International Journal of Physics

ISSN (Print): 2333-4568

ISSN (Online): 2333-4576

Website: http://www.sciepub.com/journal/IJP

Article

A Solution Looking for a Problem - Generalised Hallway Switches

1B&E Scientific Ltd, BN25 4PA, United Kingdom


International Journal of Physics. 2015, 3(2), 69-73
DOI: 10.12691/ijp-3-2-4
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Arne Bergstrom. A Solution Looking for a Problem - Generalised Hallway Switches. International Journal of Physics. 2015; 3(2):69-73. doi: 10.12691/ijp-3-2-4.

Correspondence to: Arne  Bergstrom, B&E Scientific Ltd, BN25 4PA, United Kingdom. Email: arne.bergstrom@physics.org

Abstract

The properties of hallway switches are discussed with emphasis on how special types of such switch systems with arbitrarily many switches can be constructed and systematically become conducting/nonconducting by simply turning on/off any arbitrary switch in the system, and then become nonconducting/conducting again by turning off/on any arbitrary switch in the system, etc. A question is whether in physics, biology, genetics, economics, sociology, or traffic management, there might exist - or preferably would exist - complex such systems, the global state of which could thus be switched by a local action anywhere in the system and then switched back by another local action anywhere in the system.

Keywords

References

[1]  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Multiway_switching.
 
[2]  Richard Day, Wiring Multi Switches, Popular Science, Jan 1987, p 85.
 
[3]  Michael Litchfield and Michael McAlister, Taunton's Wiring Complete: Expert Advice from Start to Finish, Second Ed. (Taunton Press, Newtown CT), 2013.
 
[4]  Arne Bergstrom, Apparent Superluminal Speeds in Evanescent Fields, Quantum Tunnelling and Quantum Entanglement, International Journal of Physics 3, 40-44 (2015).
 
[5]  Arne Bergstrom, Apparatus for Authenticating Bank Notes, European Patent Specification 0198819B1 (1988).
 
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[6]  Arne Bergstrom, Optoelectronic Circuit Element, US Patent 4, 254, 333 (1981).
 
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Article

An Analogy Between the Properties of Light and Properties of Vortex-Wave Process in the Medium Similar to Superfluid 3Не-В

1The State University of Management


International Journal of Physics. 2015, 3(2), 74-83
DOI: 10.12691/ijp-3-2-5
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Liudmila B. Boldyreva. An Analogy Between the Properties of Light and Properties of Vortex-Wave Process in the Medium Similar to Superfluid 3Не-В. International Journal of Physics. 2015; 3(2):74-83. doi: 10.12691/ijp-3-2-5.

Correspondence to: Liudmila  B. Boldyreva, The State University of Management. Email: boldyrev-m@yandex.ru

Abstract

Characteristics of three types of photon used in the descriptions of optical experiments demonstrating the properties of light are discussed: C-photon – a quasi-monochromatic electromagnetic radiation localized in space, M-photon – a hypothetical elementary particle of the light field, and Q-photon – an objective entity corresponding to the Fock state of the light field. Some properties of superfluid 3Не-В are analyzed and equations are derived describing a vortex-wave process in the medium similar to superfluid 3Не-В. The comparison of the properties of light and those of vortex-wave process in the medium similar to superfluid 3Не-В shows that there is an analogy between the properties of light and the properties of the process. The analogy found allows one to offer a physical model describing such properties of light as the constancy of its speed in inertial frames of reference, and quantum correlations of photons.

Keywords

References

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Article

Hidden Multiverse: Explanation of Dark Matter and Dark Energy Phenomena

1Research Centre of information technology “TELAN Electronics”, Kiev, Ukraine


International Journal of Physics. 2015, 3(2), 84-87
DOI: 10.12691/ijp-3-2-6
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Alexander Alexandrovich Antonov. Hidden Multiverse: Explanation of Dark Matter and Dark Energy Phenomena. International Journal of Physics. 2015; 3(2):84-87. doi: 10.12691/ijp-3-2-6.

Correspondence to: Alexander  Alexandrovich Antonov, Research Centre of information technology “TELAN Electronics”, Kiev, Ukraine. Email: telan@bk.ru

Abstract

It is demonstrated that parallel universes forming the multiverse, according to the hypothesis suggested herein, actually exist and are accessible for people to visit, because they comply with the similarity principle. According to this principle, laws of nature governing different universes are identical or similar, but certain differences are also possible. For example, time in them can flow in any directions with respect to the time in our universe. The suggested hypothesis of the multiverse is based on the adjusted special theory of relativity, where statements on an unbreakable light speed barrier and lack of physical meaning of imaginary numbers are removed from the second postulate. Furthermore, the principle of physical reality of imaginary numbers is proven both theoretically and experimentally. In line with this principle, all the relativistic formulae of the special theory of relativity are adjusted accordingly. The reality of this multiverse is confirmed by the existence of dark matter and dark energy.

Keywords

References

[1]  Lewis D. 1986. On the Plurality of Worlds. Basil Blackwell, Oxford.
 
[2]  Green B. (2004). The Elegant Universe: Superstrings. Hidden Dimensions and the Quest for the Ultimate Theory. W. W. Norton & Company. NY.
 
[3]  Deutsch D. 2002. The structure of the multiverse. Proceedings of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences. 458, 2911-2923
 
[4]  Tegmark M. 2003. Parallel Universes. Scientific American. 288 (5), 40-51
 
[5]  Ellis G.F.R., Kirchner U., Stoeger W.R. 2004. Multiverses and physical cosmology. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. 347 (3), 921-936
 
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[7]  Greene B. (2011). The Hidden Reality: Parallel Universes and the Deep Laws of the Cosmos. Knopf. NY.
 
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[9]  Ellis G.F.R. 2011. Does the Multiverse Really Exist? Scientific American. 305, 38-43
 
[10]  Popper K.R. (2002). Conjectures and Refutations. The Growth of Scientific Knowledge. Routledge. London.
 
[11]  Antonov А.А. 2014. Verification of the second postulate of the special relativity theory. Global Journal of Science Frontier Research A: Physics and Space Science. 14 (3). 51-59.
 
[12]  Blanchard Ju. 1941. The History of Electrical Resonance. Bell System Technical Journal. 20 (4), 415-433
 
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[16]  Antonov A.A. 2009. Resonance on Real and Complex Frequencies. European Journal of Scientific Research. 28 (2). 193-204.
 
[17]  Antonov A.A. 2010. Oscillation Processes as a Tool of Physics Cognition. American Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research. 1 (2). 342-349.
 
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Article

Gapless Superconductivity

1Moscow Aviation Institute, VolokolamskoeShosse, 4, 125871, Moscow, Russia


International Journal of Physics. 2015, 3(2), 88-95
DOI: 10.12691/ijp-3-2-7
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Boris V. Bondarev. Gapless Superconductivity. International Journal of Physics. 2015; 3(2):88-95. doi: 10.12691/ijp-3-2-7.

Correspondence to: Boris  V. Bondarev, Moscow Aviation Institute, VolokolamskoeShosse, 4, 125871, Moscow, Russia. Email: bondarev.b@mail.ru

Abstract

The mean field method is applied for analysis of valence electrons in metals. It is shown that at low temperatures electrons have two wave-vector distribution patterns. Isotropic distribution refers to the first pattern. Anisotropic distribution refers to another pattern, particularly to specific wave vector values occurred nearby the Fermi sphere. It is shown that it is the anisotropy that makes the metal obtain its specific superconductor features.

Keywords

References

[1]  H.Kamerlingh-Onnes, “Further experiments with liquid helium. C. On the change of electric resistance of pure metals at very low temperatures, ets. IV. The resistance of pure mercury at helium temteratures”. Comm. Phys. Leb. Univ. Leiden, (120b). 13-18. 1911.
 
[2]  V.L. Ginzburg, L.D. Landau, “To the theory of superconductivity”. JETF, 20, 1064-1071. 1950.
 
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[4]  J.R. Schiffer, Superconductivity Theory, (Nauka, Moscow, 1970).
 
[5]  V.I.Bielawski,Y.V. Kopaev, “Superconductivity of repulsive particles”. UFN, 176, 457-485, 2006.
 
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[6]  M.V. Sadowski, “High-temperature superconductivity in layerediron compounds”. UFN, 178, 1243-1271, 2008.
 
[7]  B.V. Bondarev, “Quantum lattice gas. Method of density matrix”, Physica A, 184.205-230.1992.
 
[8]  B.V.Bondarev, “On some peculiarities of the electron distribution function Bloch states”, Vestnik MAI, 3 (2). 56-65.1 996.
 
[9]  B.V. Bondarev, Density Matrix Method in Quantum Cooperative Process Theory, (Sputnik+, Moscow, 2013).
 
[10]  B.V. Bondarev, Density Matrix Method in Quantum Theory of Superconductivity, (Sputnik+, Moscow, 2014).
 
[11]  B.V. Bondarev, New Theory of Superconductivity. Method of Equilibrium Density Matrix. arXiv: 1412. 6008 22 Sep 2013.
 
[12]  D.I. Blokhintsev, Principles of Quantum Mechanics, (Higher School, Moscow, 1961).
 
[13]  Yu.I. Sirotin, M.P. Shaskolskaya, Basic Crystallophysics, (Nauka, Moscow, 1979).
 
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Article

Invisible Spacetime Theory - An Approach to Generalize Subluminal and Superluminal Speeds

1Sri Sai Ram Engineering College, Chennai-600044, India


International Journal of Physics. 2015, 3(3), 96-99
DOI: 10.12691/ijp-3-3-1
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Parasuraman V, Sathishkumar G. Invisible Spacetime Theory - An Approach to Generalize Subluminal and Superluminal Speeds. International Journal of Physics. 2015; 3(3):96-99. doi: 10.12691/ijp-3-3-1.

Correspondence to: Sathishkumar  G, Sri Sai Ram Engineering College, Chennai-600044, India. Email: parasuraman_venkatraman@yahoo.com,sathishkumar.phy@sairam.edu.in

Abstract

Theory of Relativity and theories for superluminal speed cannot be given in same way even though both of them are created to explain the moving objects. In this paper a theoretical attempt is made to provide a general description for moving objects and time flow in moving objects, irrespective of their speed domain, is related with stationary objects. To do so, three assumptions are suggested such that they support Relativity at subluminal speeds and encourage 'Fifth dimension' concept at superluminal speeds.

Keywords

References

[1]  Einstein A. (1905) “Zur Elektrodynamik bewegter Körper”, Annalen der Physik 17: 891.
 
[2]  Randles J. (2005) “Breaking the Time Barrier: The Race to Build the First Time Machine”, Adult Publishing Group.
 
[3]  Beiser A. (1973) “Concepts of Modern Physics”, McGraw Hill Kogakusha Ltd..
 
[4]  Hawking S. (1998) “A Brief History of Time: From the Big Bang to Black Holes”, Bantam Dell Publishing Group.
 

Article

On the Test of Time Dilation Using the Relativistic Doppler Shift Equation

1Mechanical Department, DAH (S & P), Beirut, Lebanon


International Journal of Physics. 2015, 3(3), 100-107
DOI: 10.12691/ijp-3-3-2
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Radwan M. Kassir. On the Test of Time Dilation Using the Relativistic Doppler Shift Equation. International Journal of Physics. 2015; 3(3):100-107. doi: 10.12691/ijp-3-3-2.

Correspondence to: Radwan  M. Kassir, Mechanical Department, DAH (S & P), Beirut, Lebanon. Email: radwan.elkassir@dargroup.com

Abstract

In a recent research study entitled “Test of Time Dilation Using Stored Li+ Ions as Clocks at Relativistic Speed” (Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 120405 – Published 16 September 2014), an Ives–Stilwell type experiment,it was claimed that a conducted time dilation experiment using the relativistic Doppler effect on the Li+ ions resonance frequencies had verified, with a greatly increased precision, the relativistic frequency shift formula, derived in the Special Relativity from the Lorentz Transformation, thus indirectly proving the time dilation predicted by the Special Relativity. The test was based on the validation of an algebraic equality relating a set of measured frequencies, and deduced from the relativistic Doppler equations. In this study, it was shown that this algebraic equality, used as a validation criterion, did not uniquely imply the validity of the relativistic Doppler equations. In fact, using an approach in line with the referenced study, it was revealed that an infinite number of frequency shift equations would satisfy the employed validation criterion. Nonetheless, it was shown that even if that claim was hypothetically accepted, then the experiment would prove nothing but a contradiction in the Special Relativity prediction. In fact, it was clearly demonstrated that the relativistic blue shift was the consequence of a time contraction, determined via the light speed postulate, leading to the relativistic Doppler formula in the case of an approaching light source. The experiment would then be confirming a relativistic time contraction. It was also shown that the classical relativity resulted in perceived time alterations leading to the classical Doppler Effect equations. The “referenced study” result could be attributed to the classical Doppler shift within 10 % difference.

Keywords

References

[1]  A.A. Michelson and E.H. Morley, “On the Relative Motion of the Earth and the Luminiferous Ether,” Am. J. Sci. 34, 333-345 (1887).
 
[2]  A. Einstein, “Zur elektrodynamik bewegter Körper,” Annalen der Physik 322 (10), 891–921 (1905).
 
[3]  H. E. Ives and G. R. Stilwell, “Experimental Study of the Rate of a Moving Atomic Clock,” Journal of the Optical Society of America 28 (7), 215-226 (1938).
 
[4]  B. Botermann, D. Bing, Ch. Geppert, G. Gwinner, T.W. Hänsch, G. Huber, S. Karpuk, A. Krieger, T. Kühl, W. Nörtershäuser, Ch. Novotny, S. Reinhardt, R. Sánchez, D. Schwalm, T. Stöhlker, A. Wolf, and G. Saathoff6, “Test of Time Dilation Using Stored Li+ Ions as Clocks at Relativistic Speed,” Physical Review Letters 113, 120405 (2014).
 
[5]  A. Einstein, “Einstein's comprehensive 1907 essay on relativity, part I,” English translations in Am. Jour. Phys. 45 (1977), Jahrbuch der Radioaktivitat und Elektronik 4 (1907).
 
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[6]  R.M. Kassir, “On Lorentz Transformation and Special Relativity: Critical Mathematical Analyses and Findings,” Physics Essays 27, 16 (2014).
 
[7]  R.M. Kassir, “On Special Relativity: Root cause of the problems with Lorentz transformation,” Physics Essays 27 (2), 198-203 (2014).
 
[8]  R.M. Kassir, “The Critical Error in the Formulation of the Special Relativity,” International Journal of Physics 2 (6), 197-201 (2014).
 
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Article

Method of Equilibrium Density Matrix. Energy of Interacting Valence Electrons in Metal

1Moscow Aviation Institute, Volokolamskoe Shosse, 4, 125871, Moscow, Russia


International Journal of Physics. 2015, 3(3), 108-112
DOI: 10.12691/ijp-3-3-3
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Boris V. Bondarev. Method of Equilibrium Density Matrix. Energy of Interacting Valence Electrons in Metal. International Journal of Physics. 2015; 3(3):108-112. doi: 10.12691/ijp-3-3-3.

Correspondence to: Boris  V. Bondarev, Moscow Aviation Institute, Volokolamskoe Shosse, 4, 125871, Moscow, Russia. Email: bondarev.b@mail.ru

Abstract

In this article we apply the method of density matrices for the description of the equilibrium system of interacting electrons. Variational principle of the density matrices is used in the framework of the mean field method for research of systems of valence electrons in metals. We obtained the model Hamiltonian describing the behavior of interacting electrons, which describes all the properties of superconductors. Note that was using the Coulomb potential that acts between two electrons in the coordinate space.

Keywords

References

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[3]  B.V. Bondarev, Density matrix method in quantum theory of cooperative process, Sputnik+, Moscow, 2013, p. 621.
 
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[7]  B.V. Bondarev, Quantum lattice gas. Method of density matrix, Physisa A, 1992, v. 184, p. 205-230.
 
[8]  N. Ashcroft, N. Mermin, Solid State Physics, Mir, Moscow, 1979.
 
[9]  B.V. Bondarev, On some peculiarities of electrons distribution function over the Bloch states, Vestnik MAI, 1996, vol. 3, No. 2, p. 56-65.
 
[10]  B.V. Bondarev, New theory of superconductivity. Method of equilibrium density matrix. arXiv: 1412.6008 22 Sep 2013.
 
[11]  B.V. Bondarev, Density matrix method in quantum theory of superconductivity, Sputnik+, Moscow, 2014, p. 88.
 
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Article

Let Your Success be BIIG: A New Paradigm for Problem-Solving in Science

1Geo/Physical Sciences, Fitchburg State University, Fitchburg MA, USA


International Journal of Physics. 2015, 3(3), 113-119
DOI: 10.12691/ijp-3-3-4
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
C N Hiremath. Let Your Success be BIIG: A New Paradigm for Problem-Solving in Science. International Journal of Physics. 2015; 3(3):113-119. doi: 10.12691/ijp-3-3-4.

Correspondence to: C  N Hiremath, Geo/Physical Sciences, Fitchburg State University, Fitchburg MA, USA. Email: cnhiremath@gmail.com

Abstract

Several problem-solving formats are used by the authors of various Physics textbooks. These can be best summarized as – decode, solve, and analyze. Despite the differing formats, each textbook provides an explanation for each step, however in the process it fails to clearly mention the finer details or attributes of each step in arriving at the solution. The objective of this study was to develop a streamlined process in problem-solving that enhances the students’ learning experience in science. The BIIG problem-solving strategy is a new method of approaching real-world word problems in science in a simple, rational way with clarity and sufficient depth. The thought process in the BIIG method consists of four elements represented by four letters: “B” is associated with the numbers and units, “I” is associated with the variables, next “I” is associated with the contextual information, and “G” is associated with the actual presentation of the solution. The elements described in this article can be applied to any problem-solving format, thereby making it a universal method. Based on both internal and external empirical evidence, it shows that the model is supportive for the students’ problem solving skills. The results indicate that starting with an initial interest level in Physics of only 28%, the students developed appreciation for the subject significantly (76%) and were highly satisfied with the assessment of their work (87%). The BIIG problem-solving method provides much needed skills for improving science education from K-12 schools to colleges, universities and institutions worldwide.

Keywords

References

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[5]  Knight, R., (2013). Physics for scientists and engineers: A strategic Approach. Pearson Education, Inc.
 
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Article

δ(E2/M1) and X(E0/E2)Ratios for 192-202Pt Isotopes by Using the Proton and Neutron Interacting Boson Model (IBM-2)

1Physics Department, College of Science, Babylon University

2Physics Department, College of Education, Basra University


International Journal of Physics. 2015, 3(3), 120-125
DOI: 10.12691/ijp-3-3-5
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Mohammed Abdul Kadhim Al – Sadi, Mohammed A. Al Shareefi, Abdul Ridha Hussain Subber. δ(E2/M1) and X(E0/E2)Ratios for 192-202Pt Isotopes by Using the Proton and Neutron Interacting Boson Model (IBM-2). International Journal of Physics. 2015; 3(3):120-125. doi: 10.12691/ijp-3-3-5.

Correspondence to: Mohammed  Abdul Kadhim Al – Sadi, Physics Department, College of Science, Babylon University. Email: moh_2005_ammed@yahoo.com

Abstract

The possibility of shape coexistence within the platinum isotopes, A=192- 202, and the fine structure feature have been investigated within the framework of proton neutron Interacting Boson Model. The experimental level energies, B(E2) ratios, multipole mixing ratios and values are compared with the results obtained from the IBM-2. Throughout the investigation, and transition probabilities from 0+ states in these isotopes produce an extra evidence for the shape of these nuclei.

Keywords

References

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Article

Natural Radioactivity in Soil Samples in Nineveh Province and the Associated Radiation Hazards

1Physics Department, College of Science, Mosul Univ., Mosul, IRAQ

2Ministry of Science and Technology, Baghdad, IRAQ


International Journal of Physics. 2015, 3(3), 126-132
DOI: 10.12691/ijp-3-3-6
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Laith A. Najam, Shaher A. Younis, Fouzey H. Kithah. Natural Radioactivity in Soil Samples in Nineveh Province and the Associated Radiation Hazards. International Journal of Physics. 2015; 3(3):126-132. doi: 10.12691/ijp-3-3-6.

Correspondence to: Laith  A. Najam, Physics Department, College of Science, Mosul Univ., Mosul, IRAQ. Email: Prof.lai2014@gmail.com

Abstract

The natural radioactivity due to presence of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K in soil of Nineveh zone, Nineveh province, Iraq were measured by using gamma-ray spectrometry based on high-purity germanium detector. The specific activity of soil samples ranged from 16.21 to 38.83 Bq/kg with an average of value of 32.52±6.48 Bq/kg, 8.53 to 28.37 Bq/kg with an average of 20.30±5.36 Bq/kg, 236.03 to 613.11 Bq/kg with an average of 378.93± 123.29Bq/kg, and 2.18 to 17.92 Bq/kg with an average of 8.17± 5.55 Bq/kg for 226Ra, 232Th, 40K and 137Cs respectively. The study also examine some radiation hazard indices such as Radium equivalent activity (Raeq), Absorbed gamma dose rate (D), External hazard index (Hex), Internal hazard index (Hin) and gamma index (Iγ). These calculated hazard indices to estimate the potential radiological health risk in soil. The radium equivalent activity average (Raeq) was less than the permitted value (370 Bq/kg). The average absorbed dose rate value also less than the permissible limit of 55 nGy/h. The external hazard index, internal hazard index and gamma index of soil samples were less than unity.

Keywords

References

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