Journal of Atmospheric Pollution

ISSN (Print): ISSN Pending

ISSN (Online): ISSN Pending

Website: http://www.sciepub.com/journal/JAP

Article

The Relaxed Eddy Accumulation for Estimating Aerosols Dry Deposition above Tropical Forest

1Biology Program, Faculty of Science and Technology, Phetchabun Rajabhat University, Phetchabun, Thailand

2Division of Environmental Technology, School of Energy, Environment and Materials, King Mongkut’s University of Technology Thonburi, Bangkok, Thailand


Journal of Atmospheric Pollution. 2013, 1(1), 1-4
DOI: 10.12691/jap-1-1-1
Copyright © 2013 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Kan Khoomsab, Pojanie Khummongkol. The Relaxed Eddy Accumulation for Estimating Aerosols Dry Deposition above Tropical Forest. Journal of Atmospheric Pollution. 2013; 1(1):1-4. doi: 10.12691/jap-1-1-1.

Correspondence to: Kan  Khoomsab, Biology Program, Faculty of Science and Technology, Phetchabun Rajabhat University, Phetchabun, Thailand. Email: topkan13@hotmail.com

Abstract

The relaxed eddy accumulation (REA) method was applied to estimate dry deposition fluxes and velocities of SO42- and NO3- above a tropical forest. The monthly measured concentration of NO3- was found to be greater than that of SO42-. The average dry deposition flux of NO3- was found to be greater than that of SO42. The average deposition velocities of sulfate were evaluated to be 0.30 cm s-1 during the day and 0.22 cm s-1 at night, while the highest deposition velocities of nitrate were 0.93 cm s-1 during the day and 0.54 cm s-1 at night. The deposition velocities of aerosols (SO42- and NO3-), calculated by using the resistance model, were found to be 0.49 cm s-1 during the day and 0.29 cm s-1 at night.

Keywords

References

[1]  Kajino, M. H., Nakamaya, S. U.,and Ishikama H., Observational indicatins of indirect acidification in asia: enhanced deposition of nitric acid gas expelled from the aerosol by sulfate, Annuals of Diss.Prev.Res.Inst., Kyoto Univ., No. 50C., 2007,165-176.
 
[2]  Monteith, J.L. and Mike H. U., Principle of environmental physics, Elsevier Inc., USA, 2008.
 
[3]  Meyer, T.P., Luke,W.T., Meisinger, J.J., Fluxes of ammonia and sulfate over maize using relaxed eddy accumulation, Agric. For. Met, 2006,136, 203-213.
 
[4]  Businger, J. A.,Oncley, S. P., Flux measurement with conditional sampling, J. Atmos.Oceanic Tech. 1990,7, 349-352.
 
[5]  Zemmelink, H. J., Gieskes, W.W.C., Klaassen,W., de Baar, H.W.J., Dacey, J.W.H., Hintsa, E.J.,cgillis,W.R., Simultaneous use of relaxed eddy accumulation and gradient flux techniques for the measurement of sea-to-air exchange of dimethylsulfide, Atmos. Env., 2002, (36) 5709-5717.
 
Show More References
[6]  Fotiadi A. K., Lohou, F., Druilhet A., Serc, D.¸ A, Said, F., Laville, P., Brut, A., Methodological development of the conditional sampling method. part II:quality control criteria of relaxed eddy accumulation flux measurements, Bound. Lay. Met., 2005, 117, 577-603.
 
[7]  Meyer, T.P., Luke, W.T., Meisinger, J.J., Fluxes of ammonia and sulfate over maize using relaxed eddy accumulation, Agric. For. Met., 2006, 136, 203-213.
 
[8]  Pryor, S.C., Larsen, S.E., Sorensen, L.L., and Barthelmie, R.J., Particle fluxes above forest: Observations, methodological considerations and method comparisons. Envir. Pollut., 2008, 152, 667-678.
 
[9]  Held, A., Edward, P., Luciana, R., Jim, S., Andrew, T., Alex, G., Relaxed eddy accumulation simulations of aerosol number fluxes and potential proxy scalars, Bound. Lay. Met., 2008, 129, 451-468.
 
[10]  Myles, L.T., Tilden, P.M., Larry, R., Relaxed eddy accumulation measurements of ammonia, nitric acid, sulfur dioxide and particulate sulfate dry deposition near Tampa, FL, USA, Environ. Res. Lett., 2007, 2, 1-8.
 
[11]  Gallagher, M.W., Nemitz, E., Dorsey, J.R., Fowler, D., Sutton, A., Flynn, M., Duyzer, J., Measurements and parameterizations of small aerosol deposition velocities to grassland, arable crops, and forest: Influence of surface roughness length on deposition, J. geophys. Res., 2002, 107.
 
[12]  Ranjit, K., Maharaj, K.K., Srivastava, S.S., Field measurements of aerosol particle dry deposition on tropical foliage at an urban site, Environ. Sci. Technol., 2006, Jan;40(1), 135-141.
 
[13]  Zhang, L., Vet, R., Wiebe, A., Mihele, C., Sukloff, B.,Chan, E., Moran, M.D., Iqbal, S., Characterization of size-segregated water-soluble inorganic ions at eight Canadian rural sites, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 2008, 8, 7133-7151.
 
[14]  Erisman, J.W., Draaijers, G.P.J., Atmospheric deposition in relation to acidification and eutrophication, Elsevier Science, 1995.
 
[15]  Gaman, A., Rannik, U., Aalto, P., Pohja, T., Siiovola, E. and co-authors., Relaxed eddy accumulation system for size resolved aerosol particle flux measurements. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol, 2004, 21, 933-943.
 
[16]  Coppale, A., Dammay, P. E., Maro, D., Talbaut, M., Connan, O., Hebert, D., Validation of aerosols dry deposition velocity models with new data, 13th Conference on Harmonisation within Atmospheric Dispersion Modelling for Regulatory Purposes, Paris, France, 2010, 658-661.
 
Show Less References

Article

Treatment of Sugar Waste Water by Electrocoagulation

1Department of Chemical Engineering, NIT Raipur, India


Journal of Atmospheric Pollution. 2013, 1(1), 5-7
DOI: 10.12691/jap-1-1-2
Copyright © 2013 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Rumi Chaudhary, O.P. Sahu. Treatment of Sugar Waste Water by Electrocoagulation. Journal of Atmospheric Pollution. 2013; 1(1):5-7. doi: 10.12691/jap-1-1-2.

Correspondence to: O.P.  Sahu, Department of Chemical Engineering, NIT Raipur, India. Email: ops0121@gmail.com

Abstract

Sugar industry plays an important role in the economy of India by way of farming and creation of employment. The by-products of sugar mills are also used as raw materials in different industry. However sugar mill have a great environmental impact upon the surrounding environment. The change of water chemistry is the main associated environmental impact of discharging sugar mill’s effluent on an open water body. The effluents are causing odor nuisance during decomposition and disturbed the plant, human and animal life. Due this an economical treatment has been introduced that is known to be electrochemical process. To treat the sugar industry wastewater aluminium plate was used as electrode material. It has been shown that the removal efficiency of COD increased with the increasing applied current density, increasing wastewater flow rate and polyelectrolyte addition. The results indicate that electrocoagulation is very efficient and able to achieve 84.2% COD removal and over 99% color removal in 90 min at 40 mA/cm2 and wastewater flow rate of 1000ml/min.

Keywords

References

[1]  Merzouk B., Gourich B., Sekki A., Madani K., Vial Ch., Barkaoui M., Studies on the decolorization of textile dye wastewater by continuous electrocoagulation process Chemical Engineering Journal, 149 (1-3): 207-214, 2009.
 
[2]  Phalakornkule, C., Polgumhang, S., Tongdaung, W., Karakat, B., Nuyut, T., Electrocoagulation of Blue Reactive, Red Disperse and Mixed Dyes, and Application in Treating Textile Effluent, Journal of Environmental Management, 91: 918–926, 2010.
 
[3]  Tezcan Un U., Koparal A. S., Bakir Ogutveren Ü., Hybrid processes for the treatment of cattle slaughterhouse wastewater using aluminum and iron electrodes, Journal of Hazardous Materials, 164( 2-3):580-586, 2009.
 
[4]  Tezcan Un U., Koparal A. S., Bakir Ogutveren Ü., Electrocoagulation of vegetable oil refinery wastewater using aluminum electrodes, Journal of Environmental Management, 90(1):428-433, 2009.
 
[5]  Tezcan Un U., Ugur S., Koparal A.S. and Bakır Öğütveren Ü., Electrocoagulation of olive mill wastewaters, Separation and Purification Technology, 52(1): 136-141, 2006.
 
Show More References
[6]  Koparal, A.S., Ogutveren, U.B., Removal of nitrate from water by electroreduction and electrocoagulation. J. Hazard. Mater. 89: 83–94, 2002.
 
[7]  Tezcan Un U., Koparal A. S., Bakir Ogutveren Ü., Durucan A., Electrochemical Process For The Treatment Of Drinking Water, Fresenius Environmental Bulletin, 19(9):1906-1910, 2010.
 
[8]  Tezcan Un U., Treatment of Vegetable Oil Refinery Wastewater by Electrocoagulation, Fresenius Environmental Bulletin, 16(9a):1056-1060, 2007.
 
Show Less References

Article

The Levels of Toxic Gases; Carbon Monoxide, Hydrogen Sulphide and Particulate Matter to Index Pollution in Jos Metropolis, Nigeria

1National Metallurgical Development Centre, Jos, Nigeria

2Chemistry Department, University of Jos, Nigeria

3Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Uyo, Nigeria


Journal of Atmospheric Pollution. 2013, 1(1), 8-11
DOI: 10.12691/jap-1-1-3
Copyright © 2013 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
S.A. Ola, S.J. Salami, P.A. Ihom. The Levels of Toxic Gases; Carbon Monoxide, Hydrogen Sulphide and Particulate Matter to Index Pollution in Jos Metropolis, Nigeria. Journal of Atmospheric Pollution. 2013; 1(1):8-11. doi: 10.12691/jap-1-1-3.

Correspondence to: S.A.  Ola, National Metallurgical Development Centre, Jos, Nigeria. Email: solomonaola@yahoo.com

Abstract

The levels of gaseous pollutants; carbon monoxide (CO), hydrogen sulphide (H2S), and particulate matter (PM) were determined using Electrochemical Sensors and Infra-red based particulometer. The areas under study were some busy roads in Jos, Nigeria including; Ahmadu Bello way, Bauchi road, Tomato market, and some junctions/ terminals; University of Jos gate, Farin Gada and Gada biu. The aim was to assess the extent of vehicular emission in the immediate environment. The result showed that the concentration 0f CO obtained ranged from 6 to 110ppm. The range of H2S obtained was 1.0 to 3.6ppm, while particulate matter concentrations was in the range of 0.1 to 0.6 mg/m3. The peak CO concentrations was higher than the maximum tolerable limit of 50ppm with the possible consequences of causing toxicity to man. The particulate matter and H2S levels are moderate compared to health standards but present an interesting trend for researchers and town planners to observe.

Keywords

References

[1]  National Population Commission, (2006), Census Results/ Growth Projections, Nigeria.
 
[2]  Kotz, J. C. and Purcell K.F., (1987) Chemistry and Chemical Reactivity, Saunders college Publishing, Philadelphia. pp 45-50.
 
[3]  Carson, P.A., and Mumford, C.J., (1994) Hazardous Chemicals Handbook, Butterworth-Heinemann LTD, Oxford.pp 61-64.
 
[4]  US. EPA. (1997). See http://www.epa.gov/air/urbanair/pm/hlth1.html.
 
[5]  Balogun, E.E., (1974) The Phenomenology of the Atmosphere over West Africa, Technical paper, Department of Physics, University of Ife, Nigeria.
 
Show More References
[6]  World Health Organization, WHO, (1987) Regional office for Europe Copenhagen (Ed), Air Quality Guidelines for Europe, WHO regional publications, European series. No 23.
 
[7]  Crowcon Detection Instruments Company (1998) Basic operating Guide, Oxford shire, England, pp 6-10.
 
Show Less References

Article

Spatio - Temporal Trace Gas and Trace Metal Foot Prints in an Industrial and Marine Scenario

1Department of Chemical Oceanography,School of Marine Science,Cochin University of Science and Technology, Kerala, India


Journal of Atmospheric Pollution. 2013, 1(1), 12-17
DOI: 10.12691/jap-1-1-4
Copyright © 2013 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Jose Mathew, Gayathree Devi P. K, Sujatha. C. H. Spatio - Temporal Trace Gas and Trace Metal Foot Prints in an Industrial and Marine Scenario. Journal of Atmospheric Pollution. 2013; 1(1):12-17. doi: 10.12691/jap-1-1-4.

Correspondence to: Jose  Mathew, Department of Chemical Oceanography,School of Marine Science,Cochin University of Science and Technology, Kerala, India. Email: josemathew07@gmail.com

Abstract

A framework budget of ambient atmospheric gases and Particulate Matter are pooled over six stations in the metropolis of Kochi, Kerala, India, during the summer and winter seasons of 2010 and 2011. In order to assess the air quality in the coastal and industrial location, six topographically prominent and distinct areas are selected. The gases like sulphur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide and ammonia are selected owing to its importance on human health. Besides, particulate matter is monitored in order to quantify the trace metal present, which causes serious respiratory and cardiac problems. Elevated concentrations are observed in winter for all the parameters monitored compared to summer, which provides an insight in to the circulation of gases and particulate matter along the unlike seasons. The winter season with more stable atmospheric pattern tend to cumulate the pollutants rather than dispersing it due to temperature gradient. Industrial sites show prominent levels of sulphur dioxide and ammonia. Considerable increase in nitrogen dioxide unravels the folded increase in vehicular motors. The particulate matter study for selected trace metals untie the concentration of iron, lead, copper and zinc to be augmented in winter. Statistical methodologies are applied to assess the relationship between the seasons.

Keywords

References

[1]  Al-Momani, I. F., Daradkeh, A. S., Haj-Hussein, A. T., Yousef, Y. A., Jaradat, Q. M., and Momani, K. A., 2005. Trace elements in daily collected aerosols in Al- Hashimya, Central Jordan. Atmospheric Research, 73, 87-100.
 
[2]  Avnish Chauhan, Mayank Pawar, Rajeev Kumar., and Joshi, P.C., 2010. Ambient air quality status in Uttarakhand (India): A case study of Haridwar and Dehradun using air quality index. Journal of American Science, 6, (9).
 
[3]  Balachandran, S., Meena, B. R., and Khillare, P. S., 2000. Composition of ambient air of Delhi. Environment International, 26 (122), 49-54.
 
[4]  Central Pollution Control Board (C.P.C.B.). National Ambient Air Quality Monitoring Series, NAAQMS/11/1999-2000, India.
 
[5]  Chelani, A. B., Gajghate, D. G., and Hasan, M. Z., 2001. Airborne toxic metals in air of MumbaiCity, India. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 66, 196-205.
 
Show More References
[6]  Finlayson-Pitts, B. J., and Pitts Jr. J. N., 1986. Atmospheric Chemistry: Fundamentals and Experimental Techniques, John Wiley, New York.
 
[7]  Gajghate, D .G. and Bhanarkar, A .D., 2005. Characterization of particulate matter for toxic metals in ambient air of Kochi city, India. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment. 102: 119-129.
 
[8]  Gokhale, S. B., and Patil, R. S., 2004. Size distribution of aerosols (PM10) and Lead (Pb) near traffic intersections in Mumbai (India). Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 95,311-324.
 
[9]  Goyal, S. K., and Chalapati Rao, C.V., 2006. Air assimilative capacity based environmentfriendly siting of new industries –A case study of Kochi Region, India.J Environ Managesep; 84(4); 473-83.
 
[10]  Gupta, H. K., Gupta, V. B., Rao, C. V. C., Gajghate, D. G., and Hasan, M. Z.,2 002. Urban air quality and its management strategy for a metropolitan city of India. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 68, 347-354.
 
[11]  Haritash, A. K., and Kaushik, C.P., 2006. Assessment of seasonal enrichment of heavy metals in Respirable Suspended Particulate Matter of a Sub-Urban city. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment.128:411-420.
 
[12]  Jacob, M. B., and Hochheiser, S., 1968. Continuous sampling and ultra-micro determination ofnitrogen dioxide in air. Annal. Chem., 32, 426.
 
[13]  Kaushik, C.P., Ravindra, K., Yadav, K., Mehta, S., and Haritash, A. K., 2005. Assessment of ambient air quality in urban centres of Haryana (India) in relation to different anthropogenic activities and Health risks. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment.
 
[14]  Lefer, B. L., Talbot, R. W., and Munger, J. W., 1999. Nitric acid and ammonia at a rural North eastern US site. J. Geophys. Res., 104, 1645-1661.
 
[15]  Li, Z., and Aneja, V. P., 1992. Regional analysis of cloud chemistry at high elevations in the eastern United States. Atmos. Environ. A, 26, 2001-2017.
 
[16]  Lodge, J .P., 1989. Methods of air sampling and analysis, (3rd Edition), Lewis Publisher Inc, Chelsea, Michigan.
 
[17]  Moore, J. W., and Ramamoorthy, S., 1984. Heavy metals in natural waters. Berlin Heidelberg New York: Springer.
 
[18]  Primerano, P., Di Pasquale, S., Mavilia, L., and Corigliano, F., 1998. Sources of strong acidity in the atmosphere. Atmos. Environ., 32, 225-230.
 
[19]  Seinfeld, J. H., and Pandis, S. N., 1998. Atmospheric chemistry and physics from air pollution to climate change. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, John Wiley, New York.
 
[20]  Suh, H. H., Allen, G. A., Koutrakis, P., and Burton, R. M., 1995.Spatial variation in acidic sulphate and ammonia concentrations within metropolitan Philadelphia. J. Air Waste Manage. Assoc, 45, 442-452.
 
[21]  Thakur, M., Kantideb, M., Imai, S., Suzuki, Y., Ueki, K., and Hasegawa, A., 2004. Load of heavy metals in the airborne dust particulates of an urban city of central India. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 95, 257-268.
 
[22]  Warneck, P., 1988. Chemistry of the Natural Atmosphere, Academic Press, San Diego, California.
 
[23]  Weisel, C. P., Duce, R. A., Fasching, J. L., and Heaton, R.W., 1984. Estimates of the transport of trace metals from the Oceans to the atmosphere. Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol .89, pp.11607-11618.
 
[24]  West, P.W., and Geake, G. C., 1956. Fixation of sulphur dioxide as sulfitomercurate III and subsequent colorimetric determination, Annal. Chem., 28., 1816.
 
[25]  World Health Organization (WHO). , 1980. Air Quality in Selected Urban Areas, 1977-1978, Offset Publ. No. 57, Geneva.
 
Show Less References

Article

Some Parameterizations of Radiative Fluxes at Atmospheric Boundary Layer (ABL)

1Research and Modeling Division, AIR World wide India Private Limited, Somajiguda, Hyderabad-500082, India

2School of Environmental Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi-110 067, India

3Department of Marine Sciences, Berhampur University, Berhampur-760007, India


Journal of Atmospheric Pollution. 2014, 2(1), 1-5
DOI: 10.12691/jap-2-1-1
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
YASHVANT DAS, B. PADMANABHAMURTY, A.S.N. Murty. Some Parameterizations of Radiative Fluxes at Atmospheric Boundary Layer (ABL). Journal of Atmospheric Pollution. 2014; 2(1):1-5. doi: 10.12691/jap-2-1-1.

Correspondence to: YASHVANT DAS, Research and Modeling Division, AIR World wide India Private Limited, Somajiguda, Hyderabad-500082, India. Email: yashvantdas@rediffmail.com

Abstract

The practicability and applicability of the most classical models for a particular location depends largely on validation against actual measurements, hence the parameterizations of the sub-grid scale process play an important role at Atmospheric Boundary Layer (ABL) for appropriate representation of model outputs. This study presents a simple parameterization for some radiative fluxes and pollution parameters at ABL in a tropical city Delhi. The characteristic of the parameterization is that the experimental data sets obtained during the experimental field campaigns are fit into a linear regression relation with the parameterized values according to the different land-use pattern and coefficients are presented, that are in comparable with earlier studies.

Keywords

References

[1]  Stull R.B., cited in An Introduction to Boundary Layer Meteorology, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, Boston, London, 666, (1991).
 
[2]  Arya S.P.S., cited in Introduction to Micrometeorology, Academic Press Inc., California, USA, 307, (1988).
 
[3]  Arya S.P.S., cited in Air Pollution Meteorology and Dispersion, Oxford University Press, 310, (1991).
 
[4]  Panofsky, H.A. and Dutton J.A., cited in Atmospheric Turbulence Models and Methods for Engineering Applications, J. Wiley and Sons, New York, 397, (1984).
 
[5]  Estournel B.C. and Guidalia D., Influence of geostrophic wind on atmospheric nocturnal cooling, Jour. Atmos. Sci., 42, 2695-2698, (1985).
 
Show More References
[6]  Ray D., Variable eddy diffuvities and atmospheric cellular convection, Boundary- Layer Meteorology, 36, 117-131, (1986).
 
[7]  Delage Y., A numerical study of nocturnal atmospheric boundary layer, Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 100, 351-364, (1974).
 
[8]  Estournel B.C. and Guidalia D., A New Parameterization of eddy diffusivities for nocturnal boundary layer modeling, Boundary-Layer Meteorology, 39, 191-203, (1987).
 
[9]  Lacser A. and Arya S.P.S., A comparative assessment of mixing-length parameterizations in steady stratified nocturnal boundary layer (NBL), Boundary-Layer Meteorology, 36, 53-70, (1986).
 
[10]  Arya S.P.S., Parametric relations for the atmospheric boundary layer, Boundary- Layer Meteorology, 30, 57-73, (1984).
 
[11]  Businger J.A.,Turbulence transfer in the atmospheric surface layer, In ‘Workshop on Micrometeorology’ (D.A. Haugen Eds.) AMS, Boston, Massachusetts, (1973).
 
[12]  Arya S.P.S., The schematic of balance of forces in the Planetary Boundary Layer, J. Clim. Appli. Meteor.., 24, 1001-1002, (1986).
 
[13]  Garratt J.R., Wyngaard J.C. and Franceyet R.J., Winds in the Atmospheric Boundary Layer-Prediction and Observation, Jour. Atmos. Sc., 39(6), 1307-1316 (1982).
 
[14]  Panofsky H.A., Tennekes H., Lenschow D. H. and Wyngaard J. C., The characteristics of turbulent velocity components in the surface layer under convective conditions, Boundary-Layer Meteorology, 11(3), 355-361, (1977).
 
[15]  Kaimal J. C., Wyngaard J.C., Haugen D. A., Coté O. R., Izumi Y., Caughey S. J., and Readings C. J., Turbulence structure in the convective boundary layer, Jour. Atmos. Sci., 33, 2152-2169, (1976).
 
[16]  Kaimal J.C., and Finningan J.J., cited in Atmospheric Boundary Layer Flows, their Structure and Measurements, Oxford University Press, 288, (1994).
 
[17]  Caughey S.J., Observed characteristics of atmospheric boundary layer, in: atmospheric turbulence and air pollution modeling, Eds. Nieuwstadt F.T.M and H. Van Dop, Reidel, Holland, 107-158, (1982).
 
[18]  Esau I., Simulation of Ekman boundary layer by large eddy model with dynamic mixed subfilter closure, J. Env. Fluid Mech., 4(2), 203-303, (2004).
 
[19]  Tennekes H., A model for the dynamics of the inversion above convective boundary layer, Jour. Atmos. Sci., 30, 558-581, (1973).
 
[20]  Arya, S.P.S, Parameterizing the Height of the Stable Atmospheric Boundary Layer, Jour. Appli. Meteor., 1192-1202, (1981).
 
[21]  Nieuwstadt F.T.M. and Tennekes H., A rate equation for the nocturnal boundary-layer height, Jour. Atmos. Sci., 38, 1418-1428, (1981).
 
[22]  Offerele B., Grimmond C.S.B. and Oke, T.R, Parameterization of Net all-wave radiation for urban areas, Jour.Appli..Meteor., 42, 1157-1173, (2003).
 
[23]  Kaminsky K.Z., and Dubayah R., Estimation of surface net radiation in the boreal forest and northern prairie from short wave flux measurements, Journal Geophys. Res., 102, 29,707-29,716, (1997).
 
[24]  Iziomon M.G., Meyer H. and Matazarakis A., Empirical models for estimating net radiative flux: A case study for three midlatitude sites with orographic variability, Astrphys. Space Sci., 273, 313-330, (2000).
 
[25]  Arnfield A. J., An approach to estimation of the surface radiative properties and radiation budget of Cities, Phy. Geogr., 3, 97-122, (1982).
 
[26]  Masson V., A physically based scheme for the urban energy balance in Atmospheric Models, Boundary-Layer Meteorology, 94, 357-397, (2000).
 
[27]  DC Rooy W.C., and Holtslag A.A.M., Estimation of surface radiation and energy flux densities from single-layer weather data, Jour.Appli.Meteor., 38, 526-540, (1999).
 
[28]  Padmanabhamurty B., Badopadhyay D. and Sathapathy K.L., Some boundary layer parameterization, Vayu Mandal, July-Dec. 60-69, (1993).
 
[29]  Das Y., Spatial and temporal distributions of radiation/ energy/ moisture balance over Delhi, Ph.D. Thesis, Berhampur University, Berhampur, (2002).
 
[30]  Edwards J.M. and Slingo A., Studies with a flexible new radiation code. 1: Choosing a configuration for a large-scale model. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 122, 689-719, (1996).
 
[31]  Swinbank W.C., Long wave Radiation from clear skies, Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 102, 241-253, (1963).
 
[32]  Holtslag A.A.M. and Van Ulden A.P., A Simple method for daytime estimate of the surface fluxes from routine weather data. Jour. Appli. Meteor, 16, 517-527, (1983).
 
[33]  Sozzi R., Salcido A. Saldana Flores R. and Georgiadis T., Day time net radiation parameterization for Mexico suburban area, Atmospheric Research, 50, 53-68, (1999).
 
[34]  De Bruin H.A.R. and Holtslag A.A.M., A simple parameterization of the surface fluxes of sensible and latent heat during daytime compared with Penman-Monteith concept. Jour. Appl. Meteor., 21, 1610-1621, (1982).
 
[35]  Das Y., Padmanabhamurty B., Energy Balance measurements in an urban park in tropical city Delhi (India). Contr. to Geophy, and Geodesy, 37, 2, 171-195 (2007).
 
[36]  Das Y., Padmanabhamurty B., ASN Murty, Spatial and temporal distributions of radiation balance components over Delhi (India). Contr. to Geophy, and Geodesy, 39, 4, 355-377, (2009).
 
[37]  Paltridge, G. W. and Platt, C. M. R, Radiative processes in Meteorology and climatology, Elsevier Scientic publishing company, New Nork, pp 311, (1976).
 
[38]  Oke T. R., 1987: Boundary Layer Climates, John Wiley and Sons, New York, 450 p.
 
[39]  Padmanabhamurty B., Hot cities in a hot world. Keynote lecture at ICB_IUCC ’99, Sydney, Australia, (WMO) Nov 8-12, (1999a)
 
[40]  Padmanabhamurty B.: Spatial and temporal variations of radiation, energy and moisture budgets in the boundary layer at Delhi; Final Report on DST Project. Ref. No. ES/48/319/95 (Govt. of India), p49, (1999b).
 
[41]  Backstrom E., The surface energy balance and climate in an urban park, M.Sc. Thesis, Department of Earth Sciences, Geotryckeriet, Uppsala University, Uppsala, p39, (2006).
 
[42]  Hakansson L., and Peters R. H., Predictive Limnology – methods for predictive modeling, SPB Academic Publishing, Amsterdam, (1995).
 
[43]  Ministry of Environment and Forest (MOEF) (http:www.envfo.nic.in), Govt. of India, (1999).
 
[44]  Climatological tables of observatory of India (1953-1980) India Meteorological Department (1998).
 
Show Less References

Article

Vegetables Oil Waste Water as Solution for Air Pollution Reduction

1Department of Mechanical Engineering, KIOT Wollo University, Kombolcha (SW), Ethiopia

2Department of Chemical Engineering, KIOT Wollo University, Kombolcha (SW), Ethiopia


Journal of Atmospheric Pollution. 2014, 2(1), 6-11
DOI: 10.12691/jap-2-1-2
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Raja Thiyagarajan, Omprakash Sahu. Vegetables Oil Waste Water as Solution for Air Pollution Reduction. Journal of Atmospheric Pollution. 2014; 2(1):6-11. doi: 10.12691/jap-2-1-2.

Correspondence to: Omprakash  Sahu, Department of Chemical Engineering, KIOT Wollo University, Kombolcha (SW), Ethiopia. Email: ops0121@gmail.com

Abstract

Any industries generate more waste water as compared to utilization. Waste water generated from the industry either treatment if treatment is feasible or simply discharges to nearby stream. Due that configuration of the environment disturb. It can be minimized if suitable step are take to recycle or use for positive direction. Waste water generated from vegetable oil more percentage oil in there effluent. Vegetable oils and their derivatives (such as methyl esters), commonly referred to as biodiesel, are prominent candidates as alternative diesel fuels. They have advanced from being purely experimental fuels to initial stages of commercialization in a number of countries. Biodiesel is technically competitive to conventional fossil diesel but relatively cheap fossil diesel prices have made the technology economically unfeasible for almost a century. However, recent high and rising world crude oil prices and claims that the world oil reserves are diminishing and environmental and political pressure have caused an urge in the development of the technology of biodiesel production. The goal of this work is to develop a two-step technique of biodiesel production from waste water oil of vegetable oil industry. The results showed the waste water oil containing 75.09% wt of high free fatty acid and the average molecular weight of fatty acid and waste water oil are 281 g mol-1 and 985 g mol-1 with the highest vegetableitic acid content.

Keywords

References

[1]  Thompson, A.E., D.A. Dierig, E.R. Johnson, G.H. Dahlquist, and R. Kleiman. Germplasm development of vernonia galamensis as a new industrial oilseed crop 1994; 3: 185-200.
 
[2]  Perdue R.E. Jr. Carlson K.D. Gilbert MG. vernonia galamensis, potential new source of epoxy acid 1986; 40: 54-68.
 
[3]  African Journal of Biotechnology Vol. 8 (4) 18 February 2009; 635-640.
 
[4]  Alexander C.Dimian and Costin Sorin Bildea. Chemical Process Design, Computer Aided Case Studies 2008; 399-42.
 
[5]  IPMS Information Resources Portal Ethiopia (23 June 2005, accessed 3 March 2009); 12.
 
Show More References
[6]  Perdue, R.E. Jr., K.D. Carlson, and M.G. Gilbert, vernonia galamensis, potential new crop source of epoxy acid 1986;40:54-68.
 
[7]  Ayhan Demirbas, Biodiesel, a Realistic Fuel Alternative for Diesel Engines, Energy Technology Sila Science and Energy Trabzon Turkey, Springer, 2008.
 
[8]  J.M. Encinar, J.F. Gonzalez, A.R. Reinares. Ethanolysis of used frying oil biodiesel preparation and characterization, Fuel Processing Technology 2007; 88: 513-522.
 
[9]  Baye, T. Variation in agronomic characteristics of vernonia galamensis, a new industrial oilseed crop of Ethiopia 2000. 49-53.
 
[10]  Y.C. Leung, W.Xuan. A review on biodiesel production using catalyzed transesterification, Applied Energy 2010; 87: 1083-1095.
 
[11]  Dennis Y.C. Leung, Xuan Wu, M.K.H. Leung, A review on biodiesel production using catalyzed transesterification, Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Hong Kong, applied energy, 2009.
 
[12]  G. El Diwani, N. K. Attia, S. I. Hawash, Development and evaluation of biodiesel fuel and by products from jatropha oil, Chemical Engineering and Pilot Plant Department, National Research Center, Dokki, Egypt Spring 2009; 219-224.
 
[13]  B. Freedman, E.H. Pryde, T.L. Mounts. Variables affecting the yield of fatty esters from transesterified vegetable oils, Journal of American Oil Chemists Society 1984; 61 (10): 1638-1643.
 
[14]  G. Anastopoulos, Y. Zannikou, S. Stournas, S. Kalligeros. Transesterification of vegetable oils with ethanol and characterization of the key fuel properties of ethyl esters, Energies 2009; 2: 362-376.
 
[15]  L.C.Meher, D.Sagar, S. Naik. Technical aspects of biodiesel production by transesterification, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Review 2006; 10: 248-268.
 
[16]  Y. Zhang, M.A. Dubé, D.D. McLean, M. Kates. Biodiesel production from waste cooking oil: Process design and technological assessment, Bioresource Technology 2003; 89: 1-16.
 
[17]  B. Freedman, R.O. Butterfield, E.H. Pryde. Transesterification kinetics of soybean oil, Journal of American Oil Chemists Society 1986; 63: 1375-1380.
 
[18]  P. Nakpong, S. Wootthikanokkhan. Optimization of biodiesel production from jatropha oil via alkali-catalyzed methanolysis, Journal of Sustainable Energy and Environment 2010; 1: 105-109.
 
[19]  A.A. Refaat. Different techniques for the production of biodiesel from waste vegetable oil.International Journal of Environmental Science and Technology 2010; 7(1): 183-213.
 
Show Less References

Article

Studying Atmospheric Dust and Heavy Metals on Urban Sites through Synchronous Use of Different Methods

1Environmental Geochemistry Department, Center for Ecological-Noosphere Studies of NAS RA, Yerevan, Armenia


Journal of Atmospheric Pollution. 2014, 2(1), 12-16
DOI: 10.12691/jap-2-1-3
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Armen Saghatelyan, Lilit Sahakyan, Olga Belyaeva, Nairuhi Maghakyan. Studying Atmospheric Dust and Heavy Metals on Urban Sites through Synchronous Use of Different Methods. Journal of Atmospheric Pollution. 2014; 2(1):12-16. doi: 10.12691/jap-2-1-3.

Correspondence to: Lilit  Sahakyan, Environmental Geochemistry Department, Center for Ecological-Noosphere Studies of NAS RA, Yerevan, Armenia. Email: olgabel80@gmail.com

Abstract

Outdoor dust as a pollutant is also a transit environment for different pollutants emphasizing heavy metals. Commonly, it is urban population, who is exposed to the maximal adverse impact of dust and associated pollutants. In most cases, urban atmosphere researches are implemented on a few permanent monitoring stations. Data obtained from these stations cannot be sufficient enough to provide a real picture of atmospheric pollution. The most detailed information is obtained from synchronous instrumental sampling (aspiration) and studies of indicator environments (snow cover, leaves). This research pursued assessment of levels of dust and heavy metal pollution of near-surface air through different methods on the example of city of Yerevan (Armenia). The city area comprises a complex mosaic of natural and man-made sources of dust and heavy metals. So, for many years Yerevan has been exposed to high dust and associated heavy metals pollution levels. The research was implemented in 2011 through 2012 and included spatially coherent snow and tree leaf sampling, and instrumental sampling of dust and allowed assessing dust and heavy metal load and contents on the entire territory of Yerevan, identifying pollution sources, contouring ecologically unfavorable sites and finally identifying risk groups among the population.

Keywords

References

[1]  Analytical methods for atomic absorption spectrometry. PerkinElmer, BS EN ISO, 9001.
 
[2]  Gerba C.P. Risk Assessment. Elsevier, 2006, 212-232.
 
[3]  Mattahias A.D. Monitoring near-surface air quality. Elsevier Academic Press, Amsterdam, London, 2004, 164-181.
 
[4]  Perelman А., Kasimov N. Landscape Geochemistry. Publ. H. Astrea-2000, Moscow, 1999, 446-502. (in Russian).
 
[5]  RA Government Resolution № 92-N of 25 January 2005 “About approval of the order of assessment of the economic activities - induced impact on soil resources. Yerevan, 2005; http://www.arlis.am/# (in Armenian).
 
Show More References
[6]  RA Government resolution №160-N as of February 2-2006. http://www.arlis.am/# (in Armenian).
 
[7]  Ram S.S., Majumder S., Chaudhuri P. et al. “Plant canopies: bio-monitor and trap for re-suspended dust particulates contaminated with heavy metals”. Mitigation and Adaption Strategies for Global Change 19 (2014), 499–508
 
[8]  Resolution № 143-N as of June 4-2007 of Nature Protection Ministry RA. http://www.arlis.am/ (in Armenian).
 
[9]  Revich B. Methodical Requirements on Geochemical Assessment of Pollution of Urban Territories with Chemical Elements. Moscow, Publ. H. IMGRE, 1982, 112 (in Russian).
 
[10]  Risk Assessment Information System (RAIS), http://rais.ornl.gov/cgi-bin/prg/RISK_search?select=chem.
 
[11]  Saghatelyan A.K. The Peculiarities of heavy metal distribution on Armenia’s territory. Publ. H. CENS NAS RA, Yerevan, 2004, 157 (in Russian).
 
[12]  Saghatelyan A.K., Arevshatyan S.H., Sahakyan L.V. “Ecological-Geochemical Assessment of Heavy Metal Pollution of the Territory of Yerevan” New Electronic Journal of Natural Sciences, №1, 2003, 36-46.
 
[13]  Sahakyan L. “The assessment of heavy metal stream in the air basin of Yerevan” Chinese Journal of Geochemistry 25(Suppl. 1), 95-96.
 
[14]  Sayet Yu.E., Revich B.A., Yanin E.P. Environmental Geochemistry. Nedra, Moscow, 1990, 335 p. (in Russian)
 
[15]  Tchounwou P.B., Yedjou C.G., Patlolla A.K., Sutton D.J. Heavy metals toxicity and the environment. Berlin, Springer, 2012, v. 101, 133-164.
 
[16]  Wong C.S.C., Li X., Thornton I. “Urban environmental geochemistry of trace metals” Environmental Pollution, 142(1) 2006, 1-16.
 
[17]  Yerokhina V.I. Greening of Settlements. Stroyizdat, Moscow, 1987, 480 (in Russian).
 
Show Less References

Article

Are Dental Training Programs Heading towards Ecological Disaster – Results from a Survey

1Prosthodontics, College of dental sciences, Jazan University, KSA

2Prosthodontics, Teerthankar Mahaveer dental college, Moradabad, India

3Prosthodontics, Subharti dental college, Meerut, India


Journal of Atmospheric Pollution. 2014, 2(1), 17-21
DOI: 10.12691/jap-2-1-4
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Khurshid Mattoo, Vishwadeepak Singh, Rishabh Garg. Are Dental Training Programs Heading towards Ecological Disaster – Results from a Survey. Journal of Atmospheric Pollution. 2014; 2(1):17-21. doi: 10.12691/jap-2-1-4.

Correspondence to: Khurshid  Mattoo, Prosthodontics, College of dental sciences, Jazan University, KSA. Email: drkamattoo@rediffmail.com

Abstract

With ever increasing number of dentists graduating in developing countries like India, biomedical waste management becomes an issue, especially when the country is listed among one of the most polluted countries in the world. Aims: To evaluate the relative awareness about biomedical waste management and recycling of dental materials among dental students, To determine the need for modifications in dental curriculum and to discuss various recyclable dental materials Materials and methods: The study was conducted in two phases, and involved dental interns from various recognized dental colleges in north India. 183 male and 317 female students, representing more than 40 approved and recognized dental institutes were randomly selected and were asked to fill the questionnaire divided into two sections each having fifteen questions. The data collected was analyzed in percent, followed by application of a 5 point unipolar scale for assessing the overall level of awareness about the two different categories. Results: Results show that a large percentage of the students were not aware of the process of biomedical waste management (89%) whereas about half of the subjects were moderate to slightly aware about the recycling/reusing of dental materials. Conclusions: Biomedical waste management is a serious issue globally and requires immediate academic assessment so that students are comprehensively taught about its management. Further studies also need to be conducted to review the current status in other professional medical courses.

Keywords

References

[1]  Walsh B. The worlds most polluted places: www.time.com.
 
[2]  Mathur P, Patan S, Shobhawat S. Need of Biomedical Waste Management System in Hospitals - An Emerging issue - A Review. Curr. World. Environ. 2012; 7(1): 117-124.
 
[3]  Singh VP, Biswas G, and Sharma JJ. Biomedical Waste Management - An Emerging Concern in Indian Hospitals Indian, Journal of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology, (2007-12): 1(1).
 
[4]  Hem Chandra. Hospital Waste. An Environmental Hazard and Its Management. International society of environmental botanist. (1999); 3(5).
 
[5]  Over 1 million tonnes Medical Waste headache for India. The pharma times. Tue, Dec 16th. Available at www.thepharmatimes.in
 
Show More References
[6]  Kizlary E, Iosifidis N, Voudrias E, Dimitrios P. Composition and production rate of dental solid waste in Xanthi, Greece; variability among dentist groups. Waste management 2005; 2(6): 582-591.
 
[7]  Bhuyan AL. Conference reports. Journal of the Indian Society of Health Care and Waste Management. 2002; 1: 64.
 
[8]  Pandit NB, Mehta HK, Kartha GP, Choudhary SK. Management of bio-medical waste; Awareness and practices in a district of Gujarat. Indian Journal of Public Health. 2005; 49: 245-247.
 
[9]  Rao PH. Report: Hospital waste management-awareness and practices: A study of three states in India. Waste Management and Research. 2008; 26: 297-303.
 
[10]  Sharma S. Awareness about bio-medical waste management among health care personnel of some important medical centres in Agra. International Journal of Environmental Science and Development. 2010; 1: 251-255.
 
[11]  Sreegiri S, Krishna Babu G. Bio-medical waste management in a tertiary level hospital in Visakhapatnam. Journal of Community Medicine. 2009; 5: 1-6.
 
[12]  Kishore J, Goel P, Sagar B, Joshi TK. Awareness about biomedical waste management and infection control among dentists of a teaching hospital in New Delhi. Indian Journal of Dental Research. 2000;11: 157-161.
 
[13]  Kishore J, Goel P, Sagar B, Joshi TK. Awareness about biomedical waste management and infection control among dentists of a teaching hospital in New Delhi. Indian Journal of Dental Research. 2000; 11: 157-161.
 
[14]  Sudhakar V, Chandrashekhar J. Dental health care waste disposal among private dental practices in Bangalore City, India. International Dental Journal. 2008; 58: 51-54.
 
[15]  Government of India, Ministry of Environment and Forests. Bio-Medical Waste (Management and Handling) Rules. Gazette of India. 1998 (27 Jul). Available from: http://envfor.nic.in/legis/hsm/biomed.html.
 
[16]  Government of India, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare (MoHFW). National Guidelines on Hospital Waste Management Based upon the Bio-Medical Waste (Management and Handling) Rules, 1998. New Delhi: MoHFW; 2002.
 
[17]  Atiyat N, Mosa M. (2002). Environmental impact assessment for domestic solid waste landfill project. Environmental Research Center: Royal Scientific Society.
 
[18]  Askarian M, Vakili M, Kabir G. Hospital waste management status in university hospitals of the Fars province, Iran. International Journal of Environmental Health Research. 2004; 14: 295-305.
 
[19]  Al-Khatib IA, Khatib RA. Assessment of medical waste management in a Palestinian hospital. Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal. 2006; 12: 359-371.
 
[20]  Hassan MM, Ahmed SA, Rahman KA, Biswas TK. Pattern of medical waste management: existing scenario in Dhaka City, Bangladesh. BMC Public Health. 2008; 8: 36.
 
[21]  Alagöz AZ, Kocasoy G. Improvement and modification of the routing system for the health-care waste collection and transportation in Istanbul. Waste Management. 2008; 28: 1461-1471.
 
[22]  Da Silva CE, Hoppe AE, Ravanello MM, Mello N. Medical waste management in the south of Brazil. Waste Management. 2005; 25: 600-60.
 
[23]  Sharma S. Awareness about bio-medical waste management among health care personnel of some important medical centres in Agra. International Journal of Environmental Science and Development. 2010; 1: 251-255.
 
[24]  Narang RS, Manchanda A, Singh S, Verma N, Padda S. Awareness of biomedical waste management among dental professionals and auxiliary staff in Amritsar, India. Oral Health and Dental Management. 2012; 11: 162-168.
 
[25]  Sreegiri S, Krishna Babu G. Bio-medical waste management in a tertiary level hospital in Visakhapatnam. Journal of Community Medicine. 2009; 5: 1-6.
 
[26]  Sushma MK, Bhat S, Shetty SR, Babu SG. Bio-medical dental waste management and awareness of waste management policy among private dental practitioners in Mangalore City, India. Tanzania Dental Journal. 2010; 16: 39-43.
 
[27]  Mathur V, Dwivedi S, Hassan MA, Misra RP. Knowledge, attitude and practices about Bio-medical waste management among health care personnel: a cross-sectional study. Indian Journal of Community Medicine. 2011; 36: 143-145.
 
[28]  Sood AG, Sood A. Dental perspective on biomedical waste and mercury management: a knowledge, attitude and practice survey. Indian Journal of Dental Research. 2011; 22: 371-375.
 
[29]  Karl TR, Trenberth KE (2003). "Modern Global Climate Change". Science 302 (5651): 1719-1723.
 
[30]  Adams, E. Eco-friendly dentistry: Not a matter of choice. Canadian Dental Association, 2007; 73(7): 581-584.
 
[31]  Environmentally responsible dental office: The Oregon Dentist’s guide to best management practices of dental waste: April 1988.
 
[32]  Cooley AC, Dagon TJ, Jenkins PW, Robillard KA. Silver and the environment. J. Imaging. Technol. 1988; 14(6): 183-9.
 
[33]  Lytle PE. Fate and speciation of silver in publicly owned treatment works. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 1984; (3): 21-30.
 
[34]  LeBlanc GA, Mastone JD, Paradice AP, Wilson B, Lockhart HB, Robillard KA. The influence of speciation on the toxicity of silver to fat-head minnow (Pimephales promelas). Environ. Toxicol. Chem.1984; 3: 37-46.
 
[35]  Ernest RP, Alfred A. Method of making paper from water insoluble alginate fibers. Journal of Membrane Sci 2009; 326 (2): 441-452.
 
[36]  Morin Jeremy E. High-Pressure, High-Temperature Sintering: A Novel Approach towards Recycling of Vulcanized Rubber Powders Derived From Scrap Tires University of Massachusetts - Amherst (available at http://cfpub.epa.gov/ncer_abstracts/index.cfm/fuseaction/display.investigatorInfo/investigator/7554).
 
[37]  Coley R, Smith A, Rock WP. “Bracket Recycling - Who Does What?” British J. Orthod. 1999; 26 (2): 135-139.
 
[38]  Bishara SE. Celebrating twenty years of contributions to the science of orthodontic materials (The most prolific scientific contributor to AJO-DO, after T. M. Graber, A. D. 2000), The Orthodontic Materials Insider, December 2007, 19(4): 1.
 
[39]  Lew KK, Djeng SK, Recycling ceramic brackets. J. Clin. Orthod. 1990; 24: 44-47.
 
[40]  Zutai Z, Yukimichi T, Yasuhiro H, Takashi M. Recycling of used commercial phosphate bonded investments with additional mono - ammonium phosphate. Dental material journal 2009; 24(1): 14-18
 
[41]  Kishore J, Goel P, Sagar B, Joshi TK. Awareness about biomedical waste management and infection control among dentists of a teaching hospital in New Delhi. Indian Journal of Dental Research. 2000; 11: 157-161.
 
Show Less References

Article

Multi-Factorial Analysis of Atmospheric Noise Pollution Level Based on Emitted Carbon and Heat Radiation during Gas Flaring

1Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria

2Department of Environmental Technology, Federal University of Technology, Owerri, Nigeria

3Department of Industrial and Production Engineering, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria

4Department of Industrial Physics Ebonyi State University, Abakiliki, Nigeria


Journal of Atmospheric Pollution. 2014, 2(1), 22-29
DOI: 10.12691/jap-2-1-5
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
C. I. Nwoye, S. O. Nwakpa, I. E. Nwosu, J. U Odo, E. C. Chinwuko, N. E. Idenyi. Multi-Factorial Analysis of Atmospheric Noise Pollution Level Based on Emitted Carbon and Heat Radiation during Gas Flaring. Journal of Atmospheric Pollution. 2014; 2(1):22-29. doi: 10.12691/jap-2-1-5.

Correspondence to: C.  I. Nwoye, Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria. Email: nwoyennike@gmail.com

Abstract

This paper presents a multi-factorial analysis of atmospheric noise pollution level based on emitted carbon and heat radiation during gas flaring. An empirical model; three factorial in nature was derived, validated and used for the noise pollution level analysis. The derived model showed that the noise pollution level was basically dependent on gas flaring output parameters such as emitted carbon and heat radiation since the three occur at the same time, and also on reference distance from flare point, total associated gas and total gas produced. The validity of the model; ϑ=D Log ϕ[Log ϕ (0.0001ζ2+ζ)+₰]-1 was rooted on the core model expression D / ϑ ≈ S ζ2 + ζ + (₰ / Log ϕ) where both sides of the expression are correspondingly approximately equal. Regression model was used to generate results of noise pollution level, and its trend of distribution was compared with that from derived model as a way of verifying its validity relative to experimental results. The results of this verification translated into very close alignment of curves, dimensions of shapes and areas covered. These translated into significantly similar trend of data point’s distribution for experimental (ExD), derived model (MoD) and regression model-predicted (ReG) results. Evaluations from generated results indicated that noise pollution level per unit radiated heat & emitted carbon as obtained from experiment and derived model were 60.42 and 60.00 dBA / Kw m-2 & 4.01 x10-4 and 3.98x10-4 dBA /ton respectively. Standard errors incurred in predicting noise pollution level for each value of the radiated heat, emitted carbon & Total associated gas/ Total gas produced; TAG/TGP as obtained from experiment and derived model were 6.6533 and 5.7521%, 6.6405 and 3.1291 % & 6.6616 and 3.9963% respectively. The least and highest deviation of model-predicted noise pollution level (from experimental results) were 1.62 and 21.42%, implying a model operational confidence level range 78-98%.

Keywords

References

[1]  Alberta Energy and Utilities Board (AEUB) (1999). ‘Upstream Petroleum Industry Flaring Guide’, Guide Number 60.
 
[2]  API (1969). ‘Guide for Pressure-Relieving and Depressuring Systems – American Petroleum Institute Recommended Practice 521’.Washington, D.C.: American Petroleum Institute, Edition 1.
 
[3]  API (2007) Standard 521 Pressure-relieving and Depressuring Systems, Fifth Edition, January.
 
[4]  API (1990). ‘Guide for Pressure-Relieving and Depressuring Systems – American Petroleum Institute Recommended Practice 521’.Washington, D.C.: American Petroleum Institute, Edition 3.
 
[5]  Bader A., Baukal C.E. Jr and Bussman (2011) Selecting the proper flares systems. Chemical Engineering Progress (AIChE). pp. 45-50.
 
Show More References
[6]  Brzustowski T.A. and Sommer E.C. Jr. (1973) Predicting Radiant Heating from Flares. Proceedings-Division of Refining, API 1973, Vol. 53, API Washington, D. C., p. 865-893.
 
[7]  Brzustowski, T. A. (1976). ‘Flaring In The Energy Industry’, Progress in Energy and Combustion Science, Volume 2, p129-144.
 
[8]  Chamberlain, G. A. (1987). ‘Developments in Design Methods for Predicting Thermal Radiation from Flares’, Chemical Engineering, Research and Design, Volume 65.
 
[9]  Chapra, S. C. (1997). Surface Water-Quality Modeling, McGraw-Hill Series in Water Resources and Environmental Engineering.
 
[10]  Cook, D. K., Fairweather, M., Hammonds, J. and Hughes, D. J. (1987) ‘Size and Radiative Characteristics of Natural Gas Flares. Part 2-Empirical Model’, Chemical Engineering, Research and Design, Volume 65, pp. 310-317.
 
[11]  Dubnowski, J. J. and Davies, B. C. (1983). ‘Flaring Combustion Efficiency: A Review of the State of Current Knowledge’, Proceedings of the Annual Meeting Air Pollution Control Association, Atlanta, Georgia, 76th, Volume 4, Published by APCA, Pittsburgh, Pa, USA 83-52. 10, 27p.
 
[12]  EPA (1995) SCREEN3 Model User’s Guide. EPA-454/B-95-004. pp. 60.
 
[13]  Hong J., Baukal C., Schwartz R and Fleifil M. (2006) Industrial scale flare testing. Chemical Engineering Progress (AIChE). pp. 35-39.
 
[14]  Leahey, D. M., and Davies, M. J. E. (1984). ‘Observations of Plume Rise from Sour Gas Flares’, Atmospheric Environment, Volume 18, Number 5, pp. 917-922.
 
[15]  McMurray, R. (1982). ‘Flare Radiation Estimated’, Hydrocarbon Processing, November 1982, p175-181.
 
[16]  Nwoye, C. I. (2008). Data Analytical Memory; C-NIKBRAN Nwoye, C. I. and J. T. Nwabanne. (2013). Empirical Analysis of Methane Gas Yield Dependence on Organic Loading Rate during Microbial Treatment of Fruit Wastes in Digester. Advances in Applied Science Research, 4 (1): 308-318.
 
[17]  Obia A.E., Okon H.E., Ekum S.A., Eyo-Ita1 E.E., Ekpeni E.A. (2011) The Influence of Gas Flare Particulates and Rainfall on the Corrosion of Galvanized Steel Roofs in the Niger Delta, Nigeria. Journal of Environmental Protection, 2011, 2, 1341-1346.
 
[18]  Odigure, J.O.; Abdulkareem, A.S. & O.D Adeniyi, O.D (2003). Computer simulation of soil temperature due to heat radiation from gas flaring. Association for the advancement of Modelling and simulation in enterprises, Lyon France. Vol. 72, No. 6, pp 1-10, ISSN 23 1259-5969.
 
[19]  Onyejekwe, I. M. (2012). Health Impact Analyses of Gas Flaring in the Niger Delta. IREJEST, 9 (1): 94-100.
 
[20]  Schwartz, R. E. and White, J. W. (1996). ‘Flare Radiation Prediction: A Critical Review’. 30th Annual Loss Prevention Symposium of the American Institute of Chemical Engineers, Session 12: Flare Stacks and Vapor Control Systems.
 
[21]  Tan, S. H. (1967). ‘Flare System Design Simplified’, Hydrocarbon Processing, Volume 46, No. 1, pp. 172-176.
 
Show Less References

Article

Novel Methods for Assessing Urban Air Quality: Combined Air and Noise Pollution Approach

1Department of Civil Engineering, Jadavpur University, Kolkata, India


Journal of Atmospheric Pollution. 2015, 3(1), 1-8
DOI: 10.12691/jap-3-1-1
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Anirban Kundu Chowdhury, Anupam Debsarkar, Shibnath Chakrabarty. Novel Methods for Assessing Urban Air Quality: Combined Air and Noise Pollution Approach. Journal of Atmospheric Pollution. 2015; 3(1):1-8. doi: 10.12691/jap-3-1-1.

Correspondence to: Anirban  Kundu Chowdhury, Department of Civil Engineering, Jadavpur University, Kolkata, India. Email: anikc13@yahoo.co.in

Abstract

The aim of the present review work is to critically examine the methodologies and findings of the research works which collectively treated traffic related air and noise pollution in commuting microenvironments of urban areas. It is evident from the published literatures that a moderate positive correlation between concentrations of traffic related air pollutants in terms of particulate matter; oxides of nitrogen; CO; ground level O3 and traffic noise level are common in the commuting microenvironments of cities. This may consequence correlated exposure to these environmental stressors to the subjects (e.g., thousands of pedestrian, commuters, hawkers and street dwellers) attached with the commuting microenvironments of urban areas. Prevailing meteorological condition e.g., wind speed and states of turbulent mixing within the urban canopy layer is the most prominent factor governing the degree of correlation between these environmental stressors. In these circumstances the combined air-noise exposure model may estimate the exposure of the subjects to traffic related air and noise pollution in a holistic manner and the city Noise-Air index may represent the air quality of commuting microenvironments in a holistic manner.

Keywords

References

[1]  Allen, R.W., Davies, H., Cohen, M.A., Mallach, G., Kaufman, J.D., Adar, S.D., 2009. The spatial relationship between traffic-generated air pollution and noise in 2 US cities. Environmental Research. 109, 334-342.
 
[2]  Beelen, R., Hoek, G., Houthuijs, D., van den Brandt, P.A., Goldbohm, R.A., Fischer, P., Schouten, L.J., Armstrong, B., Brunekreef, B., 2009. The joint association of air pollution and noise from road traffic with cardiovascular mortality in a cohort study. Occupational and Environmental Medicine. 66, 243-250.
 
[3]  Bluhm, G.L., Berglind, N., Nordling, E., Rosenlund, M., 2007. Road traffic noise and hypertension. Occupational and Environmental Medicine 64, 122-126.
 
[4]  Boogaard, H., Borgman, F., Kamminga, J., Hoek, G., 2009. Exposure to ultrafine andfine particles and noise during cycling and driving in 11 Dutch cities. Atmospheric Environment 43, 4234-4242.
 
[5]  Brook, R.D., Franklin, B., Cascio, W., Hong, Y., Howard, G., Lipsett, M., Luepker, R., Mittleman, M., Samet, J., Smith, S.C.Jr., Tager, I; Expert Panel on Population and Prevention Science of the American Heart Association, 2004. Air pollution and cardiovascular disease: a statement for healthcare professionals from the Expert Panel on Population and Prevention Science of the American Heart Association. Circulation 109, 2655–2671.
 
Show More References
[6]  Can, A., Rademaker, M., Van Renterghem, T., Mishra, V., Van Poppel, M., Touhafi, A., Theunis, J., De Baets, B., Botteldooren, D., 2011. Correlation analysis of noise and ultrafine particle counts in a street canyon. Science of the Total Environment. 409(3), 564-572.
 
[7]  Central Pollution Control Board of India, 2000. Ambient air quality in respect of noise. Schedule-part-II, Sec-3 (ii), Central Pollution Control Board, New Delhi, India.
 
[8]  Central Pollution Control Board, India, 2009. National Ambient Air Quality Standards, Central Pollution Control Board Notification (18th November, 2009), New Delhi, India.
 
[9]  Chang, T.Y., Liu, C.S., Bao, B.Y., Li, S.F., Chen, T.I., Lin, Y.J., 2011. Characterization of road traffic noise exposure and prevalence of hypertension in central Taiwan. Science of the Total Environment. 409, 1053-1057.
 
[10]  Chowdhury, K. A., Debsarkar, A., Chakrabarty, S., 2011. A study on co-exposure to traffic related air pollution and noise for an important urban road of Kolkata city, India. Indian Journal of Air Pollution Control. XI (2), 34-40.
 
[11]  Chowdhury, K. A., Debsarkar, A., Chakrabarty, S., 2012. Analysis of day time traffic noise level: A case study of Kolkata India. International Journal of Environmental Sciences and Research. 2(1), 114-118.
 
[12]  Davies, H.W., Vlaanderen, J.J., Henderson, S.B., Brauer, M., 2009. Correlation between co-exposures to noise and air pollution from traffic sources. Occupational and Environmental Medicine. 66, 347-350.
 
[13]  de Kluizenaar, Y., Gansevoort, R.T., Miedema, H.M.E., de Jong, P.E., 2007. Hypertension and road traffic noise exposure. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine. 49 (5), 484-492.
 
[14]  Delfino, R.J., Tjoa, T., Gillen, D.L., Staimer, N., Polidori, A., Arhami, M., Jamner, L., Sioutas, C., Longhurst, J., 2010. Traffic-related Air Pollution and Blood Pressure in Elderly Subjects with Coronary Artery Disease. Epidemiology. 21, 396-404.
 
[15]  Elder, A., Gelein, R., Silva, V., Feikert, T., Opanashuk, L., Carter, J., Potter, R., Maynard, A., Ito, Y., Finkelstein, J., Oberdörster, G., 2006. Translocation of inhaled ultrafine manganese oxide particles to the central nervous system. Environmental Health Perspectives 114, 1172-1178.
 
[16]  Foraster, M., Deltell, A., Basagana, X., Medina-Ramon, M., Aguilera, I., Bouso, L., Grau, M., Phuleria, H.C., Rivera, M., Slama, R., Sunyer, J., Targa, J., Künzli, N., 2011. Local determinants of road traffic noise levels versus determinants of air pollution levels in a Mediterranean city. Environmental Research. 111, 177-183.
 
[17]  Freire, C., Ramos, R., Puertas, R., Lopez-Espinosa, M.J., Julvez, J., Aguilera, I., Cruz, F., Fernandez, M.F., Sunyer, J., Olea, N., 2010. Association of traffic-related air pollution with cognitive development in children. Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health. 64, 223-228.
 
[18]  Fung, W. Y., Lee, L., W., 2011. Identifying a common parameter for assessing the impact of traffic-induced noise and air pollutions on residential premises in Hong Kong. Habitat International 35, 231-237.
 
[19]  Gan, Q.W., McLean, K., Brauer, M., Chiarello, A.S., Davies, W.H., 2012. Modeling population exposure to community noise and air pollution in a large metropolitan area. Evioronmental Research. 116, 11-16.
 
[20]  Hagler, G.S.W., Baldauf, R.W., Thoma, E.D., Long, T.R., Snow, R.F., Kinsey, J.S., Oudejans, L., Gullett, B.K., 2009. Ultrafine particles near a major roadway in Raleigh, North Carolina: downwind attenuation and correlation with trafficrelated pollutants. Atmospheric Environment 6, 1229-1234.
 
[21]  Hoffmann, B., Moebus, S., Mohlenkamp, S., Stang, A., Lehmann, N., Dragano, N., Schmermund, A., Memmesheimer, M., Mann, K., Erbel, R., Jockel, K.H., 2007. Residential exposure to traffic is associated with coronary atherosclerosis. Circulation. 116 (5), 489-496.
 
[22]  Ising, H., Lange-Asschenfeldt, H., Moriske, H.-J., Born, J., Eilts, M., 2004. Low Frequency noise and stress: bronchitis and cortisol in children exposed chronically to traffic noise and exhaust fumes. Noise & Health. 6 (23), 23-30.
 
[23]  Kim, K., Ho, X.D., Brown, C.J.R., Oh, M.J., Park, G.C., Ryu, C.I., 2012. Some insights into the relationship between urban air pollution and noise levels. Science of the Total Environment 424, 271-279.
 
[24]  Klæboe, R., Kolbenstvedt, M., Clench-Aas, J., Bartonova, A., 2000. Oslo traffic study-part 1: An integrated approach to assess the combined effects of noise and air pollution on annoyance. Atmospheric Environment 34 (27), 4727-4736.
 
[25]  Lusk, S.L., Hagerty, B.M., Gillespie, B., Ziemba, R.A., 2004. Acute effects of noise on blood pressure and heart rate. Archives of Environmental Health 59, 392-399.
 
[26]  Morawska, L., Ristovski, Z., Jayaratne, E.R., Keogh, D.U., Ling, X., 2008. Ambient nano and ultrafine particles from motor vehicle emissions: characteristics, ambient processing and implications on human exposure. Atmospheric Environment 42, 8113- 8138.
 
[27]  Oberdörster, G., Sharp, Z., Atudorei, V., Elder, A., Gelein, R., Kreyling, W., Cox, C., 2004. Translocation of inhaled ultrafine particles to the brain. Inhalation Toxicology 16, 437-445.
 
[28]  Orru, H., Jogi, R., Kaasik, M., Forsberg, B., 2009. Chronic Traffic-Induced PM Exposure and Self-Reported Respiratory and Cardiovascular Health in the RHINE Tartu Cohort. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 6, 2740-2751.
 
[29]  Passchier-Vermeer, W., Passchier, W.F., 2000. Noise exposure and public health. Environmental Health Perspectives. 108 (Suppl 1), 123-131.
 
[30]  Ross, Z., Kheirbk, I., Clougherty, J.E., Ito, K., Matte, T., Markowitz, S., Eisl, H., 2011. Noise, air pollutants and traffic: continuous measurement and correlation at a high-traffic location in New York City. Environmental Research. 111, 1054-1063.
 
[31]  Schwartz, J., Litonjua, A., Suh, H., Verrier, M., Zanobetti, A., Syring, M., et al., 2005. Traffic related pollution and heart rate variability in a panel of elderly subjects. Thorax. 60, 455-461.
 
[32]  Schwela, D., Kephalopoulos, S., Prasher, D., 2005. Confounding or aggravating factors in noise-induced health effects: air pollutants and other stressors. Noise & Health. 7 (28), 41-50.
 
[33]  Selander, J., Nilsson, M.E., Bluhm, G., Rosenlund, M., Lindqvist, M., Nise, G., et al., 2009. Long-term exposure to road traffic noise and myocardial infarction. Epidemiology. 20, 272-279.
 
[34]  Silva, T. L., Mendes, G. F. J., 2012. City Noise-Air: An environmental quality index for cities. Sustainable Cities and Society 4, 1-11.
 
[35]  Sørensen, M., Hvidberg, M., Andersen, Z.J., Nordsborg, R.B., Lillelund, K.G., Jakobsen, J., Tjønneland, A., Overvad, K., Raaschou-Nielsen, O., 2011. Road traffic noise and stroke: a prospective cohort study. European Heart Journal. 32(6), 737-744.
 
[36]  Sunyer, J., 2008. The neurological effects of air pollution in children. European Respiratory Journal 32, 535-537.
 
[37]  Tirabassi, T., Fortezza, F., Bassanino, M., Lavecchia, C., 1998. Carbon monoxide concentrations evaluated by traffic noise data in urban areas. II Nouvo Cimento 21, 149-159.
 
[38]  Tobias, A., Diaz, J., Saez, M., Alberdi, J.C., 2001. Use of Poisson regression and Box–Jenkins models to evaluate the short-term effects of environmental noise levels on daily emergency admissions in Madrid, Spain. European Journal of Epidemiology. 17 (8), 765-771.
 
[39]  Tonne, C., Melly, S., Mittleman, M., Coull, B., Goldberg, R., Schwartz, J., 2007. A case-control analysis of exposure to traffic and acute myocardial infarction. Environmental Health Perspectives. 115 (1), 53-57.
 
[40]  van Kempen, E., Fischer, P., Janssen, N., Houthuijs, D., van Kamp, I., Stansfeld, S., Cassee, F., 2012. Neurobehavioral effects of exposure to traffic-related air pollution and transportation noise in primary schoolchildren. Envioronmental Research. 115, 18-25.
 
[41]  Vlachokostas, C., Achillas, C., Michailidou, V. A., Moussiopoulos, N., 2012. Measuring combined exposure to environmental pressures in urban areas: An air quality and noise pollution assessment approach. Environment International 39, 8-18.
 
[42]  Weber, S., 2009. Spatio-temporal covariation of urban particle number concentration and ambient noise. Atmospheric Environment. 43, 5518-5525.
 
[43]  Weber, S., Litschke, T., 2008. Variation of particle concentrations and environmental noise on the urban neighbourhood scale. Atmospheric Environment 42, 7179-7183.
 
[44]  Weijers, E.P., Khlystov, A.Y., Kos, G.P.A., Erisman, J.W., 2004. Variability of particulate matter concentrations along roads and motorways determined by a moving measurement unit. Atmospheric Environment 38, 2993-3002.
 
[45]  WHO (World Health Organisation), 2000. Air Quality Guidelines. WHO European Series No. 91. second ed. Copenhagen: WHO Regional Office for Europe
 
[46]  WHO (World Health Organization) 2005, Air quality guidelines global update, meeting report. Report on a working group meeting. Bonn, Germany: WHO.
 
[47]  WHO (World Health Organization), 2005. Night noise guidelines for Europe. WHO Regional Office for Europe.
 
[48]  WHO, 2011. Burden of Disease from Environmental Noise. Available: http://docs.wind-watch.org/WHO-burden-of-disease-from-environmental-noise 2011.pdf (accessed 16.09.2013).
 
[49]  www.statstutor.ac.uk/resources/uploaded/spearmans.pdf, accessed on 10.09.2013.
 
[50]  Zhu, Y., Kuhn, T., Mayo, P., Hinds, W.C., 2006. Comparison of daytime and nighttime concentration profiles and size distributions of ultrafine particles near a major highway. Environmental Science & Technology 40, 2531-2536.
 
Show Less References