International Journal of Physics

ISSN (Print): 2333-4568

ISSN (Online): 2333-4576

Editor-in-Chief: B.D. Indu




Magnetism as an Electric Angle-effect and Gravitation as an Electric Effect


International Journal of Physics. 2015, 3(4), 175-201
doi: 10.12691/ijp-3-4-7
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Hans-Joerg Hochecker. Magnetism as an Electric Angle-effect and Gravitation as an Electric Effect. International Journal of Physics. 2015; 3(4):175-201. doi: 10.12691/ijp-3-4-7.

Correspondence to: Hans-Joerg  Hochecker, Web-site: Email:


At first, I regard magnetism. I can show that the magnetic force is an electric angle-effect by establishing two postulates: the dependence of the electric force on the velocity, and the existence of the anti-field. With the help of a third postulate, this is the quantization of the energy-transfer of the electric field, I then show that gravitation is also an electric effect. So, the three postulates describe three qualities of the electric field by which magnetism and gravitation can be derived. I finally carry out quantum-mechanical considerations at which the three postulates will be excellently confirmed. For the correct classification of this work I must mention that the theory of special relativity is absolutely considered as being correct and that it is an important and necessary component of this work.



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Measurement of Indoor Radon Concentration in Various Dwellings of Baghdad Iraq

1Department of Physics, College of Science, AL-Nahrain University, Iraq

2Department of Physics, College of Education Pure Science, University of Tikrit, Iraq

International Journal of Physics. 2015, 3(5), 202-207
doi: 10.12691/ijp-3-5-1
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Nada F. Tawfiq, Noora O. Rasheed, Asmaa Ahmad Aziz. Measurement of Indoor Radon Concentration in Various Dwellings of Baghdad Iraq. International Journal of Physics. 2015; 3(5):202-207. doi: 10.12691/ijp-3-5-1.

Correspondence to: Nada  F. Tawfiq, Department of Physics, College of Science, AL-Nahrain University, Iraq. Email:


In this study, indoor radon concentration (CRn) were measured by solid state nuclear track detectors in bare mode using CR-39 inside fifteen dwelling at different locations in Baghdad governorate for a period two months. The Potential Alpha Energy concentration (PAEC) in Working Level (WL) of radon daughters, exposure to radon progeny (EP) in (WLM Y-1), the annual effective dose (mSv/y) and the lung cancer cases per year per million person (CPPP) have been studied. The results show that the radon concentration ranged from 83.4 Bq/m3 in Topchi to 238.8 Bq/m3 in Baya with average 116.78 Bq/m3, Potential Alpha Energy concentration values of radon daughters varies from (0.009 to 0.026) WL with an average value of 0.02WL, the annual effective dose rate from 2.10 to 6.02 mSv/y with average 2.95 mSv/y, exposure to radon progeny from 3.71 to 10.62 WLM Y-1 with average 5.2WLMY-1 and the lung cancer per year per million person from 0.88 to 4.46 with average 1.7. The indoor radon concentration was in agreement to radon concentration levels (200 Bq/m3) recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP).



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Determination of Radium and Radon Exhalation Rates in Soil Samples Collected from Kerbala Governorate

1Basic Medical Science, College of Dentistry, Kerbala University, Iraq

2Department of Physics, College of science, Kerbala University, Iraq

3Department of Mathematics, College of Education for pure science, Kerbala University, Iraq

International Journal of Physics. 2015, 3(5), 208-212
doi: 10.12691/ijp-3-5-2
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Abbas J. Al- Saadi, Abdalsattar K. Hashim, Hayder J. Musa. Determination of Radium and Radon Exhalation Rates in Soil Samples Collected from Kerbala Governorate. International Journal of Physics. 2015; 3(5):208-212. doi: 10.12691/ijp-3-5-2.

Correspondence to: Abdalsattar  K. Hashim, Department of Physics, College of science, Kerbala University, Iraq. Email:


In the present work, radium concentration and radon exhalation rates in soil samples collected from Kerbala Governorate area (Iraq) have been measured through “Sealed cup technique” containing CN-85 solid state nuclear detector. This area is honorable position in the entire world, millions of peoples and religious sciences students visit it, in addition the soil of this area was used in brick manufacturing for building construction. Radium concentration varies from (1.1001- 2.6003) Bqkg-1 with an average of 1.7921Bq kg-1. The radon exhalation rate in terms of area varies from (0.9463 – 2.2369) Bqm-2h-1 with an average of 1.4785Bqm-2h-1, while radon exhalation rate in terms of mass varies from (29.715– 70.237) ×10-3 Bqkg-1h-1 with an average of 48.409×10-3 Bqkg-1h-1. Positive correlation has been observed between radium concentration and radon exhalation rate in soil. The values of radium concentration in all the soil samples were less than the recommended by Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) 1979. Also the radium concentration and radon exhalation rate in these samples has been found to be well below of 40 Bq/kg and 57.6 Bq. m-2.s, respectively. The results have revealed that the radium concentration in studied area and the associated exhalation radon does not pose risk to human health.



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