amines, Chittaranjan National Cancer Institute, Kolkata, India

5Department of Radio Diagnosis, Chittaranjan National Cancer Institute, Kolkata, India

6Department of Medical Oncology, Chittaranjan National Cancer Institute, Kolkata, India

Journal of Cancer Research and Treatment. 2015, 3(1), 11-18
DOI: 10.12691/jcrt-3-1-3
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
A. K. Roy, D. Ghosh, G. K. Mandal, K. Datta, N. Murmu, P. Tudu, P. Nath, S. Mandal. Expression of Molecular Markers and Risk Categorization in Pre-neoplastic and Non-neoplastic Cervical Lesions. Journal of Cancer Research and Treatment. 2015; 3(1):11-18. doi: 10.12691/jcrt-3-1-3.

Correspondence to: A.  K. Roy, Department of Pathology and Cancer Screening, Chittaranjan National Cancer Institute, Kolkata, India. Email:


Worldwide, cervical cancer is the fourth most common cancer in women [1]. It is preceded by many stages of pre-neoplastic lesions classified as Atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US) / Atypical squamous cells cannot exclude HSIL (ASC-H), Low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL), and High-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) (Bethesda, 2001). However, a large proportion of cases of epithelial malignancy arise from apparently normal cell and also from the LSIL where as many HSILs remain static for many years [2]. In this study, many important markers and epidemiological parameters Pap smears were examined to look for high risk cases of cervical non-malignant lesions. Methods: A total of 60 cases and controls were selected by colposcopic examination and smears were collected. Slides were used for immunohistochemical staining for four markers: p53, Ki-67, PCNA and CEA and PAP stain. All experimentally generated data were analyzed by Epi Info (TM) 3.5.3. Results: Expression of PCNA, p53, Ki-67 and CEA were significantly associated with both in Epithelial Cell Abnormalities (ECA) and Negative for Intraepithelial Lesion or Malignancy (NILM). Among HSIL, LSIL and ASCUS, HSIL was more common in Muslim women in comparison to Hindus. Whereas inflammatory lesions like RCC and RCCI were more common in Hindu population. Muslim women have a more normal Cytopathology smear than Hindus. Conclusions: Both the NILM and ECA cases carry risk for cancer conversion. Women with High grade Squamous Intraepithelial lesion or HSIL with PCNA, p53, Ki-67 and CEA strong positivity may have a higher risk of developing cervical cancer.



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The Influence of Education on Cancer Pain Reduction: A Systematic Review

1Center for Health Technology and Services Research (CINTESIS), Nursing School of Porto, Porto, Portugal

2Magalhães Lemos Hospital, Porto, Portugal

3Ave Alto Hospital, Guimarães, Portugal

4Porto, Portugal

5Plastic Surgery Clinic Artlaser, Porto, Portugal

Journal of Cancer Research and Treatment. 2015, 3(1), 6-10
DOI: 10.12691/jcrt-3-1-2
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Paulo Marques, Patrícia Gonçalves, Elisabete Meira, Nícia Pereira, Ana Sousa. The Influence of Education on Cancer Pain Reduction: A Systematic Review. Journal of Cancer Research and Treatment. 2015; 3(1):6-10. doi: 10.12691/jcrt-3-1-2.

Correspondence to: Paulo  Marques, Center for Health Technology and Services Research (CINTESIS), Nursing School of Porto, Porto, Portugal. Email:


Aims: This literature review aims to assess the contribution of pain education in reducing cancer pain. Methods and sample: An electronic search of articles was performed in CINAHL and MEDLINE with Full Text, from 2003 to 2013, using the EBSCOhost motor search at the Porto Nursing School. The studies were selected obeying search limits 'find all my search terms', 'full text', 'adult', ‘portuguese’, ‘english’ and ‘french’ languages, 'Randomised Control Trials', based on the following inclusion criteria: articles whose participants are patients with cancer pain admitted to medical and surgical units or outpatient services, articles whose intervention includes education on pain and articles which report the implications of intervention in cancer pain intensity. Results: Five studies with a high level of evidence were included in the review. Four studies reported a reduction in pain intensity after intervention, three of them with statistically significant pain reduction. Conclusions: Education can be an important resource for the reduction of pain intensity, and can be implemented by different health professionals, particularly nurses. Its implementation is recommended for the reduction of this specific type of pain. Implications for practice: It is hoped that our findings will increase nurses’ awareness of the importance of involving patients in their own care; Pain education may improve patient’s ability to manage their own pain.



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Water’s Many Roles in Laser Photobiomodulation

1Fundalas, Foundation for Interdisciplinary Research and Development, Caracas, Venezuela

2Department of Radiology, Hospital J.M. Vargas, Caracas, Venezuela

Journal of Cancer Research and Treatment. 2015, 3(1), 1-5
DOI: 10.12691/jcrt-3-1-1
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Luis Santana-Blank, Elizabeth Rodríguez-Santana, Karin E. Santana-Rodríguez, Jesús A. Santana-Rodríguez, Heberto Reyes. Water’s Many Roles in Laser Photobiomodulation. Journal of Cancer Research and Treatment. 2015; 3(1):1-5. doi: 10.12691/jcrt-3-1-1.

Correspondence to: Luis  Santana-Blank, Fundalas, Foundation for Interdisciplinary Research and Development, Caracas, Venezuela. Email:


The roles of water and carbon dioxide in laser/light interactions in higher-order biological systems and their implications in cellular microenvironments and complex systemic processes for the restoration of homeostasis-homeokinesis, even when metabolic pathways have been compromised, are discussed. This lecture summarizes three decades of pre-clinical and clinical investigations and the basis for a potentially new therapeutic approach for the treatment of advanced cancer and other complex diseases using laser photobiomodulation. We propose that light-water interactions offer a potent, alternate and complementary pathway to activate and modulate tumor suppression and/or proto-oncogenic expression through energy transfer via water and CO2 in multi-fractal regimes, leading to the coupling of spatiotemporal oscillators. Laser photobiomodulation may, thus, offer the possibility of targeting multiple hallmarks of cancer and other complex diseases using fit-for-purpose electromagnetic (light) energy to restore physiologically reparative and regenerative mechanisms that can help reestablish homeostasis-homeokinesis, constituting a new emerging paradigm in the treatment of cancer and other complex diseases.



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