ISSN (Print): 2333-4568

ISSN (Online): 2333-4576

Editor-in-Chief: B.D. Indu




A 5 Year Retrospective Study of 131I Therapy for Thyroid Cancer Practice in King Abdulaziz University Hospital

1Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine Kind Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

2Department of Nuclear engineering, faculty of Engineering Kind Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

International Journal of Physics. 2016, 4(3), 69-73
doi: 10.12691/ijp-4-3-5
Copyright © 2016 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Mawya A. Khafaji, Majdi R. ALnowaimi. A 5 Year Retrospective Study of 131I Therapy for Thyroid Cancer Practice in King Abdulaziz University Hospital. International Journal of Physics. 2016; 4(3):69-73. doi: 10.12691/ijp-4-3-5.

Correspondence to: Majdi  R. ALnowaimi, Department of Nuclear engineering, faculty of Engineering Kind Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Email:


Since 1940s, intake of Iodine 131 is a deeprooted postoperative therapy for malignant thyroid. However, clinical practice does differ significantly between hospitals. This paper presents a retrospective study of a clinical practice for patients diagnosed with thyroid cancer at King Abdulaziz University Hospital (KAUH). The aim of this study was to benchmark KAUH practice patterns against international guidelines. A total of 100 patients with thyroid cancer were included, 70% females and 30% males with median age of 42.5 and 43.5 years respectively. Cases were patients, diagnosed with thyroid cancer and treated with radioactive iodine at KAUH in Saudi Arabia between 2005 and 2011. Some additional patient’s data were excluded from the study because of missing information or lost to follow-up. Medical records included patient’s gender, age, clinical diagnoses, iodine dose, and the recurrence. Where, thirty-three percent (33%) of the patients had papillary carcinoma, (3%) had follicular carcinoma and (1%) had Hurtle cell tumors. All patients had their total/partial thyroidectomy at KAUH. Dose administered ranged from (50 to 300) mCi with the 61% receiving a dose of 100mCi. A statistical test, Chisquare test, were used to allow us to test for deviations of observed frequencies from expected frequencies. The medical record showed that 3% of the patient had died and 4% had a recurrence that was successfully treated by the time of the study. Moreover, the 5-year survival rates for patients with thyroid cancers was 93%. The thyroid cancer incidence and the I-131 practice in KAUH is consistent with international data and standards.



[1]  Meier DA, Brill DR, Becker DV, Clarke SE, Silberstein EB, Royal HD, BalonHR. (2002). Procedure guideline for therapy of thyroid disease with (131)iodine. Journal of Nuclear Medicine.43(6):851-61
[2]  Kingdom of Saudi Arabia Ministry of Health National Cancer Registry. Cancer incidence and survival report Saudi Arabia (2007). Available at:
[3]  Parthasarathy, KL, Crawford ES. (2002). Treatment of Thyroid Carcinoma: Emphasis on High-Dose 131I Outpatient Therapy. Journal of Nuclear Medicine Technology.30(4):165-71.
[4]  Pacini F, Castanga MG, Brilli L, Pentheroudakis G. (2010). Thyroid cancer: ESMO Clinical Practice Guidelines for diagnosis, treatment and follow-up. Annals of Oncology. 21(5): v214-19.
[5]  Hoelzer S, Steiner D, Bauer R, Reiners C, Farahati J, Hundahl SA, Dudeck J. (2000). Current practice of radioiodine treatment in the management of differentiated thyroid cancer in Germany. Europian Journal of Nuclear Medicine. 27(10):1465-72.
Show More References
[6]  Seidlin SM, Oshry E, Yalow AA 1948 Spontaneous and experimentally induced uptake of radioactive iodine in metastases from thyroid carcinoma; a preliminary report. TheJournal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism.8:423-432.
[7]  Nostrand, DV, Wartofsky L. (2007). Radioiodine in the Treatment of Thyroid Cancer.Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America.36(3):807-22.
[8]  Dorn R, Kopp J, Vogt H, Heidenreich P, Caroll RG, Gulec SA. (2003). Dosimetry-Guided Radioactive Iodine Treatment in Patients with Metastatic Differentiated Thyroid Cancer: Largest Safe Dose Using a Risk-Adapted Approach. The Journal of Nuclear Medicine. 44(3): 451-56.
[9]  Carballo M, Quiros RM. (2012). Review Article: To Treat or Not to Treat: The Role of Adjuvant Radioiodine Therapy in Thyroid Cancer Patients. Journal of Oncology.(2012):1-11.
[10]  Valachis A, Nearchou A. (2012).High versus low radioiodine activity in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer: A meta-analysis. ActaOncologica. 0(0):1-8.
[11]  Ogbera, AO. (2010). A two-year audit of thyroid disorders in an urban hospital in Nigeria.Nigerian Quarterly Journal of Hospital Medicine. 20(2): 81-5.
[12]  Abdullah M. (2002). Thyroid cancer: The Kuala Lumpur experience. The New Zealand Journal of Surgery.72(9):660-4.
[13]  Gkountouvas A, Nikas M, Chatjimarkou F, Thomas D, Georgiadis P, Kaldrimidis P. (2010). Thyroid cancer in Greece.A tertiary center experience. Journal of Balkan Union of Oncology. 15(4):674-8.
[14]  Shields JA, Farringer JL Jr. (1977). Thyroid cancer. Twenty-three years' experience at Baptist and St. Thomas Hospitals. The American Journal of Surgery. 133(2): 211-5.
[15]  Hsieh SH, Chen ST, Hsueh C, Chao TC, Lin JD. (2012). Gender- Specific Variation in the prognosis of papillary thyroid cancer TNM stages II to IV. International Journal of Endocrinology. 2012 (2012): Article ID 379097, 5 pages.
[16]  Jonklaas J, Nogueras-Gonzalez G, Munsell M, Litofsky D, Ain KB, Bigos ST, Brierley JD, Cooper DS, Haugen BR, Ladenson PW, Magner J, Robbins J, Ross DS, Skarulis MC, Steward DL, Maxon HR, Sherman SI; National Thyroid Cancer Treatment Cooperative Study Group. (2012). The impact of age and gender on papillary thyroid cancer survival. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism. 97(6):E878-87.
[17]  Smallridge RC, Ain KB, Asa SL, Bible KC, Brierley JD, Burman KD, Kebebew E, Lee NY, Nikiforov YE, Rosenthal MS, Shah MH, Shaha AR, Tuttle RM. (2012). American Thyroid Association Guidelines for Management of Patients with Anaplastic Thyroid Cancer. Thyroid. 22(11); 1104-1139.
[18]  Haymart DG, Stewart AK, Griggs JJ, Banerjee M. (2013). Disease Severity and Radioactive Iodine Use for Thyroid Cancer. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism. 98(2): 678-686.
[19]  Grünwald F, Ruhlmann J, Ammari B, Knopp R, Hotze A, Biersack HJ. (1988). Experience with a high-dose therapy concept in metastatic differentiated thyroid cancer. Nuklearmedizin. 27(6):266-71.
[20]  Schvartz C, Bonnetain F, Dabakuyo S, Gauthier M, Cueff A, Fieffé S, Pochart JM, Cochet I, Crevisy E, Dalac A, Papathanassiou D, Toubeau M. (2012). Impact on overall survival of radioactive iodine in low-risk differentiated thyroid cancer patients.The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism. 97(5): 1526-35.
[21]  Sacks W, Fung CH, Chang JT, Waxman A, Braunstein GD. (2010). The effectiveness of radioactive iodine for treatment of low-risk thyroid cancer: a systematic analysis of the peer-reviewed literature from 1966 to April 2008. Thyroid. 20(11):1235-45.
[22]  Barbesino G, Goldfarb M, Parangi S, Yang J, Ross DD, Daniels GH. (2012). Lobe ablation with radioactive iodine as an alternative to completion thyroidectomy after hemithyroidectomy in patients with follicular thyroid cancer: long-term follow-up. Thyroid. 22(4):369-76.
[23]  Ibrahimpasic T, Nixon IJ, Palmer FL, Whitcher MM, Tuttle RM, Shaha A, Patel SG, Shah JP, Ganly I. (2012). Undetectable thyroglobulin after total thyroidectomy in patients with low- and intermediate-risk papillary thyroid cancer--is there a need for radioactive iodine therapy?.Surgery. 152(6):1096-105.
[24]  Afroz S, Ahmed K, Yasmeen S, Ahmed F, Nisa L. (1992). Role of radioiodine in management of thyroid cancer: experience with 70 cases. Bangladesh Medical Research Council Bulletin. 18(2): 68-71.
[25]  Cooper DS, Doherty GM, Haugen BR, Kloos RT, Lee SL, Mandel SJ, Mazzaferri EL, McIver B, Pacini E, Schlumberger M, Sherman SI, Steward DL, Tuttle RM. (2009). Revised American Thyroid Association Management Guidelines for Patients with Thyroid Nodules and Differentiated Thyroid Cancer. Thyroid. 19(11); 1167-1214.
[26]  Clerc J. Bienvenu-perrard M. Pichard de Malleray C. Dagousset F. Delbot T. Dreyfuss M. Groussin L. Marlowe RJ, Leger FA. Chevalier A. (2012) Outpatient thyroid remnant ablation using repeated low I131 iodine activites (740 MBq/20mCi * 2) in patients with low-risk differentiated thyroid cancer. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism. 97:871-80
[27]  Van Nostrand D, Atkins F. (2011).Pediatric Differentiated Thyroid Cancer: Can the Prescribed Activity of I-131 Be Increased? The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism. 96(8):2401-2403
[28]  Morris LGT, Sikora AG, Tosteson TD, Davies L. (2013). The Increasing Incidence of Thyroid Cancer: The Influence of Access to Care. Thyroid. 23(7); 885-891.
Show Less References


A Theoretical Study of the Atomic Properties for Subshells of N+ and O+2 Using Hartree-Fock Approximation

1Department of physics, Faculty of Sciences, Kufa University, Iraq

International Journal of Physics. 2016, 4(4), 74-77
doi: 10.12691/ijp-4-4-1
Copyright © 2016 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Hayder Ali Abd Alabas, Qassim Shamkhi AL-Khafaji, Abbas Hassan Raheem. A Theoretical Study of the Atomic Properties for Subshells of N+ and O+2 Using Hartree-Fock Approximation. International Journal of Physics. 2016; 4(4):74-77. doi: 10.12691/ijp-4-4-1.

Correspondence to: Hayder  Ali Abd Alabas, Department of physics, Faculty of Sciences, Kufa University, Iraq. Email:


In this research, we calculated the atomic properties of systems have been studied (N+ and O+2 ) for intra-shells (1s, 2s and 2p) using Hartree-Fock wave function. These properties included, one-particle radial density function, one-particle and inter-particle expectation values, inter-particle density function and expectation values of energies. All these atomic properties increase with atomic number, have highest values in 1s shell and lowest values in 2p shell. All results are obtained numerically by using the computer program (MathCad 14) because it able to calculation and plot functions. All atomic properties are calculated in atomic units.



[1]  Szabo and N.S. Ostlund, “Modern Quantum Chemistry Introduction to Advanced Electronic Structure Theory”, Dover Publications, INC., New York, 1989.
[2]  I. N. Levine, “Quantum chemistry”, Prentice-Hall, Inc. New Jersey. 2000.
[3]  J. c. Slater, “Quantum theory of atomic structure.” McGRAW-HILL BOOK COMPANY, INC., New York, 1960.
[4]  Q. S. Alkafaji, S. K. AL-Shebly, H. H. Bilal, and N. H. Ali, J. Adv. Phys., Vol. 5, pp. 1-4, 2016.
[5]  B. H.Al-Asaad, S. A.Hasson and K. H.Al-Bayati, J. Um-Salama Sceience Vol. 4, No. 3, pp. 393-396, 2007.
Show More References
[6]  K.H.AL-bayati, K. A. Mohammed and K.O.AL-baiti, J.Um-Salama Sceience, Vol. 2, No. 2, pp. 317-326, 2005.
[7]  R. J. Dosh, J. Kufa of Physics, Vol. 6, No. 1, pp. 107-111, 2014.
[8]  H. Matsuyama and T. Koga, Theor. Chem. Acc., Vol. 118, pp. 643-647, 2007.
[9]  T. Oyamada, K. Hongo, Y. Kawazoe, and H. Yasuhara (2010) J. of Chem. Phys., Vol. 133.
[10]  Koga et al. (1999) J. Chem. Phys., Vol. 110, No. 12, pp. 5763-5771.
[11]  K. H. AL-bayati, A.K. Ahmed and N.CH.AL-Tamimei, J.Um-Salama Sceience, Vol. 3, No. 2, pp. 246-253, 2006.
[12]  C. A. Coulson and A. H. Neilson, Proc. Phys. Soc., Vol. 78, pp. 831-837, 1961.
[13]  R. J. Boyd and C. A. Coulson, J. Phys. B At. Mol. Phys., Vol. 6, pp. 782-793, 1973.
[14]  R. J.Dosh and Q. S. AL-Kafaji, J. Kufa of Physics, Vol. 5, No. 1, pp. 91-102, 2013.
[15]  C. L. Ladera and E. Alomá, Lat. Am. J. Phys. Educ., Vol. 4, No. 2, pp. 260-266, 2010.
Show Less References


Stability of Dissipative Optical Solitons in the 2D Complex Swift-Hohenberg Equation

1Ecole Supérieure Africaine des Technologies d’Information et de Communication (ESATIC), Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire

2Université Félix Houphouët Boigny, Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire

3Institut National Polytechnique Félix Houphouët Boigny (INP-HB), Yamoussoukro, Côte d’Ivoire

International Journal of Physics. 2016, 4(4), 78-84
doi: 10.12691/ijp-4-4-2
Copyright © 2016 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
P. Yoboue, A. Diby, O. Asseu, A. Kamagate. Stability of Dissipative Optical Solitons in the 2D Complex Swift-Hohenberg Equation. International Journal of Physics. 2016; 4(4):78-84. doi: 10.12691/ijp-4-4-2.

Correspondence to: O.  Asseu, Ecole Supérieure Africaine des Technologies d’Information et de Communication (ESATIC), Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire. Email:


This article deals with stationary localized solutions of the (2D) two-dimensional complex Swift-Hohenberg equation (CSHE). Our approach is based on the semi-analytical method of collective coordinate approach. According to the parameters of the equation and a suitable choice of ansatz, the stationary dissipative solitons of the 2D CSHE equation are mapped. This approach allows to describe the influence of the parameters of the equation on the various physical parameters of the pulse and their dynamics. Finally, the major impact of spectral filtering terms on the dynamic of the solitons is demonstrated.



[1]  Y. Silberberg, Collapse of optical pulses, Optics Letters 15 (1990), 1282-1284.
[2]  N. N. Rosanov, Spatial hysteresis and optical patterns, Springer Berlin, 2002.
[3]  N. Akhmediev and A. Ankiewicz, Solitons Around Us: Integrable, Hamiltonian and Dissipative Systems, Lecture Notes in Physics, Springer, Heidelberg, 2003.
[4]  N. Akhmediev and A. Ankiewicz, Dissipative solitons. Ed. Springer, Heidelberg, 2005.
[5]  N. Akhmediev and A. Ankiewicz, Dissipative solitons: from optics to biology and medicine, Springer, Heidelberg, 2008.
Show More References
[6]  Q. Zhou, Y. Zhong, M. Mirzazadeh, A.H. Bhrawy, E. Zerrad and A. Biswas, Thirring combo solitions with cubic nonlinearity and spatio-temporal dispersion, Waves in Random and Complex Media. Vol. 26 (2016), Issue 2, 204-210.
[7]  Q. Zhou, M. Mirzazadeh, E. Zerrad, A. Biswas and M. Belic, Bright, dark and singular solitons in optical fibers with spatio-temporal dispersion and spatially-dependent coefficients, Journal of Modern Optics. Vol. 63 (2016), Number 10, 950-954.
[8]  M. Mirzazadeh, M. Eslami, M. Savescu, A. H. Bhrawy, A. A. Alshaery, E. M. Hilal and A. Biswas, Optical solitons in dwdmsystem with spatio-temporal dispersion, Journal of Nonlinear Optical Physics and Materials. Vol. 24 (2015), Issue 1, 1550006.
[9]  J.M. Soto Crespo, Ph. Grelu and N. Akhmediev, Optical bullets and “rockets” in nonlinear dissipative systems and their transformations and interactions, Optics Express 14 (2006), 4013-4025.
[10]  J.M. Soto Crespo, N. Akhmediev and Ph. Grelu, Spatiotemporal optical solitons in nonlinear dissipative media: From stationary light bullets to pulsating complexes, CHAOS 17 (2007), 037112.
[11]  A. H. Arnous, M. Mirzazadeh, S. Moshokoa, S. Medhekar, Q. Zhou, M. F. Mahmood, A. Biswas and M. Belic, Solitons in optical metamaterials with trial solution approach and backlund transform of riccati equation, Journal and Computational and Theoretical Nanoscience. Vol. 12 (2015), Number 12, 5940-5948.
[12]  V. Skarla and N. Aleksic, Stability Criterion for Dissipative Soliton Solutions of the One-, Two-, and Three-Dimensional Complex Cubic-Quintic Ginzburg-Landau Equations, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96 (2006), 013903.
[13]  A. Kamagaté, Ph. Grelu, P. Tchofo-Dinda, J.M. Soto-Crespo, N. Akhmediev, Stationary and pulsating dissipative light bullets from a collective variable approach. Phys. Rev. E, 2009, 79, 026609.
[14]  M. Mirzazadeh, M. F. Mahmood, F. B. Majid, A. Biswas and M. Belic, Optical solitons in birefringent fibers with riccati equation method, Optoelectronics and Advanced Materials - Rapid Communications. Vol. 9 (2015), Numbers7-8, 1032-1036.
[15]  P. Tchofo-Dinda, A.B. Moubissi, K. Nakkeeran, Collective variable theory for optical solitons in fibers. Phys Rev. E, 64 (2001), 016608.
[16]  G. Nicolis and I. Prigogine, Self-organization in nonequilibrium systems - From dissipative structures to order through fluctuations, John Wiley \& sons, New York,1977.
[17]  W.V. Saarlos and P.C. Hhenberg, Fronts, pulse, sources and sinks in generalized Ginzburg-Landau. Physica D, 56 (1992), 303-367.
[18]  N. Bekki and K. Nozaki, Formations of spatial patterns and holes in the generalized Ginzburg-Landau equation, Phys. Lett., 110 (1985), 133-135.
[19]  N. Akhmediev and V.V. Afanasjev, Novel arbitrary-amplitude soliton solutions of cubic-quintic complex Ginzburg-Landau equation, Phys. Rev. Lett., 75 (1995), 2320-2323.
[20]  Y. Kuramoto, Chemical Oscillations, Waves and Turbulence Dissipative Solitons, Springer-Verglag, Berlin, 1984.
[21]  C. Normand, Y. Pomeau, M.G. Velarde, Convective instability: A physicist’s approach, Rev. Mod. Phys., 49 (1977), 581-624.
[22]  N. Akhmediev and A. Ankiewicz, Solitons of the Complex Ginzburg-Landau equation, Springer, Berlin, 2001.
[23]  P.A. Belanger, Coupled-cavity mode-locking: a nonlinear model, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B, 8 (1991), 2077-2082.
[24]  J.D. Moores, On the Ginzburg-Landau laser mode-locking model with fifth-oder saturable absorber term, Opt. commun., 96 (1993), 65-70.
[25]  L.F. Mollenauer, J.P. Gordon and S.G. Evangelides, The sliding-frequency guiding: an improved from soliton jitter control, Opt. Lett., 1992, vol.17 (1992), 1575-1577.
[26]  W.J. Firth and A.J. Scroggie, Optical bullet holes: Robust controllable localized states of a nonlinear cavity, Phys. Rev. Lett., 76 (1996), 1623-1626.
[27]  P.S. Jian, W.E. Torruellas, M. Haelterman, U. Peschel and F. Lederer, Solitons of singly resonant optical parametric oscillators, Opt. Lett, 24 (1994), 400-402.
[28]  M. Mirzazadeh, A. H. Arnous, M. F. Mahmood, E. Zerrad and A. Biswas, Solitons solutions to resonant nonlinear Schrodinger’s equation with time dependent coefficients by trial solution approach, Nonlinear Dynamics. Vol. 81 (2015), Issue 1-2. 277-282.
Show Less References