Journal of Atmospheric Pollution

ISSN (Print): 2381-2982

ISSN (Online): 2381-2990

Editor-in-Chief: Ki-Hyun Kim




The Analysis of Influence of Weather Conditions on Atmospheric Extinction Coefficient over Bauchi, North Eastern Nigeria

1Department of PRE-ND, Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi State-Nigeria

2Department of Physics, University of Jos. Plateau State-Nigeria

3Department of Pure and Applied Physics, Federal University Wukari, Taraba State-Nigeria

Journal of Atmospheric Pollution. 2015, 3(1), 31-38
doi: 10.12691/jap-3-1-6
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
D. Buba, F.O. Anjorin, A. Jacob. The Analysis of Influence of Weather Conditions on Atmospheric Extinction Coefficient over Bauchi, North Eastern Nigeria. Journal of Atmospheric Pollution. 2015; 3(1):31-38. doi: 10.12691/jap-3-1-6.

Correspondence to: F.O.  Anjorin, Department of Physics, University of Jos. Plateau State-Nigeria. Email:


Weather conditions are natural causes of visibility deterioration and increase in atmospheric extinction coefficient at a place. A 10- year dataset (1998-2007) of visibility and meteorological parameters such as Relative Humidity, Temperature and Atmospheric Pressure measured every 3-hour daily were analysed to examine the dependence of Atmospheric Extinction Coefficient, βext on seasonal meteorological conditions and synoptic weather patterns in Bauchi, a City in the North-eastern-Nigeria. From the visibility data obtained, the corresponding atmospheric extinction coefficient (βext) for the period under review was computed by using the Koschmieder relationship. In year 2000, when the Relative Humidity and atmospheric extinction coefficient, βext are highest, the temperature and visibility values are lowest. In 2003, when temperature (29.82°C) is highest, the Relative Humidity (42.52%) is lowest, although, the atmospheric coefficient was not at its lowest neither was the visibility (18.49km) at its highest. Of the years considered, year 2000 has the highest estimated atmospheric extinction coefficient, βext for both raining season and harmattan season. The raining season (June-September) has βext of 0.267 while the harmattan season has βext of 0.689. Their respective decadal mean for both raining season and harmattan season for the period under review are 0.205 ± 0.036 and 0.689±0.133.



[1]  American Meteorological Society. (2000). Glossary of Meteorology (edited by Glickman TS). 850 pp.
[2]  Blackwell, H., 1946. Contrast thresholds of the human eye.
[3]  Chatfield, C., The analysis of time series: an introduction, 4 ed1996, Weinheim. New York. Tokyo: Chapman & Hall London.
[4]  Cocker, D. C., N. E. Whitlock, R. C. Flagan, et al., 2001: Hygroscopic properties of Pasadena, California aerosol, Aerosol Sci. Technol., 35, 637-647.
[5]  El-Shazely SM, Abdelmaged AM, Hassan GY, Nobi B. Atmospheric extinction related to aerosol mass concentration and meteorological condition in the atmosphere of Qena (Egypt). Mausam 1991;42:367±74.
Show More References
[6]  Hursar R.B and Hursar J.D., (1996): Air Pollution Emissions, Atmospheric Processes and Effects on Visibility. Center for Air Pollution Impact and Trend Analysis (CAPITA). Washington University.
[7]  Isikwue, B., M. Akiishi and E. Utah, 2014. Investigation of Radiation Energy Balance in some selected cities in Nigeria. IOSR Journal of Applied Physics, 6(2): 21-27.
[8]  Koschmieder, H., 1930. Measurements of visibility at Danzig. Monthly Weather Review, 58: 439.
[9]  Liu, X. G., Y. H. Zhang, Y. F. Cheng, et al., 2012: Aerosol hygroscopicity and its impact on atmospheric visibility and radiative forcing in Guangzhou during the 2006 PRIDE-PRD campaign, Atmos. Environ., 60, 59-67.
[10]  Malm, K. C., and D. E. Day, 2001: Estimates of aerosol species scattering characteristics as a function of relative humidity. Atmos. Environ., 35, 2845-2860.
[11]  Shendrikar, A. D., and W. K. Steinmetz, 2003: Integrating nephelometer measurements for the airborne fine particulate matter (PM2.5) mass concentrations. Atmos. Environ., 37, 1383-1392.
[12]  Swietlicki, E., J. Zhou, O. H. Berg, et al., 1999: A closure study of sub-micrometer aerosol particle hygroscopic behavior, J. Atmos. Res., 50, 205-240.
[13]  SWOV Fact sheet, (2012). The influence of weather on road safety. Institute of Road Safety Research, Netherlands. Pg.1.
[14]  United Kingdom Meteorological Office. (1994). Handbook of Aviation Meteorology. 412pp.
[15]  Goyal,P, Sumer Budhiraja, Anikender Kumar (2014): Impact of Air Pollutants on Atmospheric Visibility in Delhi. International Journal of Geology, Agriculture and Environmental Sciences Volume – 2 Issue – 2 April 2014.
[16]  Shaltout Mosalam M.A., Tadros M.T.Y., El-Metwally M. (2000): Studying the extinction coefficient due to aerosol particles at di€erent spectral bands in some regions at great Cairo. Renewable Energy 19 (2000) 597-615.
Show Less References


An Integrated Vehicular Emission Control Programme for the City of Delhi Using Retrofitted Emission Control Technologies

1Formerly Chairman & Managing Director, Bharat Dynamics Ltd Hyderabad, India

Journal of Atmospheric Pollution. 2016, 4(1), 1-14
doi: 10.12691/jap-4-1-1
Copyright © 2016 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
R. Gopalaswami. An Integrated Vehicular Emission Control Programme for the City of Delhi Using Retrofitted Emission Control Technologies. Journal of Atmospheric Pollution. 2016; 4(1):1-14. doi: 10.12691/jap-4-1-1.

Correspondence to: R.  Gopalaswami, Formerly Chairman & Managing Director, Bharat Dynamics Ltd Hyderabad, India. Email:


The City of Delhi, with a human population of over 16 million has nearly 9 million vehicles on its roads running over 100 billion kilometers every year, spewing out nearly 4 million tonnes of fuel emissions into the atmosphere every year (9900 tonnes per day). About 2 to 5% of these emissions (about 200 to 500 tonnes per day) are in the form of highly toxic gases and particulate matter hazardous to human health and well being. This does not include tyre wear out on Delhi roads which further adds nearly 6000 tonnes of rubber per year (about 16 tonnes per day!) into that contributes greatly to hazardous, dense, black carbon particles that tend to remain near the ground causing serious respiratory and heart diseases. Delhi is now characterized as among the world’s most polluted city. Analysis of 24x7 annual trend ( for the year 2015) of multiple factors resulting in air pollution in Delhi indicates that it seems unlikely that traffic volume reduction alone will have a very significant impact on reducing air pollution especially in winter months. The problem of air pollution needs to be addressed retroactively at its technological root viz. the combustion process in internal combustion engines. Nearly 70% of air pollution in the City is due to vehicle emissions; the rest being from thermal power stations, industries, and open fires in winter. This paper recommends a comprehensive, sustainable and very affordable Vehicular Emission Control Regime, which will be a large technical challenge requiring a systems-based approach to address emission emitting vehicles. Fourteen enabling new and advanced technologies are identified for immediate test, evaluation, and deployment where found suitable based on a prioritized assessment of each vehicle’s need. Several of these advanced technologies have already been fully developed and extensively certified in India in civil R&D. A technology upgradation and its management strategy has been recommended to significantly reduce all hazardous emissions to about 55% of the current measured values within 5-7 years both in summer and winter, enabling turning around of this city to safe vehicular emission levels. A global long term (15-20 years) zero emission vehicle technology strategy is also reviewed. Innovative collaborative emission control programme management structures are also recommended to be realized in three stages, addressing both technical and non-technical factors that currently enhance air pollution in Delhi.



[1]  Mathew T.V, Lecture Notes “Fuel Consumption and Emission Studies”, August 5, 2014, tvm/1111_nptel/583_FuelEmi/plain/plain.html.
[2]  Sengupta B, Member-Secretary, Central Pollution Control Board, Ministry of Environment and Forests, Government of India , “Vehicular Pollution Control in India Technical & Non-Technical Policy Measure Policy “ Paper presented at Regional Workshop on Transport in Asia, Sector Inspection & Maintenance Policy organized by ESCAP/UN(DESA), Bangkok, 10-12 December 2001.
[3]  Web site of US Embassy , New Delhi
[4]  Rizwan, Baridalyne Nongkynrih, and Sanjeev Kumar Gupta, “Air pollution in Delhi: Its Magnitude and Effects on Health” Indian J Community Med. Open access article 2013 Jan-Mar; 38(1): 4-8.
[5]  Delhi Police Private Vehicles Registered up to 31 March 2015. Does not include inter-state traffic passing around Delhi Registered.
Show More References
[6]  Narain U and Krupnik A, Table 4 “The Impact of Delhi’s CNG Program on Air Quality” February 2007 RFF DP 07-06 Source of Table 4 : CRRI 2002.
[7] General/ text/ Tyres_ loss_ of_ carbon_ atoms/ index.html.
[8]  Favre, C, May J & Bosteels D, “Emissions Control Technologies to Meet Current and Future European Vehicle Emissions Legislation“Association for Emissions Control by Catalyst (AECC) AISBL and%20future%20European%20vehicle%20emissions%20legislation.pdf.
[9]  Diesel Passenger Vehicles and the Environment, Union of Concerned Scientists default/ files/ legacy/assets/documents/clean_vehicles/diesel-toc.pdf.
[10]  Status and Prospects for Zero Emissions Vehicle Technology, Report of the ARB Independent Expert Panel. 13 April 2007, Prepared for State of California Air Resources Board, Sacramento, California
[11]  India's auto industry: how eco-friendly? The Hindu, Thursday, Nov 08, 2001
[12]  Nesamani K.S, Estimation of Automobile Emissions and Control Strategies in India” UCI-ITS-WP-09-1, Institute of Transportation Studies, University of California, Irvine CA 92697-3600, U.S.A. 2009. /its/ publications/papers/CASA/UCI-ITS-AS-WP-09-1.pdf.
[13]  Kumar P, “Capital Structure Analysis Of Indian Automobile Industry” International Journal of Computing and Business Research (IJCBR), ISSN (Online) : 2229-6166 Volume 3 Issue 2 May 2012 may2012/22. doc
[14]  “The Hindu” Newspaper Thursday, Nov 08, 2001 2001110800280100.htm “India's auto industry: how eco-friendly?”
[15]  U.S. EPA Publication "Review of Catalyst Overheating Issue" March, 1983
[16]  The Hindu newspaper Thursday, Nov 20, 2003 htm.
Show Less References


Trace Metals in Total Atmospheric Depositions (TAD) of a Nigerian Island

1African Institute for Science Policy and Innovations, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife Nigeria

2Atmospheric Research and Information Analysis Laboratory (ARIAL), Centre for Energy Research and Development (CERD), Obafemi Awolowo University Ile-Ife

Journal of Atmospheric Pollution. 2016, 4(1), 15-22
doi: 10.12691/jap-4-1-2
Copyright © 2016 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
C.A. Onwudiegwu, G.C. Ezeh, I.B. Obioh. Trace Metals in Total Atmospheric Depositions (TAD) of a Nigerian Island. Journal of Atmospheric Pollution. 2016; 4(1):15-22. doi: 10.12691/jap-4-1-2.

Correspondence to: G.C.  Ezeh, Atmospheric Research and Information Analysis Laboratory (ARIAL), Centre for Energy Research and Development (CERD), Obafemi Awolowo University Ile-Ife. Email:,


The paucity of data on air quality studies in Nigeria prompted us to commence the monitoring of total atmospheric deposition (TAD) in Lagos Island, Nigeria. TAD samples were collected every 30 days for a period of two years using a local assembled gauge fashioned after the Australian model gauge. Elemental characterization was carried out by Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) technique via an in-vacuum ion beam set-up. The TAD rates ranged from 1 to 62 g-1m3 month-1. Twenty-eight elements (Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Ga, As, Zn, Se, Br, Rb, Y, Nb, Mo, Sr, Zr and Pb) were detected in both fractions and their concentrations were assessed. Enrichment factors (EF) and pollution indices (PLI) were calculated and results revealed that most elements were anthropogenic with concentrations exceeding the World Health Organization guideline standards.



[1]  Ezeh G.C., Obioh I.B., Asubiojo O.I. and Abiye O.E. (2012) PIXE characterization of PM10 and PM2.5 particulates sizes collected in Ikoyi Lagos, Nigeria. Journal of Toxicological and Environmental Chemistry, 94(5), 884-894.
[2]  Obioh I.B., Ezeh G.C., Alfa A., Ojo E.O. and Ganiyu A.K., (2013) Atmospheric Particulate Matter in Nigerian Megacities, Journal of Toxicological and Environmental Chemistry, 95 (3), 379-385.
[3]  Ezeh G.C., Obioh I.B., Asubiojo O.I., Chiari M., Nava S., Calzolai G., Lucarelli F. and Nuviadenu C.K. (2014) Elemental Compositions of PM10-2.5 and PM2.5 Aerosols of a Nigerian Urban City using Ion Beam Analytical Techniques. Nuclear Inst. and Methods in Physics Research, B. 334, 28-33.
[4]  Ezeh G.C., Obioh I.B., Asubiojo O.I., Chiari M., Nava S., Calzolai G., Lucarelli F. and Nuviadenu C.K. (2015) The Complementarity of PIXE and PIGE Techniques: a Case Study of Size Segregated Airborne Particulates collected from a Nigeria City. Journal of Applied Radiation and Isotopes 103,
[5]  Azimi S., Ludwig A., Thevenot D.R., and Colin J-L. (2003) Trace metal determination in total atmospheric deposition in rural and urban areas. The Science of the Total Environment 308 (2003), 247-256.
Show More References
[6]  D’Almeida GA, Koepke P, Shettle EP. Atmospheric aerosols: global climatology and radiative characteristics. A. Deepak publishing, 1991. (561 pp).
[7]  Pacyna JM. Esmation of the atmospheric emissions of trace elements from anthropogenic sources in Europe. Atmos Environ 1984;18(1):41-50.
[8]  Sullivan R, Woods I. Using emission factors to characterise heavy metal emissions from sewage sludge incinerators in Australia. Atmos Environ 2000;34: 4571-4577.
[9]  Koutrakis P. Physico-chimie de l’aerosol urbain: identification´ et quantification des principales sources par analyse multivariable. Atmospheric Environment Ph.D. University Paris XII-Val de Marne, 1984. (143 pp).
[10]  Mijic Z., Stojic A., Perisic M., Rajsic S., Tasic M., Radenkovic M. and Joksic J., Seasonal variability and source apportionment of metals in the atmospheric deposition in Belgrade. Atmospheric Environment, 44, 3630–3637, 2010.
[11]  Golomb D, Ryan D, Eby N, Underhill J, Zemba S. Atmospheric deposition of toxic onto Massachusetts Bay-I. Metals. Atmos Environ 1997;31(9):1349-1359.
[12]  Cohen, D.D.; Stelcer, E.; Santos, F.L.; Prior, M.; Thompson, C. and Pabroa, P.C.B. 2008. Fingerprinting and source apportionment of fine particle pollution in Manila by IBA and PMF techniques: A 7-year study. X-ray Spectrometry.
[13]  Cohen DD, Garton D, Stelcer E, Hawas O, Wang T, Poon S, Kim J, Cheol-Choi B, Nam-Oh S, Hye-Jung S, Ko MY, Uematsu M (2004) Multi-elemental analysis and characterization of fine aerosols at several key ACE-Asia sites. Jour of Geophys Res 109: D19S12.
[14]  Calzolai G., Chiari M., Lucarelli F., Nava S. and Portarena S. (2010) Proton induced γ-ray Emission Yields for the Analysis of Light Elements in Aerosol Samples in an External Beam Set-up. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B 268, 1540-1545.
[15]  Akeredolu F.A. (1989) Seasonal Variation in Deposition Rates, Concentration and Chemical Composition of Particulate Matter in Ile-Ife, Nigeria. Atmos. Enviro., 23, 783.
[16]  Maxwell JA, Teesdale WJ, Campbell JL, Nejeddly Z, (1995) The Guelph PIXE software package II. Nuc Inst and Methods in Phy Res (B) 43: pp. 395-407.
[17]  Taylor, S.R., 1964. Abundance of Chemical Elements in the Continental Crust; A New Table. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 28(8), 1273-1285.
[18]  dos Anjos MJ, Lopes RT, De Jesus EFO, Assis JT, Cesareo R, Barradas CAA (2000) Quantitative analysis of metals in soil using X-ray fluorescence. Spectrochim. Acta (B) 55: 1189-1194.
[19]  Sze´kely, G.J., Rizzo, M.L., Bakirov, N.K. 2007. Measuring and testing independence by correlation of distances. Annals of Statistics 35/6, 2769-2794.
[20]  Puente M., Fernàndez-Olmo I. and Irabien A. (2013) Variability in metal deposition among industrial, rural and urban areas in the Cantabria Region (Northern Spain) WIT Transactions on Ecology and The Environment, 174.
[21]  Oluwole A.F., Olaniyi H.B., Akeredolu F.A., Ogunsola O.J, Asubiojo I.O (1988) Determination of the Environmental Impact in the Area of Operation of WAPCO, Consultancy. Services Centre, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife.
[22]  World Health Organization, (2003) Report on a WHO Working Group, EUR/03/504268.
[23]  Migon C, Journel B, Nicolas E. Measurement of trace metal wet, dry and total atmospheric fluxes over the Ligurian Sea. Atmos Environ 1997; 31(6): 889-896.
[24]  Ridame C, Guieu C, Loye-Pilot M-D. Trend in total atmospheric deposition fluxes of aluminium, iron, and trace metals in the northwestern Mediterranean over the past decade (1985–1997). J. Geophys Res 1999; 104(D232): 30127-30138.
[25]  World Health Organization (2006) Air quality guidelines for particulate matter, ozone, nitrogen dioxide and sulfur dioxide global update. World Health Organization (WHO) Geneva Switzerland.
[26]  Mason B (1966) Principles of geochemistry. Third ed., Wiley: New York
[27]  Weast, R.C. and Astle, M.J., 1982. Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, CRC Press, Boca Raton Fla.
Show Less References