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Article

Evaluation and Analysis of 3G Network in Lagos Metropolis, Nigeria

1Department of Electronic &Computer Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Lagos State University, Epe Campus

2Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Benin, Edo State


International Transaction of Electrical and Computer Engineers System. 2014, 2(3), 81-87
DOI: 10.12691/iteces-2-3-1
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
L.A Akinyemi, N.T Makanjuola, O.O Shoewu, F.O Edeko. Evaluation and Analysis of 3G Network in Lagos Metropolis, Nigeria. International Transaction of Electrical and Computer Engineers System. 2014; 2(3):81-87. doi: 10.12691/iteces-2-3-1.

Correspondence to: O.O  Shoewu, Department of Electronic &Computer Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Lagos State University, Epe Campus. Email: engrshoewu@yahoo.com

Abstract

This paper presents an evaluation and analysis of 3G network in metropolitan area in Lagos, Nigeria. It was carried out with the collection of data through drive testing of which five parameters were analysed which are Rscp (Received signal code power), Ec/No, SQI (Speech quality index), Tx power (Transmitting power) and path loss. In this paper, ten (10) different site locations were covered and analysed. It was deduced that the RSCP range of -60 to 0 (db) covers just 25% while the Ec/No range of -8 to 0 covers 23% of the total coverage area both of which fall below the 75% being stipulated by the Nigeria Communication Commission (NCC) of the total coverage area. The transmitting power is even worse with analysis showing the transmitting power of most of the base stations in the area with a very low value and likewise the Speech quality index. Two common path loss models COST 231 HATA and OKUMURA-HATA were used. More so, the COST 231 HATA model yielded the value for the path loss ranges from 84.50≤152.33 and that of Okumura ranges from 79.0000 ≤ 150.00 with distance from 200km to 1400km having an interval of 200km to another. However, of the two models, COST 231 HATA appears to be the most suitable for this area due to its better accuracy when both were compared with the measured values from the field. The Root Mean Square Error differences (RMSE) differences of the path loss models were calculated and compared with all the sites. Site Identification Number (ID) Ulag5130-Ulag3131 was considered to have the least error rate of 4.7018 and 7.9396 respectively. The analysis of the work obtained from this area can be used as a platform and benchmark to aid in the system optimization process for improved performance for service providers in other metropolitan areas in Nigeria.

Keywords

References

[1]  Akinyemi L.A.O and Shoewu O.O, Path loss Models for Vegetation Areas in Lagos Environs, April 4, 2013.
 
[2]  Amit Kumar1, Dr. Yunfei Liu2, Dr. JyotsnaSengupta, Divya; Evolution of Mobile Wireless Communication Networks from 1G to 4G, December, 2010.
 
[3]  Al-Imran AjayiOluwafemi Samuel “Evaluation of Video Quality of Service in 3G/UMTS Wireless Network, September, 2010.
 
[4]  COST Action 231, “Digital mobile radio towards future generation system final report, “European communities, EURI8957, 1999.
 
[5]  Joseph Isabona Real Time Monitoring ofService Quality of a DeployedUMTS Wireless Network in Campus Environment-an Optimization Perspective
 
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[6]  L.S. Ashiho mobile technology from 1G to 4G, June 2003.
 
[7]  Mardeni, R. and Kwan, K.F Optimization of Hata Propagation Prediction Modeling Suburban Area in Malaysia, Progress in Electromagnetic Research, Vol. 13, 2010, pp91-106.
 
[8]  Mishra, Ajay K. “Fundamentals of Cellular Network Planning and Optimization, 2G/2.5G/3G…Evolution of 4G”, John Wiley and Sons, 2004.
 
[9]  N.T SurajudeenBakinde, N. Faruk, A. A. Ayeni, M. Y. Muhammad, M.I “Comparative analysis of radio propagation models for wideband code division multiple access (WCDMA) and global system for mobile communications (GSM)”.
 
[10]  Patil C.S (et al),"Review on Generations in Mobile Cellular Technology”, October, 2012.
 
[11]  SapnaShukla(et al), “Comparative Study of 1G, 2G, 3G and 4G”,Journal of Engineering, Computers & Applied Sciences (JEC&AS) Volume 2, No.4, April 2013.
 
[12]  SomerGoksel “Optimization and Log file Analysis in GSM” January26, 2003
 
[13]  Sylvain Ranvier “Physical layer methods in wireless communication systems” 23 October 2004.
 
[14]  TEMS investigation release notes, ASCOM, Document: NT11-21089, www.ascom.com/networktesting, 2011.
 
[15]  Ubom, E.A., Idigo V.E, Azubogu A.C.O, Ohaneme C.O and Alumona T.L “Path loss Characterization of Wireless Propagation for Suburban Enviroment in Nigeria at 800MHz”.
 
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Article

Fingerprint Patterns and the Analysis of Gender Differences in the Patterns Based on the U Test

1Department of Engineering Technology, Mississippi Valley State University, Itta Bena, USA

2Department of Nursing, University of Phoenix, Tempe, USA


International Transaction of Electrical and Computer Engineers System. 2014, 2(3), 88-92
DOI: 10.12691/iteces-2-3-2
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Lidong Wang, Cheryl Ann Alexander. Fingerprint Patterns and the Analysis of Gender Differences in the Patterns Based on the U Test. International Transaction of Electrical and Computer Engineers System. 2014; 2(3):88-92. doi: 10.12691/iteces-2-3-2.

Correspondence to: Lidong  Wang, Department of Engineering Technology, Mississippi Valley State University, Itta Bena, USA. Email: lwang22@students.tntech.edu

Abstract

The testing and frequency distribution analysis of African American fingerprint patterns (loop, whorl, and arch) was conducted. It was shown that loops are the most common, whorls are the second most common, and arches are the least common with a very small percentage (4.33%). Most loops are ulnar loops while only 4.47% loops are radial loops. Of the total arches, 61.54% arches are plain arches and 38.46% arches are tented arches. A comparative study of gender difference in African American fingerprint patterns was conducted using a non-parametric method based on the U test. The U test results show that there is no significant gender difference in fingerprint patterns between African American males and females at the 0.05 level of significance.

Keywords

References

[1]  Josphineleela. R, M.R Amakrishnan, “An Efficient Automatic Attendance System Using Fingerprint Reconstruction Technique,” International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security, 10 (3), March 2012.
 
[2]  A. Hicklin and C. Reedy, “Implications of the IDENT/IAFIS: Image Quality Study for Visa Fingerprint Processing,” Technical Report, Mitretek Systems, October 31, 2002.
 
[3]  W. Craig, F. Patricia, and C. Brian, “SlagsegII-slap fingerprint segmentation evaluation II testing procedure and results.” Technical Report, National Institute of Standards and Technology, 2009.
 
[4]  Yong-Liang Zhang, Gang Xiao, Yan-Miao Li, Hong-Tao Wu, Ya-Ping Huang, “Slap fingerprint segmentation for live-scan devices and ten-print cards,” 2010 International Conference on Pattern Recognition, pp. 1180-1183.
 
[5]  U.S. Department of Justice, “National fingerprint-based applicant check study (N-FACS),” Criminal Justice Information Services Division - Federal Bureau of Investigation, Technical Report IAFIS-DOC-07054-1.0, April 2004.
 
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[6]  Anil K. Jain, “Automatic Fingerprint Matching Using Extended Feature Set, Michigan State University,” Award Final Report, Award Number: 2007-RG-CX-K183, August 23, 2011.
 
[7]  Mayank Vatsa, Quality Induced Secure Multiclassifier Fingerprint Verification using Extended Feature Set, Ph.D. Dissertation, West Virginia University, 2008.
 
[8]  Rohan Nadgir and Arun Ross, “Roll versus Plain Prints: An Experimental Study Using the NIST SD 29 Database,” Technical Report, West Virginia University, 2006.
 
[9]  Alaa Ahmed Abbood, Ghazali Sulong, Fingerprint Classification Techniques: A Review, International Journal of Computer Science Issues, 11 (1), January 2014, pp. 111-122.
 
[10]  Prateek Rastogi, Keerthi R Pillai, “A study of fingerprints in relation to gender and blood group,” J Indian Acad Forensic Med, 32 (1), pp. 11-14.
 
[11]  Cross Match Technologies, Inc., LSMS with 10-Print Scanner Customer Training Guide, Palm Beach Gardens, Florida, USA, 2007.
 
[12]  New Mexico Department of Health, Division of Health Improvement, Fingerprint Techniques Manual.
 
[13]  Navrit Kaur Johal, Amit Kamra, “A Novel Method for Fingerprint Core Point Detection,” International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research, 2 (4), April-2011, pp. 1-6.
 
[14]  J. E. Freund and B. M. Perles, Statistics: A First Course. (8th Ed.), Pearson Prentice Hall, New Jersey, 2004.
 
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Article

A Learning Automata Based Spectrum Prediction Technique for Cognitive Radio Networks

1Faculty of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Birjand, Birjand, Iran


International Transaction of Electrical and Computer Engineers System. 2014, 2(3), 93-97
DOI: 10.12691/iteces-2-3-3
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Mehdi Golestanian, Shahrzad Iranmanesh, Reza Ghazizadeh, Mohammadreza Azimi. A Learning Automata Based Spectrum Prediction Technique for Cognitive Radio Networks. International Transaction of Electrical and Computer Engineers System. 2014; 2(3):93-97. doi: 10.12691/iteces-2-3-3.

Correspondence to: Mehdi  Golestanian, Faculty of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Birjand, Birjand, Iran. Email: mehdi.golestanian@gmail.com

Abstract

This paper introduces an application of artificial intelligence in the cognitive radio networks. The Cognitive Radio Network (CRN) provides a suitable environment for Secondary Users (SUs) to share the spectrum with Primary Users (PUs) in a non-interfering manner. In order to determine the availability of PUs bandwidth, SU can sense the spectrum in the channel. But, accurate and constant spectrum sensing consumes the energy of the SUs significantly. In these conditions, to discover the spectrum holes in the absence of PUs, predictive techniques can be one of the solutions which can reduce the consuming energy of the SUs. The simplicity and reliability of predictive techniques play an important role in the practice. In this paper, we utilize a Learning Automata technique to predict the spectrum hole in the cognitive network based on the statistical behaviour of the PUs. Simple structure and acceptable prediction rate are two important features of the proposed technique. In order to compare the performance of the proposed method with similar predictive techniques in CRNs, we design a predictor model using multilayer perceptron artificial neural networks and test the performance of these two methods on the same conditions. The results of modelling confirm that the Learning Automata with simple structure is more reliable than neural network.

Keywords

References

[1]  T. Yucek, H. Arsalan, “A survey of spectrum sensing algorithms for cognitive radio applications,” IEEE Communications and Tutorial, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 116-130, Oct. 2009.
 
[2]  K. Tsagkaris, A. Katidiotis, P. Demestichas “Neural network-based learning schemes for cognitive radio systems,” Computer Communication, vol. 31, no. 14, pp. 3394-3404, 2008.
 
[3]  I. A. Akbar, W. H. Tranter, “Dynamic Spectrum Allocation in Cognitive Radio Using Hidden Markov Models: Poisson Distributed Case,” in Proceeding of IEEE Southeast Conference, pp. 196-201, March. 2007.
 
[4]  C, Ghosh, C. Cordeiro, D. P. Agrawal, M. B. Rao, “Markov Chain Existence and Hidden Markov Models in Spectrum Sensing,” IEEE International Conference on Pervasive Computing and Communications, pp. 1-6, March. 2009.
 
[5]  N. Baldo, M.Zorzi, “Learning and adaptation in cognitive radios using neural networks,” IEEE Consumer Communications and Networking Conference, pp. 998-1003, Jan. 2008.
 
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[6]  V. K. Tumuluru, P. Wang and D. Niyato, “A Neural Network Based Spectrum Prediction Scheme for Cognitive Radio,” in Proceeding of IEEE International Conference on Communication, pp. 1-5, May. 2010.
 
[7]  Nicola Baldo, Michele Zorzi, “Learning and Adaptation in Cognitive Radios using Neural Networks,” 5th IEEE consumer Communication and Networking Conference, pp. 998-1003, 2008.
 
[8]  J. A. Torkestani, M. R. Meybodi, “A Learning Automata-Based Cognitive Radio for Clustered wireless Ad-Hoc Networks,” Journal of Network and Systems Management, vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 278-297, 2011.
 
[9]  M.S. Obaidat a, G.I. Papadimitriou, A.S. Pomportsis, “Efficient Fast Learning Automata,” Information Sciences—Informatics and Computer Science, vol. 157, no. 2, pp. 121-133, 2003.
 
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Article

Evaluation of the Voltage Stability of a Radial Distribution System having V2G Facilities

1Department of Industrial & Electrical Engineering Technology of South Carolina State University, U.S.A.

2Electrical and Computer engineering, Tennessee Technological University, Cookeville, TN, U.S.A.


International Transaction of Electrical and Computer Engineers System. 2014, 2(3), 98-106
DOI: 10.12691/iteces-2-3-4
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Uwakwe C. Chukwu, Satish M. Mahajan. Evaluation of the Voltage Stability of a Radial Distribution System having V2G Facilities. International Transaction of Electrical and Computer Engineers System. 2014; 2(3):98-106. doi: 10.12691/iteces-2-3-4.

Correspondence to: Uwakwe  C. Chukwu, Department of Industrial & Electrical Engineering Technology of South Carolina State University, U.S.A.. Email: uchukwu@scsu.edu

Abstract

The penetration of V2G into the distribution system is expected to impact the way power systems are being operated. Voltage instability in the distribution system is a growing problem, and is associated with rapid voltage drops due to heavy load demand that may occur during uncoordinated and simultaneous charging of V2G units during peak hours of a typical day. This is a pressing issue since the next generation electric distribution system may exhibit a high level of volatility due to V2G penetration. In this paper, the impact of V2G parking lots on voltage stability of a radial distribution network is investigated. IEEE 13 Node test feeder network was modeled in the RDAP. Load flow results were applied to the voltage stability index. Results show that for a given penetration level, 3-phase and system-wide V2G integration results in an improved voltage stability than a 1-phase V2G integration. Results also indicate that using V2G parking lots to inject reactive power will have an improved impact on the voltage stability of the system than injecting a real power into the system. These results could be useful for real-time applications as well as for power system operators and planners dealing with an increasing influx of V2Gs in the distribution system.

Keywords

References

[1]  Saber, A.Y., Venayagamoorthy, G.K., “Optimization of vehicle-to-grid scheduling in Constrained parking lots.” PES GM, pp.1-8. 2009.
 
[2]  M. Duvall. “Comparing the Benefits and Impacts of Hybrid Electric Vehicle Options for Compact Sedan and Sport Utility Vehicles, EPRI, Palo Alto, CA, Final Report 1006892. 2002.
 
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[4]  T. Gonen, “Electric Power Distributed System Engineering,” 2nd Ed. New York: McGraw-Hill, pp. 414-435, 1987.
 
[5]  P. Nagendra, T. Datta, S. Halder and S. Paul. “Power system stability assessment using Network Equivalents- A Review,” Journal of applied sciences, Vol. 10, Iss 18, pp. 2147-2153, 2010.
 
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[6]  P. Kundur. Power system stability and control, McGraw-Hill, 1st Ed.
 
[7]  B. Gao, G. K. Morison, and P. Kundur. “Voltage stability evaluation using Modal analysis,” IEEE trans. on power systems, Vol. 7, Iss 4, pp. 1529-1542, 1992.
 
[8]  V. Ajjarapu and C. Christy, “The continuation power flow: A tool for steady State voltage stability analysis,” IEEE Trans on power systems, 7(1), pp. 416-423, 1992.
 
[9]  C. A. Canizares. Voltage stability assessment: concepts, practices & tools. IEEE-PES Power systems stability subcommittee publication.
 
[10]  D.O. Dike, S.M. Mahajan, “Utilization of L-index in microgrid interconnected power system network, proceedings of the IEEE PES GM, 1-6, 2008.
 
[11]  P. Aravindhababu and G. Mohan “Optimal Capacitor Placement for Voltage Stability Enhancement in Distribution Systems,” ARPN Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences Vol. 4, No. 2, 88-92, 2009.
 
[12]  M. H. Haque, “A linear static voltage stability margin for radial distribution systems,” in Proc. IEEE PES GM, Quebec pp. 1-6, 2006.
 
[13]  [Online]http://www.ewh.ieee.org/soc/pes/dsacom/testfeeders.html.
 
[14]  G. Mohan and P. Aravindhababu. Load shedding Algorithm for avoiding Voltage instability in distribution systems, Int. J. of Power Engineering and Green Technology (IJPEGT), Vol. 1. Iss. 1, pp. 39-45. 2010.
 
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Article

Quarter-Pixel Accuracy Motion Estimation (ME) - A Novel ME Technique in HEVC

1Department of E&EC, IIT, KHARAGPUR

2Department of ETC, Department of ELTCE, VSSUT, BURLA, ODISHA


International Transaction of Electrical and Computer Engineers System. 2014, 2(3), 107-113
DOI: 10.12691/iteces-2-3-5
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Kalyan Kumar Barik, Somnath Sengupta, Manas Ranjan Jena. Quarter-Pixel Accuracy Motion Estimation (ME) - A Novel ME Technique in HEVC. International Transaction of Electrical and Computer Engineers System. 2014; 2(3):107-113. doi: 10.12691/iteces-2-3-5.

Correspondence to: Kalyan  Kumar Barik, Department of E&EC, IIT, KHARAGPUR. Email: kalyankumar333@gmail.com

Abstract

In this paper, We have focused on the development and implementation of novel low computational cost motion estimation(ME) algorithm for video coding based on H.265/HEVC standard. Through this algorithm, new ideas are explored for potentially improving the standard. High-Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC) is a new video compression standard currently being standardized by the JCTVC (Joint Collaborative Team on Video Coding) established by ISO/IEO MPEG and ITU-T. HEVC targets 50% coding gain over AVC/H.264 High Profile. In order to achieve this goal, new tools are being adopted to HEVC. One of the main differences of HEVC from previous video compression standards is the coding tree structure. In this structure, a frame is first divided into CTUs (coding tree units). Then a CTU is further divided into CUs (coding units) in a quad-tree structure. Unless a CU is further divided into four smaller CUs, it is predicted with one of several PU (prediction unit) types. Currently, CTU size can be as large as 64x64 and SCU (smallest CU) can be as small as 8x8. At the encoder side, decisions can be made to support only a subset of these PU types and CU sizes. This will present a trade-off between hardware complexity and coding efficiency. Since motion estimation is one of the most critical blocks in video encoders, trade-offs in motion estimation (ME) block are very important for the overall encoder design. However, it is important to consider the memory cost (in terms of area and data bandwidth) of these tools in hardware. This paper presents HEVC ME using Quarter –pixel accuracy prediction using 8-tap and 7- tap filter for luma interpolation using 2D Logarithmic search and goal is to reduce number of motion vector (MC) to increase compression gain, PSNR and to reduce memory area and data band data bit rate.

Keywords

References

[1]  Jens-Rainer Ohm and G. J. Sullivan, “High Efficiency Video Coding : The Next Frontier in Video Compression,” IEEE Signal Processing Magazine, pp.153-158, January 2013.
 
[2]  Wang Gang, C. Hexin, C. Maianshu, “A Study on Sub-pixel Interpolation Filtering Algorithim and Hardware Structural Design Aiming at HEVC,” Telkomnia, Vol.11, No. 12, pp. 7564-7570, Dec. 2013.
 
[3]  B. Bross, W. J. Han, J. R. Ohm, G. J. Sullivan, T. Wiegand, “High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC) Text Specification Draft 7”, JCTVC-I1003, May 2012.
 
[4]  M.T. Pourazad, C. Doutre, M. Azimi, P. Nasiopoulos, "HEVC: The New Gold Standard for Video Compression", IEEE Consumer Electronics Magazine, July 2012.
 
[5]  G. J. Sullivan, J.-R.Ohm, W.-J. Han, and T. Wiegand, “Overview of the High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC) Standard”, IEEE Trans. Circuits and Systems for Video Technology, Vol. 22, No. 12, pp. 1649-1668, Dec. 2012.
 
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[6]  Kim,et al, “Block portioning structure in the HEVC standard,” IEEE Trans. On circuits and system for video tecnkology, vol. 22, pp. 1697-1706, Dec. 2012.
 
[7]  Chih-Ming Fu, Elena Alshina, A. Alshin, Y.W. Huang, C.Y. Chen,” Sample Adaptive Offset in the HEVC Standard,” IEEE Trans. Circuits and Systems for Video Technology, Vol. 22, No. 12, pp. 1755, Dec. 2012.
 
[8]  F. Bossen, Et. Al, HEVC complexity and implementation analysis," IEEE Trans-actions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology, vol. 22, no. 12, pp. 1685-1696, Dec 2012.
 
[9]  Gary J.Sullivian and Jens-Rainer Ohm. Recent developments in standardization of High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC) volume 7798.SPIE, 2010.
 
[10]  T. Wiegand and G. J. Sullivan, “The H.264 video coding standard”, IEEE Signal Processing Magazine, vol. 24, pp. 148-153, March 2007.
 
[11]  G. Sullivan, P. Topiwala and A. Luthra, “The H.264/AVC Advanced Video Coding Standard: Overview and Introduction to the Fidelity Range Extensions”, SPIE conference on Applications of Digital Image Processing XXVII, vol. 5558, pp. 53-74, Aug. 2004.
 
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Article

Design of Digital Multiplier with Reversible Logic by Using the Ancient Indian Vedic Mathematics Suitable for Use in Hardware of Cryptosystems

1Department of ETC, SIET, Dhenkanal, Odisha, India


International Transaction of Electrical and Computer Engineers System. 2014, 2(4), 114-119
DOI: 10.12691/iteces-2-4-1
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Giridhari Muduli, Siddharth Kumar Dash, Bibhu Datta Pradhan, Manas Ranjan Jena. Design of Digital Multiplier with Reversible Logic by Using the Ancient Indian Vedic Mathematics Suitable for Use in Hardware of Cryptosystems. International Transaction of Electrical and Computer Engineers System. 2014; 2(4):114-119. doi: 10.12691/iteces-2-4-1.

Correspondence to: Manas Ranjan Jena, Department of ETC, SIET, Dhenkanal, Odisha, India. Email: manas.synergy@gmail.com

Abstract

Differential Power Analysis (DPA) presents a major challenge to mathematically secure cryptographic protocols. Attacks can break the encryption by measuring the energy consumed in the working digital circuit. To prevent this types of attack, this paper proposes the use of reversible logic for designing a high speed complex multiplier (ASIC) based on Vedic mathematics in cryptosystem. Reversible logic is gaining significance in the context of emerging technology such as quantum computing. Ideally, reversible circuits do not loose information during computation. Thus, it would be of great significance to apply reversible logic to design for secure cryptosystem. The idea for designing the multiplier unit is adopted from ancient Indian mathematics “Vedas”. On account of these formulas, the partial products and sums are generated in one step which reduces the carry propagation from LSB to MSB. The implementation of the vedic mathematics & their application to the complex multiplier ensure substantial reduction of propagation delay in comparison with DA based architecture (distributed arithmetic) & parallel adder based implementation which are commonly used. The functionality of these circuits was checked & performance parameters like propagation delay and dynamic power consumption were calculated by spice specter using standard 90nm cmos technology.

Keywords

References

[1]  Bayrakci, A. and Akkas, A.. “Reduced delay bcd adder”, Proc. Application -specic Systems, Architectures and Processors. 266-271, 2007.
 
[2]  Biswas, A. K., Hasan, M. M., Chowdhury, A. R., and Hasan Babu, H. M. “Efficient approaches for designing reversible binary coded decimal adders”, Microelectron. J. 39, 12, 1693-1703, 2008.
 
[3]  Bruce, J. W., Thornton, M. A., Shivakumaraiah, L., Kokate, P. S., and Li, X. “Efficient adder circuits based on a conservative reversible logic gate”, Proc. IEEE Symposium on VLSI, 2002. 83-88, 2002.
 
[4]  Cuccaro, S. A., Draper, T. G., Kutin, S. A., and Moulton, D. P. “A new quantum ripple-carry addition circuit”, http://arXiv.org/quant-ph/0410184,2004.
 
[5]  Haghparast, M., Jassbi, S., Navi, K., and O.Hashemipour. “Design of a novel reversible multiplier circuit using hng gate in nanotechnology”, World App. Sci. J. 3, 6, 974-978, 2008.
 
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[6]  Maslov, D. and Dueck, G. W. “Reversible cascades with minimal garbage”, IEEE Trans. Computer-Aided Design, 23, 11 (Nov.), 1497-1509, 2004.
 
[7]  Mohammadi, M., Eshghi, M., Haghparast, M., and Bahrololoom, A. “Design and optimization of reversible bcd adder/subtractor circuit for quantum and nanotechnology based systems”, World Applied Sciences Journal 4, 6, 787-792, 2008..
 
[8]  Shende, V. V., Prasad, A., Markov, I., and Hayes, J. “Synthesis of reversible logic Circuits”. IEEE Trans. on CAD 22, 710-722, 2003.
 
[9]  S.K.Sastry, H.S.Shroff, Mahammad, S. N., and Kamakoti, V. “Efficient building blocks for reversible sequential circuit design”. Proc. the 49th IEEE Intl. l Midwest Symp.on Cir. and Sys. Puerto Rico, 437-441, 2006.
 
[10]  B. Parhami, Computer architecture arithmetic algorithms & hardware architectures”, 2nd edition, Oxford university press, New York, 2010.
 
[11]  Anvesh kumar, Ashish raman,”Low power ALU design by ancient mathematics”, 978-1-4244-5586-7/10, 2010, IEEE.
 
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Article

Analysis of Relationship between Resistances in Delta Circuit to Determine Total Resistance

1Unika De la Salle Manado Kampus Kombos Kairagi I Manado-Indonesia


International Transaction of Electrical and Computer Engineers System. 2014, 2(4), 120-123
DOI: 10.12691/iteces-2-4-2
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Lianly Rompis. Analysis of Relationship between Resistances in Delta Circuit to Determine Total Resistance. International Transaction of Electrical and Computer Engineers System. 2014; 2(4):120-123. doi: 10.12691/iteces-2-4-2.

Correspondence to: Lianly  Rompis, Unika De la Salle Manado Kampus Kombos Kairagi I Manado-Indonesia. Email: lr079@uowmail.edu.au

Abstract

Electric circuit has a very important role in electronics field progressing. From simple to complex form of circuits, actively support the establishment of new innovations in engineering technology. To build a good concept of circuit, it is necessary to have proper understanding on basic concept and circuit analysis. Starting from Ohm and Kirchhoff’s laws, another circuit laws and formulas are derived from analysis and theorems, to give better calculation and solution in problems. This paper will do an analysis on relationship between resistances in delta circuit, and apply basic electric circuit theory to calculate the total resistance. This analysis is conducted by doing comparison and calculation to derive the expected formula.

Keywords

References

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[4]  William H. Hayt, Jr. and Jack E. Kemmerly (Pantur Silaban). (1999) Rangkaian Listrik Jilid 1. Jakarta: Penerbit Erlangga.
 
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[6]  Edminister, Joseph A. (Sahat Pakpahan). (1988) Teori dan Soal-Soal Rangkaian Listrik. Jakarta: Penerbit Erlangga. Online Articles
 
[7]  Tony R. Kuphaldt. (2004) Lessons in Electric Circuits: Volume II-AC, fifth edition. [Online] Available: http://www.scribd.com/ doc/62569767/Lessons-in-Electric-Circuits-2-AC-Tony-R-Kuphaldt. [Accessed: November 2013].
 
[8]  Tony R. Kuphaldt. (2004) Lessons in Electric Circuits: Volume III-Semiconductors, fifth edition. [Online] Available: http://www3.eng.cam.ac.uk/DesignOffice/mdp/electric_web/Semi/. [Accessed: November 2013].
 
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Article

Using Poisson Integral Formula to Evaluate Four Types of Definite Integrals

1Department of Information Technology, Nan Jeon University of Science and Technology, Tainan City, Taiwan


International Transaction of Electrical and Computer Engineers System. 2014, 2(4), 124-127
DOI: 10.12691/iteces-2-4-3
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Chii-Huei Yu. Using Poisson Integral Formula to Evaluate Four Types of Definite Integrals. International Transaction of Electrical and Computer Engineers System. 2014; 2(4):124-127. doi: 10.12691/iteces-2-4-3.

Correspondence to: Chii-Huei  Yu, Department of Information Technology, Nan Jeon University of Science and Technology, Tainan City, Taiwan. Email: chiihuei@nju.edu.tw

Abstract

The present paper uses the mathematical software Maple for the auxiliary tool to study four types of definite integrals. The closed forms of these definite integrals can be obtained mainly using Poisson integral formula. On the other hand, we propose two examples to do calculation practically. The research method adopted in this study is to find solutions through manual calculations and verify the answers using Maple.

Keywords

References

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[5]  C. -H. Yu, “Evaluating two types of definite integrals using Parseval’s theorem,” Wulfenia Journal, Vol. 21, No. 2, pp. 24-32, 2014.
 
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[6]  C. -H. Yu, “Solving some definite integrals using Parseval’s theorem,” American Journal of Numerical Analysis, Vol. 2, No. 2, pp. 60-64, 2014.
 
[7]  C. -H. Yu, “Some types of integral problems,” American Journal of Systems and Software, Vol. 2, No. 1, pp. 22-26, 2014.
 
[8]  C. -H. Yu, “Using Maple to study the double integral problems,” Applied and Computational Mathematics, Vol. 2, No. 2, pp. 28-31, 2013.
 
[9]  C. -H. Yu, “A study on double Integrals,” International Journal of Research in Information Technology, Vol. 1, Issue. 8, pp. 24-31, 2013.
 
[10]  C. -H. Yu, “Application of Parseval’s theorem on evaluating some definite integrals,” Turkish Journal of Analysis and Number Theory, Vol. 2, No. 1, pp. 1-5, 2014.
 
[11]  C. -H. Yu, “Evaluation of two types of integrals using Maple,” Universal Journal of Applied Science, Vol. 2, No. 2, pp. 39-46, 2014.
 
[12]  C. -H. Yu, “Studying three types of integrals with Maple,” American Journal of Computing Research Repository, Vol. 2, No. 1, pp. 19-21, 2014.
 
[13]  C. -H. Yu, “The application of Parseval’s theorem to integral problems,” Applied Mathematics and Physics, Vol. 2, No. 1, pp. 4-9, 2014.
 
[14]  C. -H. Yu, “A study of some integral problems using Maple,” Mathematics and Statistics, Vol. 2, No. 1, pp. 1-5, 2014.
 
[15]  C. -H. Yu, “Solving some definite integrals by using Maple,” World Journal of Computer Application and Technology, Vol. 2, No. 3, pp. 61-65, 2014.
 
[16]  C. -H. Yu, “Using Maple to study two types of integrals,” International Journal of Research in Computer Applications and Robotics, Vol. 1, Issue. 4, pp. 14-22, 2013.
 
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[29]  C. -H. Yu, “Evaluating some types of definite integrals,” American Journal of Software Engineering, Vol. 2, Issue. 1, pp. 13-15, 2014.
 
[30]  C. -H. Yu and B. -H. Chen, “Solving some types of integrals using Maple,” Universal Journal of Computational Mathematics, Vol. 2, No. 3, pp. 39-47, 2014.
 
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Article

A New Approach for Traffic Management in Wireless Multimedia Sensor Network

1M.Tech-Computer Science and Engineering, Lakshmi Narain College of Technology-Indore (RGPV, Bhopal), MP, India


International Transaction of Electrical and Computer Engineers System. 2014, 2(5), 128-134
DOI: 10.12691/iteces-2-5-1
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Shyam Nandan Kumar. A New Approach for Traffic Management in Wireless Multimedia Sensor Network. International Transaction of Electrical and Computer Engineers System. 2014; 2(5):128-134. doi: 10.12691/iteces-2-5-1.

Correspondence to: Shyam  Nandan Kumar, M.Tech-Computer Science and Engineering, Lakshmi Narain College of Technology-Indore (RGPV, Bhopal), MP, India. Email: shyamnandan.mec@gmail.com

Abstract

Multimedia applications have become an essential part of our daily lives, and their use is flourishing day by day. In Wireless Multimedia Sensor Networks (WMSNs), large volume of multimedia data is transmitted through the network. If the traffic load is greater than the available capacity of the sensor network, congestion occurs and it causes buffer overflow, packet drop, deterioration of network throughput and effect quality of service (QoS). The limited bandwidth should be adjusted for the packets with different priorities precisely. To emphasize the problem, the paper provides A New Approach for Traffic Management in Wireless Multimedia Sensor Network. According to the paper, sensor nodes in one collision area can adjust their sending states adaptively based on packet priority. To improve the received video quality in base stations, proposed technique keeps the I-frames and ignores the other less important frame types of compressed video. Also retransmissions of lost packets are provided with different priorities for enhancing the system performance. The simulations show that the bandwidth adjustment can protect the packets with high priority effectively, and the performance of the retransmission is well positioned to meet the requirement of the multimedia applications. MATLAB is used for simulation purpose.

Keywords

References

[1]  I. F. Akyildiz, T. Melodia, and K. R. Chowdhury, “Wireless multimedia sensor networks: applications and testbeds,” Proceedings of the IEEE, vol. 96, no. 10, pp. 1588-1605, 2008.
 
[2]  Y. Eisenberg, C.E. Luna, T.N. Pappas, R. Berry, A.K. Katsaggelos, Joint source coding and transmission power management for energy efficient wireless video communications, IEEE Trans. Circ. Syst. Video Technol. 12 (6) (2002) 411-424.
 
[3]  B. Girod, M. Kalman, Y. Liang, R. Zhang,, Advances in channel-adaptive video streaming”, Wireless Commun. Mobile Comput. 2 (6) (2002) 549-552.
 
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[6]  Poojary, S.and Pai, M.M.M., “Multipath Data Transfer in Wireless Multimedia Sensor Network”, International Conference on Broadband, Wireless Computing, Communication and Applications (BWCCA), 2010 IEEE, pp. 379-383.
 
[7]  Wei Wang, Dongming Peng, Honggang Wang, Sharif, H.and Hsiao-Hwa Chen, “.A Multimedia Quality-Driven Network Resource Management Architecture for Wireless Sensor Networks With Stream Authentication”, IEEE Transactions on Multimedia, Vol: 12, Issue: 5, pp. 439-447.
 
[8]  Duan Dagao, Han and Li Wenzheng, “A wireless video transmission system using RCPT/FEC”, Broadband Network & Multimedia Technology, 2009. 2nd IEEE International conference, pp. 147-151.
 
[9]  Fard, G.H.E, Yaghmaee, Mohammad.H and Monsefi, R, “An adaptive Cross-Layer multichannel QoS-MAC protocol for cluster based wireless multimedia sensor networks”, Ultra-Modern Telecommunications & Workshops, 2009. ICUMT '09, IEEE International Conference, St. Petersburg, pp. 1-6.
 
[10]  Huang Haiping and Wang Ruchuan, “Clustered-Control Algorithm for Wireless Multimedia Sensor Network Communications”, International Conference on Communications and Mobile Computing (CMC), 2010, Vol. 3, pp. 264-268.
 
[11]  Yaghmaee, M.H and Adjeroh, D., “A new priority based congestion control protocol for Wireless Multimedia Sensor Networks,” International Symposium on a World of Wireless, Mobile and Multimedia Networks, 2008., pp. 1-8.
 
[12]  Shahin Mahdizadeh Aghdam, Mohammad Khansari, Hamid R. Rabiee and Mostafa Salehi, “WCCP: A congestion control protocol for wireless multimedia communication in sensor networks”, Ad Hoc Networks, ELSEVIER, Vol 13, part B, Feb-2014, pp 516-534.
 
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Article

Digitally Reconfigurable Two DVCC Based Biquadratic Analog Filter

1Department of Electronics Engineering, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, India


International Transaction of Electrical and Computer Engineers System. 2014, 2(5), 135-143
DOI: 10.12691/iteces-2-5-2
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Mohd. Usama Ismail, Bilal Arif, Ale Imran. Digitally Reconfigurable Two DVCC Based Biquadratic Analog Filter. International Transaction of Electrical and Computer Engineers System. 2014; 2(5):135-143. doi: 10.12691/iteces-2-5-2.

Correspondence to: Mohd.  Usama Ismail, Department of Electronics Engineering, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, India. Email: usamaismail22@gmail.com

Abstract

In this paper, a digitally reconfigurable Multi Input Single Output (MISO) voltage mode multifunctional biquadratic analog filter has been presented. The circuit has three input terminals and one output terminal. It employs two Differential Voltage Current Conveyor blocks (DVCC), two capacitors and two resistors. Filter responses like low-pass, band-pass, high-pass and band-reject can be obtained from the same topology by applying voltages to different input terminals. The digital re-configurability is obtained using a current-summing network (CSN). Cut-off frequency of the various filter responses is controlled and varied with the help of a 3–bit digital control word. Further quality factor is also controlled with the 3-bit control word. PSPICE simulations using TSMC 0.25μCMOS technology have been performed to validate the theoretically predicted results.

Keywords

References

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