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Article

The Wave Properties of Matter: The Physical Aspect

1The State University of Management, Moscow, Russia


International Journal of Physics. 2014, 2(6), 189-196
DOI: 10.12691/ijp-2-6-2
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Liudmila B. Boldyreva. The Wave Properties of Matter: The Physical Aspect. International Journal of Physics. 2014; 2(6):189-196. doi: 10.12691/ijp-2-6-2.

Correspondence to: Liudmila  B. Boldyreva, The State University of Management, Moscow, Russia. Email: boldyrev-m@yandex.ru

Abstract

The aim of the paper is to show that there is a physical process which could underlie the wave properties of matter. A comparison has been drawn between the properties of a pair of electrically unlike virtual particles created by a quantum entity in the physical vacuum and the characteristics of the quantum entity wave function. Analogies were revealed between the spin precession frequency of pair of virtual particles and the wave function frequency, between the size of the electric dipole produced by a pair of virtual particles and the wave function wavelength, and also between the angle of spin precession of pair of virtual particles and the wave function phase. It is shown that quantum correlations of quantum entities may be caused by spin correlations (by spin supercurrents) between virtual particles created by the quantum entities in the physical vacuum. It is shown that the wave properties of a quantum entity are due to precession of spin of pair of virtual particles created by the quantum entity in the physical vacuum.

Keywords

References

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Article

The Critical Error in the Formulation of the Special Relativity

1Mechanical Department, DAH (S & P), Beirut, Lebanon


International Journal of Physics. 2014, 2(6), 197-201
DOI: 10.12691/ijp-2-6-3
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Radwan M. Kassir. The Critical Error in the Formulation of the Special Relativity. International Journal of Physics. 2014; 2(6):197-201. doi: 10.12691/ijp-2-6-3.

Correspondence to: Radwan  M. Kassir, Mechanical Department, DAH (S & P), Beirut, Lebanon. Email: radwan.elkassir@dargroup.com

Abstract

The perception of events in two inertial reference frames in relative motion was analyzed from the perspective of the Special Relativity postulates, leading to the Lorentz transformation equations for the time and space coordinate in the relative motion direction. Yet, straightforward inconsistencies were identified upon examining the conversion of the time interval between two co-local events in the traveling reference frame. The approach used in the Special Relativity formulation to get around the identified inconsistencies was revealed. Subsequent mathematical contradictions in the Lorentz transformation equations, disproving the Special Relativity predictions, were shown.

Keywords

References

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Article

Concept of Scalar-Vector Potential in the Contemporary Electrodynamic, Problem of Homopolar Induction and Its Solution

1B.I. Verkin Institute for Low Temperature Physics and Engineering NAS, Ukraine, 47 Lenin Ave., Kharkov, Ukraine


International Journal of Physics. 2014, 2(6), 202-210
DOI: 10.12691/ijp-2-6-4
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
F.F. Mende. Concept of Scalar-Vector Potential in the Contemporary Electrodynamic, Problem of Homopolar Induction and Its Solution. International Journal of Physics. 2014; 2(6):202-210. doi: 10.12691/ijp-2-6-4.

Correspondence to: F.F.  Mende, B.I. Verkin Institute for Low Temperature Physics and Engineering NAS, Ukraine, 47 Lenin Ave., Kharkov, Ukraine. Email: mende_fedor@mail.ru

Abstract

At present classical electrodynamics consists of two not connected together parts. From one side this of Maxwell equations, which determine wave phenomena in the material media, from other side the Lorentz force, which determines power interaction between the moving charges. Still from the times of Lorenz and Poincare this force is introduced as experimental postulate. And as yet there is no that united basis, which connected together these two odd parts of the electrodynamics. Present article solves this problem on the basis of introduction the concept of scalar-vector potential, which assumes the dependence of the scalar potential of charge on its relative speed. In the article is carried out the analysis of the work of different of the schematics of the unipolar generators, among which there are diagrams, the principle of operation of which, until now, did not yield to explanation. The number of such diagrams includes the construction of the generator, whose cylindrical magnet, magnetized in the end direction, revolves together with the conducting disk. Postulate about the Lorentz force, whom is used for explaining the work of unipolar generators, does not give the possibility to explain the operating principle of this generator. It is shown that the concept of scalar- vector potential, developed by the author, gives the possibility to explain the operating principle of all existing types of unipolar generators. Physical explanation of Lorentz force in the concept of scalar- vector potential is given.

Keywords

References

[1]  R. Feynman, R. Leighton, M. Sends, Feynman lectures on physics, M:, Mir, Vol. 6, 1977.
 
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[4]  F.F. Mende, On refinement of equations of electromagnetic induction, Kharkov, deposited in VINITI, No 774 - B88 Dep., 1988.
 
[5]  F.F. Mende, On refinement of certain laws of classical electrodynamics, arXiv.org/abs/physics/0402084.
 
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[6]  F. F. Mende, New electrodynamics. Revolution in the modern physics, Kharkov, NTMT, 2012.
 
[7]  F. F.Mende, New approaches in contemporary classical electrodynamics, Part II, Engineering Physics, №2, 2013.
 
[8]  W.F. Edwards, C.S. Kenyon, D.K. Lemon, Continuing investigation into possible electric arising from steady conduction current, Phys. Rev. D 14, 922 (1976).
 
[9]  F.F. Mende, Experimental corroboration and theoretical interpretation of dependence of charge velocity on DC flow velocity through superconductors, Proceedings International Conference “Physics in Ukraine”, Kiev 22-27 June, 1993.
 
[10]  F. F. Mende, A New Tipe of Contact Potential Difference and Electrification of Superconducting Coils and Tori, American Journal of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Vol. 2, No. 5, (2014), 146-151.
 
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Article

Problems of Lorentz Force and Its Solution

1B.I. Verkin Institute for Low Temperature Physics and Engineering NAS, Ukraine, 47 Lenin Ave., Kharkov, Ukraine


International Journal of Physics. 2014, 2(6), 211-216
DOI: 10.12691/ijp-2-6-5
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
F.F. Mende. Problems of Lorentz Force and Its Solution. International Journal of Physics. 2014; 2(6):211-216. doi: 10.12691/ijp-2-6-5.

Correspondence to: F.F.  Mende, B.I. Verkin Institute for Low Temperature Physics and Engineering NAS, Ukraine, 47 Lenin Ave., Kharkov, Ukraine. Email: mende_fedor@mail.ru

Abstract

In the article is proven that the Lorentz force is the consequence of the dependence of the scalar potential of charge on the speed. It is shown that the dependence of Lorentz force on the speed is nonlinear, as previously supposed. It is shown also, that the forces of interaction of conductors, along which flows the current, are not symmetrical. When the direction of the motion of charges in the conductors they coincide, the force of their interaction occurs less than when directions of motion are different.

Keywords

References

[1]  V.V.Nicolsky, T.I. Nicolskaya, Electrodynamics and propagation of radio waves, Moscow, Nauka, 1989.
 
[2]  R. Feynman, R. Leighton, M. Sends, Feynman lectures on physics, –М. Mir, Vol. 6 (1977).
 
[3]  J.Jackson, Classical Electrodynamics, Mir, Moscow, 1965, 702.
 
[4]  F.F. Mende, On refinement of equations of electromagnetic induction,- Kharkov, deposited in VINITI, No 774-B88 Dep. (1988).
 
[5]  F. F.Mende, Are thereerrorsin modern physics. Kharkov, Constant, 2003.
 
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[6]  F.F. Mende, On refinement of certain laws of classical electrodynamics, arXiv.org/abs/physics/0402084
 
[7]  F. F. MendeNew electrodynamics.Revolution in the modern physics.Kharkov, NTMT, 2012.
 
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Article

Multistability in a Single System with Hidden Attractors- Theory and Experiment

1Department of Physics, B.P. Poddar Institute of Management & Technology, VIP Road, Kolkata, India

2High Energy Physics Division, Department of Physics, Jadavpur University, Kolkata, India


International Journal of Physics. 2014, 2(6), 217-225
DOI: 10.12691/ijp-2-6-6
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Papri Saha, Dolonchampa Saha Anirban Ray, A. Roy Chowdhury. Multistability in a Single System with Hidden Attractors- Theory and Experiment. International Journal of Physics. 2014; 2(6):217-225. doi: 10.12691/ijp-2-6-6.

Correspondence to: A.  Roy Chowdhury, High Energy Physics Division, Department of Physics, Jadavpur University, Kolkata, India. Email: asesh_r@yahoo.com

Abstract

Existence of more than one attractor for a single nonlinear system and the corresponding generation of multistability is investigated both from the point of view of theory and experiment. The system under consideration is relatively a new one which possess a single stable fixed point but shows many characteristic features of attractors in phase space. It is shown that the change in the initial condition triggers a host of phenomena not observed before in any dynamical system. Change in the initial conditions enables a switch over from one attractor to the other. Our analysis clearly shows the changes in the Poincaré section and the mechanism of formation of unstable periodic orbits. We point out that in spite of these peculiarities, the model does not possess any standard route to bifurcation but one can visualize the change in the periodicity with respect to the parameters and its dependence on the initial conditions. In the next half of our paper we have constructed analogue electric circuit for the equation and have introduced a mechanism for the choice of initial condition with the help of relay in the circuit. These modified circuits were then used to simulate experimentally the sensitivity on the initial conditions and the transition from one to the other attractor.

Keywords

References

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Article

Non-Relativistic Weibel Instability Due to Inverse Bremsstrahlung Absorption in Laser Fusion Plasma

1Laboratoire de Physique des Rayonnements et de leurs Interactions avec la Matière (PRIMALAB), département des sciences de la matière, faculté des sciences,université de Batna, Algeria

2Laboratoire Electronique Quantique, faculté des sciences, université (USTHB), Alger, Algeria


International Journal of Physics. 2014, 2(6), 226-230
DOI: 10.12691/ijp-2-6-7
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
S. Belghit, A. Sid, K. Bendib. Non-Relativistic Weibel Instability Due to Inverse Bremsstrahlung Absorption in Laser Fusion Plasma. International Journal of Physics. 2014; 2(6):226-230. doi: 10.12691/ijp-2-6-7.

Correspondence to: S.  Belghit, Laboratoire de Physique des Rayonnements et de leurs Interactions avec la Matière (PRIMALAB), département des sciences de la matière, faculté des sciences,université de Batna, Algeria. Email: Belghit.slimen@gmail.com

Abstract

The present work has the aim to investigate the Weibel instability induced by inverse bremsstrahlung in laser fusion plasma, where the effect of the self-generated magnetic field is induced. Specifically, we have considered the generated static magnetic field effect on the inverse bremsstrahlung absorption. For this, we consider a homogeneous under dense plasma in interaction with a high-frequency and low-magnitude laser electric field. In our investigation, the unperturbed anisotropic distribution function which takes into account the plasma heating due to inverse bremsstrahlung absorption of laser energy is calculated from the Fokker-Planck equation. By using this distribution function, we have established the dispersion relation of the Weibel modes taking into account the coupling term of quasi-static magnetic fields with high frequency fields of the laser wave. The main obtained result is that the inclusion of the self-generated magnetic field in the inverse bremsstrahlung absorption causes a decrease of the spectral range of the Weibel unstable modes and a reduction of the growth rate of the instability by two orders. This result shows clearly that the previous analyses of the Weibel instability due to inverse bremsstrahlung have an over estimated for the values of the generated static magnetic fields. Therefore, inverse bremsstrahlung overestimated the values of the generated static magnetic fields should not affect the experiences of inertial confinement fusion.

Keywords

References

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Article

Consideration and the Refinement of Some Laws and Concepts of Classical Electrodynamics and New Ideas in Modern Electrodynamics

1B.I. Verkin Institute for Low Temperature Physics and Engineering, NAS Ukraine, 47 Lenin Ave., Kharkov, 61164, Ukraine


International Journal of Physics. 2014, 2(6), 231-263
DOI: 10.12691/ijp-2-6-8
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
F.F. Mende. Consideration and the Refinement of Some Laws and Concepts of Classical Electrodynamics and New Ideas in Modern Electrodynamics. International Journal of Physics. 2014; 2(6):231-263. doi: 10.12691/ijp-2-6-8.

Correspondence to: F.F.  Mende, B.I. Verkin Institute for Low Temperature Physics and Engineering, NAS Ukraine, 47 Lenin Ave., Kharkov, 61164, Ukraine. Email: mende_fedor@mail.ru

Abstract

The problems considered refer to the material equations of electromagnetic and magnetoelectric induction and physical interpretation of the parameters ε(ω) and μ(ω). Some contradictions found in fundamental studies on classical electrodynamics have been explained. The notion magnetoelectric induction has been introduced, which permits symmetrical writing of the induction laws. It is shown that the results of the special theory of relativity can be obtained from these laws through the Galileo conversions with the accuracy to the v2/c2 terms. The permittivity and permeability of materials media are shown to be independent of frequency. The notions magnetoelectrokinetic and electromagnetopotential waves and kinetic capacity have been introduced. It is shown that along with the longitudinal Langmuir resonance, the transverse resonance is possible in nonmagnetized plasma, and both the resonances are degenerate. A new notion scalar-vector potential is introduced, which permits solution of all present-day problems of classical electrodynamics. The use of the scalar-vector potential makes the magnetic field notion unnecessary.

Keywords

References

[1]  R. Feynman, R. Leighton, M. Sends, Feynman lectures on physics, М:, Mir, Vol.6, 1977.
 
[2]  V.V. Nicolsky, T.I. Nicolskaya, Electrodynamics and propagation of radio waves, Moscow, Nauka,1989.
 
[3]  J. Jackson, Classical Electrodynamics, Mir, Moscow, 1965.
 
[4]  F.F. Mende, A.I. Spitsyn, Surface impedance in superconductors, Kiev, Naukova Dumka, 1985.
 
[5]  F. F. Mende, On refinement of equations of electromagnetic induction, – Kharkov, deposited in VINITI, No 774-B88 Dep., 1988.
 
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[11]  F. F. Mende, Role and place of the kinetic inductance of charges in classical electrodynamics, Engineering Physics, №11, 2012.
 
[12]  F. F. Mende, Transverse Plasma Resonans Mode in an Nonmagnetized Plasma and Its Practical Applications, American Journal of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Vol. 2, No. 5, (2014), 152-158 .
 
[13]  F.F. Mende, On refinement of certain laws of classical electrodynamics, arXiv.org/abs/physics/0402084.
 
[14]  F. F. Mende, Are there errors in modern physics. Kharkov, Constant, 2003.
 
[15]  F. F. Mende, Conception of the scalar-vector potential in contemporary electrodynamics, arXiv.org/abs/physics/0506083.
 
[16]  F. F. Mende, Transversal plasma resonance in a nonmagnetized plasma and possibilities of practical employment of it, arXiv.org/abs/physics/0506081.
 
[17]  F. F. Mende, Consistent electrodynamics and the threat of nuclear Space terrorism. Kharkov NTMT, 2008.
 
[18]  F. F. Mende New electrodynamics. Revolution in the modern physics. Kharkov, NTMT, 2012.
 
[19]  F. F. Mende, Electric kinetic capacity. Engineering Physics, №3, 2013.
 
[20]  V. V.Nicolsky, T. I. Nicolskaya, Electrodynamics and propagation of radio waves, Moscow, Nauka, 1989.
 
[21]  W. F. Edwards, C. S. Kenyon, D. K. Lemon, Continuing investigation into possible electric arising from steady conduction current, Phys. Rev. D 14, 922, 1976.
 
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[26]  F. F. Mende, A New Tipe of Contact Potential Difference and Electrification of Superconducting Coils and Tori, American Journal of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Vol. 2, No. 5, 2014, 146-151.
 
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Article

Carl Sagan’s Conjecture of a Message in π

1B&E Scientific Ltd, Seaford BN25 4PA, United Kingdom


International Journal of Physics. 2014, 2(6), 264-266
DOI: 10.12691/ijp-2-6-9
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Arne Bergstrom. Carl Sagan’s Conjecture of a Message in π. International Journal of Physics. 2014; 2(6):264-266. doi: 10.12691/ijp-2-6-9.

Correspondence to: Arne  Bergstrom, B&E Scientific Ltd, Seaford BN25 4PA, United Kingdom. Email: arne.bergstrom@physics.org

Abstract

In his novel Contact, the astrophysicist Carl Sagan hypothesized an alien message to be buried somewhere deep inside the numerical representation of the transcendental number π. The present article looks for markers that might possibly support such a hypothesis, and surprisingly finds a sequence of seven successive zeros (actually seven successive nines rounded off) at a depth of 3256 digits into the representation of 2π in the special case of base ten. Finding such a sequence of zeros within the first 1000 digits has a probability of 1 in 10000. No such occurrences happen even remotely for 2π at any base other than ten, nor even remotely in corresponding representations of other common transcendental numbers, such as e, which appear in physical applications. In π, this occurrence thus also remarkably appears at a depth that is a multiple of the same power of two as bits in a computer byte, which thus makes it even more enigmatic. Still, these effects are most probably just numerical coincidences without physical relevance.

Keywords

References

[1]  C. Sagan, Contact, (Century Hutchinson Ltd, 1986).
 
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Article

Outstanding Outcomes from a Recent Theory of Gravity

1via Madonna del Piano 41, Morolo Italy


International Journal of Physics. 2014, 2(6), 267-276
DOI: 10.12691/ijp-2-6-10
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Sandro Antonelli. Outstanding Outcomes from a Recent Theory of Gravity. International Journal of Physics. 2014; 2(6):267-276. doi: 10.12691/ijp-2-6-10.

Correspondence to: Sandro  Antonelli, via Madonna del Piano 41, Morolo Italy. Email: antonelli41@live.it

Abstract

This article intends to fathom a development by M. Tailherer which introduces a second gravitational equation devised to complete General Relativity (TGR), based on the ansatz of equating the curvature tensor opportunely contracted to the 4-vorticity by a new constant S as measure of the intrinsic inertia of the curved Space-Time. After justifying the need to deal with the 2nd fundamental tensor in Relativity in discussing the dynamics of Space-Time structure, it has been shown how the model exhibits unforeseen analogies with the electromagnetic theory. As direct continuation of the analysis of the gravitational wave propagation in free space, it has been seen that on asymptotic conditions the polarization state can be retrieved as mixture of two independent modes likewise TGR as from harmonic constraints on the homogeneous solution of wave equation. Actually, in this gravitational framework, at least for one polarization state, transverse waves propagate causing equal in-phase deformation displacement, not counter-phase as expected in gravitational interferometry experiments at present status. Computation of gravitational power losses for the keplerian system B 1913+16 in the solution by approximations of the inhomogeneous problem has been carried out to the 1st order, which has allowed the assessment of a new universal gravitational constant for the first time ever.

Keywords

References

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Article

Cubic Atom and Crystal Structures

1Wayne State University, 42 W Warren Ave, Detroit

2Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai, China

3Northwestern University, 633 Clark St, Evanston, IL 60208


International Journal of Physics. 2014, 2(6), 277-281
DOI: 10.12691/ijp-2-6-11
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Zhiliang Cao, Henry Gu Cao. Cubic Atom and Crystal Structures. International Journal of Physics. 2014; 2(6):277-281. doi: 10.12691/ijp-2-6-11.

Correspondence to: Zhiliang  Cao, Wayne State University, 42 W Warren Ave, Detroit. Email: williamcao12252000@yahoo.com

Abstract

The paper "Unified field theory" (UFT) unified four fundamental forces with help of the Torque model. UFT gives a new definition of Physics: “A natural science that involves the study of motion of space-time-energy-force to explain and predict the motion, interaction and configuration of matter.” One of important pieces of matter is the atom. Unfortunately, the configuration of an atom cannot be visually observed. Two of the important accepted theories are the Pauli Exclusion Principle and the Schrodinger equations. In these two theories, the electron configuration is studied. Contrary to the top down approach, UFT theory starts from structure of Proton and Neutron using bottom up approach instead. Interestingly, electron orbits, electron binding energy, Madelung Rules, Zeeman splitting and crystal structure of the metals, are associated with proton’s octahedron shape and three nuclear structural axes. An element will be chemically stable if the outmost s and p orbits have eight electrons which make atom a symmetrical cubic. Most importantly, the predictions of atomic configurations in this paper can be validated by characteristics of chemical elements which make the UFT claims credible. UFT comes a long way from space-time-energy-force to the atom. The conclusions of UFT are more precise and clearer than the existing theories that have no proper explanation regarding many rules, such as eight outer electrons make element chemically stable and the exception on Madelung's rules. Regardless of the imperfections of the existing atomic theories, many particle Physics theories have no choice but to build on top of atomic theories, mainly Pauli Exclusion Principle and Schrodinger equations. Physics starts to look for answer via ambiguous mathematical equations as the proper clues are missing. Physics issues are different from mathematical issues, as they are Physical. Pauli Exclusion works well in electron configuration under specific physical condition and it is not a general Physics principal. Schrodinger’s mathematical equations are interpreted differently in UFT. UFT is more physical as it built itself mainly on concept of Space, Time, Energy and Force, in the other word, UFT is Physics itself. Theory of Everything (ToE), the final theory of the Physics, can be simply another name for UFT. This paper connects an additional dot to draw UFT closer to ToE.

Keywords

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