International Journal of Physics

ISSN (Print): 2333-4568

ISSN (Online): 2333-4576

Website: http://www.sciepub.com/journal/IJP

Article

Free- free Scattering Theory of the Elastic Scattering of an Electron

1Central Department of Physics, Tribhuvan University, Kirtipur, Nepal


International Journal of Physics. 2015, 3(1), 32-39
DOI: 10.12691/ijp-3-1-6
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Kishori Yadav, Jeevan Jyoti Nakarmi. Free- free Scattering Theory of the Elastic Scattering of an Electron. International Journal of Physics. 2015; 3(1):32-39. doi: 10.12691/ijp-3-1-6.

Correspondence to: Jeevan  Jyoti Nakarmi, Central Department of Physics, Tribhuvan University, Kirtipur, Nepal. Email: nakarmijeevan@gmail.com

Abstract

In the present work, the elastic scattering of an electron from the target by absorbing a photon from the laser field has been studied. Since the solution of the Schrödinger equation of whole three-body system has not been found, we consider such intensities of electromagnetic field (Laser field) that the electron field coupling is the dominant process and the target is transparent to the field such that photon- target coupling can be ignored. Internal structure of target can be ignored and represented just as a scattering potential. For number of photon, l = -1, i.e, absorption of a photon (inverse Bremsstrahlung), The differential scattering cross section of an electron depends upon the fourth power of the wavelength (λ4) and the intensity of the Laser field The certain values of laser parameters the differential scattering cross section of scattered electron decreases with increase in scattering angle and attains a minimum value of 0.1 barn and further increase in scattering angle also increases in differential scattering cross section and attains a maximum value of 0.3 barn.

Keywords

References

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Article

Apparent Superluminal Speeds in Evanescent Fields, Quantum Tunnelling and Quantum Entanglement

1B&E Scientific Ltd, Seaford BN25 4PA, United Kingdom


International Journal of Physics. 2015, 3(1), 40-44
DOI: 10.12691/ijp-3-1-7
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Arne Bergstrom. Apparent Superluminal Speeds in Evanescent Fields, Quantum Tunnelling and Quantum Entanglement. International Journal of Physics. 2015; 3(1):40-44. doi: 10.12691/ijp-3-1-7.

Correspondence to: Arne  Bergstrom, B&E Scientific Ltd, Seaford BN25 4PA, United Kingdom. Email: arne.bergstrom@physics.org

Abstract

Three cases of wave propagation involving possible superluminal speeds are discussed. The picture that emerges is that the actual propagation velocity of the wave front never exceeds the speed of light in vacuum. However, once the wave front has reached some distant point in space, then propagation may actually seem to take place along this wave with superluminal speed, yet involving no conflict with special relativity. Quantum entanglement – Einstein’s “spooky action at a distance” – is one famous, and now experimentally verified example of propagation at such apparent superluminal speed, but which is here explained within the framework of special relativity. This then at the same time also leads to a deeper understanding of the limitation of the recently proposed clock-hypothesis in special relativity, and also provides an illustration of the mechanism involved in wave-particle duality.

Keywords

References

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[2]  J. S. Bell, Speakable and unspeakable in quantum mechanics (Cambridge University Press, 1987) pp. 142, 144.
 
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[5]  A. Bergstrom, “Relativistic invariance and the expansion of the universe”, Nuovo Cimento 27B, 145-160 (1975).
 
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[6]  A. Bergstrom, “Lorentz-covariant quantum transport and the origin of dark energy”, Phys. Scr. 83, 055901 (2011).
 
[7]  A. Bergstrom, “Big Crunch, Big Rip – or a self-similar expansion replenished by dark matter and dark energy?”, Int. Journal of Physics 2, 146-150 (2014).
 
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[13]  K. C. Lee, M. R. Sprague, B. J. Sussman, et al., “Entangling macroscopic diamonds at room temperature”, Science 334 1253-1256 (2011).
 
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[16]  G. Barton, Introduction to the relativity principle (Wiley, 1999), Ch 8.
 
[17]  A. Bergstrom, “Can time in special relativity appear frozen despite the clock hypothesis says it cannot?”, Int. Journal of Physics 1, 146-150 (2013).
 
[18]  X.-S. Ma, S. Zotter, J. Kofler, R. Ursin, T. Jennewein, Č. Brukner, and A. Zeilinger, “Experimental delayed-choice entanglement swapping”, Nature Physics 8, 480-485 (2012).
 
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Article

Properties of Optical Soliton in a Three Level Medium with Quintic Nonlinearity

1High Energy Physics Division, Department of Physics, Jadavpur University, Calcutta – 700032, India


International Journal of Physics. 2015, 3(2), 45-51
DOI: 10.12691/ijp-3-2-1
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Preeti Agarwal, A. Ray, A. Roy Chowdhury. Properties of Optical Soliton in a Three Level Medium with Quintic Nonlinearity. International Journal of Physics. 2015; 3(2):45-51. doi: 10.12691/ijp-3-2-1.

Correspondence to: Preeti  Agarwal, High Energy Physics Division, Department of Physics, Jadavpur University, Calcutta – 700032, India. Email: preeti.optics@gmail.com

Abstract

Propagation characteristics of optical soliton in a three level atomic medium are analyzed by treating the material medium quantum mechanically, but the electromagnetic wave classically. Both the cubic and quintic components of the nonlinear polarization of the electromagnetic field are considered along with those generated dueto the dipole formation of the material. A numerical simulation is carried out with the help of split-step technique. It is observed that the power of the pulse, distance of propagation and degree of dispersion are intimately related. The role of polarization due to the material is duely compensated by keeping higher order dispersive terms. In this connection we have seen that keeping the higher order dispersive terms, up to the eighth order, which is actually the phenomenon of continuum generation, results in a better form of the pulse. In our paper, we have analyzed the effects in both the cases, that is, including and excluding the quintic terms and in each case we have considered the effects of second-order dispersion (β2) as well as the higher order dispersion terms .

Keywords

References

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Article

Why Galaxies Look Like Islands in the Universe- and on the Origin of Dark Matter and Energy

1B&E Scientific Ltd, Seaford BN25 4PA, United Kingdom


International Journal of Physics. 2015, 3(2), 52-57
DOI: 10.12691/ijp-3-2-2
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Arne Bergstrom. Why Galaxies Look Like Islands in the Universe- and on the Origin of Dark Matter and Energy. International Journal of Physics. 2015; 3(2):52-57. doi: 10.12691/ijp-3-2-2.

Correspondence to: Arne  Bergstrom, B&E Scientific Ltd, Seaford BN25 4PA, United Kingdom. Email: arne.bergstrom@physics.org

Abstract

The Boltzmann transport equation is the rigorous continuity equation for quantum propagation in space. Requiring only that this equation should be Lorentz-covariant and dispersion-free leads to an exponentially expanding universe, and also to an exponential increase with time of the number of quanta involved, which could explain the existence of the dominating proportion (95.1 %) of dark matter and dark energy observed in the universe. Simulations of the quantum propagation from the Pareto distribution and quantum duplication thus derived from Lorentz-covariance show two specific, distinct distributions: (1) dense clusters of quantum trajectories close to each other (“dark matter”?), and (2) an extensive web of extremely long trajectories (“dark energy”?) to new such clusters. The dark matter clusters thus form a large-scale distribution of galaxy-type islands separated from each other, and immersed in a dominating web of dark energy trajectories. The simulations performed also give a ratio of dark energy to dark matter in the universe, which is consistent with the ratio recently measured by the Planck Space Telescope.

Keywords

References

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[2]  A. Bergstrom, “Lorentz-covariant quantum transport and the origin of dark energy”, Phys. Scr. 83, 055901 (2011).
 
[3]  A. Bergstrom, “Is CMB just an observational effect of a universe in accelerated expansion?”, International Journal of Physics 1, 133-137 (2013).
 
[4]  A. Bergstrom, “Dark energy, exponential expansion, CMB, wave-particle duality - all result from Lorentz-covariance of Boltzmann’s transport equation”, International Journal of Physics 2, 112-117 (2014).
 
[5]  E. R. Harrison, Cosmology: The Science of the Universe (Cambridge University Press, 2000), Ch 23.
 
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[7]  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Planck_(spacecraft) retrieved 2014-06-16.
 
[8]  A. M. Weinberg and E. P. Wigner, The Physical Theory of Neutron Chain Reactors (Univ. of Chicago Press, 1958), p. 232.
 
[9]  J. A. Stratton, Electromagnetic Theory (McGraw-Hill, 1941), p. 550.
 
[10]  A. M. Weinberg and E. P. Wigner, The Physical Theory of Neutron Chain Reactors (Univ. of Chicago Press, 1958), p. 235.
 
[11]  G. I. Bell and S. Glasstone, Nuclear Reactor Theory (Van Nostrand, 1970), p 54.
 
[12]  N. L. Johnson, S. Kotz, and N. Balakrishnan, Continuous Univariate Distributions. vol 1 (Wiley, 1994).
 
[13]  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wheat_and_chessboard_problem retrieved 2014-06-16.
 
[14]  A. Bergstrom, “Big Crunch, Big Rip – or a self-similar expansion replenished by dark matter and dark energy?”, International Journal of Physics 2, 146-150 (2014).
 
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Article

Field-Induced Magnetization in Nanostructures

1Physics of Magnetics and nanostructures, Institute of Magnetism NASU, Kyiv, Ukraine

2National University of Science and Technology “MISIS”, Moscow, Russia


International Journal of Physics. 2015, 3(2), 58-68
DOI: 10.12691/ijp-3-2-3
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
M. M. Krupa, V. G. Kostyshyn, A. M. Korostil. Field-Induced Magnetization in Nanostructures. International Journal of Physics. 2015; 3(2):58-68. doi: 10.12691/ijp-3-2-3.

Correspondence to: A.  M. Korostil, Physics of Magnetics and nanostructures, Institute of Magnetism NASU, Kyiv, Ukraine. Email: amand@rambler.ru

Abstract

The field-induced impact on magnetic nanostructures with a large spin-orbit interaction, consisting in magnetization reversal under ultra-short circularly polarized laser pulses or unipolar electric field pulses are studied. Using the magneto-optical method and a pump-probe technique based on the Kerr and Faraday effects, we have established features and conditions of the magnetization reversal in magnetic nanostructures under femtosecond circularly polarized laser pulses. It is shown that mechanisms of such the laser-induced impact is a complex process of laser-induced thermal demagnetization of magnetic sublattices with subsequent biasing by internal magnetic fields of different nature. The interfacial voltage-controlled magnetic anisotropy in magnetic nanostructures is studied. In the framework of the model, based on the Stoner magnetization and the Rashba spin-orbit interaction the conditions of the electric control of the perpendicular magnetic anisotropy and the magnetization switching are considered.

Keywords

References

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Article

A Solution Looking for a Problem - Generalised Hallway Switches

1B&E Scientific Ltd, BN25 4PA, United Kingdom


International Journal of Physics. 2015, 3(2), 69-73
DOI: 10.12691/ijp-3-2-4
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Arne Bergstrom. A Solution Looking for a Problem - Generalised Hallway Switches. International Journal of Physics. 2015; 3(2):69-73. doi: 10.12691/ijp-3-2-4.

Correspondence to: Arne  Bergstrom, B&E Scientific Ltd, BN25 4PA, United Kingdom. Email: arne.bergstrom@physics.org

Abstract

The properties of hallway switches are discussed with emphasis on how special types of such switch systems with arbitrarily many switches can be constructed and systematically become conducting/nonconducting by simply turning on/off any arbitrary switch in the system, and then become nonconducting/conducting again by turning off/on any arbitrary switch in the system, etc. A question is whether in physics, biology, genetics, economics, sociology, or traffic management, there might exist - or preferably would exist - complex such systems, the global state of which could thus be switched by a local action anywhere in the system and then switched back by another local action anywhere in the system.

Keywords

References

[1]  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Multiway_switching.
 
[2]  Richard Day, Wiring Multi Switches, Popular Science, Jan 1987, p 85.
 
[3]  Michael Litchfield and Michael McAlister, Taunton's Wiring Complete: Expert Advice from Start to Finish, Second Ed. (Taunton Press, Newtown CT), 2013.
 
[4]  Arne Bergstrom, Apparent Superluminal Speeds in Evanescent Fields, Quantum Tunnelling and Quantum Entanglement, International Journal of Physics 3, 40-44 (2015).
 
[5]  Arne Bergstrom, Apparatus for Authenticating Bank Notes, European Patent Specification 0198819B1 (1988).
 
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[6]  Arne Bergstrom, Optoelectronic Circuit Element, US Patent 4, 254, 333 (1981).
 
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Article

An Analogy Between the Properties of Light and Properties of Vortex-Wave Process in the Medium Similar to Superfluid 3Не-В

1The State University of Management


International Journal of Physics. 2015, 3(2), 74-83
DOI: 10.12691/ijp-3-2-5
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Liudmila B. Boldyreva. An Analogy Between the Properties of Light and Properties of Vortex-Wave Process in the Medium Similar to Superfluid 3Не-В. International Journal of Physics. 2015; 3(2):74-83. doi: 10.12691/ijp-3-2-5.

Correspondence to: Liudmila  B. Boldyreva, The State University of Management. Email: boldyrev-m@yandex.ru

Abstract

Characteristics of three types of photon used in the descriptions of optical experiments demonstrating the properties of light are discussed: C-photon – a quasi-monochromatic electromagnetic radiation localized in space, M-photon – a hypothetical elementary particle of the light field, and Q-photon – an objective entity corresponding to the Fock state of the light field. Some properties of superfluid 3Не-В are analyzed and equations are derived describing a vortex-wave process in the medium similar to superfluid 3Не-В. The comparison of the properties of light and those of vortex-wave process in the medium similar to superfluid 3Не-В shows that there is an analogy between the properties of light and the properties of the process. The analogy found allows one to offer a physical model describing such properties of light as the constancy of its speed in inertial frames of reference, and quantum correlations of photons.

Keywords

References

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Article

Hidden Multiverse: Explanation of Dark Matter and Dark Energy Phenomena

1Research Centre of information technology “TELAN Electronics”, Kiev, Ukraine


International Journal of Physics. 2015, 3(2), 84-87
DOI: 10.12691/ijp-3-2-6
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Alexander Alexandrovich Antonov. Hidden Multiverse: Explanation of Dark Matter and Dark Energy Phenomena. International Journal of Physics. 2015; 3(2):84-87. doi: 10.12691/ijp-3-2-6.

Correspondence to: Alexander  Alexandrovich Antonov, Research Centre of information technology “TELAN Electronics”, Kiev, Ukraine. Email: telan@bk.ru

Abstract

It is demonstrated that parallel universes forming the multiverse, according to the hypothesis suggested herein, actually exist and are accessible for people to visit, because they comply with the similarity principle. According to this principle, laws of nature governing different universes are identical or similar, but certain differences are also possible. For example, time in them can flow in any directions with respect to the time in our universe. The suggested hypothesis of the multiverse is based on the adjusted special theory of relativity, where statements on an unbreakable light speed barrier and lack of physical meaning of imaginary numbers are removed from the second postulate. Furthermore, the principle of physical reality of imaginary numbers is proven both theoretically and experimentally. In line with this principle, all the relativistic formulae of the special theory of relativity are adjusted accordingly. The reality of this multiverse is confirmed by the existence of dark matter and dark energy.

Keywords

References

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Article

Gapless Superconductivity

1Moscow Aviation Institute, VolokolamskoeShosse, 4, 125871, Moscow, Russia


International Journal of Physics. 2015, 3(2), 88-95
DOI: 10.12691/ijp-3-2-7
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Boris V. Bondarev. Gapless Superconductivity. International Journal of Physics. 2015; 3(2):88-95. doi: 10.12691/ijp-3-2-7.

Correspondence to: Boris  V. Bondarev, Moscow Aviation Institute, VolokolamskoeShosse, 4, 125871, Moscow, Russia. Email: bondarev.b@mail.ru

Abstract

The mean field method is applied for analysis of valence electrons in metals. It is shown that at low temperatures electrons have two wave-vector distribution patterns. Isotropic distribution refers to the first pattern. Anisotropic distribution refers to another pattern, particularly to specific wave vector values occurred nearby the Fermi sphere. It is shown that it is the anisotropy that makes the metal obtain its specific superconductor features.

Keywords

References

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Article

Invisible Spacetime Theory - An Approach to Generalize Subluminal and Superluminal Speeds

1Sri Sai Ram Engineering College, Chennai-600044, India


International Journal of Physics. 2015, 3(3), 96-99
DOI: 10.12691/ijp-3-3-1
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Parasuraman V, Sathishkumar G. Invisible Spacetime Theory - An Approach to Generalize Subluminal and Superluminal Speeds. International Journal of Physics. 2015; 3(3):96-99. doi: 10.12691/ijp-3-3-1.

Correspondence to: Sathishkumar  G, Sri Sai Ram Engineering College, Chennai-600044, India. Email: parasuraman_venkatraman@yahoo.com,sathishkumar.phy@sairam.edu.in

Abstract

Theory of Relativity and theories for superluminal speed cannot be given in same way even though both of them are created to explain the moving objects. In this paper a theoretical attempt is made to provide a general description for moving objects and time flow in moving objects, irrespective of their speed domain, is related with stationary objects. To do so, three assumptions are suggested such that they support Relativity at subluminal speeds and encourage 'Fifth dimension' concept at superluminal speeds.

Keywords

References

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