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International Transaction of Electrical and Computer Engineers System

**ISSN (Print):**
2373-1273

**ISSN (Online):**
2373-1281

## Article

# Quarter-Pixel Accuracy Motion Estimation (ME) - A Novel ME Technique in HEVC

^{1}Department of E&EC, IIT, KHARAGPUR

^{2}Department of ETC, Department of ELTCE, VSSUT, BURLA, ODISHA

*International Transaction of Electrical and Computer Engineers System*.

**2014**, 2(3), 107-113

**DOI:**10.12691/iteces-2-3-5

**Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing**

**Cite this paper:**

Kalyan Kumar Barik, Somnath Sengupta, Manas Ranjan Jena. Quarter-Pixel Accuracy Motion Estimation (ME) - A Novel ME Technique in HEVC.

*International Transaction of Electrical and Computer Engineers System*. 2014; 2(3):107-113. doi: 10.12691/iteces-2-3-5.

Correspondence to: Kalyan Kumar Barik, Department of E&EC, IIT, KHARAGPUR. Email: kalyankumar333@gmail.com

## Abstract

## Keywords

## References

[1] | Jens-Rainer Ohm and G. J. Sullivan, “High Efficiency Video Coding : The Next Frontier in Video Compression,” IEEE Signal Processing Magazine, pp.153-158, January 2013. | ||

[2] | Wang Gang, C. Hexin, C. Maianshu, “A Study on Sub-pixel Interpolation Filtering Algorithim and Hardware Structural Design Aiming at HEVC,” Telkomnia, Vol.11, No. 12, pp. 7564-7570, Dec. 2013. | ||

[3] | B. Bross, W. J. Han, J. R. Ohm, G. J. Sullivan, T. Wiegand, “High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC) Text Specification Draft 7”, JCTVC-I1003, May 2012. | ||

[4] | M.T. Pourazad, C. Doutre, M. Azimi, P. Nasiopoulos, "HEVC: The New Gold Standard for Video Compression", IEEE Consumer Electronics Magazine, July 2012. | ||

[5] | G. J. Sullivan, J.-R.Ohm, W.-J. Han, and T. Wiegand, “Overview of the High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC) Standard”, IEEE Trans. Circuits and Systems for Video Technology, Vol. 22, No. 12, pp. 1649-1668, Dec. 2012. | ||

[6] | Kim,et al, “Block portioning structure in the HEVC standard,” IEEE Trans. On circuits and system for video tecnkology, vol. 22, pp. 1697-1706, Dec. 2012. | ||

[7] | Chih-Ming Fu, Elena Alshina, A. Alshin, Y.W. Huang, C.Y. Chen,” Sample Adaptive Offset in the HEVC Standard,” IEEE Trans. Circuits and Systems for Video Technology, Vol. 22, No. 12, pp. 1755, Dec. 2012. | ||

[8] | F. Bossen, Et. Al, HEVC complexity and implementation analysis," IEEE Trans-actions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology, vol. 22, no. 12, pp. 1685-1696, Dec 2012. | ||

[9] | Gary J.Sullivian and Jens-Rainer Ohm. Recent developments in standardization of High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC) volume 7798.SPIE, 2010. | ||

[10] | T. Wiegand and G. J. Sullivan, “The H.264 video coding standard”, IEEE Signal Processing Magazine, vol. 24, pp. 148-153, March 2007. | ||

[11] | G. Sullivan, P. Topiwala and A. Luthra, “The H.264/AVC Advanced Video Coding Standard: Overview and Introduction to the Fidelity Range Extensions”, SPIE conference on Applications of Digital Image Processing XXVII, vol. 5558, pp. 53-74, Aug. 2004. | ||

## Article

# Design of Digital Multiplier with Reversible Logic by Using the Ancient Indian Vedic Mathematics Suitable for Use in Hardware of Cryptosystems

^{1}Department of ETC, SIET, Dhenkanal, Odisha, India

*International Transaction of Electrical and Computer Engineers System*.

**2014**, 2(4), 114-119

**DOI:**10.12691/iteces-2-4-1

**Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing**

**Cite this paper:**

Giridhari Muduli, Siddharth Kumar Dash, Bibhu Datta Pradhan, Manas Ranjan Jena. Design of Digital Multiplier with Reversible Logic by Using the Ancient Indian Vedic Mathematics Suitable for Use in Hardware of Cryptosystems.

*International Transaction of Electrical and Computer Engineers System*. 2014; 2(4):114-119. doi: 10.12691/iteces-2-4-1.

Correspondence to: Manas Ranjan Jena, Department of ETC, SIET, Dhenkanal, Odisha, India. Email: manas.synergy@gmail.com

## Abstract

## Keywords

## References

[1] | Bayrakci, A. and Akkas, A.. “Reduced delay bcd adder”, Proc. Application -specic Systems, Architectures and Processors. 266-271, 2007. | ||

[2] | Biswas, A. K., Hasan, M. M., Chowdhury, A. R., and Hasan Babu, H. M. “Efficient approaches for designing reversible binary coded decimal adders”, Microelectron. J. 39, 12, 1693-1703, 2008. | ||

[3] | Bruce, J. W., Thornton, M. A., Shivakumaraiah, L., Kokate, P. S., and Li, X. “Efficient adder circuits based on a conservative reversible logic gate”, Proc. IEEE Symposium on VLSI, 2002. 83-88, 2002. | ||

[4] | Cuccaro, S. A., Draper, T. G., Kutin, S. A., and Moulton, D. P. “A new quantum ripple-carry addition circuit”, http://arXiv.org/quant-ph/0410184,2004. | ||

[5] | Haghparast, M., Jassbi, S., Navi, K., and O.Hashemipour. “Design of a novel reversible multiplier circuit using hng gate in nanotechnology”, World App. Sci. J. 3, 6, 974-978, 2008. | ||

[6] | Maslov, D. and Dueck, G. W. “Reversible cascades with minimal garbage”, IEEE Trans. Computer-Aided Design, 23, 11 (Nov.), 1497-1509, 2004. | ||

[7] | Mohammadi, M., Eshghi, M., Haghparast, M., and Bahrololoom, A. “Design and optimization of reversible bcd adder/subtractor circuit for quantum and nanotechnology based systems”, World Applied Sciences Journal 4, 6, 787-792, 2008.. | ||

[8] | Shende, V. V., Prasad, A., Markov, I., and Hayes, J. “Synthesis of reversible logic Circuits”. IEEE Trans. on CAD 22, 710-722, 2003. | ||

[9] | S.K.Sastry, H.S.Shroff, Mahammad, S. N., and Kamakoti, V. “Efficient building blocks for reversible sequential circuit design”. Proc. the 49th IEEE Intl. l Midwest Symp.on Cir. and Sys. Puerto Rico, 437-441, 2006. | ||

[10] | B. Parhami, “Computer architecture arithmetic algorithms & hardware architectures”, 2^{nd} edition, Oxford university press, New York, 2010. | ||

[11] | Anvesh kumar, Ashish raman,”Low power ALU design by ancient mathematics”, 978-1-4244-5586-7/10, 2010, IEEE. | ||

## Article

# Analysis of Relationship between Resistances in Delta Circuit to Determine Total Resistance

^{1,}

^{1}Unika De la Salle Manado Kampus Kombos Kairagi I Manado-Indonesia

*International Transaction of Electrical and Computer Engineers System*.

**2014**, 2(4), 120-123

**DOI:**10.12691/iteces-2-4-2

**Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing**

**Cite this paper:**

Lianly Rompis. Analysis of Relationship between Resistances in Delta Circuit to Determine Total Resistance.

*International Transaction of Electrical and Computer Engineers System*. 2014; 2(4):120-123. doi: 10.12691/iteces-2-4-2.

Correspondence to: Lianly Rompis, Unika De la Salle Manado Kampus Kombos Kairagi I Manado-Indonesia. Email: lr079@uowmail.edu.au

## Abstract

## Keywords

## References

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[2] | Nahvi, M., dan Joseph A. Edminister. (2004) Schaum’s Easy Outlines: Rangkaian Listrik, Jakarta: Penerbit Erlangga. | ||

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[4] | William H. Hayt, Jr. and Jack E. Kemmerly (Pantur Silaban). (1999) Rangkaian Listrik Jilid 1. Jakarta: Penerbit Erlangga. | ||

[5] | William H. Hayt, Jr. and Jack E. Kemmerly (Pantur Silaban). (1999) Rangkaian Listrik Jilid 2. Jakarta: Penerbit Erlangga. | ||

[6] | Edminister, Joseph A. (Sahat Pakpahan). (1988) Teori dan Soal-Soal Rangkaian Listrik. Jakarta: Penerbit Erlangga. Online Articles | ||

[7] | Tony R. Kuphaldt. (2004) Lessons in Electric Circuits: Volume II-AC, fifth edition. [Online] Available: http://www.scribd.com/ doc/62569767/Lessons-in-Electric-Circuits-2-AC-Tony-R-Kuphaldt. [Accessed: November 2013]. | ||

[8] | Tony R. Kuphaldt. (2004) Lessons in Electric Circuits: Volume III-Semiconductors, fifth edition. [Online] Available: http://www3.eng.cam.ac.uk/DesignOffice/mdp/electric_web/Semi/. [Accessed: November 2013]. | ||

## Article

# Using Poisson Integral Formula to Evaluate Four Types of Definite Integrals

^{1,}

^{1}Department of Information Technology, Nan Jeon University of Science and Technology, Tainan City, Taiwan

*International Transaction of Electrical and Computer Engineers System*.

**2014**, 2(4), 124-127

**DOI:**10.12691/iteces-2-4-3

**Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing**

**Cite this paper:**

Chii-Huei Yu. Using Poisson Integral Formula to Evaluate Four Types of Definite Integrals.

*International Transaction of Electrical and Computer Engineers System*. 2014; 2(4):124-127. doi: 10.12691/iteces-2-4-3.

Correspondence to: Chii-Huei Yu, Department of Information Technology, Nan Jeon University of Science and Technology, Tainan City, Taiwan. Email: chiihuei@nju.edu.tw

## Abstract

## Keywords

## References

[1] | A. A. Adams, H. Gottliebsen, S. A. Linton, and U. Martin, “Automated theorem proving in support of computer algebra: symbolic definite integration as a case study,” Proceedings of the 1999 International Symposium on Symbolic and Algebraic Computation, Canada, pp. 253-260, 1999. | ||

[2] | M. A. Nyblom, “On the evaluation of a definite integral involving nested square root functions,” Rocky Mountain Journal of Mathematics, Vol. 37, No. 4, pp. 1301-1304, 2007. | ||

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[4] | C. -H. Yu, “A study of two types of definite integrals with Maple,” Jökull Journal, Vol. 64, No. 2, pp. 543-550, 2014. | ||

[5] | C. -H. Yu, “Evaluating two types of definite integrals using Parseval’s theorem,” Wulfenia Journal, Vol. 21, No. 2, pp. 24-32, 2014. | ||

[6] | C. -H. Yu, “Solving some definite integrals using Parseval’s theorem,” American Journal of Numerical Analysis, Vol. 2, No. 2, pp. 60-64, 2014. | ||

[7] | C. -H. Yu, “Some types of integral problems,” American Journal of Systems and Software, Vol. 2, No. 1, pp. 22-26, 2014. | ||

[8] | C. -H. Yu, “Using Maple to study the double integral problems,” Applied and Computational Mathematics, Vol. 2, No. 2, pp. 28-31, 2013. | ||

[9] | C. -H. Yu, “A study on double Integrals,” International Journal of Research in Information Technology, Vol. 1, Issue. 8, pp. 24-31, 2013. | ||

[10] | C. -H. Yu, “Application of Parseval’s theorem on evaluating some definite integrals,” Turkish Journal of Analysis and Number Theory, Vol. 2, No. 1, pp. 1-5, 2014. | ||

[11] | C. -H. Yu, “Evaluation of two types of integrals using Maple,” Universal Journal of Applied Science, Vol. 2, No. 2, pp. 39-46, 2014. | ||

[12] | C. -H. Yu, “Studying three types of integrals with Maple,” American Journal of Computing Research Repository, Vol. 2, No. 1, pp. 19-21, 2014. | ||

[13] | C. -H. Yu, “The application of Parseval’s theorem to integral problems,” Applied Mathematics and Physics, Vol. 2, No. 1, pp. 4-9, 2014. | ||

[14] | C. -H. Yu, “A study of some integral problems using Maple,” Mathematics and Statistics, Vol. 2, No. 1, pp. 1-5, 2014. | ||

[15] | C. -H. Yu, “Solving some definite integrals by using Maple,” World Journal of Computer Application and Technology, Vol. 2, No. 3, pp. 61-65, 2014. | ||

[16] | C. -H. Yu, “Using Maple to study two types of integrals,” International Journal of Research in Computer Applications and Robotics, Vol. 1, Issue. 4, pp. 14-22, 2013. | ||

[17] | C. -H. Yu, “Solving some integrals with Maple,” International Journal of Research in Aeronautical and Mechanical Engineering, Vol. 1, Issue. 3, pp. 29-35, 2013. | ||

[18] | C. -H. Yu, “A study on integral problems by using Maple,” International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Science and Software Engineering, Vol. 3, Issue. 7, pp. 41-46, 2013. | ||

[19] | C. -H. Yu, “Evaluating some integrals with Maple,” International Journal of Computer Science and Mobile Computing, Vol. 2, Issue. 7, pp. 66-71, 2013. | ||

[20] | C. -H. Yu, “Application of Maple on evaluation of definite integrals,” Applied Mechanics and Materials, Vols. 479-480 (2014), pp. 823-827, 2013. | ||

[21] | C. -H. Yu, “Application of Maple on the integral problems,” Applied Mechanics and Materials, Vols. 479-480 (2014), pp. 849-854, 2013. | ||

[22] | C. -H. Yu, “Using Maple to study the integrals of trigonometric functions,” Proceedings of the 6th IEEE/International Conference on Advanced Infocomm Technology, Taiwan, No. 00294, 2013. | ||

[23] | C. -H. Yu, “A study of the integrals of trigonometric functions with Maple,” Proceedings of the Institute of Industrial Engineers Asian Conference 2013, Taiwan, Springer, Vol. 1, pp. 603-610, 2013. | ||

[24] | C. -H. Yu, “Application of Maple on the integral problem of some type of rational functions,” (in Chinese) Proceedings of the Annual Meeting and Academic Conference for Association of IE, Taiwan, D357-D362, 2012. | ||

[25] | C. -H. Yu, “Application of Maple on some integral problems,” (in Chinese) Proceedings of the International Conference on Safety & Security Management and Engineering Technology 2012, Taiwan, pp. 290-294, 2012. | ||

[26] | C. -H. Yu, “Application of Maple on some type of integral problem,” (in Chinese) Proceedings of the Ubiquitous-Home Conference 2012, Taiwan, pp. 206-210, 2012. | ||

[27] | C. -H. Yu, “Application of Maple on evaluating the closed forms of two types of integrals,” (in Chinese) Proceedings of the 17th Mobile Computing Workshop, Taiwan, ID16, 2012. | ||

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[29] | C. -H. Yu, “Evaluating some types of definite integrals,” American Journal of Software Engineering, Vol. 2, Issue. 1, pp. 13-15, 2014. | ||

[30] | C. -H. Yu and B. -H. Chen, “Solving some types of integrals using Maple,” Universal Journal of Computational Mathematics, Vol. 2, No. 3, pp. 39-47, 2014. | ||

[31] | T. -J. Chen and C. -H. Yu, “A study on the integral problems of trigonometric functions using two methods,” Wulfenia Journal, Vol. 21, No. 4, pp. 76-86, 2014. | ||

[32] | T. -J. Chen and C. -H. Yu, “Fourier series expansions of some definite integrals,” Sylwan Journal, Vol. 158, Issue. 5, pp. 124-131, 2014. | ||

[33] | T. -J. Chen and C. -H. Yu, “Evaluating some definite integrals using generalized Cauchy integral formula,” Mitteilungen Klosterneuburg, Vol. 64, Issue. 5, pp. 52-63, 2014. | ||

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## Article

# A New Approach for Traffic Management in Wireless Multimedia Sensor Network

^{1,}

^{1}M.Tech-Computer Science and Engineering, Lakshmi Narain College of Technology-Indore (RGPV, Bhopal), MP, India

*International Transaction of Electrical and Computer Engineers System*.

**2014**, 2(5), 128-134

**DOI:**10.12691/iteces-2-5-1

**Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing**

**Cite this paper:**

Shyam Nandan Kumar. A New Approach for Traffic Management in Wireless Multimedia Sensor Network.

*International Transaction of Electrical and Computer Engineers System*. 2014; 2(5):128-134. doi: 10.12691/iteces-2-5-1.

Correspondence to: Shyam Nandan Kumar, M.Tech-Computer Science and Engineering, Lakshmi Narain College of Technology-Indore (RGPV, Bhopal), MP, India. Email: shyamnandan.mec@gmail.com

## Abstract

## Keywords

## References

[1] | I. F. Akyildiz, T. Melodia, and K. R. Chowdhury, “Wireless multimedia sensor networks: applications and testbeds,” Proceedings of the IEEE, vol. 96, no. 10, pp. 1588-1605, 2008. | ||

[2] | Y. Eisenberg, C.E. Luna, T.N. Pappas, R. Berry, A.K. Katsaggelos, Joint source coding and transmission power management for energy efficient wireless video communications, IEEE Trans. Circ. Syst. Video Technol. 12 (6) (2002) 411-424. | ||

[3] | B. Girod, M. Kalman, Y. Liang, R. Zhang,, “Advances in channel-adaptive video streaming”, Wireless Commun. Mobile Comput. 2 (6) (2002) 549-552. | ||

[4] | Crossbow MICA2 Mote Specifications. <http://www.xbow.com>. | ||

[5] | Crossbow MICAz Mote Specifications. <http://www.xbow. com>. | ||

[6] | Poojary, S.and Pai, M.M.M., “Multipath Data Transfer in Wireless Multimedia Sensor Network”, International Conference on Broadband, Wireless Computing, Communication and Applications (BWCCA), 2010 IEEE, pp. 379-383. | ||

[7] | Wei Wang, Dongming Peng, Honggang Wang, Sharif, H.and Hsiao-Hwa Chen, “.A Multimedia Quality-Driven Network Resource Management Architecture for Wireless Sensor Networks With Stream Authentication”, IEEE Transactions on Multimedia, Vol: 12, Issue: 5, pp. 439-447. | ||

[8] | Duan Dagao, Han and Li Wenzheng, “A wireless video transmission system using RCPT/FEC”, Broadband Network & Multimedia Technology, 2009. 2nd IEEE International conference, pp. 147-151. | ||

[9] | Fard, G.H.E, Yaghmaee, Mohammad.H and Monsefi, R, “An adaptive Cross-Layer multichannel QoS-MAC protocol for cluster based wireless multimedia sensor networks”, Ultra-Modern Telecommunications & Workshops, 2009. ICUMT '09, IEEE International Conference, St. Petersburg, pp. 1-6. | ||

[10] | Huang Haiping and Wang Ruchuan, “Clustered-Control Algorithm for Wireless Multimedia Sensor Network Communications”, International Conference on Communications and Mobile Computing (CMC), 2010, Vol. 3, pp. 264-268. | ||

[11] | Yaghmaee, M.H and Adjeroh, D., “A new priority based congestion control protocol for Wireless Multimedia Sensor Networks,” International Symposium on a World of Wireless, Mobile and Multimedia Networks, 2008., pp. 1-8. | ||

[12] | Shahin Mahdizadeh Aghdam, Mohammad Khansari, Hamid R. Rabiee and Mostafa Salehi, “WCCP: A congestion control protocol for wireless multimedia communication in sensor networks”, Ad Hoc Networks, ELSEVIER, Vol 13, part B, Feb-2014, pp 516-534. | ||

## Article

# Digitally Reconfigurable Two DVCC Based Biquadratic Analog Filter

^{1}Department of Electronics Engineering, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, India

*International Transaction of Electrical and Computer Engineers System*.

**2014**, 2(5), 135-143

**DOI:**10.12691/iteces-2-5-2

**Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing**

**Cite this paper:**

Mohd. Usama Ismail, Bilal Arif, Ale Imran. Digitally Reconfigurable Two DVCC Based Biquadratic Analog Filter.

*International Transaction of Electrical and Computer Engineers System*. 2014; 2(5):135-143. doi: 10.12691/iteces-2-5-2.

Correspondence to: Mohd. Usama Ismail, Department of Electronics Engineering, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, India. Email: usamaismail22@gmail.com

## Abstract

## Keywords

## References

[1] | H. Y. Wang, C. T. Lee. “Versatile insensitive current-mode universal biquad implementation using current conveyors.” Circuits and Systems II: Analog and Digital Signal Processing, IEEE Transactions, vol. 48, issue. 4, pp. 409-413, Apr. 2001. | ||

[2] | H. Hakan Kuntman. “New Advances and Possibilities in Active Circuit Design.” in Proc. 10th International Conference on Development and Application Systems, 2010, pp. 9-18. | ||

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[6] | H.O. Elwan, A. M. Soliman. “Novel CMOS differential voltage current conveyor and its applications.” IEE Proceedings-Circuits, Devices and Systems, vol. 144, issue. 3, pp. 195-200, Jun. 1997. | ||

[7] | J.W. Horng, "DVCCs based high input impedance voltage-mode first-order allpass, highpass and lowpass filters employing grounded capacitor and resistor." Radioengineering, vol. 19, issue. 4, pp. 653-656, Dec. 2010. | ||

[8] | H.P. Chen, K.W. Huang, and P.M. Huang. "DVCC-Based first-order filter with grounded capacitor." International Journal of Information and Electronics Engineering, vol. 2, issue. 1, pp. 50-54, Jan. 2012 | ||

[9] | I.A. Khan and A.M. Nahhas. "Reconfigurable Voltage Mode First Order Multifunctional Filter using Single Low Voltage Digitally Controlled CMOS CCII." International Journal of Computer Applications, vol. 45, issue. 5, pp. 37-40, May 2012. | ||

[10] | J. W. Horng, M. H. Lee, H. C. Cheng, C. W. Chang. "New CCII-based voltage-mode universal biquadratic filter." International Journal of Electronics, vol. 82, issue. 2, pp. 151-156, 1997. | ||

[11] | W. Tangsrirat, O. Chaannumsin. “Voltage -mode multifunctional biquadratic filter using single DVCC and minimum number of passive elements”. Indian Journal of Pure and Applied Physics, vol. 49, pp. 703-707, Oct. 2011. | ||

[12] | S. A. Mahmoud, M.A. Hashiesh. and A.M. Soliman. “Low-voltage digitally controlled fully differential current conveyor.” Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers, IEEE Transactions, VOL. 52, issue. 10, pp. 2055-2064, Oct. 2005. | ||

## Article

# Design of an Efficient Low Power 4-bit Arithmatic Logic Unit (ALU) Using VHDL

^{1}Departemt of ETC, SIET, Odisha

*International Transaction of Electrical and Computer Engineers System*.

**2014**, 2(5), 144-148

**DOI:**10.12691/iteces-2-5-3

**Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing**

**Cite this paper:**

Giridhari Muduli, Bibhudatt Pradhan, Manas Ranjan Jena, Snigdharani Nath. Design of an Efficient Low Power 4-bit Arithmatic Logic Unit (ALU) Using VHDL.

*International Transaction of Electrical and Computer Engineers System*. 2014; 2(5):144-148. doi: 10.12691/iteces-2-5-3.

Correspondence to: Manas Ranjan Jena, Departemt of ETC, SIET, Odisha. Email: manas.synergy@gmail.com

## Abstract

## Keywords

## References

[1] | M. Farmwald., “Design of High Performance Digital Arithmetic Units”. PhD thesis, Stanford University, Aug. 1981. | ||

[2] | M. Morris Mano “Digital Design” (Pearson Education Asia. 3rd Ed, 2002). | ||

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[4] | N. Quach and M. Flynn. “Design and implementation of the snap floating-point adder”. Technical Report CSL-TR-91-501, Stanford University, Dec. 1991. | ||

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[6] | R.V.K. Pillai, D. Al-Khalili and A.J. Al-Khalili “Power Implications of Additions in Floating Point DSP-an Architectural Perspective” Concordia University, Montreal CANADA; Royal Military College, Kingston, The IEEE International Conference Pages: 581-586, 1999. | ||

[7] | E. Hokenek and R. Montoye. “Leading-zero anticipator (lza) in the ibm risc system/6000 floating-point execution unit”. IBM J. Res. Develop., 34 (1): 71-77, Jan. 1990. | ||

[8] | Javier D. Bruguera and Tomas Lang “Leading one anticipation scheme for latency improvement in single data path floating point adders”, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Spain. Pages 125-133, 2005. | ||

[9] | S. Kang and Y. Leblebici “CMOS Digital Integrated Circuit, Analysis and Design” (Tata McGraw-Hill, 3rd Ed, 2003). | ||

[10] | Ricardo Gonzalez, Benjamin M. Gordon, and Mark A. Horowitz,” Supply and Threshold Voltage Scaling for Low Power CMOS”, IEEE JOURNAL OF SOLID-STATE CIRCUITS, VOL. 32, NO. 8, AUGUST 1997. | ||

## Article

# Distributed Cognitive Routing in Multi-channel Multi-hop Networks with Accessibility Consideration

^{1}Department of Electrical Engineering, Birjand University, Birjand, Iran

^{2}Department of Computer Engineering, Shahid bahonar university of Kerman, Kerman, Iran

*International Transaction of Electrical and Computer Engineers System*.

**2014**, 2(6), 149-157

**DOI:**10.12691/iteces-2-6-1

**Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing**

**Cite this paper:**

Mehdi Golestanian, Mohammad Reza Azimi, Reza Ghazizade. Distributed Cognitive Routing in Multi-channel Multi-hop Networks with Accessibility Consideration.

*International Transaction of Electrical and Computer Engineers System*. 2014; 2(6):149-157. doi: 10.12691/iteces-2-6-1.

Correspondence to: Mehdi Golestanian, Department of Electrical Engineering, Birjand University, Birjand, Iran. Email: mehdi.golestanian@gmail.com

## Abstract

**Among Cognitive Radio Network (CRN) research topics, routing algorithms especially for multi-channel networks are in the early stages. In this paper, we design a novel cognitive routing scheme for multi-channel multi-hop wireless networks. The main contribution of the proposed routing scheme is the sub-optimal low computational complexity which makes it applicable for distributed network architecture with power constraints. Other important aspect of the proposed routing scheme is considering the objectives related to the network performance, accessibility and efficient spectrum utilization jointly. As the simulation results demonstrate the presented scheme provides a significant improvement in the spectral efficiency and adequate QoS in term of delay propagation and interference in CRN.**

## Keywords

## References

[1] | Y. Xiao and F. Hu, Cognitive radio networks, Auerbach Publications, 2008. | ||

[2] | T. Yucek, H. Arsalan, “A survey of spectrum sensing algorithms for cognitive radio applications,” IEEE Communications and Tutorial, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 116-130, Oct. 2009. | ||

[3] | M. Cesana, F. Cuomo and E. Ekici, “Routing in Cognitive Radio Networks: Challenges and Solutions,” Ad-hoc networks Journal, vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 228-248, May. 2011. | ||

[4] | M. Xie, W. Zhang and K. Wong, “A Geometric Approach to Improve Spectrum Efficiency for Cognitive Relay Networks,” IEEE Transaction on Wireless Communication, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 268-281, Jan. 2010. | ||

[5] | H. Ma, L. Zheng, X. Ma, Y. luo, “Spectrum aware routing for multi-hop cognitive radio networks with a single transceiver,” 3rd International Conference on Cognitive Radio Oriented Wireless Networks and Communications, pp. 1-6, 2008. | ||

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## Article

# Review on Network Security and Cryptography

^{1,}

^{1}M.Tech-Computer Science and Engineering, Lakshmi Narain College of Technology-Indore (RGPV, Bhopal), MP, India

*International Transaction of Electrical and Computer Engineers System*.

**2015**, 3(1), 1-11

**DOI:**10.12691/iteces-3-1-1

**Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing**

**Cite this paper:**

Shyam Nandan Kumar. Review on Network Security and Cryptography.

*International Transaction of Electrical and Computer Engineers System*. 2015; 3(1):1-11. doi: 10.12691/iteces-3-1-1.

Correspondence to: Shyam Nandan Kumar, M.Tech-Computer Science and Engineering, Lakshmi Narain College of Technology-Indore (RGPV, Bhopal), MP, India. Email: shyamnandan.mec@gmail.com

## Abstract

## Keywords

## References

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## Article

# Cryptography during Data Sharing and Accessing Over Cloud

^{1,}

^{1}M.Tech-Computer Science and Engineering, Lakshmi Narain College of Technology-Indore (RGPV, Bhopal), MP, India

*International Transaction of Electrical and Computer Engineers System*.

**2015**, 3(1), 12-18

**DOI:**10.12691/iteces-3-1-2

**Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing**

**Cite this paper:**

Shyam Nandan Kumar. Cryptography during Data Sharing and Accessing Over Cloud.

*International Transaction of Electrical and Computer Engineers System*. 2015; 3(1):12-18. doi: 10.12691/iteces-3-1-2.

Correspondence to: Shyam Nandan Kumar, M.Tech-Computer Science and Engineering, Lakshmi Narain College of Technology-Indore (RGPV, Bhopal), MP, India. Email: shyamnandan.mec@gmail.com

## Abstract

## Keywords

## References

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[4] | V. Goyal, O. Pandey, A. Sahai, and B. Waters, “Attribute-Based Encryption for Fine-Grained Access Control of Encrypted data,” in Proceedings of the 13th ACM Conference on Computer and Communications Security (CCS ’06). ACM, 2006, pp. 89-98. | ||

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[7] | G. Ateniese, K. Fu, M. Green, and S. Hohenberger, “Improved Proxy Re-Encryption Schemes with Applications to Secure Distributed Storage,” ACM Transactions on Information and System Security (TISSEC), vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 1-30, 2006. | ||

[8] | Seung-Hyun Seo, Nabeel, M, Bertino, E. and Xiaoyu Ding, “An Efficient Certificateless Encryption for Secure Data Sharing in Public Clouds” IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering, Volume: 26, Issue: 9, pp. 2107-2119, 05 August 2013 | ||

[9] | Ruhr (2011) “Cloud computing: Gaps in the cloud”. NewsRx Health Sci. | ||

[10] | D. Boneh, C. Gentry, and B. Waters, “Collusion Resistant Broadcast Encryption with Short Ciphertexts and Private Keys,” in Proceedings of Advances in Cryptology-CRYPTO ’05, ser. LNCS, vol. 3621. Springer, 2005, pp. 258-275. | ||

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