Journal of Atmospheric Pollution

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Article

Spatio - Temporal Trace Gas and Trace Metal Foot Prints in an Industrial and Marine Scenario

1Department of Chemical Oceanography,School of Marine Science,Cochin University of Science and Technology, Kerala, India


Journal of Atmospheric Pollution. 2013, 1(1), 12-17
DOI: 10.12691/jap-1-1-4
Copyright © 2013 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Jose Mathew, Gayathree Devi P. K, Sujatha. C. H. Spatio - Temporal Trace Gas and Trace Metal Foot Prints in an Industrial and Marine Scenario. Journal of Atmospheric Pollution. 2013; 1(1):12-17. doi: 10.12691/jap-1-1-4.

Correspondence to: Jose  Mathew, Department of Chemical Oceanography,School of Marine Science,Cochin University of Science and Technology, Kerala, India. Email: josemathew07@gmail.com

Abstract

A framework budget of ambient atmospheric gases and Particulate Matter are pooled over six stations in the metropolis of Kochi, Kerala, India, during the summer and winter seasons of 2010 and 2011. In order to assess the air quality in the coastal and industrial location, six topographically prominent and distinct areas are selected. The gases like sulphur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide and ammonia are selected owing to its importance on human health. Besides, particulate matter is monitored in order to quantify the trace metal present, which causes serious respiratory and cardiac problems. Elevated concentrations are observed in winter for all the parameters monitored compared to summer, which provides an insight in to the circulation of gases and particulate matter along the unlike seasons. The winter season with more stable atmospheric pattern tend to cumulate the pollutants rather than dispersing it due to temperature gradient. Industrial sites show prominent levels of sulphur dioxide and ammonia. Considerable increase in nitrogen dioxide unravels the folded increase in vehicular motors. The particulate matter study for selected trace metals untie the concentration of iron, lead, copper and zinc to be augmented in winter. Statistical methodologies are applied to assess the relationship between the seasons.

Keywords

References

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Article

Some Parameterizations of Radiative Fluxes at Atmospheric Boundary Layer (ABL)

1Research and Modeling Division, AIR World wide India Private Limited, Somajiguda, Hyderabad-500082, India

2School of Environmental Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi-110 067, India

3Department of Marine Sciences, Berhampur University, Berhampur-760007, India


Journal of Atmospheric Pollution. 2014, 2(1), 1-5
DOI: 10.12691/jap-2-1-1
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
YASHVANT DAS, B. PADMANABHAMURTY, A.S.N. Murty. Some Parameterizations of Radiative Fluxes at Atmospheric Boundary Layer (ABL). Journal of Atmospheric Pollution. 2014; 2(1):1-5. doi: 10.12691/jap-2-1-1.

Correspondence to: YASHVANT DAS, Research and Modeling Division, AIR World wide India Private Limited, Somajiguda, Hyderabad-500082, India. Email: yashvantdas@rediffmail.com

Abstract

The practicability and applicability of the most classical models for a particular location depends largely on validation against actual measurements, hence the parameterizations of the sub-grid scale process play an important role at Atmospheric Boundary Layer (ABL) for appropriate representation of model outputs. This study presents a simple parameterization for some radiative fluxes and pollution parameters at ABL in a tropical city Delhi. The characteristic of the parameterization is that the experimental data sets obtained during the experimental field campaigns are fit into a linear regression relation with the parameterized values according to the different land-use pattern and coefficients are presented, that are in comparable with earlier studies.

Keywords

References

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Article

Vegetables Oil Waste Water as Solution for Air Pollution Reduction

1Department of Mechanical Engineering, KIOT Wollo University, Kombolcha (SW), Ethiopia

2Department of Chemical Engineering, KIOT Wollo University, Kombolcha (SW), Ethiopia


Journal of Atmospheric Pollution. 2014, 2(1), 6-11
DOI: 10.12691/jap-2-1-2
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Raja Thiyagarajan, Omprakash Sahu. Vegetables Oil Waste Water as Solution for Air Pollution Reduction. Journal of Atmospheric Pollution. 2014; 2(1):6-11. doi: 10.12691/jap-2-1-2.

Correspondence to: Omprakash  Sahu, Department of Chemical Engineering, KIOT Wollo University, Kombolcha (SW), Ethiopia. Email: ops0121@gmail.com

Abstract

Any industries generate more waste water as compared to utilization. Waste water generated from the industry either treatment if treatment is feasible or simply discharges to nearby stream. Due that configuration of the environment disturb. It can be minimized if suitable step are take to recycle or use for positive direction. Waste water generated from vegetable oil more percentage oil in there effluent. Vegetable oils and their derivatives (such as methyl esters), commonly referred to as biodiesel, are prominent candidates as alternative diesel fuels. They have advanced from being purely experimental fuels to initial stages of commercialization in a number of countries. Biodiesel is technically competitive to conventional fossil diesel but relatively cheap fossil diesel prices have made the technology economically unfeasible for almost a century. However, recent high and rising world crude oil prices and claims that the world oil reserves are diminishing and environmental and political pressure have caused an urge in the development of the technology of biodiesel production. The goal of this work is to develop a two-step technique of biodiesel production from waste water oil of vegetable oil industry. The results showed the waste water oil containing 75.09% wt of high free fatty acid and the average molecular weight of fatty acid and waste water oil are 281 g mol-1 and 985 g mol-1 with the highest vegetableitic acid content.

Keywords

References

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[5]  IPMS Information Resources Portal Ethiopia (23 June 2005, accessed 3 March 2009); 12.
 
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Article

Studying Atmospheric Dust and Heavy Metals on Urban Sites through Synchronous Use of Different Methods

1Environmental Geochemistry Department, Center for Ecological-Noosphere Studies of NAS RA, Yerevan, Armenia


Journal of Atmospheric Pollution. 2014, 2(1), 12-16
DOI: 10.12691/jap-2-1-3
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Armen Saghatelyan, Lilit Sahakyan, Olga Belyaeva, Nairuhi Maghakyan. Studying Atmospheric Dust and Heavy Metals on Urban Sites through Synchronous Use of Different Methods. Journal of Atmospheric Pollution. 2014; 2(1):12-16. doi: 10.12691/jap-2-1-3.

Correspondence to: Lilit  Sahakyan, Environmental Geochemistry Department, Center for Ecological-Noosphere Studies of NAS RA, Yerevan, Armenia. Email: olgabel80@gmail.com

Abstract

Outdoor dust as a pollutant is also a transit environment for different pollutants emphasizing heavy metals. Commonly, it is urban population, who is exposed to the maximal adverse impact of dust and associated pollutants. In most cases, urban atmosphere researches are implemented on a few permanent monitoring stations. Data obtained from these stations cannot be sufficient enough to provide a real picture of atmospheric pollution. The most detailed information is obtained from synchronous instrumental sampling (aspiration) and studies of indicator environments (snow cover, leaves). This research pursued assessment of levels of dust and heavy metal pollution of near-surface air through different methods on the example of city of Yerevan (Armenia). The city area comprises a complex mosaic of natural and man-made sources of dust and heavy metals. So, for many years Yerevan has been exposed to high dust and associated heavy metals pollution levels. The research was implemented in 2011 through 2012 and included spatially coherent snow and tree leaf sampling, and instrumental sampling of dust and allowed assessing dust and heavy metal load and contents on the entire territory of Yerevan, identifying pollution sources, contouring ecologically unfavorable sites and finally identifying risk groups among the population.

Keywords

References

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Article

Are Dental Training Programs Heading towards Ecological Disaster – Results from a Survey

1Prosthodontics, College of dental sciences, Jazan University, KSA

2Prosthodontics, Teerthankar Mahaveer dental college, Moradabad, India

3Prosthodontics, Subharti dental college, Meerut, India


Journal of Atmospheric Pollution. 2014, 2(1), 17-21
DOI: 10.12691/jap-2-1-4
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Khurshid Mattoo, Vishwadeepak Singh, Rishabh Garg. Are Dental Training Programs Heading towards Ecological Disaster – Results from a Survey. Journal of Atmospheric Pollution. 2014; 2(1):17-21. doi: 10.12691/jap-2-1-4.

Correspondence to: Khurshid  Mattoo, Prosthodontics, College of dental sciences, Jazan University, KSA. Email: drkamattoo@rediffmail.com

Abstract

With ever increasing number of dentists graduating in developing countries like India, biomedical waste management becomes an issue, especially when the country is listed among one of the most polluted countries in the world. Aims: To evaluate the relative awareness about biomedical waste management and recycling of dental materials among dental students, To determine the need for modifications in dental curriculum and to discuss various recyclable dental materials Materials and methods: The study was conducted in two phases, and involved dental interns from various recognized dental colleges in north India. 183 male and 317 female students, representing more than 40 approved and recognized dental institutes were randomly selected and were asked to fill the questionnaire divided into two sections each having fifteen questions. The data collected was analyzed in percent, followed by application of a 5 point unipolar scale for assessing the overall level of awareness about the two different categories. Results: Results show that a large percentage of the students were not aware of the process of biomedical waste management (89%) whereas about half of the subjects were moderate to slightly aware about the recycling/reusing of dental materials. Conclusions: Biomedical waste management is a serious issue globally and requires immediate academic assessment so that students are comprehensively taught about its management. Further studies also need to be conducted to review the current status in other professional medical courses.

Keywords

References

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Article

Multi-Factorial Analysis of Atmospheric Noise Pollution Level Based on Emitted Carbon and Heat Radiation during Gas Flaring

1Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria

2Department of Environmental Technology, Federal University of Technology, Owerri, Nigeria

3Department of Industrial and Production Engineering, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria

4Department of Industrial Physics Ebonyi State University, Abakiliki, Nigeria


Journal of Atmospheric Pollution. 2014, 2(1), 22-29
DOI: 10.12691/jap-2-1-5
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
C. I. Nwoye, S. O. Nwakpa, I. E. Nwosu, J. U Odo, E. C. Chinwuko, N. E. Idenyi. Multi-Factorial Analysis of Atmospheric Noise Pollution Level Based on Emitted Carbon and Heat Radiation during Gas Flaring. Journal of Atmospheric Pollution. 2014; 2(1):22-29. doi: 10.12691/jap-2-1-5.

Correspondence to: C.  I. Nwoye, Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria. Email: nwoyennike@gmail.com

Abstract

This paper presents a multi-factorial analysis of atmospheric noise pollution level based on emitted carbon and heat radiation during gas flaring. An empirical model; three factorial in nature was derived, validated and used for the noise pollution level analysis. The derived model showed that the noise pollution level was basically dependent on gas flaring output parameters such as emitted carbon and heat radiation since the three occur at the same time, and also on reference distance from flare point, total associated gas and total gas produced. The validity of the model; ϑ=D Log ϕ[Log ϕ (0.0001ζ2+ζ)+₰]-1 was rooted on the core model expression D / ϑ ≈ S ζ2 + ζ + (₰ / Log ϕ) where both sides of the expression are correspondingly approximately equal. Regression model was used to generate results of noise pollution level, and its trend of distribution was compared with that from derived model as a way of verifying its validity relative to experimental results. The results of this verification translated into very close alignment of curves, dimensions of shapes and areas covered. These translated into significantly similar trend of data point’s distribution for experimental (ExD), derived model (MoD) and regression model-predicted (ReG) results. Evaluations from generated results indicated that noise pollution level per unit radiated heat & emitted carbon as obtained from experiment and derived model were 60.42 and 60.00 dBA / Kw m-2 & 4.01 x10-4 and 3.98x10-4 dBA /ton respectively. Standard errors incurred in predicting noise pollution level for each value of the radiated heat, emitted carbon & Total associated gas/ Total gas produced; TAG/TGP as obtained from experiment and derived model were 6.6533 and 5.7521%, 6.6405 and 3.1291 % & 6.6616 and 3.9963% respectively. The least and highest deviation of model-predicted noise pollution level (from experimental results) were 1.62 and 21.42%, implying a model operational confidence level range 78-98%.

Keywords

References

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Article

Novel Methods for Assessing Urban Air Quality: Combined Air and Noise Pollution Approach

1Department of Civil Engineering, Jadavpur University, Kolkata, India


Journal of Atmospheric Pollution. 2015, 3(1), 1-8
DOI: 10.12691/jap-3-1-1
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Anirban Kundu Chowdhury, Anupam Debsarkar, Shibnath Chakrabarty. Novel Methods for Assessing Urban Air Quality: Combined Air and Noise Pollution Approach. Journal of Atmospheric Pollution. 2015; 3(1):1-8. doi: 10.12691/jap-3-1-1.

Correspondence to: Anirban  Kundu Chowdhury, Department of Civil Engineering, Jadavpur University, Kolkata, India. Email: anikc13@yahoo.co.in

Abstract

The aim of the present review work is to critically examine the methodologies and findings of the research works which collectively treated traffic related air and noise pollution in commuting microenvironments of urban areas. It is evident from the published literatures that a moderate positive correlation between concentrations of traffic related air pollutants in terms of particulate matter; oxides of nitrogen; CO; ground level O3 and traffic noise level are common in the commuting microenvironments of cities. This may consequence correlated exposure to these environmental stressors to the subjects (e.g., thousands of pedestrian, commuters, hawkers and street dwellers) attached with the commuting microenvironments of urban areas. Prevailing meteorological condition e.g., wind speed and states of turbulent mixing within the urban canopy layer is the most prominent factor governing the degree of correlation between these environmental stressors. In these circumstances the combined air-noise exposure model may estimate the exposure of the subjects to traffic related air and noise pollution in a holistic manner and the city Noise-Air index may represent the air quality of commuting microenvironments in a holistic manner.

Keywords

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Article

Verifying Traffic Ban Effects on Air Pollution

1Dipartimento di Informatica, Università degli Studi di Milano, Milano, Italy


Journal of Atmospheric Pollution. 2015, 3(1), 9-14
DOI: 10.12691/jap-3-1-2
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Andrea Trentini. Verifying Traffic Ban Effects on Air Pollution. Journal of Atmospheric Pollution. 2015; 3(1):9-14. doi: 10.12691/jap-3-1-2.

Correspondence to: Andrea  Trentini, Dipartimento di Informatica, Università degli Studi di Milano, Milano, Italy. Email: andrea.trentini@unimi.it

Abstract

Air pollution started to become a problem for human beings with the industrial revolution, but nowadays, with the introduction of laws against emissions (e.g., the EuroX normative), the situa- tion is getting better. Moreover, governments must constantly monitor pollution levels to check policies effects. This article describes a method to verify traffic ban effect claims on air pollution using monitored data. In Lombardia (our region), ARPA (the local EPA) maintains pollution monitoring stations from down- town Milano to remote places near the mountains since 1999. Measured data are “somewhat” available through ARPA’s website. “Somewhat” because a CAPTCHA protected download request form must be filled up for every combination of (station, pollutant, time-frame < 1 yr). In 2003 the Lombardia government introduced a vehicle ban to reduce air pollution. Then, more recently (in 2008 and 2012) the Milano City Council introduced a stricter ban. The author implemented an automated (in place since 2004) data collecting “web gatherer” to overcome ARPA’s overcomplicated download procedure and, above all, to verify air pollution reduction claims. Data are published on the author’s website and this paper presents a method to analyse effects on air pollution and to verify policies claims.

Keywords

References

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Article

Effect of Ambient Air Pollution on Forced Vital Capacity of Lungs - A Case Study of Jodhpur City

1Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering & Architecture, J.N.V. University Jodhpur, India

2Department of Respiratory Diseases & Tuberculosis, Dr.S.N. Medical College Jodhpur, India

3Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering & Architecture, J.N.V. University Jodhpur, India


Journal of Atmospheric Pollution. 2015, 3(1), 15-17
DOI: 10.12691/jap-3-1-3
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Suresh Kumar Singh, Gopal Purohit, Gautam Kumar Lalwani. Effect of Ambient Air Pollution on Forced Vital Capacity of Lungs - A Case Study of Jodhpur City. Journal of Atmospheric Pollution. 2015; 3(1):15-17. doi: 10.12691/jap-3-1-3.

Correspondence to: Suresh  Kumar Singh, Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering & Architecture, J.N.V. University Jodhpur, India. Email: sksingh.jnvu@gmail.com

Abstract

The capacities of lungs depend on the age, height, weight, surroundings, work culture, style of living etc. Most important external parameter which has direct impact on physical and mental well being of urban residents worldwide is presence of air pollutants in the surroundings. Air pollutants get entry in the human body through inhalation and affect respiratory system. They interfere with the natural metabolic and other activities of human body. Due to damage of respiratory system various Pulmonary Function Values are reduced. The objective of present study is to co-relate Spirometric abnormalities with duration of exposure and Air Quality Index and to assess the reduction in lung capacity in terms of reduction of Forced Vital Capacity (FVC). The study is done at various locations of Jodhpur City, India. The study reveals that the ‘Forced Vital Capacity’ of lungs decrease as the Exposure Duration increases as well as the pollutants concentration increases. The estimated multiple regression equation for Reduction in forced vital capacity (i.e. Index for FVC) is developed as . The calculated values of ‘yF’ give direct indication of damage severity without any medical or Pulmonary Function Test. The values yF will be in between 0 to 1. If the value is more, this means the damage intensity is very high.

Keywords

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Article

Outdoor Radon Concentration in the Township of Ado-Ekiti Nigeria

1Department of Science Technology, Federal Polytechnic, P.M.B 5351, Ado-Ekiti, Ekiti State, Nigeria

2Department of Physics and Electronics, Adekunle Ajasin University, P.M.B 001, Akungba Akoko, Ondo State, Nigeria


Journal of Atmospheric Pollution. 2015, 3(1), 18-21
DOI: 10.12691/jap-3-1-4
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
OJO T.J, AJAYI I.R. Outdoor Radon Concentration in the Township of Ado-Ekiti Nigeria. Journal of Atmospheric Pollution. 2015; 3(1):18-21. doi: 10.12691/jap-3-1-4.

Correspondence to: OJO  T.J, Department of Science Technology, Federal Polytechnic, P.M.B 5351, Ado-Ekiti, Ekiti State, Nigeria. Email: talk2ojotj@yahoo.com

Abstract

Solid State Nuclear Track Detectors (CR-39) were used for the measurement of outdoor 222Radon concentration in 30 locations in the township of Ado-Ekiti Nigeria. The annual effective dose of radon and its progenies to the residents was calculated from the results of the measurement. The concentrations of radon varied from 2.22 to 92.50 Bq m-3 with an overall mean of 29.57 Bq m-3. The annual absorbed dose was found to range from 0.09 to 3.81 mSv y-1 with an average of 1.18 mSv y-1. The estimated annual effective dose to lung ranged from 0.22 to 9.14 mSv y-1 with an average of 2.88 mSv y-1. The values measured for Radon concentration were found to fall below the upper limit of the ICRP reference level.

Keywords

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