ISSN (Print): 2381-2982

ISSN (Online): 2381-2990

Editor-in-Chief: Ki-Hyun Kim

Website: http://www.sciepub.com/journal/JAP

   

Article

Aircraft Observation of Aerosol and Cloud-droplet Properties over the East China Sea Influenced by the Outflow of Asian Polluted Air

1Central Department of Hydrology and Meteorology, Tribhuvan University, Kirtipur, Kathmandu, Nepal

2Division of General education, Aichi Gakuin University, 12 Araike, Iwasaki-cho, Nisshin 470-0195, Japan

3Meteorological Research Institute, 1-1 Nagamine, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0052, Japan


Journal of Atmospheric Pollution. 2015, 3(1), 22-30
doi: 10.12691/jap-3-1-5
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Deepak Aryal, Yutaka Ishizaka, Kikuo Okada. Aircraft Observation of Aerosol and Cloud-droplet Properties over the East China Sea Influenced by the Outflow of Asian Polluted Air. Journal of Atmospheric Pollution. 2015; 3(1):22-30. doi: 10.12691/jap-3-1-5.

Correspondence to: Deepak  Aryal, Central Department of Hydrology and Meteorology, Tribhuvan University, Kirtipur, Kathmandu, Nepal. Email: daryal1@hotmail.com

Abstract

Airborne measurements of aerosol particles and cloud microstructures were made over the ocean around the south of Kyushu Islands of Japan during the Asian Atmospheric Particulate Environmental Change Experiment 3/Asia Pacific Regional Aerosol Characterization Experiment (APEX-E3/ACE-Asia) during the period of 17 March to 13 April 2003. Results demonstrated that polluted air from the Asia continent could penetrate several hundreds of kilometers over the oceans and clouds forming in that air had significantly altered microphysical properties. Based on the number concentration of aerosol particles with diameters between 0.3 and 5 μm, two cases were investigated: 22 March 2003 was termed a "clean" case and 12 April 2003 as a "polluted" case. Single particle analysis of particles was also carried out by electron microscopy. The particles in the polluted marine boundary layer were characterized by the presence of sulfate particles with traces of potassium and heavy metals. The cloud droplets in the polluted marine boundary layer exhibited larger number concentrations than those in the clean boundary layer, along with the decrease in the droplet size. Present study demonstrated that polluted air from the Asia continent could penetrate several hundreds of kilometers over the oceans and clouds forming in that air had significantly altered microphysical properties.

Keywords

References

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Article

The Analysis of Influence of Weather Conditions on Atmospheric Extinction Coefficient over Bauchi, North Eastern Nigeria

1Department of PRE-ND, Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi State-Nigeria

2Department of Physics, University of Jos. Plateau State-Nigeria

3Department of Pure and Applied Physics, Federal University Wukari, Taraba State-Nigeria


Journal of Atmospheric Pollution. 2015, 3(1), 31-38
doi: 10.12691/jap-3-1-6
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
D. Buba, F.O. Anjorin, A. Jacob. The Analysis of Influence of Weather Conditions on Atmospheric Extinction Coefficient over Bauchi, North Eastern Nigeria. Journal of Atmospheric Pollution. 2015; 3(1):31-38. doi: 10.12691/jap-3-1-6.

Correspondence to: F.O.  Anjorin, Department of Physics, University of Jos. Plateau State-Nigeria. Email: frankanj@yahoo.com

Abstract

Weather conditions are natural causes of visibility deterioration and increase in atmospheric extinction coefficient at a place. A 10- year dataset (1998-2007) of visibility and meteorological parameters such as Relative Humidity, Temperature and Atmospheric Pressure measured every 3-hour daily were analysed to examine the dependence of Atmospheric Extinction Coefficient, βext on seasonal meteorological conditions and synoptic weather patterns in Bauchi, a City in the North-eastern-Nigeria. From the visibility data obtained, the corresponding atmospheric extinction coefficient (βext) for the period under review was computed by using the Koschmieder relationship. In year 2000, when the Relative Humidity and atmospheric extinction coefficient, βext are highest, the temperature and visibility values are lowest. In 2003, when temperature (29.82°C) is highest, the Relative Humidity (42.52%) is lowest, although, the atmospheric coefficient was not at its lowest neither was the visibility (18.49km) at its highest. Of the years considered, year 2000 has the highest estimated atmospheric extinction coefficient, βext for both raining season and harmattan season. The raining season (June-September) has βext of 0.267 while the harmattan season has βext of 0.689. Their respective decadal mean for both raining season and harmattan season for the period under review are 0.205 ± 0.036 and 0.689±0.133.

Keywords

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Article

An Integrated Vehicular Emission Control Programme for the City of Delhi Using Retrofitted Emission Control Technologies

1Formerly Chairman & Managing Director, Bharat Dynamics Ltd Hyderabad, India


Journal of Atmospheric Pollution. 2016, 4(1), 1-14
doi: 10.12691/jap-4-1-1
Copyright © 2016 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
R. Gopalaswami. An Integrated Vehicular Emission Control Programme for the City of Delhi Using Retrofitted Emission Control Technologies. Journal of Atmospheric Pollution. 2016; 4(1):1-14. doi: 10.12691/jap-4-1-1.

Correspondence to: R.  Gopalaswami, Formerly Chairman & Managing Director, Bharat Dynamics Ltd Hyderabad, India. Email: gopalaswami@gmail.com

Abstract

The City of Delhi, with a human population of over 16 million has nearly 9 million vehicles on its roads running over 100 billion kilometers every year, spewing out nearly 4 million tonnes of fuel emissions into the atmosphere every year (9900 tonnes per day). About 2 to 5% of these emissions (about 200 to 500 tonnes per day) are in the form of highly toxic gases and particulate matter hazardous to human health and well being. This does not include tyre wear out on Delhi roads which further adds nearly 6000 tonnes of rubber per year (about 16 tonnes per day!) into that contributes greatly to hazardous, dense, black carbon particles that tend to remain near the ground causing serious respiratory and heart diseases. Delhi is now characterized as among the world’s most polluted city. Analysis of 24x7 annual trend ( for the year 2015) of multiple factors resulting in air pollution in Delhi indicates that it seems unlikely that traffic volume reduction alone will have a very significant impact on reducing air pollution especially in winter months. The problem of air pollution needs to be addressed retroactively at its technological root viz. the combustion process in internal combustion engines. Nearly 70% of air pollution in the City is due to vehicle emissions; the rest being from thermal power stations, industries, and open fires in winter. This paper recommends a comprehensive, sustainable and very affordable Vehicular Emission Control Regime, which will be a large technical challenge requiring a systems-based approach to address emission emitting vehicles. Fourteen enabling new and advanced technologies are identified for immediate test, evaluation, and deployment where found suitable based on a prioritized assessment of each vehicle’s need. Several of these advanced technologies have already been fully developed and extensively certified in India in civil R&D. A technology upgradation and its management strategy has been recommended to significantly reduce all hazardous emissions to about 55% of the current measured values within 5-7 years both in summer and winter, enabling turning around of this city to safe vehicular emission levels. A global long term (15-20 years) zero emission vehicle technology strategy is also reviewed. Innovative collaborative emission control programme management structures are also recommended to be realized in three stages, addressing both technical and non-technical factors that currently enhance air pollution in Delhi.

Keywords

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