International Journal of Physics

ISSN (Print): 2333-4568

ISSN (Online): 2333-4576

Website: http://www.sciepub.com/journal/IJP

Article

Properties of Optical Soliton in a Three Level Medium with Quintic Nonlinearity

1High Energy Physics Division, Department of Physics, Jadavpur University, Calcutta – 700032, India


International Journal of Physics. 2015, 3(2), 45-51
DOI: 10.12691/ijp-3-2-1
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Preeti Agarwal, A. Ray, A. Roy Chowdhury. Properties of Optical Soliton in a Three Level Medium with Quintic Nonlinearity. International Journal of Physics. 2015; 3(2):45-51. doi: 10.12691/ijp-3-2-1.

Correspondence to: Preeti  Agarwal, High Energy Physics Division, Department of Physics, Jadavpur University, Calcutta – 700032, India. Email: preeti.optics@gmail.com

Abstract

Propagation characteristics of optical soliton in a three level atomic medium are analyzed by treating the material medium quantum mechanically, but the electromagnetic wave classically. Both the cubic and quintic components of the nonlinear polarization of the electromagnetic field are considered along with those generated dueto the dipole formation of the material. A numerical simulation is carried out with the help of split-step technique. It is observed that the power of the pulse, distance of propagation and degree of dispersion are intimately related. The role of polarization due to the material is duely compensated by keeping higher order dispersive terms. In this connection we have seen that keeping the higher order dispersive terms, up to the eighth order, which is actually the phenomenon of continuum generation, results in a better form of the pulse. In our paper, we have analyzed the effects in both the cases, that is, including and excluding the quintic terms and in each case we have considered the effects of second-order dispersion (β2) as well as the higher order dispersion terms .

Keywords

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Article

Why Galaxies Look Like Islands in the Universe- and on the Origin of Dark Matter and Energy

1B&E Scientific Ltd, Seaford BN25 4PA, United Kingdom


International Journal of Physics. 2015, 3(2), 52-57
DOI: 10.12691/ijp-3-2-2
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Arne Bergstrom. Why Galaxies Look Like Islands in the Universe- and on the Origin of Dark Matter and Energy. International Journal of Physics. 2015; 3(2):52-57. doi: 10.12691/ijp-3-2-2.

Correspondence to: Arne  Bergstrom, B&E Scientific Ltd, Seaford BN25 4PA, United Kingdom. Email: arne.bergstrom@physics.org

Abstract

The Boltzmann transport equation is the rigorous continuity equation for quantum propagation in space. Requiring only that this equation should be Lorentz-covariant and dispersion-free leads to an exponentially expanding universe, and also to an exponential increase with time of the number of quanta involved, which could explain the existence of the dominating proportion (95.1 %) of dark matter and dark energy observed in the universe. Simulations of the quantum propagation from the Pareto distribution and quantum duplication thus derived from Lorentz-covariance show two specific, distinct distributions: (1) dense clusters of quantum trajectories close to each other (“dark matter”?), and (2) an extensive web of extremely long trajectories (“dark energy”?) to new such clusters. The dark matter clusters thus form a large-scale distribution of galaxy-type islands separated from each other, and immersed in a dominating web of dark energy trajectories. The simulations performed also give a ratio of dark energy to dark matter in the universe, which is consistent with the ratio recently measured by the Planck Space Telescope.

Keywords

References

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[3]  A. Bergstrom, “Is CMB just an observational effect of a universe in accelerated expansion?”, International Journal of Physics 1, 133-137 (2013).
 
[4]  A. Bergstrom, “Dark energy, exponential expansion, CMB, wave-particle duality - all result from Lorentz-covariance of Boltzmann’s transport equation”, International Journal of Physics 2, 112-117 (2014).
 
[5]  E. R. Harrison, Cosmology: The Science of the Universe (Cambridge University Press, 2000), Ch 23.
 
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[10]  A. M. Weinberg and E. P. Wigner, The Physical Theory of Neutron Chain Reactors (Univ. of Chicago Press, 1958), p. 235.
 
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[14]  A. Bergstrom, “Big Crunch, Big Rip – or a self-similar expansion replenished by dark matter and dark energy?”, International Journal of Physics 2, 146-150 (2014).
 
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Article

Field-Induced Magnetization in Nanostructures

1Physics of Magnetics and nanostructures, Institute of Magnetism NASU, Kyiv, Ukraine

2National University of Science and Technology “MISIS”, Moscow, Russia


International Journal of Physics. 2015, 3(2), 58-68
DOI: 10.12691/ijp-3-2-3
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
M. M. Krupa, V. G. Kostyshyn, A. M. Korostil. Field-Induced Magnetization in Nanostructures. International Journal of Physics. 2015; 3(2):58-68. doi: 10.12691/ijp-3-2-3.

Correspondence to: A.  M. Korostil, Physics of Magnetics and nanostructures, Institute of Magnetism NASU, Kyiv, Ukraine. Email: amand@rambler.ru

Abstract

The field-induced impact on magnetic nanostructures with a large spin-orbit interaction, consisting in magnetization reversal under ultra-short circularly polarized laser pulses or unipolar electric field pulses are studied. Using the magneto-optical method and a pump-probe technique based on the Kerr and Faraday effects, we have established features and conditions of the magnetization reversal in magnetic nanostructures under femtosecond circularly polarized laser pulses. It is shown that mechanisms of such the laser-induced impact is a complex process of laser-induced thermal demagnetization of magnetic sublattices with subsequent biasing by internal magnetic fields of different nature. The interfacial voltage-controlled magnetic anisotropy in magnetic nanostructures is studied. In the framework of the model, based on the Stoner magnetization and the Rashba spin-orbit interaction the conditions of the electric control of the perpendicular magnetic anisotropy and the magnetization switching are considered.

Keywords

References

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Article

A Solution Looking for a Problem - Generalised Hallway Switches

1B&E Scientific Ltd, BN25 4PA, United Kingdom


International Journal of Physics. 2015, 3(2), 69-73
DOI: 10.12691/ijp-3-2-4
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Arne Bergstrom. A Solution Looking for a Problem - Generalised Hallway Switches. International Journal of Physics. 2015; 3(2):69-73. doi: 10.12691/ijp-3-2-4.

Correspondence to: Arne  Bergstrom, B&E Scientific Ltd, BN25 4PA, United Kingdom. Email: arne.bergstrom@physics.org

Abstract

The properties of hallway switches are discussed with emphasis on how special types of such switch systems with arbitrarily many switches can be constructed and systematically become conducting/nonconducting by simply turning on/off any arbitrary switch in the system, and then become nonconducting/conducting again by turning off/on any arbitrary switch in the system, etc. A question is whether in physics, biology, genetics, economics, sociology, or traffic management, there might exist - or preferably would exist - complex such systems, the global state of which could thus be switched by a local action anywhere in the system and then switched back by another local action anywhere in the system.

Keywords

References

[1]  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Multiway_switching.
 
[2]  Richard Day, Wiring Multi Switches, Popular Science, Jan 1987, p 85.
 
[3]  Michael Litchfield and Michael McAlister, Taunton's Wiring Complete: Expert Advice from Start to Finish, Second Ed. (Taunton Press, Newtown CT), 2013.
 
[4]  Arne Bergstrom, Apparent Superluminal Speeds in Evanescent Fields, Quantum Tunnelling and Quantum Entanglement, International Journal of Physics 3, 40-44 (2015).
 
[5]  Arne Bergstrom, Apparatus for Authenticating Bank Notes, European Patent Specification 0198819B1 (1988).
 
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[6]  Arne Bergstrom, Optoelectronic Circuit Element, US Patent 4, 254, 333 (1981).
 
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Article

An Analogy Between the Properties of Light and Properties of Vortex-Wave Process in the Medium Similar to Superfluid 3Не-В

1The State University of Management


International Journal of Physics. 2015, 3(2), 74-83
DOI: 10.12691/ijp-3-2-5
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Liudmila B. Boldyreva. An Analogy Between the Properties of Light and Properties of Vortex-Wave Process in the Medium Similar to Superfluid 3Не-В. International Journal of Physics. 2015; 3(2):74-83. doi: 10.12691/ijp-3-2-5.

Correspondence to: Liudmila  B. Boldyreva, The State University of Management. Email: boldyrev-m@yandex.ru

Abstract

Characteristics of three types of photon used in the descriptions of optical experiments demonstrating the properties of light are discussed: C-photon – a quasi-monochromatic electromagnetic radiation localized in space, M-photon – a hypothetical elementary particle of the light field, and Q-photon – an objective entity corresponding to the Fock state of the light field. Some properties of superfluid 3Не-В are analyzed and equations are derived describing a vortex-wave process in the medium similar to superfluid 3Не-В. The comparison of the properties of light and those of vortex-wave process in the medium similar to superfluid 3Не-В shows that there is an analogy between the properties of light and the properties of the process. The analogy found allows one to offer a physical model describing such properties of light as the constancy of its speed in inertial frames of reference, and quantum correlations of photons.

Keywords

References

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Article

Hidden Multiverse: Explanation of Dark Matter and Dark Energy Phenomena

1Research Centre of information technology “TELAN Electronics”, Kiev, Ukraine


International Journal of Physics. 2015, 3(2), 84-87
DOI: 10.12691/ijp-3-2-6
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Alexander Alexandrovich Antonov. Hidden Multiverse: Explanation of Dark Matter and Dark Energy Phenomena. International Journal of Physics. 2015; 3(2):84-87. doi: 10.12691/ijp-3-2-6.

Correspondence to: Alexander  Alexandrovich Antonov, Research Centre of information technology “TELAN Electronics”, Kiev, Ukraine. Email: telan@bk.ru

Abstract

It is demonstrated that parallel universes forming the multiverse, according to the hypothesis suggested herein, actually exist and are accessible for people to visit, because they comply with the similarity principle. According to this principle, laws of nature governing different universes are identical or similar, but certain differences are also possible. For example, time in them can flow in any directions with respect to the time in our universe. The suggested hypothesis of the multiverse is based on the adjusted special theory of relativity, where statements on an unbreakable light speed barrier and lack of physical meaning of imaginary numbers are removed from the second postulate. Furthermore, the principle of physical reality of imaginary numbers is proven both theoretically and experimentally. In line with this principle, all the relativistic formulae of the special theory of relativity are adjusted accordingly. The reality of this multiverse is confirmed by the existence of dark matter and dark energy.

Keywords

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[20]  Antonov А.А. 2011. Structure of the Multiverse. British Journal of Science. 2 (2), 51-60.
 
[21]  Antonov А.А. 2012. Earth. Portals. Parallel Universes. American Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research, 3 (6). 464-473.
 
[22]  Antonov A.A. 2013. Cognition of the Multiverse as a factor facilitating the development of humanity. Russian Physical Thought Journal. 1 (12). 6-77.
 
[23]  Kantor I.L. and Solodovnikov A.S. (1989). Hypercomplex numbers. Springer Verlag. Berlin.
 
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Article

Gapless Superconductivity

1Moscow Aviation Institute, VolokolamskoeShosse, 4, 125871, Moscow, Russia


International Journal of Physics. 2015, 3(2), 88-95
DOI: 10.12691/ijp-3-2-7
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Boris V. Bondarev. Gapless Superconductivity. International Journal of Physics. 2015; 3(2):88-95. doi: 10.12691/ijp-3-2-7.

Correspondence to: Boris  V. Bondarev, Moscow Aviation Institute, VolokolamskoeShosse, 4, 125871, Moscow, Russia. Email: bondarev.b@mail.ru

Abstract

The mean field method is applied for analysis of valence electrons in metals. It is shown that at low temperatures electrons have two wave-vector distribution patterns. Isotropic distribution refers to the first pattern. Anisotropic distribution refers to another pattern, particularly to specific wave vector values occurred nearby the Fermi sphere. It is shown that it is the anisotropy that makes the metal obtain its specific superconductor features.

Keywords

References

[1]  H.Kamerlingh-Onnes, “Further experiments with liquid helium. C. On the change of electric resistance of pure metals at very low temperatures, ets. IV. The resistance of pure mercury at helium temteratures”. Comm. Phys. Leb. Univ. Leiden, (120b). 13-18. 1911.
 
[2]  V.L. Ginzburg, L.D. Landau, “To the theory of superconductivity”. JETF, 20, 1064-1071. 1950.
 
[3]  J. Bardeen, L.N. Cooper, J.R. Schrieffer, “Theory of superconductivity”. Phys. Rev., 108. 1175-1204.1957.
 
[4]  J.R. Schiffer, Superconductivity Theory, (Nauka, Moscow, 1970).
 
[5]  V.I.Bielawski,Y.V. Kopaev, “Superconductivity of repulsive particles”. UFN, 176, 457-485, 2006.
 
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[6]  M.V. Sadowski, “High-temperature superconductivity in layerediron compounds”. UFN, 178, 1243-1271, 2008.
 
[7]  B.V. Bondarev, “Quantum lattice gas. Method of density matrix”, Physica A, 184.205-230.1992.
 
[8]  B.V.Bondarev, “On some peculiarities of the electron distribution function Bloch states”, Vestnik MAI, 3 (2). 56-65.1 996.
 
[9]  B.V. Bondarev, Density Matrix Method in Quantum Cooperative Process Theory, (Sputnik+, Moscow, 2013).
 
[10]  B.V. Bondarev, Density Matrix Method in Quantum Theory of Superconductivity, (Sputnik+, Moscow, 2014).
 
[11]  B.V. Bondarev, New Theory of Superconductivity. Method of Equilibrium Density Matrix. arXiv: 1412. 6008 22 Sep 2013.
 
[12]  D.I. Blokhintsev, Principles of Quantum Mechanics, (Higher School, Moscow, 1961).
 
[13]  Yu.I. Sirotin, M.P. Shaskolskaya, Basic Crystallophysics, (Nauka, Moscow, 1979).
 
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Article

Invisible Spacetime Theory - An Approach to Generalize Subluminal and Superluminal Speeds

1Sri Sai Ram Engineering College, Chennai-600044, India


International Journal of Physics. 2015, 3(3), 96-99
DOI: 10.12691/ijp-3-3-1
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Parasuraman V, Sathishkumar G. Invisible Spacetime Theory - An Approach to Generalize Subluminal and Superluminal Speeds. International Journal of Physics. 2015; 3(3):96-99. doi: 10.12691/ijp-3-3-1.

Correspondence to: Sathishkumar  G, Sri Sai Ram Engineering College, Chennai-600044, India. Email: parasuraman_venkatraman@yahoo.com,sathishkumar.phy@sairam.edu.in

Abstract

Theory of Relativity and theories for superluminal speed cannot be given in same way even though both of them are created to explain the moving objects. In this paper a theoretical attempt is made to provide a general description for moving objects and time flow in moving objects, irrespective of their speed domain, is related with stationary objects. To do so, three assumptions are suggested such that they support Relativity at subluminal speeds and encourage 'Fifth dimension' concept at superluminal speeds.

Keywords

References

[1]  Einstein A. (1905) “Zur Elektrodynamik bewegter Körper”, Annalen der Physik 17: 891.
 
[2]  Randles J. (2005) “Breaking the Time Barrier: The Race to Build the First Time Machine”, Adult Publishing Group.
 
[3]  Beiser A. (1973) “Concepts of Modern Physics”, McGraw Hill Kogakusha Ltd..
 
[4]  Hawking S. (1998) “A Brief History of Time: From the Big Bang to Black Holes”, Bantam Dell Publishing Group.
 

Article

On the Test of Time Dilation Using the Relativistic Doppler Shift Equation

1Mechanical Department, DAH (S & P), Beirut, Lebanon


International Journal of Physics. 2015, 3(3), 100-107
DOI: 10.12691/ijp-3-3-2
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Radwan M. Kassir. On the Test of Time Dilation Using the Relativistic Doppler Shift Equation. International Journal of Physics. 2015; 3(3):100-107. doi: 10.12691/ijp-3-3-2.

Correspondence to: Radwan  M. Kassir, Mechanical Department, DAH (S & P), Beirut, Lebanon. Email: radwan.elkassir@dargroup.com

Abstract

In a recent research study entitled “Test of Time Dilation Using Stored Li+ Ions as Clocks at Relativistic Speed” (Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 120405 – Published 16 September 2014), an Ives–Stilwell type experiment,it was claimed that a conducted time dilation experiment using the relativistic Doppler effect on the Li+ ions resonance frequencies had verified, with a greatly increased precision, the relativistic frequency shift formula, derived in the Special Relativity from the Lorentz Transformation, thus indirectly proving the time dilation predicted by the Special Relativity. The test was based on the validation of an algebraic equality relating a set of measured frequencies, and deduced from the relativistic Doppler equations. In this study, it was shown that this algebraic equality, used as a validation criterion, did not uniquely imply the validity of the relativistic Doppler equations. In fact, using an approach in line with the referenced study, it was revealed that an infinite number of frequency shift equations would satisfy the employed validation criterion. Nonetheless, it was shown that even if that claim was hypothetically accepted, then the experiment would prove nothing but a contradiction in the Special Relativity prediction. In fact, it was clearly demonstrated that the relativistic blue shift was the consequence of a time contraction, determined via the light speed postulate, leading to the relativistic Doppler formula in the case of an approaching light source. The experiment would then be confirming a relativistic time contraction. It was also shown that the classical relativity resulted in perceived time alterations leading to the classical Doppler Effect equations. The “referenced study” result could be attributed to the classical Doppler shift within 10 % difference.

Keywords

References

[1]  A.A. Michelson and E.H. Morley, “On the Relative Motion of the Earth and the Luminiferous Ether,” Am. J. Sci. 34, 333-345 (1887).
 
[2]  A. Einstein, “Zur elektrodynamik bewegter Körper,” Annalen der Physik 322 (10), 891–921 (1905).
 
[3]  H. E. Ives and G. R. Stilwell, “Experimental Study of the Rate of a Moving Atomic Clock,” Journal of the Optical Society of America 28 (7), 215-226 (1938).
 
[4]  B. Botermann, D. Bing, Ch. Geppert, G. Gwinner, T.W. Hänsch, G. Huber, S. Karpuk, A. Krieger, T. Kühl, W. Nörtershäuser, Ch. Novotny, S. Reinhardt, R. Sánchez, D. Schwalm, T. Stöhlker, A. Wolf, and G. Saathoff6, “Test of Time Dilation Using Stored Li+ Ions as Clocks at Relativistic Speed,” Physical Review Letters 113, 120405 (2014).
 
[5]  A. Einstein, “Einstein's comprehensive 1907 essay on relativity, part I,” English translations in Am. Jour. Phys. 45 (1977), Jahrbuch der Radioaktivitat und Elektronik 4 (1907).
 
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[6]  R.M. Kassir, “On Lorentz Transformation and Special Relativity: Critical Mathematical Analyses and Findings,” Physics Essays 27, 16 (2014).
 
[7]  R.M. Kassir, “On Special Relativity: Root cause of the problems with Lorentz transformation,” Physics Essays 27 (2), 198-203 (2014).
 
[8]  R.M. Kassir, “The Critical Error in the Formulation of the Special Relativity,” International Journal of Physics 2 (6), 197-201 (2014).
 
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Article

Method of Equilibrium Density Matrix. Energy of Interacting Valence Electrons in Metal

1Moscow Aviation Institute, Volokolamskoe Shosse, 4, 125871, Moscow, Russia


International Journal of Physics. 2015, 3(3), 108-112
DOI: 10.12691/ijp-3-3-3
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Boris V. Bondarev. Method of Equilibrium Density Matrix. Energy of Interacting Valence Electrons in Metal. International Journal of Physics. 2015; 3(3):108-112. doi: 10.12691/ijp-3-3-3.

Correspondence to: Boris  V. Bondarev, Moscow Aviation Institute, Volokolamskoe Shosse, 4, 125871, Moscow, Russia. Email: bondarev.b@mail.ru

Abstract

In this article we apply the method of density matrices for the description of the equilibrium system of interacting electrons. Variational principle of the density matrices is used in the framework of the mean field method for research of systems of valence electrons in metals. We obtained the model Hamiltonian describing the behavior of interacting electrons, which describes all the properties of superconductors. Note that was using the Coulomb potential that acts between two electrons in the coordinate space.

Keywords

References

[1]  J. von Neumann, Mathematical Foundations of Quantum Mechanics, Nauka, Moscow, 1964.
 
[2]  K.Blum, Density Matrix Theory and Applications, Mir, Moscow, 1983.
 
[3]  B.V. Bondarev, Density matrix method in quantum theory of cooperative process, Sputnik+, Moscow, 2013, p. 621.
 
[4]  G.Lindblad, On the Generators of Quantum Dynamical Semigroups, Commun. Math. Phys. 1976, v. 48: 2, p. 119-130.
 
[5]  B.V. Bondarev, Quantum markovian master equation for system of identical particles interacting with a heat reservoir, Physisa A, 1991, v. 176, p. 366-386.
 
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[6]  B.V. Bondarev, Conclusion quantum the kinetic equation from the Liouville-von Neumann equation, TMP, 1994, № 1, p. 33-43.
 
[7]  B.V. Bondarev, Quantum lattice gas. Method of density matrix, Physisa A, 1992, v. 184, p. 205-230.
 
[8]  N. Ashcroft, N. Mermin, Solid State Physics, Mir, Moscow, 1979.
 
[9]  B.V. Bondarev, On some peculiarities of electrons distribution function over the Bloch states, Vestnik MAI, 1996, vol. 3, No. 2, p. 56-65.
 
[10]  B.V. Bondarev, New theory of superconductivity. Method of equilibrium density matrix. arXiv: 1412.6008 22 Sep 2013.
 
[11]  B.V. Bondarev, Density matrix method in quantum theory of superconductivity, Sputnik+, Moscow, 2014, p. 88.
 
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