Journal of Atmospheric Pollution

ISSN (Print): 2381-2982

ISSN (Online): 2381-2990

Editor-in-Chief: Ki-Hyun Kim

Website: http://www.sciepub.com/journal/JAP

   

Article

Trace Metals in Total Atmospheric Depositions (TAD) of a Nigerian Island

1African Institute for Science Policy and Innovations, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife Nigeria

2Atmospheric Research and Information Analysis Laboratory (ARIAL), Centre for Energy Research and Development (CERD), Obafemi Awolowo University Ile-Ife


Journal of Atmospheric Pollution. 2016, 4(1), 15-22
doi: 10.12691/jap-4-1-2
Copyright © 2016 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
C.A. Onwudiegwu, G.C. Ezeh, I.B. Obioh. Trace Metals in Total Atmospheric Depositions (TAD) of a Nigerian Island. Journal of Atmospheric Pollution. 2016; 4(1):15-22. doi: 10.12691/jap-4-1-2.

Correspondence to: G.C.  Ezeh, Atmospheric Research and Information Analysis Laboratory (ARIAL), Centre for Energy Research and Development (CERD), Obafemi Awolowo University Ile-Ife. Email: gcezeh@cerd.gov.ng, goddyich@yahoo.com

Abstract

The paucity of data on air quality studies in Nigeria prompted us to commence the monitoring of total atmospheric deposition (TAD) in Lagos Island, Nigeria. TAD samples were collected every 30 days for a period of two years using a local assembled gauge fashioned after the Australian model gauge. Elemental characterization was carried out by Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) technique via an in-vacuum ion beam set-up. The TAD rates ranged from 1 to 62 g-1m3 month-1. Twenty-eight elements (Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Ga, As, Zn, Se, Br, Rb, Y, Nb, Mo, Sr, Zr and Pb) were detected in both fractions and their concentrations were assessed. Enrichment factors (EF) and pollution indices (PLI) were calculated and results revealed that most elements were anthropogenic with concentrations exceeding the World Health Organization guideline standards.

Keywords

References

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Article

Ecological Evaluation of Urban Heat Island in Chicago City, USA

1Department of Geography, Chicago State University, Chicago, IL., USA


Journal of Atmospheric Pollution. 2016, 4(1), 23-29
doi: 10.12691/jap-4-1-3
Copyright © 2016 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
R. Alfraihat, G. Mulugeta, T. S. Gala. Ecological Evaluation of Urban Heat Island in Chicago City, USA. Journal of Atmospheric Pollution. 2016; 4(1):23-29. doi: 10.12691/jap-4-1-3.

Correspondence to: T.  S. Gala, Department of Geography, Chicago State University, Chicago, IL., USA. Email: tgala@csu.edu

Abstract

The city of Chicago has experiences of Urban Heat Island (UHI) phenomena and a good example is its widely reported heat wave of 1995. This study conducted an ecological evaluation of Chicago’s UHI phenomena using LANDSAT TM of 2010, almost 15 years after the lethal heat wave and subsequently implemented various UHI mitigation efforts. The thermal characteristics of the city were assessed with a Land Surface Temperature (LST), a parameter retrieved from LANDSAT TM 6; a thermal-infrared (TIR) band (10.40 to 12.50μm), using mono-window algorithm. The ecological evaluation was made using an Urban Thermal Field Variance Index (UTFVI), which quantitatively evaluated the UHI effects on the quality of urban life. The accuracy of the model was assessed against theoretical relationships between the LST, the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), and Normalized Difference Built-up Index (NDBI). The LST of Chicago ranges from 18oC in Urban Cool Islands (UCI) to 44oC in UHI. In Chicago, although the cooling effects of Lake Michigan, downtown’s sky-high buildings, and urban parks and green spaces have worked together to suppress the concerns of UHI effects locally, still some areas experience a high UHI. In general, 25% of the city experiences ecologically bad or worse UHI effects, indicating a need for continued UHI mitigation efforts.

Keywords

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Article

Analysis of Total Particulate Matter from a Secondary Steel Smelting Industry

1Environmental Engineering Research Laboratory, Department of Chemical Engineering, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Osun State, Nigeria


Journal of Atmospheric Pollution. 2016, 4(1), 30-34
doi: 10.12691/jap-4-1-4
Copyright © 2016 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
M.A. Adeyeye, F.A. Akeredolu, J.A. Sonibare, E.L. Odekanle, D.D. Ajala. Analysis of Total Particulate Matter from a Secondary Steel Smelting Industry. Journal of Atmospheric Pollution. 2016; 4(1):30-34. doi: 10.12691/jap-4-1-4.

Correspondence to: M.A.  Adeyeye, Environmental Engineering Research Laboratory, Department of Chemical Engineering, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Osun State, Nigeria. Email: foluy2k4@yahoo.com

Abstract

Particulate matter (PM) in ambient air is a potential carrier of toxic metals. This study determined the concentration of total suspended particulate matter in the ambient air of a secondary steel smelting plant and further determined the level of selected metals in the collected samples. Deposition gauges were installed at four distinct sampling locations in the vicinity of the plant for collection of ambient particles. The particulate samples were collected simultaneously and removed at two weeks interval from October, 2015 to April, 2016. Particulate matter from solution was recovered through Whatmann filter paper by filtration. All samples were digested and analyzed by Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (FAAS) instrument. The elements analyzed included Copper (Cu), Iron (Fe), Nickel (Ni), Zinc (Zn), Manganese (Mn) and Chromium (Cr). The ambient concentration of ambient particulate matter was in the range of 390-1450 µg/m3 with an overall average of 918.0±325.5. This average concentration significantly exceeded the allowable limits of 150 µg/m3 set by the World Health Organisation and 250 µg/m3 by Federal Ministry of Environment of Nigeria. Analysis of the total suspended particulate matter shows the concentration (µg/m3) range of 0.1-24 for Cu, 2.3-500 for Fe, 0-3 for Ni, 11-540 for Zn, 11-120 Mn and 0-6 for Cr. The upper limit for Cu was above the values in literature. The results suggest the need to install particulate matter control device to curb the release of particulate matter into the area for adequate air quality management.

Keywords

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