**International Journal of Physics:**Latest Articles More >>

## Article

# Dispersion of SH and Love Waves

^{1}Institute for Problems in Mechanics, Prosp. Vernadskogo, Moscow, Russia

*International Journal of Physics*.

**2014**, 2(5), 170-180

**DOI:**10.12691/ijp-2-5-7

**Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing**

**Cite this paper:**

Sergey V. Kuznetsov. Dispersion of SH and Love Waves.

*International Journal of Physics*. 2014; 2(5):170-180. doi: 10.12691/ijp-2-5-7.

Correspondence to: Sergey V. Kuznetsov, Institute for Problems in Mechanics, Prosp. Vernadskogo, Moscow, Russia. Email: kuzn-sergey@yandex.ru

## Abstract

## Keywords

## References

[1] | A.E.H. Love, Some Problems of Geodynamics. Cambridge University Press, London (1911). | ||

[2] | E. Dieulesaint and D. Royer, Elastic Waves in Solids. Wiley, N.Y. (1980). | ||

[3] | T.C.T. Ting and D.M. Barnett, Classifications of surface waves in anisotropic elastic materials. Wave Motion 26 (1997) 207-218. | ||

[4] | S.V. Kuznetsov, Subsonic Lamb waves in anisotropic plates. Quart. Appl. Math. 60 (2002) 577-587. | ||

[5] | S.V. Kuznetsov, Love waves in stratified monoclinic media. Quart. Appl. Math. 62 (2004) 749-766. | ||

[6] | S.V. Kuznetsov, SH-waves in multilayered plates. Quart. Appl. Math. 64 (2006) 153-165. | ||

[7] | S.V. Kuznetsov, Love waves in non-destructive diagnostics of layered composites, Acoustical Physics, 56 (2010) 877-892. | ||

[8] | M.J.S. Lowe, Matrix techniques for modeling ultrasonic waves in multilayered media. IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control 42 (1995) 525-542. | ||

[9] | D. Lévesque and L. Piché, A robust transfer matrix formulation for the ultrasonic response of multilayered absorbing media. J. Acoust. Soc. 92 (1992) 452-467. | ||

[10] | M. Castaings and B. Hosten, Transfer matrix of multilayered absorbing and anisotropic media. Measurments and simulations of ultrasonic wave propagation through composite materials. J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 94 (1993) 1488-1495. | ||

[11] | P. Michaels and V. Gottumukkula, Theory of viscoelastic Love waves and their potential application to near-surface sensing to permeability. In: Advances in near-surface seismology and ground-penetrating radar. Geophysical Developments Series. (2010) 263-278. | ||

[12] | D. Restrepo, J.D. Gomez, and J.D. Jaramillo, SH wave number Green’s function for a layered, elastic half-space. Part I: Theory and dynamic canyon response by the discrete wave number boundary element method. Pure Appl. Geophys. (2014) 1-14. | ||

[13] | M. Behm and R. Snieder, Love waves from local traffic noise interferometry. The Leading Edge. 32 (2013) 628-632. | ||

[14] | J. Xia, X. Yin, and Y. Xu, Feasibility of determining Q of near-surface materials from Love waves. J. Appl. Geophysics. 95 (2013) 47-52. | ||

## Article

# To Principles of Quantum Theory Construction

^{1}Heat-Mass Transfer Institute of National Academy of Sciences of RB, Brovka Str.15, Minsk

^{2}M.V.Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow

*International Journal of Physics*.

**2014**, 2(6), 181-188

**DOI:**10.12691/ijp-2-6-1

**Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing**

**Cite this paper:**

Dmitri Yerchuck, Alla Dovlatova, Andrey Alexandrov. To Principles of Quantum Theory Construction.

*International Journal of Physics*. 2014; 2(6):181-188. doi: 10.12691/ijp-2-6-1.

Correspondence to: Dmitri Yerchuck, Heat-Mass Transfer Institute of National Academy of Sciences of RB, Brovka Str.15, Minsk. Email: dpy@tut.by

## Abstract

## Keywords

## References

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[3] | Bohm A, Quantum Mechanics: Foundations and Ap- plications, Springer-Verlag, N.-Y., Berlin, Heidelberg, Tokyo, 1986, M., Mir, 1990, 720 pp. | ||

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[7] | Born M, Heisenberg W, Jordan P, Zur Quantenmechanik II, Zeitschrift fu¨r Physik, 35 (1926) 557-606. | ||

[8] | Dirac P.A.M, The Fundamental Equations of Quantum Mechanics, Proc. Roy. Soc. A 109 (1925) 642-653. | ||

[9] | Pauli M,U¨ ber das Wassestoffspektrum vom Standpunkt der neuen Quantummechanik, Zeitschrift fu¨r Physik, 36 (1926) 336-363. | ||

[10] | Dirac P.A.M, Quantum Mechanics and a Preliminary In- vestigation of the Hydrgen Atom, Proc. Roy. Soc. A, 110 (1926) 561-569 | ||

[11] | Dmitri Yerchuck, Alla Dovlatova, Andrey Alexandrov, Symmetry of Differential Equations and Quantum The- ory, 2nd International Conference on Mathematical Mod- eling in Physical Sciences, 1-5 September, 2013, Prague, Czechia, Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 490 (2014) 012233-7. | ||

[12] | Dovlatova A, Yearchuck D, QED Model of Resonance Phenomena in Quasionedimensional Multichain Qubit Systems, Chem. Phys. Lett., 511 (2011) 151-155. | ||

[13] | Yerchuck D, Dovlatova A, Quantum Optics Effects in Quasi-One-Dimensional and Two-Dimensional Carbon Materials, Journal of Physical Chemistry C, 116, N 1 (2012) 63-80. | ||

[14] | A.Dovlatova and D.Yerchuck, Concept of Fully Du- ally Symmetric Electrodynamics, 7th International Con- ference on Quantum Theory and Symmetries (QTS7), J.Physics: Conference Series, 343 (2012) 012133, 23 pp. | ||

[15] | D.Yearchuck, A.Alexandrov and A.Dovlatova, To Nature of Electromagnetic Field, Appl. Math. Comput. Sci., 3, N 2 (2011) 169-200. | ||

[16] | Andre Angot, Complements de Mathematiques, Paris, 1957, 778 | ||

[17] | Baryshevsky V.G, Time-Reversal-Violating Optical Gy- rotropy, arXiv: hep-ph/9912438v3 23 Feb 2000. | ||

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[20] | Arbab A. I., The Unified Quantum Wave Equation, Hadronic Journal, 33, (2010) 707-716. | ||

[21] | Arbab A. I., Derivation of Dirac, Klein-Gordon, Schr¨odinger, Diffusion and Quantum Heat Transport Equations from a Universal Quantum Wave Equation, EPL, 92 (2010) 40001. | ||

[22] | Arbab A. I., The Quaternionic Quantum Mechanics, Ap- plied Physics Research, 3, N 2 (2011) 160-170. | ||

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[25] | Arbab A. I., Yassein F. A., A New Formulation of Electrodynamics, Journal of Electromagnetic Analysis and Applications, 2, N 8 (2010) 457. | ||

[26] | Dmitri Yerchuck, Alla Dovlatova, Felix Borovik, Yauhen Yerchak, Vyacheslav Stelmakh, To Principles of Quan- tum Mechanics Development, International Journal of Physics, 2, N 5 (2014) 129-145. | ||

[27] | V.N. Mishra, K. Khatri, L.N. Mishra, On SimultaneousApproximation for Baskakov-Durrmeyer-Stancu type op- erators, Journal of Ultra Scientist of Physical Sciences, 24, N (3)A, (2012) 567-577. | ||

[28] | V.N. Mishra, H.H. Khan, K. Khatri, L.N. Mishra, Hy- pergeometric Representation for Baskakov-Durrmeyer- Stancu Type Operators, Bulletin of Mathematical Analy- sis and Applications, 5, N 3 (2013) 18-26. | ||

[29] | Prashantkumar Patel, and Vishnu Narayan Mishra, Rate of Convergence of Modified Baskakov-Durrmeyer Type Operators for Functions of Bounded Variation, Journal of Difference Equations, Volume 2014, Article ID 235480, 6 pages. | ||

## Article

# The Wave Properties of Matter: The Physical Aspect

^{1}The State University of Management, Moscow, Russia

*International Journal of Physics*.

**2014**, 2(6), 189-196

**DOI:**10.12691/ijp-2-6-2

**Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing**

**Cite this paper:**

Liudmila B. Boldyreva. The Wave Properties of Matter: The Physical Aspect.

*International Journal of Physics*. 2014; 2(6):189-196. doi: 10.12691/ijp-2-6-2.

Correspondence to: Liudmila B. Boldyreva, The State University of Management, Moscow, Russia. Email: boldyrev-m@yandex.ru

## Abstract

## Keywords

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[1] | De Broglie, L.V, “A Tentative Theory of Light Quanta,” Philosophical Magazine, 47. 446, 1924. | ||

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[6] | Boldyreva L.B, What does this give to physics: attributing the properties of superfluid ^{3}He-B to physical vacuum? Moscow, KRASAND, 2012. | ||

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[8] | Born M, Einstein’s Theory of Relativity, Dover Publications, New York, 1962. | ||

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## Article

# The Critical Error in the Formulation of the Special Relativity

^{1}Mechanical Department, DAH (S & P), Beirut, Lebanon

*International Journal of Physics*.

**2014**, 2(6), 197-201

**DOI:**10.12691/ijp-2-6-3

**Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing**

**Cite this paper:**

Radwan M. Kassir. The Critical Error in the Formulation of the Special Relativity.

*International Journal of Physics*. 2014; 2(6):197-201. doi: 10.12691/ijp-2-6-3.

Correspondence to: Radwan M. Kassir, Mechanical Department, DAH (S & P), Beirut, Lebanon. Email: radwan.elkassir@dargroup.com

## Abstract

## Keywords

## References

[1] | Einstein, A, “Zur elektrodynamik bewegter Körper.” Annalen der Physik, 322. 891-921. 1905. | ||

[2] | Nimtz, G, “Tunneln mit Überlichtgeschwindigkeit,” DLR Nachrichten, 90. 1998. | ||

[3] | Nimtz G, “Evanescent modes ar not necessarily Einstein causal,” The European Physical Journal, B7. 523. 1999. | ||

[4] | Cahill R.T, Kitto K, “Michelson-Morley experiments revisited and the Cosmic Background Radiation preferred frame,” Apeiron, 10 (2). 104-117. 2003. | ||

[5] | Cahill R.T, “A new light-speed anisotropy experiment: absolutemotion and gravitational waves detected,” Progress in Physics, 4. 73-92. 2006. | ||

[6] | Beckmann, P, Einstein Plus Two (Golem Press, 1987). | ||

[7] | Hatch, R, Escape from Einstein (Kneat Kompany 1992). | ||

[8] | Dingle, H, Science at the Crossroads (Martin Brian and O’keeffe, 1972). | ||

[9] | Kelly, A, Challenging Modern Physics: Questioning Einstein's Relativity Theories (Brown Walker Press, 2005). | ||

[10] | Wang, L. J, “Symmetrical Experiments to Test the Clock Paradox,” in Physics and Modern Topics in Mechanical and Electrical Engineering (ed Nikos Mastorakis), 45 (World Scientific and Engineering Society Press, 1999). | ||

[11] | Eckardt, H, “An Alternative Hypothesis for Special Relativity,” Progress in Physics, 2. 56-65. Apr. 2009. | ||

[12] | Mansouri R, Sexl R.U, "A test theory of special relativity. I: Simultaneity and clock synchronization," General. Relat. Gravit. 8 (7). 497-513. 1977. | ||

[13] | Mansouri R, Sexl R.U, "A test theory of special relativity: II. First order tests," General. Relat. Gravit, 8 (7). 515-524. 1977. | ||

[14] | Hsu, J.-P, Hsu, L, “A Broader View of Relativity,” World Scientific. ISBN 981-256-651-1. 2006. | ||

[15] | von Ignatowsky, W, "Das Relativitätsprinzip," Archiv der Mathematik und Physik, 17 (1). 1911. | ||

[16] | Feigenbaum, M. J, "The Theory of Relativity-Galileo's Child," arXiv: 0806. 1234. 2008. | ||

[17] | Cacciatori, S, Gorini, V, Kamenshchik, A, "Special relativity in the 21st century," Annalen der Physik, 520 (9-10). 728-768. 2008. arXiv: 0807. 3009. | ||

[18] | Kassir, R.M, “On Lorentz Transformation and Special Relativity: Critical Mathematical Analyses and Findings,” Physics Essays, 27 (1). 16-25. Mar. 2014. | ||

[19] | Kassir, R.M, “On Special Relativity: Root cause of the problems with Lorentz transformation,” Physics Essays, 27 (2). 198-203. Jun. 2014. | ||

[20] | Einstein, A, “Einstein's comprehensive 1907 essay on relativity, part I, english translations, in American Journal of Physics, 45. 1977,” Jahrbuch der Radioaktivitat und Elektronik, 4. 1907. | ||

## Article

# Concept of Scalar-Vector Potential in the Contemporary Electrodynamic, Problem of Homopolar Induction and Its Solution

^{1}B.I. Verkin Institute for Low Temperature Physics and Engineering NAS, Ukraine, 47 Lenin Ave., Kharkov, Ukraine

*International Journal of Physics*.

**2014**, 2(6), 202-210

**DOI:**10.12691/ijp-2-6-4

**Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing**

**Cite this paper:**

F.F. Mende. Concept of Scalar-Vector Potential in the Contemporary Electrodynamic, Problem of Homopolar Induction and Its Solution.

*International Journal of Physics*. 2014; 2(6):202-210. doi: 10.12691/ijp-2-6-4.

Correspondence to: F.F. Mende, B.I. Verkin Institute for Low Temperature Physics and Engineering NAS, Ukraine, 47 Lenin Ave., Kharkov, Ukraine. Email: mende_fedor@mail.ru

## Abstract

## Keywords

## References

[1] | R. Feynman, R. Leighton, M. Sends, Feynman lectures on physics, M:, Mir, Vol. 6, 1977. | ||

[2] | V.V.Nicolsky, T.I. Nicolskaya, Electrodynamics and propagation of radio waves, Moscow, Nauka, 1989. | ||

[3] | J.Jackson, Classical Electrodynamics, Mir, Moscow, 1965. | ||

[4] | F.F. Mende, On refinement of equations of electromagnetic induction, Kharkov, deposited in VINITI, No 774 - B88 Dep., 1988. | ||

[5] | F.F. Mende, On refinement of certain laws of classical electrodynamics, arXiv.org/abs/physics/0402084. | ||

[6] | F. F. Mende, New electrodynamics. Revolution in the modern physics, Kharkov, NTMT, 2012. | ||

[7] | F. F.Mende, New approaches in contemporary classical electrodynamics, Part II, Engineering Physics, №2, 2013. | ||

[8] | W.F. Edwards, C.S. Kenyon, D.K. Lemon, Continuing investigation into possible electric arising from steady conduction current, Phys. Rev. D 14, 922 (1976). | ||

[9] | F.F. Mende, Experimental corroboration and theoretical interpretation of dependence of charge velocity on DC flow velocity through superconductors, Proceedings International Conference “Physics in Ukraine”, Kiev 22-27 June, 1993. | ||

[10] | F. F. Mende, A New Tipe of Contact Potential Difference and Electrification of Superconducting Coils and Tori, American Journal of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Vol. 2, No. 5, (2014), 146-151. | ||

## Article

# Problems of Lorentz Force and Its Solution

^{1}B.I. Verkin Institute for Low Temperature Physics and Engineering NAS, Ukraine, 47 Lenin Ave., Kharkov, Ukraine

*International Journal of Physics*.

**2014**, 2(6), 211-216

**DOI:**10.12691/ijp-2-6-5

**Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing**

**Cite this paper:**

F.F. Mende. Problems of Lorentz Force and Its Solution.

*International Journal of Physics*. 2014; 2(6):211-216. doi: 10.12691/ijp-2-6-5.

Correspondence to: F.F. Mende, B.I. Verkin Institute for Low Temperature Physics and Engineering NAS, Ukraine, 47 Lenin Ave., Kharkov, Ukraine. Email: mende_fedor@mail.ru

## Abstract

## Keywords

## References

[1] | V.V.Nicolsky, T.I. Nicolskaya, Electrodynamics and propagation of radio waves, Moscow, Nauka, 1989. | ||

[2] | R. Feynman, R. Leighton, M. Sends, Feynman lectures on physics, –М. Mir, Vol. 6 (1977). | ||

[3] | J.Jackson, Classical Electrodynamics, Mir, Moscow, 1965, 702. | ||

[4] | F.F. Mende, On refinement of equations of electromagnetic induction,- Kharkov, deposited in VINITI, No 774-B88 Dep. (1988). | ||

[5] | F. F.Mende, Are thereerrorsin modern physics. Kharkov, Constant, 2003. | ||

[6] | F.F. Mende, On refinement of certain laws of classical electrodynamics, arXiv.org/abs/physics/0402084 | ||

[7] | F. F. MendeNew electrodynamics.Revolution in the modern physics.Kharkov, NTMT, 2012. | ||

## Article

# Multistability in a Single System with Hidden Attractors- Theory and Experiment

^{1}Department of Physics, B.P. Poddar Institute of Management & Technology, VIP Road, Kolkata, India

^{2}High Energy Physics Division, Department of Physics, Jadavpur University, Kolkata, India

*International Journal of Physics*.

**2014**, 2(6), 217-225

**DOI:**10.12691/ijp-2-6-6

**Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing**

**Cite this paper:**

Papri Saha, Dolonchampa Saha Anirban Ray, A. Roy Chowdhury. Multistability in a Single System with Hidden Attractors- Theory and Experiment.

*International Journal of Physics*. 2014; 2(6):217-225. doi: 10.12691/ijp-2-6-6.

Correspondence to: A. Roy Chowdhury, High Energy Physics Division, Department of Physics, Jadavpur University, Kolkata, India. Email: asesh_r@yahoo.com

## Abstract

## Keywords

## References

[1] | M. Brambilla, L. A. Lugiato, and V. Penna. Phys. Rev. A 43, 5114 (1991). | ||

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[5] | F. T. Arecchi, R. Meucci, G. Puccioni, and J. Tredicce. Phys. Rev. Lett. 49, 1217 (1982). | ||

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[10] | A. Balanov, N. Janson, and E. Schöll. Phys. Rev. E 71, 016222 (2005). | ||

[11] | J.C. Sprott, X. Wang. and G. Chrn. Int. J. Bifurc. & Chaos 23, 1350093 (2013)." | ||

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[13] | J.A.C. Gallas. Structure of the parameter space of the Henon Map; Phys. Rev. Lett.70 (1993) 2714. | ||

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## Article

# Non-Relativistic Weibel Instability Due to Inverse Bremsstrahlung Absorption in Laser Fusion Plasma

^{1}Laboratoire de Physique des Rayonnements et de leurs Interactions avec la Matière (PRIMALAB), département des sciences de la matière, faculté des sciences,université de Batna, Algeria

^{2}Laboratoire Electronique Quantique, faculté des sciences, université (USTHB), Alger, Algeria

*International Journal of Physics*.

**2014**, 2(6), 226-230

**DOI:**10.12691/ijp-2-6-7

**Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing**

**Cite this paper:**

S. Belghit, A. Sid, K. Bendib. Non-Relativistic Weibel Instability Due to Inverse Bremsstrahlung Absorption in Laser Fusion Plasma.

*International Journal of Physics*. 2014; 2(6):226-230. doi: 10.12691/ijp-2-6-7.

Correspondence to: S. Belghit, Laboratoire de Physique des Rayonnements et de leurs Interactions avec la Matière (PRIMALAB), département des sciences de la matière, faculté des sciences,université de Batna, Algeria. Email: Belghit.slimen@gmail.com

## Abstract

## Keywords

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[1] | E. S. Weibel. Phys. Rev. Lett. 2, pp 83-84 (1959). | ||

[2] | K. Bendib, and al.Laser and Particle Beams 16, 3, pp 473-490 (1998). | ||

[3] | A. Bendib, and al. Phys. Rev. E. 55, pp 7522 -7526 (1997). | ||

[4] | A. Bendib and al, Phys. Fluids 30 (5), pp 1353-1361 (1987). | ||

[5] | J. P. Matte and al, Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, pp 2067-2070 (1987). | ||

[6] | A. Bruce Langdon. phys. Rev. Let. 44, pp 575-579 (1980). | ||

[7] | S. I. Braginski, in (M. A. Leonvitch, Consultant Bureau) N. Y. 1965 | ||

[8] | I. P. Shkarofsky, and al. (Addison-Wesley) 1966. | ||

[9] | M. Abramowitz and I. Stegun, Handbook of Mathematical Functions (Dover, New York 1970). | ||

[10] | A. Sid, physics of plasmas. 10, pp 214-219.2003. | ||

[11] | Sid, A. and al. Plasma and Fusion Research Volume: 5 pp 007-1-6 (2010). | ||

[12] | S.Peter Gary And al. Journal of geophysical research, Vol. 111, A11224. 1-5,2006. | ||

## Article

# Consideration and the Refinement of Some Laws and Concepts of Classical Electrodynamics and New Ideas in Modern Electrodynamics

^{1}B.I. Verkin Institute for Low Temperature Physics and Engineering, NAS Ukraine, 47 Lenin Ave., Kharkov, 61164, Ukraine

*International Journal of Physics*.

**2014**, 2(6), 231-263

**DOI:**10.12691/ijp-2-6-8

**Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing**

**Cite this paper:**

F.F. Mende. Consideration and the Refinement of Some Laws and Concepts of Classical Electrodynamics and New Ideas in Modern Electrodynamics.

*International Journal of Physics*. 2014; 2(6):231-263. doi: 10.12691/ijp-2-6-8.

Correspondence to: F.F. Mende, B.I. Verkin Institute for Low Temperature Physics and Engineering, NAS Ukraine, 47 Lenin Ave., Kharkov, 61164, Ukraine. Email: mende_fedor@mail.ru

## Abstract

^{2}/c

^{2}terms. The permittivity and permeability of materials media are shown to be independent of frequency. The notions magnetoelectrokinetic and electromagnetopotential waves and kinetic capacity have been introduced. It is shown that along with the longitudinal Langmuir resonance, the transverse resonance is possible in nonmagnetized plasma, and both the resonances are degenerate. A new notion scalar-vector potential is introduced, which permits solution of all present-day problems of classical electrodynamics. The use of the scalar-vector potential makes the magnetic field notion unnecessary.

## Keywords

## References

[1] | R. Feynman, R. Leighton, M. Sends, Feynman lectures on physics, М:, Mir, Vol.6, 1977. | ||

[2] | V.V. Nicolsky, T.I. Nicolskaya, Electrodynamics and propagation of radio waves, Moscow, Nauka,1989. | ||

[3] | J. Jackson, Classical Electrodynamics, Mir, Moscow, 1965. | ||

[4] | F.F. Mende, A.I. Spitsyn, Surface impedance in superconductors, Kiev, Naukova Dumka, 1985. | ||

[5] | F. F. Mende, On refinement of equations of electromagnetic induction, – Kharkov, deposited in VINITI, No 774-B88 Dep., 1988. | ||

[6] | A. F. Aleksandrov, L.S. Bogdankevich, A. A. Rukhdze, Oscillations and waves in plasma media, Moscow University Publishers, 1990. | ||

[7] | L. D. Landau, E.M. Lifshits, Electrodynamics of continuous media. Moscow. 1973. | ||

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[11] | F. F. Mende, Role and place of the kinetic inductance of charges in classical electrodynamics, Engineering Physics, №11, 2012. | ||

[12] | F. F. Mende, Transverse Plasma Resonans Mode in an Nonmagnetized Plasma and Its Practical Applications, American Journal of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Vol. 2, No. 5, (2014), 152-158 . | ||

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## Article

# Carl Sagan’s Conjecture of a Message in π

^{1}B&E Scientific Ltd, Seaford BN25 4PA, United Kingdom

*International Journal of Physics*.

**2014**, 2(6), 264-266

**DOI:**10.12691/ijp-2-6-9

**Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing**

**Cite this paper:**

Arne Bergstrom. Carl Sagan’s Conjecture of a Message in π.

*International Journal of Physics*. 2014; 2(6):264-266. doi: 10.12691/ijp-2-6-9.

Correspondence to: Arne Bergstrom, B&E Scientific Ltd, Seaford BN25 4PA, United Kingdom. Email: arne.bergstrom@physics.org

## Abstract

*Contact*, the astrophysicist Carl Sagan hypothesized an alien message to be buried somewhere deep inside the numerical representation of the transcendental number π. The present article looks for markers that might possibly support such a hypothesis, and surprisingly finds a sequence of seven successive zeros (actually seven successive nines rounded off) at a depth of 3256 digits into the representation of 2π in the special case of base ten. Finding such a sequence of zeros within the first 1000 digits has a probability of 1 in 10000. No such occurrences happen even remotely for 2π at any base other than ten, nor even remotely in corresponding representations of other common transcendental numbers, such as

*e*, which appear in physical applications. In π, this occurrence thus also remarkably appears at a depth that is a multiple of the same power of two as bits in a computer byte, which thus makes it even more enigmatic. Still, these effects are most probably just numerical coincidences without physical relevance.

## Keywords

## References

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[2] | H. S. M. Coxeter, Non-Euclidean Geometry (Univ. Toronto Press 1942, reissued 1998 by Mathematical Assoc. of America). | ||

[3] | http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Elliptic_geometry retrieved 2014-11-02. | ||

[4] | http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hyperbolic_geometry retrieved 2014-11-02. | ||

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[6] | http://www.exploratorium.edu/pi/pi_archive/Pi10-6.html http://www.piday.org/million/ retrieved 2014-11-02. | ||

[7] | U.-G. Meissner et al., “Life on earth – An accident? Chiral symmetry and the anthropic principle”, International Journal of Modern Physics E 23, 1461005 (2014). | ||