ISSN (Print): 2381-2982

ISSN (Online): 2381-2990

Editor-in-Chief: Ki-Hyun Kim

Website: http://www.sciepub.com/journal/JAP

   

Article

Analysis of Total Particulate Matter from a Secondary Steel Smelting Industry

1Environmental Engineering Research Laboratory, Department of Chemical Engineering, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Osun State, Nigeria


Journal of Atmospheric Pollution. 2016, 4(1), 30-34
doi: 10.12691/jap-4-1-4
Copyright © 2016 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
M.A. Adeyeye, F.A. Akeredolu, J.A. Sonibare, E.L. Odekanle, D.D. Ajala. Analysis of Total Particulate Matter from a Secondary Steel Smelting Industry. Journal of Atmospheric Pollution. 2016; 4(1):30-34. doi: 10.12691/jap-4-1-4.

Correspondence to: M.A.  Adeyeye, Environmental Engineering Research Laboratory, Department of Chemical Engineering, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Osun State, Nigeria. Email: foluy2k4@yahoo.com

Abstract

Particulate matter (PM) in ambient air is a potential carrier of toxic metals. This study determined the concentration of total suspended particulate matter in the ambient air of a secondary steel smelting plant and further determined the level of selected metals in the collected samples. Deposition gauges were installed at four distinct sampling locations in the vicinity of the plant for collection of ambient particles. The particulate samples were collected simultaneously and removed at two weeks interval from October, 2015 to April, 2016. Particulate matter from solution was recovered through Whatmann filter paper by filtration. All samples were digested and analyzed by Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (FAAS) instrument. The elements analyzed included Copper (Cu), Iron (Fe), Nickel (Ni), Zinc (Zn), Manganese (Mn) and Chromium (Cr). The ambient concentration of ambient particulate matter was in the range of 390-1450 µg/m3 with an overall average of 918.0±325.5. This average concentration significantly exceeded the allowable limits of 150 µg/m3 set by the World Health Organisation and 250 µg/m3 by Federal Ministry of Environment of Nigeria. Analysis of the total suspended particulate matter shows the concentration (µg/m3) range of 0.1-24 for Cu, 2.3-500 for Fe, 0-3 for Ni, 11-540 for Zn, 11-120 Mn and 0-6 for Cr. The upper limit for Cu was above the values in literature. The results suggest the need to install particulate matter control device to curb the release of particulate matter into the area for adequate air quality management.

Keywords

References

[1]  Ukemenam O.S. Causes and consequences of air pollution in Nigeria. South African Journal of Public Health. 2 (2). 293-307. 2014.
 
[2]  Baldasano J.M., Valera, E.a and Jime´nez, P. Air quality data from large cities. The Science of the Total Environment. 307. 141-165. 2003.
 
[3]  Akeredolu, F.A. Atmospheric environment problems in Nigeria - An Overview. Atmospheric Environment. 23(4): 783-792. 1989.
 
[4]  Owoade, O.K., Olise, F.S., Obioh, I.B., Olaniyi, H.B., Ferrero, L. And Bolzacchini, E. EDXRF elemental assay of airborne particulates: A case study of an iron and steel smelting industry, Lagos, Nigeria. Scientific Research and Essay. 4(11): 1342-1347. 2009.
 
[5]  Owoade, O.K., Olise, F.S., Olaniyi, H.B., Ibioh, I.B. and Bolzacchini, E. Mass and energy audit in a Nigerian iron and steel smelting Factory: An operational and efficiency study. Ife Journal of Science. 13(1): 133-142. 2011.
 
Show More References
[6]  Kagawa, J. Health effects of air pollutants and their management. Atmo. Environ. 18(3): 613-620. 1984.
 
[7]  Kelsall, J.E., Samet, J.M., Zeger, S.L. and Xu, J. Air pollution and mortality in Philadelphia. Am. J. Epidemiol. 146(9): 729-762. 1997.
 
[8]  Nwachukwu, A.N., Chukwuocha, E.O. and Igbudu, O. A survey of the effects of air pollution on diseases of the people of Rivers State, Nigeria. African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology. 6(10): 371-379. 2012.
 
[9]  Arditsoglou, A., Samara, C. Levels of total suspended particulate matter and major trace elements in Kosovo: A source identification and apportionment study. Chemosphere. 59: 669-678. 2005.
 
[10]  Rai, P.K. Multifaceted health impacts of Particulate matter (PM) and its management: An overview. Environmental Skeptics and Critics. 4(1): 1-26. 2015.
 
[11]  Map of Osun State. Online at http://article.sapub.org/image/10.5923.s.tourism.201401.04_002.gif. [Accessed on 10/10/2016].
 
[12]  USEPA. Air quality criteria for particulate matter. Vol. 1-3, Office of Research and Development, Washington DC( EPA Report No. EPA/001a-c). 1995.
 
[13]  Loyola, J., Arbilla, G., Quiterio, S.L., Escaleira, V. and Bellido, A.V. Concentration of airborne trace metals in a bus station with a high heavy-duty diesel fraction. J. Braz. Chem. Soc., 20: 1343-1350. 2009.
 
[14]  Gharaibeh, A.A., El-Rjoob, A.O. and Harb, M.K. Determination of selected heavy metals in air samples from the Northern Part of Jordan. Environ. Monit. Assess., 160: 425-429. 2010.
 
[15]  Federal Ministry of Environment of Nigeria. Air Quality Guidelines in Nigeria. 1995.
 
[16]  WHO Air quality guidelines for particulate matter, ozone, nitrogen dioxide and sulphur dioxide. http://whqlibdoc. who. int/hq/ 2006/WHO_SDE_PHE_OEH_06.02_eng.pdf. 2006.
 
[17]  Sharma, R. and Pervez, S. Spatial and seasonal variability of ambient concentrations of particulate matter around an integrated steel plant: A case study. Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research. 62: 838-845. 2003.
 
[18]  Ibrahim, Q.A., Anmar, D.K. and Azimi, T.H. Measuring the concentrations of some heavy elements indoor and outdoor during dust storms in Anbar Province, Iraq. International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering. 2: 578-582. 2013.
 
[19]  Mgbemena, M.N. and Onwukeme, V.I. Heavy metal in duct samples from Aba, Abia State, Nigeria, using car wind screen as inert passive collector. Journal of Applied Chemistry. 3: 53-56. 2012.
 
[20]  Adekola, F.A. and Dosumu, O.O. Heavy metal determination in household dust from Ilorin City, Nigeria. Journal of Nigerian Society for Experimental Biology. 1: 217-221. 2001.
 
Show Less References

Article

Variability of Meteorological Factors on In-cabin and Pedestrians Exposures to CO and VOC in South-west Nigeria

1Environmental Engineering Research Laboratory, Department of Chemical Engineering, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Osun State, Nigeria

2African Regional Centre for Space Science and Technolgy Education in English (ARCSSTE-E), Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Osun State, Nigeria

3Centre for Energy Research and Development (CERD), Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Osun State, Nigeria

4Department of Material Science and Engineering, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Osun State, Nigeria


Journal of Atmospheric Pollution. 2017, 5(1), 1-8
doi: 10.12691/jap-5-1-1
Copyright © 2017 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
E.L. Odekanle, M.A. Adeyeye, F.A. Akeredolu, J.A. Sonibare, I.M. Oloko-Oba, O.E. Abiye, D.A. Isadare, A.A. Daniyan. Variability of Meteorological Factors on In-cabin and Pedestrians Exposures to CO and VOC in South-west Nigeria. Journal of Atmospheric Pollution. 2017; 5(1):1-8. doi: 10.12691/jap-5-1-1.

Correspondence to: E.L.  Odekanle, Environmental Engineering Research Laboratory, Department of Chemical Engineering, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Osun State, Nigeria. Email: eodekanle@yahoo.com

Abstract

One of the major environmental challenges in Nigerian big cities is air pollution. This study examined the influence of meteorological factors on in-cabin and pedestrian exposures to gaseous pollutants in various modes of transportation in Lagos City, South West Nigeria in other to establish their linear relationship. The pollutants were CO, VOCs, while the meteorological factors were wind, temperature and relative humidity. Measurements were made inside four major modes of transportation in the city: cars, buses, Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) and walking for CO and VOC. Measurements were done for each mode twice a day (morning and afternoon) between November 3, 2013 and January 6, 2014 (except on Sundays). The relationship between the meteorological parameters and the pollutants’ concentrations was obtained using multiple linear regression model. The result and analysis revealed that CO and VOCs have negative correlations with temperature in all modes of transportation selected while they have positive correlations with relative humidity. It was also revealed that there is statistically meaningful difference between CO concentrations and temperature.

Keywords

References

[1]  Atubi O. August (2010). “Road Transport System Management and Traffic in Lagos, South Western Nigeria”. An International Multi Disciplinary Journal, Ethiopia 459-470.
 
[2]  Awoyemi O.K., Ita A.E., Awotayo .G., Lawal L, and Dienne C.E (2013). “An evaluation of the Nature and workability of Various modes of transport in Lagos State, Nigeria” International Journal of Research in Social Sciences.
 
[3]  Balanay G., Jo Aand Tungu T (2009). “Exposure of Jeepney Drivers in Manila, Philippine to selected volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs)”. Ind. Health.
 
[4]  Briggs, DJ, K de Hoogh, C Morris and J Gulliver (2008). “Effects of travel mode on exposures particulate air pollution”. Environment International 34: 12-22.
 
[5]  Broomfield, P., Royle, J. A., Steinberg, L. J. and Yang Q., (1996). Accounting for meteorological effects in measuring urban ozone levels and trends. Atmos.B Environ., 17, 3067-3077.
 
Show More References
[6]  Chan, L.Y., Lau, W.L., Lee, S.C. and Chan, C.Y. (2002a).” Commuter Exposure to Particulate Matter in Public Transportation Modes in Hong Kong”. Atmos. Environ. 36: 3363-3373.
 
[7]  Chertok M, Alexander V., Vicky S and Chris R (2004). “Comparison of air pollution exposure for five commuting modes in Sydney – car, train, bus, bicycle and walking” Health Promotion Journal of Australia 15: 63-7.
 
[8]  Davis, J. M., Eder, B. K., Nychka, D. and Yang Q., (1998). Modeling the effects of meteorology on ozone in Houston using cluster analysis and generalized additive models. Atmos. Environ., 32, 2505-2520.
 
[9]  Dockery, D.W. and Pope, C.A. (1993). Acute Respiratory Effects of Particulate Air Pollution Auun. Rev. Publ. Health 15: 107-132.
 
[10]  Dora C, Phillips M, eds. (2000). “Transport, environment and health”. Copenhagen, WHO Regional Office for Europe (WHO Regional Publications, European Series, No.89; http://www.euro.who.int/document/e72015.pdf, accessed 26 November 2004).
 
[11]  Duci A, Chaloulakou A, Spyrellis N. (2003). “Exposure to carbon monoxide in the Athens urban area during commuting.” Sci Total Environ; 309(1-3): 47-58.
 
[12]  Giri, D; Krishna, V and Adhikary, P (2008). ‘The Influence of Meteorological Conditions on PM10 Concentrationsin Kathmandu Valley’. Int. J. Environ. Res., 2(1): 49-60, Winter 2008.
 
[13]  Gómez-Perales, J. E., Colvile, R. N., Nieuwenhuijsen, M.J., Fernández-Bremauntz, A.,Gutierrez- Avedoy, V.J., Paramo-Figueroa, V.H., Blanco-Jimenez, S., Bueno-Lopez, E., Mandujano, F., Bernabe-Cabanillas, R., Ortiz-Segovia, E., (2004). ‘Commuters’ exposure to PM2.5, CO, and benzene in public transport in the metropolitan area of Mexico City’. Atmospheric Environment, vol. 38 (8): 1219-1229.
 
[14]  Gour A., Santosh K., Sushil K and Anubha (2015).’ Variation in parameters of ambient air quality in national capital territory (nct) of delhi (india.
 
[15]  Hoek, G.; Brunekreef, B.; Goldbohm, S.; Fischer, P. and van den Brandt P.A (2002). “Association between mortality and indicators of traffic-related air pollution in the Netherlands: a cohort study”. The Lancet., 360, 1203-1209.
 
[16]  Iyoha, M. A. (2009): The environmental effects of oil industry activities on the nigeria economy.
 
[17]  Jamriska, M, Morawska and K Mergersen (2008). The effect of temperature and humidity on size segregated traffic exhaust particle emissions. Atmospheric Environment 42: 2369-2382.
 
[18]  Kalkstein. L. S., Corrigan. P., (1986). A Synoptic climatological approach for geographical analysis:assessment of sulfur dioxide concentrations. Annals Assoc. Am. Geograph., 76, 381-395.
 
[19]  Kaur, S and Nieuwenhuijsen M (2009). Determinants of personal exposure to PM2.5, ultrafine particle counts, and CO in a transport microenvironment. Environmental Science &Technology 43: 4737-4743
 
[20]  Kingham, S., Pearce, J., Zawar-Reza, P. (2007). ‘Driven to injustice? Environmental justice and vehicle pollution in Christchurch, New Zealand’ Transport Research Part D: Transport and Environment, vol. 12, p. 254-263.
 
[21]  Knibbs L, Cole-Hunter T, Morawska L(2011). “A review of commuter exposure to ultrafine particles and its health effects”. Atmos Environ; 45: 2611-22.
 
[22]  Krupa, S., Nosal, M., Ferdinand, J. A., Stevenson, R. E. and Skelly, J. M., (2003). A multivariate statistical model integrating passive sampler and meteorology data to predict the frequency distributions of hourly ambient ozone (O3) concentrations. Environ. Pollu., 124, 173-178.
 
[23]  Ling Chuan Guo, Yonghui Zhang,Hualrang Lin., Weilin Zeng., Tao Liu., Jianpeng Xiao., Shannon Rutherford., Jing You, Wenjun Ma (2016). ‘The washout effects of rainfall on atmospheric particulate pollution in two Chinese cities’. Environmental Pollution, 215: 195-202.
 
[24]  Minguillon M., Arhami M., Schauer J and Sioutas C(2008) Seasonal and spatial variations of sources of fine and quasi-ultrafine particulate matter in neighborhoods near the Los Angeles–Long Beach harbor.Atmospheric Environment 42: 7317-7328.
 
[25]  Odekanle E.L., Fakinle B.S, Akeredolu F.A, Sonibare J.A and AdesanmiA.J (2016). “Personal exposures to particulate matter in various modes of transport in Lagos city, Nigeria. Cogent Environmental Science 2: 1260857.
 
[26]  Perez, P. and Trier, A., (2001). Prediction of NO and NO2 concentrations near a street with heavy traffic in Santiago, Chile. Atmos. Environ., 35, 1783-1789.
 
[27]  Pope, C.A., Thun, M.J., Namboodiri, M.M., Docker, D.W., Evans, J.S., Speizer, F.E., Heath Jr., C.W., (1995).” American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 151-669.
 
[28]  Saville, S. B. 1993. Automotive options and air quality management in developing countries. Indust. Envt. 16 (1-2): 20, 32.
 
[29]  Somuyiwa Adebambo (2009). “Impact of Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) system On passengers' satisfaction in Lagos metropolis, Nigeria.” International Journal of Creativity and Technical Development.
 
[30]  Srivastava R., Shampa S and Gufran (2014). ”Correlation of Various Gaseous Pollutants with Meteorological Parameter (Temperature, Relative Humidity and Rainfall)”. Global Journal inc, 14:6.
 
[31]  Sumeet S, Pham V.L, Do D.Q,Pham T.N, Dao T.T, Trang N. Q, Pham N. D, Thang N,Le N.Q Du H. D (2006). “Commuters’ exposure to particulate matters and carbon monoxide in Hanoi, Vietnam: A pilot study. East- West Center Working Papers
 
[32]  Tian Linwei, Hong Qiu1, Vivian C. Pun1, Hualiang Lin, Erjia Ge1, Jazz C. Chan1, Peter K. Louie, Kin-fai Ho and Ignatius Yu1 (2013). ‘Ambient Carbon Monoxide Associated with Reduced Risk of Hospital Admissions for Respiratory Tract Infections’. Am J Respir Crit Care Med, 188(10): 124.
 
[33]  USEPA (1995). “National Ambient Air Quality Standards. http://www.epa.gov/oagps001.
 
[34]  Wohrnschimmel, H, M Zuk, G Martinez-Villa, J Ceron, B Cardenas, L Rojas-Bracho and A Fernandez- Bremauntz (2008). “The impact of a bus rapid transit system on commuters’exposure to benzene, CO, PM2.5 and PM10 in Mexico City. Atmospheric Environment 42: 8194-8203.
 
Show Less References

Article

Atmospheric Stability Pattern over Port Harcourt, Nigeria

1Department of Geography and Environmental Management, University of Port Harcourt, Port Harcourt, Nigeria

2Department of Soil Science and Meteorology, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike, Nigeria


Journal of Atmospheric Pollution. 2017, 5(1), 9-17
doi: 10.12691/jap-5-1-2
Copyright © 2017 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
D. O. Edokpa, M. O. Nwagbara. Atmospheric Stability Pattern over Port Harcourt, Nigeria. Journal of Atmospheric Pollution. 2017; 5(1):9-17. doi: 10.12691/jap-5-1-2.

Correspondence to: D.  O. Edokpa, Department of Geography and Environmental Management, University of Port Harcourt, Port Harcourt, Nigeria. Email: onojiede@gmail.com

Abstract

This study examined the atmospheric stability pattern over Port Harcourt in Nigeria from 2011-2015. Six hourly synoptic data retrieved from ECWMF Re-analysis Interim data set (Era-Interim) platform was used in the analysis. The Era-Interim platform provides a viable standard most especially for the exploration of temperature and wind speed data which are critical indicators of stability conditions. The widely and acceptably used Pasquill-Gifford stability technique was employed in assessing the stability variations. Results showed that very stable (class F) and neutral (class D) conditions occur during the early hours of dawn. While class D prevails from June to September, class F dominates from October to May. During the afternoon, slightly unstable condition (class C) exists and prevails from February to November. Stability class B was more dominant at sunset throughout the year while very unstable condition (class A) only prevails from December to January during noon time. The pattern of atmospheric stability conditions in the study area suggests that emissions will be restricted at ground level receptors during the early hours of dawn if emission sources are below inversion level. However, if the emission sources are above inversion level, dispersion will take place aloft. Emission dispersion during the day for elevated sources will not adversely affect close downwind receptors for most of the months due to the moderately unstable categories B-C dominant in the area as well as low wind speed. However, in December and January, vigorous mixing brings emissions to ground level at receptors close to emission sources due to the prevalent very unstable condition (class A) at moderate wind speed. The reverse will be the case for low level emission sources. Policy makers must ensure that pollution from industries within the study area are mitigated as well as keep potential emitters from being sited close to city areas.

Keywords

References

[1]  Magidi, S. Determining the atmospheric stability classes for Mazoe in Northern Zimbabwe. International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications. 3(2), 178-181. 2013.
 
[2]  Muir, D. M. Air Pollution Control Technology. Department of Chemical and Process Engineering, University of Strathclyde Publications, United Kingdom. 2014.
 
[3]  Arya, P. Introduction to Micrometeorology, 2nd Edition. San Diego: Academic Press. 1998.
 
[4]  Barthelmie, R.J. The effects of atmospheric stability on coastal wind climates. Meteorol. Appl. 6, 39-47. 1999.
 
[5]  Queralt, S., Hernandez, E., Gallego, D. and Iturrioz, I. Atmospheric instability analysis and its relationship to precipitation pattern over Western Iberian Peninsula. Adv. Geosci. 10, 39-44. 2007.
 
Show More References
[6]  Koblitz, T., Bechmann, A., Berg, J., Sogachev, A., Sørensen, N and Réthoré, P-E. Atmospheric stability and complex terrain: comparing measurements and CFD. Journal of Physis. 555(1), 1-11. 2014.
 
[7]  Lanigan, D., Stout, J. and Anderson, W. Atmospheric stability and diurnal patterns of Aeolian saltation on the Llano Estacado. Aeolian Research. 21(2016), 131-137.
 
[8]  Czaja, A. Notes on Atmospheric Physics. Physics Department & Grantham Institute for Climate Change, Imperial College, London. March 22. 2016.
 
[9]  Ayoade, J.O. Introduction to Climatology for the Tropics (2nd Edition). Ibadan: Spectrum Books. 2004.
 
[10]  Weli, V.E. and Kobah, E.The Air Quality Implications of the SPDC-Bomu Manifold Fire Explosion in K-Dere, Gokana LGA of Rivers State, Nigeria. Research Journal of Environmental and Earth Sciences. 6 (1), 1-9. 2014.
 
[11]  Zoras, S., Triantafyllou, A.G. and Deligiorgi, D. Atmospheric stability and PM10 concentrations at far distance from elevated point sources in complex terrain: worst-case episode study, J. of Environmental Management. 80, 295-302. 2006.
 
[12]  Pasquill, F. “The Estimation of the Dispersion of Windborne Material”, Meteorological Management. 90 (1), 33 - 49. 1961.
 
[13]  Essa, K.S.M., Embaby, M., Mubarak, F. and Kamel, I. Estimation of Seasonal Atmospheric and Mixing Height by Using Different Schemes. International Journal of Advanced Research. 1(9), 429-438. 2013.
 
[14]  Chiadikobi, K.C., Omoboriowo, A.O., Chiaghanam, O.I., Opatola, A.O. and Oyebanji, O. Flood Risk Assessment of Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria. Advances in Applied Science Research. 2(6), 287-298. 2011.
 
[15]  Efe, S.I. and Weli, V.E. Economic Impact of Climate Change in Port Harcourt, Nigeria. Open Journal of Social Sciences. 3, 57-68. 2015.
 
[16]  Uko, E.D. and Tamunobereton-Ari, I.Variability of Climatic Parameters in Port Harcourt, Nigeria. Journal of Emerging Trends in Engineering and Applied Sciences. 4(5), 727-730. 2013.
 
[17]  Tari, E., Brown, I. and Chikagbum, W. Climate Change, Disaster Risk Management and the Urban Poor in Port Harcourt Metropolis. International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research. 4(5), 58-65. 2015.
 
[18]  Ogbalu, O.K and Onwuteaka, J.N. Micro-habitat Ecology of Mosquito in Port Harcourt Metropolis and Environs. ARRB. 9(1), 1-13. 2016.
 
[19]  European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecast. European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecast (ECMWF) Re-Analysis Interim (ERA-Interim) model data. 2009. Retrieved on 15/3/2016 from: http://catalogue.ceda.ac.uk/uuid/00f58d1d7b6c8f38993e77c79e72da92.
 
[20]  Bett, P.E. and Thornton, H.E. The climatological relationships between wind and solar energy supply in Britain. Renewable Energy. 87, 96-110. 2016.
 
[21]  Barratt, R. Atmospheric Dispersion modelling. New York: Earth Scan Publications. 70pp ISBN 1-85383-642-7. 2011.
 
[22]  Edokpa. O.D. and Precious Ede. Challenge of Gas Flaring and Emissions Propagation in Nigeria. Academic Arena. 5(3), 28-35. 2013.
 
Show Less References