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International Journal of Physics

## Article

# A Solution Looking for a Problem - Generalised Hallway Switches

^{1,}

^{1}B&E Scientific Ltd, BN25 4PA, United Kingdom

*International Journal of Physics*.

**2015**, 3(2), 69-73

**DOI:**10.12691/ijp-3-2-4

**Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing**

**Cite this paper:**

Arne Bergstrom. A Solution Looking for a Problem - Generalised Hallway Switches.

*International Journal of Physics*. 2015; 3(2):69-73. doi: 10.12691/ijp-3-2-4.

Correspondence to: Arne Bergstrom, B&E Scientific Ltd, BN25 4PA, United Kingdom. Email: arne.bergstrom@physics.org

## Abstract

## Keywords

## References

[1] | http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Multiway_switching. | ||

[2] | Richard Day, Wiring Multi Switches, Popular Science, Jan 1987, p 85. | ||

[3] | Michael Litchfield and Michael McAlister, Taunton's Wiring Complete: Expert Advice from Start to Finish, Second Ed. (Taunton Press, Newtown CT), 2013. | ||

[4] | Arne Bergstrom, Apparent Superluminal Speeds in Evanescent Fields, Quantum Tunnelling and Quantum Entanglement, International Journal of Physics 3, 40-44 (2015). | ||

[5] | Arne Bergstrom, Apparatus for Authenticating Bank Notes, European Patent Specification 0198819B1 (1988). | ||

[6] | Arne Bergstrom, Optoelectronic Circuit Element, US Patent 4, 254, 333 (1981). | ||

## Article

# An Analogy Between the Properties of Light and Properties of Vortex-Wave Process in the Medium Similar to Superfluid ^{3}Не-В

^{1}The State University of Management

*International Journal of Physics*.

**2015**, 3(2), 74-83

**DOI:**10.12691/ijp-3-2-5

**Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing**

**Cite this paper:**

Liudmila B. Boldyreva. An Analogy Between the Properties of Light and Properties of Vortex-Wave Process in the Medium Similar to Superfluid

^{3}Не-В.

*International Journal of Physics*. 2015; 3(2):74-83. doi: 10.12691/ijp-3-2-5.

Correspondence to: Liudmila B. Boldyreva, The State University of Management. Email: boldyrev-m@yandex.ru

## Abstract

## Keywords

## References

[1] | Klyshko D.N, “Quantum optics: quantum, classical, and metaphysical aspect,” Physics Uspekhi,37, 1097-1122, 1994. | ||

[2] | Einstein A, Fundamental Ideas and Methods of the Theory of Relativity, 1920. | ||

[3] | Alvager T., Barley J.M, “Test of the second postulate of Special Relativity in the GeV region,” Physical Letters, 12, 260, 1964. | ||

[4] | Compton A.N, “The Spectrum of Scattered X-Rays,” Physical Review, 22, 409, 1923. | ||

[5] | Tittel W., Brendel J., Gisin B., Herzog T., Zbinden H., Gisin N, “Experimental demonstration of quantum-correlations over more than 10 kilometers,” Physical Review A, 57, 3229, 1998. | ||

[6] | Belinskii A.V, “Quantum nonlocality and the absence of a priori values for measurable quantities in experiments with photons,” Physics Uspekhi, 46, 877-881, 2003. | ||

[7] | Hanbury Brown, R., Twiss, R.Q, “A new type of interferometer for use in radio astronomy,” Philosophical. Magazine, 45, 663-682, 1954. | ||

[8] | Sinha K.P., Sivaram C., Sudarshan E.C.G, “The Superfluid Vacuum State. Time-Varing Cosmological Constant, and Nonsingular Cosmological Models,” Foundations of Physics, 6, No. 6, 717-726, 1976. | ||

[9] | Bauerle C., Bunkov Yu.M., Fisher S.N., Godfrin H., Pickett G.R, “Laboratory simulation of cosmic string formation in the early Universe using superfluid ^{3}He,” Nature, 382, 332, 1996. | ||

[10] | Volovic, G.E, The Universe in a Helium Droplet, Oxford, Clarendon Press, 2003. | ||

[11] | Winkelmann C.B., Elbs J., Bunkov Y.M., Godfrin H, “Probing “cosmological” defects in superfluid ^{3}He-B with a vibrating-wire resonator,” Physical Review Letters, 96 (20), 205301, May 2006. | ||

[12] | Boldyreva L.B, “The cavity structure effect in medicine: the physical aspect,” Forschende Komplementärmedizin/Research in Complementary Medicine, 20, 322-326, 2013. | ||

[13] | Boldyreva L.B, “An analogy between effects of ultra low doses of biologically active substances on biological objects and properties of spin supercurrents in superfluid ^{3}He-B,” Homeopathy, 100, issue 3, 187-193, 2011. | ||

[14] | Boldyreva L.B., Boldyreva E.M, “The Model of Superfluid Physical Vacuum as a Basis for Explanation of Efficacy of Highly Diluted Homeopathic Remedies,” Homeopathy & Ayurvedic Medicine, 1, issue 2, 2012. | ||

[15] | Boldyreva L.B, “The Physical Aspect of Action of Biologically Active Substances in Ultra-Low Doses and Low-Intensity Physical Factors on Biological Objects: Spin Supercurrents,” Alternative and Integrative Medicine, 2, issue 3, 1000110 (6 pp.), 2013. | ||

[16] | Boldyreva, L.B, “The Physical Aspect of the Effects of Metal Nanoparticles on Biological Systems. Spin Supercurrents,” Nanomaterials and Nanosciences. | ||

[17] | Boldyreva L.B, What does this give to physics: attributing the properties of superfluid ^{3}He-B to physical vacuum? Moscow, KRASAND, 2012. | ||

[18] | Mineev V.P, “Superfluid ^{3}He: introduction to the subject,” Sov. Physics Uspekhi, 26 (2), 160-175, 1983. | ||

[19] | Salomaa M., Volovik G.E, “Quantized vortices in superfluid ^{3}He,” Reviews of Modern Physics, 59, 533, 1987. | ||

[20] | Borovic-Romanov A.S., Bunkov Yu.M., Dmitriev V.V., Mukharskii Yu.M., Sergatskov D.A, “Investigation of Spin Supercurrents in ^{3}He-B,” Physical Review Letters, 62, No. 14, 1631, 1989. | ||

[21] | Dmitriev V.V., Fomin I.A, “Homogeneously precessing domain in ^{3}He-B: formation and properties,” Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter 21, No. 16, 164202, 2009. | ||

[22] | Bunkov Yu.M, “Spin Superfluidity and Coherent Spin Precession,” Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter, 21, No. 16, 164201 (6 pp), 2009. | ||

[23] | Sedov L.I, A Course in Continuum Mechanics, v. 1-4, Wolters—Noordhoﬀ, 1971-1972. | ||

[24] | Boldyreva L.B., Sotina N.B, “Superfliud Vacuum with Intrinsic Degrees of Freedom,” Physics Essays 5, 510-513, 1992. | ||

[25] | Purcell E.М, Electricity and Magnetism. Berkeley physics course, v. 2, McGraw-Hill Book company, 1965. | ||

[26] | Puttermann S, Superfluid Hydrodynamics, New York, 1974. | ||

[27] | Boldyreva L.B., Sotina, N.B, “’Hydden’ dynamics in relativistic kinematics,” Physics Essays, 16, No. 3, 2003. | ||

[28] | Boldyreva L.B, “Quantum correlations-Spin supercurrents,” International Journal of Quantum Information, 12, No. 1, 1450007 (13 pp.), 2014. | ||

[29] | Boldyreva L.B, “The Wave Properties of Matter. The Physical Aspect,” International Journal of Physics, 2, No. 6, 189-196, 2014. | ||

## Article

# Hidden Multiverse: Explanation of Dark* *Matter and Dark Energy Phenomena

^{1}Research Centre of information technology “TELAN Electronics”, Kiev, Ukraine

*International Journal of Physics*.

**2015**, 3(2), 84-87

**DOI:**10.12691/ijp-3-2-6

**Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing**

**Cite this paper:**

Alexander Alexandrovich Antonov. Hidden Multiverse: Explanation of Dark

*Matter and Dark Energy Phenomena.*

*International Journal of Physics*. 2015; 3(2):84-87. doi: 10.12691/ijp-3-2-6.

Correspondence to: Alexander Alexandrovich Antonov, Research Centre of information technology “TELAN Electronics”, Kiev, Ukraine. Email: telan@bk.ru

## Abstract

## Keywords

**theory**

**of relativity, dark matter, dark energy**

## References

[1] | Lewis D. 1986. On the Plurality of Worlds. Basil Blackwell, Oxford. | ||

[2] | Green B. (2004). The Elegant Universe: Superstrings. Hidden Dimensions and the Quest for the Ultimate Theory. W. W. Norton & Company. NY. | ||

[3] | Deutsch D. 2002. The structure of the multiverse. Proceedings of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences. 458, 2911-2923 | ||

[4] | Tegmark M. 2003. Parallel Universes. Scientific American. 288 (5), 40-51 | ||

[5] | Ellis G.F.R., Kirchner U., Stoeger W.R. 2004. Multiverses and physical cosmology. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. 347 (3), 921-936 | ||

[6] | Carr B. ed. (2009). Universe or Multiverse? Cambridge Univ. Press. Сambridge. | ||

[7] | Greene B. (2011). The Hidden Reality: Parallel Universes and the Deep Laws of the Cosmos. Knopf. NY. | ||

[8] | Conley A., Carlberg R.G., Guy J., Howell D.A., Jha S., Riess A.G. and Sullivan M. 2007. Is There Evidence for a Hubble Bubble? The Nature of Type Ia Supernova Colors and Dust in External Galaxies. The Astrophysical Journal. 664 (1), L13-L16 | ||

[9] | Ellis G.F.R. 2011. Does the Multiverse Really Exist? Scientific American. 305, 38-43 | ||

[10] | Popper K.R. (2002). Conjectures and Refutations. The Growth of Scientific Knowledge. Routledge. London. | ||

[11] | Antonov А.А. 2014. Verification of the second postulate of the special relativity theory. Global Journal of Science Frontier Research A: Physics and Space Science. 14 (3). 51-59. | ||

[12] | Blanchard Ju. 1941. The History of Electrical Resonance. Bell System Technical Journal. 20 (4), 415-433 | ||

[13] | Steinmetz C.P., Berg E.J. 1900. Theory and calculation of alternating current phenomena. Electrical World and Engineer Inc., NY. | ||

[14] | Antonov A.A. and Buzhev V.M. 1970. Means of rising deflecting currents for spiral beam sweep on the CRT screen. Patent of USSR # 433650. | ||

[15] | Antonov A.A. 2008. Physical Reality of Resonance on Complex Frequencies. European Journal of Scientific Research. 21 (4). 627-641. | ||

[16] | Antonov A.A. 2009. Resonance on Real and Complex Frequencies. European Journal of Scientific Research. 28 (2). 193-204. | ||

[17] | Antonov A.A. 2010. Oscillation Processes as a Tool of Physics Cognition. American Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research. 1 (2). 342-349. | ||

[18] | Antonov A.A. 2010. Solution of Algebraic Quadratic Equations Taking into Account Transitional Processes in Oscillation Systems. General Mathematics Notes. 1 (2), 11-16. | ||

[19] | Antonov А.А. 2014. Correction of the special theory of relativity: physical reality and nature of imaginary and complex numbers. American Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research. 5 (2). 40-52. | ||

[20] | Antonov А.А. 2011. Structure of the Multiverse. British Journal of Science. 2 (2), 51-60. | ||

[21] | Antonov А.А. 2012. Earth. Portals. Parallel Universes. American Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research, 3 (6). 464-473. | ||

[22] | Antonov A.A. 2013. Cognition of the Multiverse as a factor facilitating the development of humanity. Russian Physical Thought Journal. 1 (12). 6-77. | ||

[23] | Kantor I.L. and Solodovnikov A.S. (1989). Hypercomplex numbers. Springer Verlag. Berlin. | ||

## Article

# Gapless Superconductivity

^{1,}

^{1}Moscow Aviation Institute, VolokolamskoeShosse, 4, 125871, Moscow, Russia

*International Journal of Physics*.

**2015**, 3(2), 88-95

**DOI:**10.12691/ijp-3-2-7

**Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing**

**Cite this paper:**

Boris V. Bondarev. Gapless Superconductivity.

*International Journal of Physics*. 2015; 3(2):88-95. doi: 10.12691/ijp-3-2-7.

Correspondence to: Boris V. Bondarev, Moscow Aviation Institute, VolokolamskoeShosse, 4, 125871, Moscow, Russia. Email: bondarev.b@mail.ru

## Abstract

## Keywords

## References

[1] | H.Kamerlingh-Onnes, “Further experiments with liquid helium. C. On the change of electric resistance of pure metals at very low temperatures, ets. IV. The resistance of pure mercury at helium temteratures”. Comm. Phys. Leb. Univ. Leiden, (120b). 13-18. 1911. | ||

[2] | V.L. Ginzburg, L.D. Landau, “To the theory of superconductivity”. JETF, 20, 1064-1071. 1950. | ||

[3] | J. Bardeen, L.N. Cooper, J.R. Schrieffer, “Theory of superconductivity”. Phys. Rev., 108. 1175-1204.1957. | ||

[4] | J.R. Schiffer, Superconductivity Theory, (Nauka, Moscow, 1970). | ||

[5] | V.I.Bielawski,Y.V. Kopaev, “Superconductivity of repulsive particles”. UFN, 176, 457-485, 2006. | ||

[6] | M.V. Sadowski, “High-temperature superconductivity in layerediron compounds”. UFN, 178, 1243-1271, 2008. | ||

[7] | B.V. Bondarev, “Quantum lattice gas. Method of density matrix”, Physica A, 184.205-230.1992. | ||

[8] | B.V.Bondarev, “On some peculiarities of the electron distribution function Bloch states”, Vestnik MAI, 3 (2). 56-65.1 996. | ||

[9] | B.V. Bondarev, Density Matrix Method in Quantum Cooperative Process Theory, (Sputnik+, Moscow, 2013). | ||

[10] | B.V. Bondarev, Density Matrix Method in Quantum Theory of Superconductivity, (Sputnik+, Moscow, 2014). | ||

[11] | B.V. Bondarev, New Theory of Superconductivity. Method of Equilibrium Density Matrix. arXiv: 1412. 6008 22 Sep 2013. | ||

[12] | D.I. Blokhintsev, Principles of Quantum Mechanics, (Higher School, Moscow, 1961). | ||

[13] | Yu.I. Sirotin, M.P. Shaskolskaya, Basic Crystallophysics, (Nauka, Moscow, 1979). | ||

## Article

# Invisible Spacetime Theory - An Approach to Generalize Subluminal and Superluminal Speeds

^{1}Sri Sai Ram Engineering College, Chennai-600044, India

*International Journal of Physics*.

**2015**, 3(3), 96-99

**DOI:**10.12691/ijp-3-3-1

**Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing**

**Cite this paper:**

Parasuraman V, Sathishkumar G. Invisible Spacetime Theory - An Approach to Generalize Subluminal and Superluminal Speeds.

*International Journal of Physics*. 2015; 3(3):96-99. doi: 10.12691/ijp-3-3-1.

Correspondence to: Sathishkumar G, Sri Sai Ram Engineering College, Chennai-600044, India. Email: parasuraman_venkatraman@yahoo.com,sathishkumar.phy@sairam.edu.in

## Abstract

## Keywords

## References

[1] | Einstein A. (1905) “Zur Elektrodynamik bewegter Körper”, Annalen der Physik 17: 891. | ||

[2] | Randles J. (2005) “Breaking the Time Barrier: The Race to Build the First Time Machine”, Adult Publishing Group. | ||

[3] | Beiser A. (1973) “Concepts of Modern Physics”, McGraw Hill Kogakusha Ltd.. | ||

[4] | Hawking S. (1998) “A Brief History of Time: From the Big Bang to Black Holes”, Bantam Dell Publishing Group. | ||

## Article

# On the Test of Time Dilation Using the Relativistic Doppler Shift Equation

^{1,}

^{1}Mechanical Department, DAH (S & P), Beirut, Lebanon

*International Journal of Physics*.

**2015**, 3(3), 100-107

**DOI:**10.12691/ijp-3-3-2

**Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing**

**Cite this paper:**

Radwan M. Kassir. On the Test of Time Dilation Using the Relativistic Doppler Shift Equation.

*International Journal of Physics*. 2015; 3(3):100-107. doi: 10.12691/ijp-3-3-2.

Correspondence to: Radwan M. Kassir, Mechanical Department, DAH (S & P), Beirut, Lebanon. Email: radwan.elkassir@dargroup.com

## Abstract

*Phys. Rev. Lett*. 113, 120405 – Published 16 September 2014), an Ives–Stilwell type experiment,it was claimed that a conducted time dilation experiment using the relativistic Doppler effect on the Li+ ions resonance frequencies had verified, with a greatly increased precision, the relativistic frequency shift formula, derived in the Special Relativity from the Lorentz Transformation, thus indirectly proving the time dilation predicted by the Special Relativity. The test was based on the validation of an algebraic equality relating a set of measured frequencies, and deduced from the relativistic Doppler equations. In this study, it was shown that this algebraic equality, used as a validation criterion, did not uniquely imply the validity of the relativistic Doppler equations. In fact, using an approach in line with the referenced study, it was revealed that an infinite number of frequency shift equations would satisfy the employed validation criterion. Nonetheless, it was shown that even if that claim was hypothetically accepted, then the experiment would prove nothing but a contradiction in the Special Relativity prediction. In fact, it was clearly demonstrated that the relativistic blue shift was the consequence of a time contraction, determined via the light speed postulate, leading to the relativistic Doppler formula in the case of an approaching light source. The experiment would then be confirming a relativistic time contraction. It was also shown that the classical relativity resulted in perceived time alterations leading to the classical Doppler Effect equations. The “referenced study” result could be attributed to the classical Doppler shift within 10 % difference.

## Keywords

## References

[1] | A.A. Michelson and E.H. Morley, “On the Relative Motion of the Earth and the Luminiferous Ether,” Am. J. Sci. 34, 333-345 (1887). | ||

[2] | A. Einstein, “Zur elektrodynamik bewegter Körper,” Annalen der Physik 322 (10), 891–921 (1905). | ||

[3] | H. E. Ives and G. R. Stilwell, “Experimental Study of the Rate of a Moving Atomic Clock,” Journal of the Optical Society of America 28 (7), 215-226 (1938). | ||

[4] | B. Botermann, D. Bing, Ch. Geppert, G. Gwinner, T.W. Hänsch, G. Huber, S. Karpuk, A. Krieger, T. Kühl, W. Nörtershäuser, Ch. Novotny, S. Reinhardt, R. Sánchez, D. Schwalm, T. Stöhlker, A. Wolf, and G. Saathoff6, “Test of Time Dilation Using Stored Li+ Ions as Clocks at Relativistic Speed,” Physical Review Letters 113, 120405 (2014). | ||

[5] | A. Einstein, “Einstein's comprehensive 1907 essay on relativity, part I,” English translations in Am. Jour. Phys. 45 (1977), Jahrbuch der Radioaktivitat und Elektronik 4 (1907). | ||

[6] | R.M. Kassir, “On Lorentz Transformation and Special Relativity: Critical Mathematical Analyses and Findings,” Physics Essays 27, 16 (2014). | ||

[7] | R.M. Kassir, “On Special Relativity: Root cause of the problems with Lorentz transformation,” Physics Essays 27 (2), 198-203 (2014). | ||

[8] | R.M. Kassir, “The Critical Error in the Formulation of the Special Relativity,” International Journal of Physics 2 (6), 197-201 (2014). | ||

## Article

# Method of Equilibrium Density Matrix. Energy of Interacting Valence Electrons in Metal

^{1,}

^{1}Moscow Aviation Institute, Volokolamskoe Shosse, 4, 125871, Moscow, Russia

*International Journal of Physics*.

**2015**, 3(3), 108-112

**DOI:**10.12691/ijp-3-3-3

**Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing**

**Cite this paper:**

Boris V. Bondarev. Method of Equilibrium Density Matrix. Energy of Interacting Valence Electrons in Metal.

*International Journal of Physics*. 2015; 3(3):108-112. doi: 10.12691/ijp-3-3-3.

Correspondence to: Boris V. Bondarev, Moscow Aviation Institute, Volokolamskoe Shosse, 4, 125871, Moscow, Russia. Email: bondarev.b@mail.ru

## Abstract

## Keywords

## References

[1] | J. von Neumann, Mathematical Foundations of Quantum Mechanics, Nauka, Moscow, 1964. | ||

[2] | K.Blum, Density Matrix Theory and Applications, Mir, Moscow, 1983. | ||

[3] | B.V. Bondarev, Density matrix method in quantum theory of cooperative process, Sputnik+, Moscow, 2013, p. 621. | ||

[4] | G.Lindblad, On the Generators of Quantum Dynamical Semigroups, Commun. Math. Phys. 1976, v. 48: 2, p. 119-130. | ||

[5] | B.V. Bondarev, Quantum markovian master equation for system of identical particles interacting with a heat reservoir, Physisa A, 1991, v. 176, p. 366-386. | ||

[6] | B.V. Bondarev, Conclusion quantum the kinetic equation from the Liouville-von Neumann equation, TMP, 1994, № 1, p. 33-43. | ||

[7] | B.V. Bondarev, Quantum lattice gas. Method of density matrix, Physisa A, 1992, v. 184, p. 205-230. | ||

[8] | N. Ashcroft, N. Mermin, Solid State Physics, Mir, Moscow, 1979. | ||

[9] | B.V. Bondarev, On some peculiarities of electrons distribution function over the Bloch states, Vestnik MAI, 1996, vol. 3, No. 2, p. 56-65. | ||

[10] | B.V. Bondarev, New theory of superconductivity. Method of equilibrium density matrix. arXiv: 1412.6008 22 Sep 2013. | ||

[11] | B.V. Bondarev, Density matrix method in quantum theory of superconductivity, Sputnik+, Moscow, 2014, p. 88. | ||

## Article

# Let Your Success be BIIG: A New Paradigm for Problem-Solving in Science

^{1,}

^{1}Geo/Physical Sciences, Fitchburg State University, Fitchburg MA, USA

*International Journal of Physics*.

**2015**, 3(3), 113-119

**DOI:**10.12691/ijp-3-3-4

**Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing**

**Cite this paper:**

C N Hiremath. Let Your Success be BIIG: A New Paradigm for Problem-Solving in Science.

*International Journal of Physics*. 2015; 3(3):113-119. doi: 10.12691/ijp-3-3-4.

Correspondence to: C N Hiremath, Geo/Physical Sciences, Fitchburg State University, Fitchburg MA, USA. Email: cnhiremath@gmail.com

## Abstract

*decode, solve, and analyze*. Despite the differing formats, each textbook provides an explanation for each step, however in the process it fails to clearly mention the finer details or attributes of each step in arriving at the solution. The objective of this study was to develop a streamlined process in problem-solving that enhances the students’ learning experience in science. The BIIG problem-solving strategy is a new method of approaching real-world word problems in science in a simple, rational way with clarity and sufficient depth. The thought process in the BIIG method consists of four elements represented by four letters: “B” is associated with the numbers and units, “I” is associated with the variables, next “I” is associated with the contextual information, and “G” is associated with the actual presentation of the solution. The elements described in this article can be applied to any problem-solving format, thereby making it a universal method. Based on both internal and external empirical evidence, it shows that the model is supportive for the students’ problem solving skills. The results indicate that starting with an initial interest level in Physics of only 28%, the students developed appreciation for the subject significantly (76%) and were highly satisfied with the assessment of their work (87%). The BIIG problem-solving method provides much needed skills for improving science education from K-12 schools to colleges, universities and institutions worldwide.

## Keywords

## References

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## Article

# δ(E2/M1) and X(E0/E2)Ratios for ^{192-202}Pt Isotopes by Using the Proton and Neutron Interacting Boson Model (IBM-2)

^{1}Physics Department, College of Science, Babylon University

^{2}Physics Department, College of Education, Basra University

*International Journal of Physics*.

**2015**, 3(3), 120-125

**DOI:**10.12691/ijp-3-3-5

**Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing**

**Cite this paper:**

Mohammed Abdul Kadhim Al – Sadi, Mohammed A. Al Shareefi, Abdul Ridha Hussain Subber. δ(E2/M1) and X(E0/E2)Ratios for

^{192-202}Pt Isotopes by Using the Proton and Neutron Interacting Boson Model (IBM-2).

*International Journal of Physics*. 2015; 3(3):120-125. doi: 10.12691/ijp-3-3-5.

Correspondence to: Mohammed Abdul Kadhim Al – Sadi, Physics Department, College of Science, Babylon University. Email: moh_2005_ammed@yahoo.com

## Abstract

^{+}states in these isotopes produce an extra evidence for the shape of these nuclei.

## Keywords

## References

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[2] | Baylan M., Atlihan M., “The IBM-2 study for some even - even platinum isotopes”, Turk. J. Phys., 26, 305-309, 2002. | ||

[3] | Subber A. R.H., “Nuclear structure of even-even Ge isotopes by means of interacting boson models”,Turk. J. Phys., 35, 43-52, 2011. | ||

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## Article

# Natural Radioactivity in Soil Samples in Nineveh Province and the Associated Radiation Hazards

^{1}Physics Department, College of Science, Mosul Univ., Mosul, IRAQ

^{2}Ministry of Science and Technology, Baghdad, IRAQ

*International Journal of Physics*.

**2015**, 3(3), 126-132

**DOI:**10.12691/ijp-3-3-6

**Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing**

**Cite this paper:**

Laith A. Najam, Shaher A. Younis, Fouzey H. Kithah. Natural Radioactivity in Soil Samples in Nineveh Province and the Associated Radiation Hazards.

*International Journal of Physics*. 2015; 3(3):126-132. doi: 10.12691/ijp-3-3-6.

Correspondence to: Laith A. Najam, Physics Department, College of Science, Mosul Univ., Mosul, IRAQ. Email: Prof.lai2014@gmail.com

## Abstract

^{226}Ra,

^{232}Th and

^{40}K in soil of Nineveh zone, Nineveh province, Iraq were measured by using gamma-ray spectrometry based on high-purity germanium detector. The specific activity of soil samples ranged from 16.21 to 38.83 Bq/kg with an average of value of 32.52±6.48 Bq/kg, 8.53 to 28.37 Bq/kg with an average of 20.30±5.36 Bq/kg, 236.03 to 613.11 Bq/kg with an average of 378.93± 123.29Bq/kg, and 2.18 to 17.92 Bq/kg with an average of 8.17± 5.55 Bq/kg for

^{226}Ra,

^{232}Th,

^{40}K and

^{137}Cs respectively. The study also examine some radiation hazard indices such as Radium equivalent activity (R

_{aeq}), Absorbed gamma dose rate (D), External hazard index (H

_{ex}), Internal hazard index (H

_{in}) and gamma index (I

_{γ}). These calculated hazard indices to estimate the potential radiological health risk in soil. The radium equivalent activity average (R

_{aeq}) was less than the permitted value (370 Bq/kg). The average absorbed dose rate value also less than the permissible limit of 55 nGy/h. The external hazard index, internal hazard index and gamma index of soil samples were less than unity.

## Keywords

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