International Journal of Physics

ISSN (Print): 2333-4568

ISSN (Online): 2333-4576

Editor-in-Chief: B.D. Indu

Website: http://www.sciepub.com/journal/IJP

   

Article

Measurement of Radon Gas Concentration in Tap Water Samples in Wassit Governorate by Using Nuclear Track Detector (CR-39)

1Department of Physics, College of Science, University of Mosul, Mosul, Iraq

2Department of Physics, College of Education, Al-Mustansiriyah University, Baghdad, Iraq


International Journal of Physics. 2016, 4(5), 119-122
doi: 10.12691/ijp-4-5-1
Copyright © 2016 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Laith Ahmed Najam, Mahmood Salim Karim, Taghreed Khalid Hameed. Measurement of Radon Gas Concentration in Tap Water Samples in Wassit Governorate by Using Nuclear Track Detector (CR-39). International Journal of Physics. 2016; 4(5):119-122. doi: 10.12691/ijp-4-5-1.

Correspondence to: Laith  Ahmed Najam, Department of Physics, College of Science, University of Mosul, Mosul, Iraq. Email: prof.lai2014@gmail.com

Abstract

In the present work, we have measured the radon gas concentration in environmental water sample of selected regions in Wassit governorate by using alpha-emitters registrations which are emitted from radon gas in (CR-39) nuclear track detector. The results of measurements indicate that the highest average radon gas concentrations in tap water samples were found in Nuamaniya region, which was equal to (0.820±0.04 Bq/L), while the lowest average radon gas concentration was found in Jassan region, which was equal to (0.325±0.02 Bq/L), with an average value of (0.563±0.12Bq/L). The highest value of annual effective dose (AED) in tap water samples was found in Nuamaniya region, which was equal to (0.08 μSv/y), while the lowest value of annual effective dose (AED) was found in Jassan region, which was equal to (0.03μSv /y), with an average value of (0.05±0.01 μSv/y), the tap water in Wassit governorate is safe as far as radon concentration is concerned.

Keywords

References

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[5]  Khan AJ, Varshney AK, Prasad R, Tyagi RK, Ramachandran T.V. “Calibration of a CR-39 plastic track detector for the measurement of radon and its daughters in dwellings” Nucl Tracks Radiat Meas, 17, pp.497-502, (1990).
 
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[7]  Durrani S.A. and Bull R.K., “Solid State Nuclear Track Detection: Principles, Methods and Applications”, Pergammon Press, U.K., (1987).
 
[8]  Alam M. N., Chowdhry M. I., Kamal M., Ghose S., Islam M. N. & Awaruddin M., “Radiological assessment of tap water of the Chittagong region of Bangladesh”, Radiat. Prot. Dosim., 82, pp.207–214, (1999).
 
[9]  Ferreira A.O., Pecequilo B.R. and Aquino R.R., “Application of a Sealed Can Technique and CR-39 detectors for measuring radon emanation from undamaged granitic ornamental building materials”, Radioprotection Journal, 46, No.6, pp.49-54, (2011).
 
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[12]  Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulations, Final Rule for Non-Radon Radionuclides in Tap Water, Technical Fact Sheet, EPA, 815-F-00-013, (2000).
 
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Article

A New Equivalent Theory with Special Relativity Theory, Particle Wave in 5-dimensional Space-time

1Chongqing, China


International Journal of Physics. 2016, 4(5), 123-129
doi: 10.12691/ijp-4-5-2
Copyright © 2016 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Xiao Lin Li. A New Equivalent Theory with Special Relativity Theory, Particle Wave in 5-dimensional Space-time. International Journal of Physics. 2016; 4(5):123-129. doi: 10.12691/ijp-4-5-2.

Correspondence to: Xiao  Lin Li, Chongqing, China. Email: hidebrain@hotmail.com

Abstract

There exist a new physics model. Real physical world is 5-dimensional space-time. Human world is 4-dimensional space-time. Human world just is the projection of real physics world. Particle wave is present in 5-dimensional space-time. So we can derive out Mass-energy equation. So we can derive out all results of Special Relativity Theory. In 5-dimensional space-time, speed of all particles is the light speed c. It is reason that the light speed c is very special. Coordinates transformation in 5-dimensional space-time, can derive out Lorentz transformation. The new physics model theory is a equivalent theory with Special Relativity Theory. In 5-dimensional space-time, there only exist space expansion or space contraction. In 5-dimensional space-time, there not exist time expansion or time contraction, time is absolute. In 5-dimensional space-time, particle rest mass only is particle movement portions at 4th dimensional space. The new 5-dimensional space-time theory, is consistent with space-time system of Special Relativity Theory, and it can transition to space-time system in Lorentz symmetry breaking smoonthly. The new 5-dimensional space-time theory has more wide range adaptation than Special Relativity Theory.

Keywords

References

[1]  Broglie, Louis de, The wave nature of the electron, Nobel Lecture, December 12, 1929.
 
[2]  “The Feynman Lectures on Physics(Volume I,II,III)”, R. P. Feynman, R. B. Leighton, M. Sands.
 
[3]  D. Colladay and V.A. Kostelecký, Lorentz-Violating Extension of the Standard Model, Phys. Rev. D 58, 116002 (1998).
 

Article

Effect of the Geometrical Shape of the Magnetic Poles and the Distance between Them on the Focal Properties of the Condenser Magnetic Lens in the Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM)

1Department of Mechanization and Agricultural Equipment, University of Kirkuk, College of Agriculture / Hawija


International Journal of Physics. 2016, 4(5), 130-134
doi: 10.12691/ijp-4-5-3
Copyright © 2016 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Mohammed A. Hussein. Effect of the Geometrical Shape of the Magnetic Poles and the Distance between Them on the Focal Properties of the Condenser Magnetic Lens in the Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). International Journal of Physics. 2016; 4(5):130-134. doi: 10.12691/ijp-4-5-3.

Correspondence to: Mohammed  A. Hussein, Department of Mechanization and Agricultural Equipment, University of Kirkuk, College of Agriculture / Hawija. Email: mohdphy@yahoo.com

Abstract

The research aims to study the effect of changing the geometric shape of the poles and the distance between them on the focal properties in the condenser magnetic lens and thus the efficiency of the scanning electron microscope through its impact on the amount of miniaturization in the electronic beam passers-through optical column system lenses as well as the amount of aberrations that contribute to reducing the clarity and precision in the resulting image for the sample to be tested. We used six condenser lenses equal in the internal and external geometry and the length of the lens as well as for the coil area and vary the poles and the distance between them to get out the best model.

Keywords

References

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[7]  A. Khursheed, M. Osterberg, Nucl. Instr. and Meth.A 556 (2006) 437.
 
[8]  Hawkes, P. W. and Kasper, E. (1996), “Principle of Electron Optics”, Academic Press, London.
 
[9]  Lencovà, B. (1986), “Program AMAG for computation of vector potential in rotationally symmetric magnetic electron lenses by FEM”, Inst. Sci. Instrum., Czech. Acad. Sci., Brno, Czechoslovakia, pp. 1-58.
 
[10]  Ayache, J., Beaunier, L., Boumendil, J., Ehret, G. and Laub, D., (2010), “Sample Preparation Handbook for Transmission Electron Microscopy”, Methodology Springer Science+Business Media.
 
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