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International Journal of Physics

**ISSN (Print):**
2333-4568

**ISSN (Online):**
2333-4576

**Editor-in-Chief:**
B.D. Indu

**Website:**
http://www.sciepub.com/journal/IJP

### Article

**Effect of the Geometrical Shape of the Magnetic Poles and the Distance between Them on the Focal Properties of the Condenser Magnetic Lens in the Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM)**

^{1}Department of Mechanization and Agricultural Equipment, University of Kirkuk, College of Agriculture / Hawija

*International Journal of Physics*. 2016, 4(5), 130-134

doi: 10.12691/ijp-4-5-3

Copyright © 2016 Science and Education Publishing

**Cite this paper:**

Mohammed A. Hussein. Effect of the Geometrical Shape of the Magnetic Poles and the Distance between Them on the Focal Properties of the Condenser Magnetic Lens in the Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM).

*International Journal of Physics*. 2016; 4(5):130-134. doi: 10.12691/ijp-4-5-3.

Correspondence to: Mohammed A. Hussein, Department of Mechanization and Agricultural Equipment, University of Kirkuk, College of Agriculture / Hawija. Email: mohdphy@yahoo.com

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### References

[1] | A. Khursheed, Magnetic axial ﬁeld measurements on a high resolution miniature scanning electron microscope, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71 (4) (2000) 1712-1715. | ||

[2] | J.I. Goldstein, D.E. Newbury, P. Echlin, D.C. Joy, C. Fiori, E. Lifshin, Scanning Electron Microscopy and X-Ray Microanalysis, Plenum Press, New York, 1981. | ||

[3] | E. Munro, Image Processing and Computer Aided Design in Electron Optics, P. W. Hawkes Ed., Academic Press, London (1973) 284. | ||

[4] | A. Renau, F.H. Read, J.N.H. Brunt, J. Phys. E 15 (1982) 347. | ||

[5] | X. Zhu, E. Munro, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 7 (1989) 1862. | ||

[6] | L. Grella, G. Lorusso, T. Niemi, D.L. Adler, Nucl. Instr. and Meth.A 519 (2004) 242. | ||

[7] | A. Khursheed, M. Osterberg, Nucl. Instr. and Meth.A 556 (2006) 437. | ||

[8] | Hawkes, P. W. and Kasper, E. (1996), “Principle of Electron Optics”, Academic Press, London. | ||

[9] | Lencovà, B. (1986), “Program AMAG for computation of vector potential in rotationally symmetric magnetic electron lenses by FEM”, Inst. Sci. Instrum., Czech. Acad. Sci., Brno, Czechoslovakia, pp. 1-58. | ||

[10] | Ayache, J., Beaunier, L., Boumendil, J., Ehret, G. and Laub, D., (2010), “Sample Preparation Handbook for Transmission Electron Microscopy”, Methodology Springer Science+Business Media. | ||

### Article

**Quantization of the Scalar, Electromagnetic and Dirac Fields in Gravity and the Theory of the Gravitational Gauge Field**

^{1}Department of Physics, Adelphi University, New York, USA

*International Journal of Physics*. 2016, 4(5), 135-139

doi: 10.12691/ijp-4-5-4

Copyright © 2016 Science and Education Publishing

**Cite this paper:**

M. Khoshsima. Quantization of the Scalar, Electromagnetic and Dirac Fields in Gravity and the Theory of the Gravitational Gauge Field.

*International Journal of Physics*. 2016; 4(5):135-139. doi: 10.12691/ijp-4-5-4.

Correspondence to: M. Khoshsima, Department of Physics, Adelphi University, New York, USA. Email: mkhoshsima@adelphi.edu

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### References

[1] | M. Schwartz, “Quantum Field Theory and the Standard Model” Cambridge University Press, 4^{th} Printing 2015. | ||

[2] | S. Hawking, “A Brief History of Time,” New York: Bantam Books, 1988. | ||

[3] | R.L. Faber, “Differential Geometry and Relativity Theory,” An Introduction. New York: Marcel Dekker, Inc., 1983. | ||

[4] | T. Marsh, “General Relativity,” class notes, 2009. | ||

[5] | “S. Chandrasekhar, “The Mathematical Theory of Black Holes”. Clarendon Press (1983). | ||

[6] | C.W. Misner, K.S. Thorne, and J.A. Wheeler, “Gravitation”. Freeman (1973). | ||

[7] | S. Weinberg, “Gravitation and Cosmology: Principles and Applications of the General Theory of Relativity”. Wiley (1972). | ||

[8] | G. ‘t Hooft, “ Introduction To General Relativity,” Institute for Theoretical Physics; Utrecht University (2002). | ||

[9] | Poul Olesen, “General Relativity and Cosmology,” The Niels Bohr Institute (2008). | ||

[10] | M. Kachelrieb, “Gravitation and Cosmology,” Institute for fysikk; NTNU (2010). | ||

[11] | M. Khoshsima, “Black Hole Spacetime Equation in Special Relativity.” International Journal of Astronomy, Astrophysics and Space Science; Vol. 2, No. 4, 2015, pp. 30-33. | ||

[12] | M. Khoshsima, “Universe, a Spacetime Harmonic Oscillator.” International Journal of Physics, Vol. 4, no. 1(2016): 21-25. | ||

### Article

**Replacement of Einstein’s Relativity Theory with a New One: Why the Second Postulate is Superfluous?**

^{1}Candidate of engineering sciences, Bureau Chief, JSC “Lianozovo Electromechanical Plant Research and Production Corporation”, Russia

*International Journal of Physics*. 2016, 4(5), 140-145

doi: 10.12691/ijp-4-5-5

Copyright © 2016 Science and Education Publishing

**Cite this paper:**

Mamaev А. V.. Replacement of Einstein’s Relativity Theory with a New One: Why the Second Postulate is Superfluous?.

*International Journal of Physics*. 2016; 4(5):140-145. doi: 10.12691/ijp-4-5-5.

Correspondence to: Mamaev А. V., Candidate of engineering sciences, Bureau Chief, JSC “Lianozovo Electromechanical Plant Research and Production Corporation”, Russia. Email: gromoboy1942@mail.ru

### Abstract

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### References

[1] | Einstein А. On Electrodynamics of moving bodies, June 30, 1905, [url]http://www.fourmilab.ch/etexts/einstein/specrel/www/[/url]. | ||

[2] | Minkovski G. Space and time. In book. “Principle of Relativity”, М., Atomizdat, 1973, p.167 (in Russian). | ||

[3] | Terletsky Y.P. Paradoxes of Special Relativity, М. Nauka, 1966, p. 53 (in Russian). | ||

[4] | Rapier P.M. A recent application of detection and estimation practices in radio and radar astronomy. Spectroscopy Letters, 4 (9), 303-311 (1971). | ||

[5] | Mamaev A.V. New Relativistic Space-Time Theory. “The Way of Science”/ 2014. No.1 (1), p.p. 10-84. (In Russian). [url]http://scienceway.ru/d/706321/d/the-way-of-science--1-%281%29-march.pdf[/url] | ||

[6] | Mamaev A.V. “Astronomical phenomena disprove Einstein’s Special Relativity Theory, “The Way of Science”/ 2014. No.5 (5). p.p. (10-19). | ||

[7] | Mamaev A.V. New Relativistic Space-Time Theory. International Congress-2016 “Fundamental Problems of Natural Sciences and Engineering”, Saint Petersburg. July 25-30 2016. In a book Congress-2016 Proceedings “Fundamental problems of natural sciences and engineering”. Issue 37-2, p.p. 91-122 (In Russian). | ||