International Journal of Physics

ISSN (Print): 2333-4568

ISSN (Online): 2333-4576

Editor-in-Chief: B.D. Indu

Website: http://www.sciepub.com/journal/IJP

   

Article

Effects of Magnetic Flux Density on the Population of Escherichia coli in River Njoro Water

1Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Egerton University, P.O. BOX 536 Njoro, Kenya

2Department of Physical Sciences, Chuka University, P.O. BOX 109 Chuka, Kenya


International Journal of Physics. 2016, 4(4), 113-118
doi: 10.12691/ijp-4-4-5
Copyright © 2016 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Thirika Anne, Ndiritu Francis, Kiruki Silas. Effects of Magnetic Flux Density on the Population of Escherichia coli in River Njoro Water. International Journal of Physics. 2016; 4(4):113-118. doi: 10.12691/ijp-4-4-5.

Correspondence to: Thirika  Anne, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Egerton University, P.O. BOX 536 Njoro, Kenya. Email: annethirika@gmail.com

Abstract

In this study, the experimental results of the concentration of Escherichia coli in water exposed to magnetic flux density are presented. Water samples were collected from River Njoro, Nakuru County, Kenya. The initial Escherichia coli (E.coli) counts for the samples were obtained using Membrane Filtration techniques. The samples were then exposed to different magnetic flux densities (2mT, 6mT and 10mT) at time intervals of 6 hours and 18 hours for each magnetic flux. Membrane filtration was also done after magnetic treatment of the samples. The data obtained was photographed and presented in tables and bar graphs. The maximum disinfection efficiency was 82.2% for bacteria exposed to a magnetic flux of 10 mT for 6 hours. This study proved that magnetic field can be used as inhibitory factor against the E.coli.

Keywords

References

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[9]  Jenkins, MW and Lelo, FK and Chiuri, W and Shivoga, WA and Miller, SN, “World Water and Environmental Resources Congress: Community Perceptions and Priorities for Managing Water and Environmental Resources in the River Njoro Watershed in Kenya”, Environmental Resources Congress, Salt Lake City, Utah, June 27-July 1, 2004.
 
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Article

Measurement of Radon Gas Concentration in Tap Water Samples in Wassit Governorate by Using Nuclear Track Detector (CR-39)

1Department of Physics, College of Science, University of Mosul, Mosul, Iraq

2Department of Physics, College of Education, Al-Mustansiriyah University, Baghdad, Iraq


International Journal of Physics. 2016, 4(5), 119-122
doi: 10.12691/ijp-4-5-1
Copyright © 2016 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Laith Ahmed Najam, Mahmood Salim Karim, Taghreed Khalid Hameed. Measurement of Radon Gas Concentration in Tap Water Samples in Wassit Governorate by Using Nuclear Track Detector (CR-39). International Journal of Physics. 2016; 4(5):119-122. doi: 10.12691/ijp-4-5-1.

Correspondence to: Laith  Ahmed Najam, Department of Physics, College of Science, University of Mosul, Mosul, Iraq. Email: prof.lai2014@gmail.com

Abstract

In the present work, we have measured the radon gas concentration in environmental water sample of selected regions in Wassit governorate by using alpha-emitters registrations which are emitted from radon gas in (CR-39) nuclear track detector. The results of measurements indicate that the highest average radon gas concentrations in tap water samples were found in Nuamaniya region, which was equal to (0.820±0.04 Bq/L), while the lowest average radon gas concentration was found in Jassan region, which was equal to (0.325±0.02 Bq/L), with an average value of (0.563±0.12Bq/L). The highest value of annual effective dose (AED) in tap water samples was found in Nuamaniya region, which was equal to (0.08 μSv/y), while the lowest value of annual effective dose (AED) was found in Jassan region, which was equal to (0.03μSv /y), with an average value of (0.05±0.01 μSv/y), the tap water in Wassit governorate is safe as far as radon concentration is concerned.

Keywords

References

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[5]  Khan AJ, Varshney AK, Prasad R, Tyagi RK, Ramachandran T.V. “Calibration of a CR-39 plastic track detector for the measurement of radon and its daughters in dwellings” Nucl Tracks Radiat Meas, 17, pp.497-502, (1990).
 
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[11]  Najem H, AL-Khalifa I.J and Salman H.B, “Determination of radon concentration in soil of Basrah governorate by using solid state nuclear track detectors” Basrah Science Journal, 26, No.1, pp.38-48, (2012).
 
[12]  Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulations, Final Rule for Non-Radon Radionuclides in Tap Water, Technical Fact Sheet, EPA, 815-F-00-013, (2000).
 
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Article

A New Equivalent Theory with Special Relativity Theory, Particle Wave in 5-dimensional Space-time

1Chongqing, China


International Journal of Physics. 2016, 4(5), 123-129
doi: 10.12691/ijp-4-5-2
Copyright © 2016 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Xiao Lin Li. A New Equivalent Theory with Special Relativity Theory, Particle Wave in 5-dimensional Space-time. International Journal of Physics. 2016; 4(5):123-129. doi: 10.12691/ijp-4-5-2.

Correspondence to: Xiao  Lin Li, Chongqing, China. Email: hidebrain@hotmail.com

Abstract

There exist a new physics model. Real physical world is 5-dimensional space-time. Human world is 4-dimensional space-time. Human world just is the projection of real physics world. Particle wave is present in 5-dimensional space-time. So we can derive out Mass-energy equation. So we can derive out all results of Special Relativity Theory. In 5-dimensional space-time, speed of all particles is the light speed c. It is reason that the light speed c is very special. Coordinates transformation in 5-dimensional space-time, can derive out Lorentz transformation. The new physics model theory is a equivalent theory with Special Relativity Theory. In 5-dimensional space-time, there only exist space expansion or space contraction. In 5-dimensional space-time, there not exist time expansion or time contraction, time is absolute. In 5-dimensional space-time, particle rest mass only is particle movement portions at 4th dimensional space. The new 5-dimensional space-time theory, is consistent with space-time system of Special Relativity Theory, and it can transition to space-time system in Lorentz symmetry breaking smoonthly. The new 5-dimensional space-time theory has more wide range adaptation than Special Relativity Theory.

Keywords

References

[1]  Broglie, Louis de, The wave nature of the electron, Nobel Lecture, December 12, 1929.
 
[2]  “The Feynman Lectures on Physics(Volume I,II,III)”, R. P. Feynman, R. B. Leighton, M. Sands.
 
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