ISSN (Print): 2333-4568

ISSN (Online): 2333-4576

Editor-in-Chief: B.D. Indu

Website: http://www.sciepub.com/journal/IJP

   

Article

Anharmonicity and Impurity Effects on Infrared Absorption in High Temperature Superconductors

1Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Roorkee-247667, India


International Journal of Physics. 2016, 4(2), 43-49
doi: 10.12691/ijp-4-2-4
Copyright © 2016 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Hempal Singh, B. D. Indu. Anharmonicity and Impurity Effects on Infrared Absorption in High Temperature Superconductors. International Journal of Physics. 2016; 4(2):43-49. doi: 10.12691/ijp-4-2-4.

Correspondence to: B.  D. Indu, Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Roorkee-247667, India. Email: drbdindu@gmail.com

Abstract

Taking into account the effects of anharmonicities and point impurities the quantum dynamics of phonons for high temperature superconductors is developed using Green’s function formalism via an almost complete Hamiltonian (without BCS Hamiltonian) which comprises the effects of (i) unperturbed electrons, (ii) unperturbed phonons, (iii) electron-phonon interactions, (iv) anharmonicities and (v) isotopic impurities. This is utilized to obtain the expressions for infrared absorption coefficient which can be resolved into diagonal and non-diagonal parts. Non-diagonal contribution arises only in impure crystals and vanishes in the case of pure crystal. The investigations are also made to study the dependence of infrared absorption coefficient on various parameters in the superconducting and normal regimes followed by numerical estimates for cuprate superconductor . The temperature dependence of infrared absorption coefficients and automatic emergence of pairons appears as a special feature of the theory.

Keywords

References

[1]  K. Patnaik and J. Mahanty, Infrared Absorption due to Substitutional Impurity in Cubic Crystals, Phys. Rev., 155, 987, 1967.
 
[2]  T. Timusk, D. A. Bonn, J. E. Greedan, C. V. Satger, J. D. Garrett, A. H. O’Reilly, M. Reedyk, K. Kamaras, C. D. Porter, S. L. Herr and D. B. Tanner, Infrared properties of YBa2Cu3Ot-δ, Phys. C, 153, 1744, 1988.
 
[3]  Maradudin, A. A, In astrophysics and the many-body problem. Benjamin, New York, 1963.
 
[4]  G. Benedek and G. F. Nardelli, Lattice response functions of imperfect crystals: Effects due to a local change of mass and short-range interaction, Phys. Rev., 155, 1004, 1967.
 
[5]  R. J. Elliott and D. W. Taylor, Vibrations of random dilute alloys. Proc. R. Soc. London A, 296, 161, 1967.
 
Show More References
[6]  Martin, T. P, Impurity-induced infrared absorption in a monatomic fcc lattice, Phys. Rev., 160, 686, 1967.
 
[7]  Maradudin, A. A, Advances in research and applications, solid state physics. vols. 18 and 19. edited by F. Seitz and D. Turnbull (Academic Press, New York) 1966.
 
[8]  Genzel, L, Optical properties of solids. edited by S Nudelman and S S Mitra, 1969.
 
[9]  Semwal, B. S. and Sharma, P. K, Dielectric susceptibility and infrared absorption in an anharmonic crystals, Prog. Theo. Phy., 51, 639, 1974.
 
[10]  Florence H. Forziati and Rowen, John W, Effect of changes in crystalline structure on the infrared absorption spectrum of cellulose, J. Res. Nat. Bur. Stand., 46, 38, 1951.
 
[11]  Lax,M. and Burstein, E, Infrared lattice absorption in ionic and homopolar crystals, Phys. Rev., 97, 39, 1955.
 
[12]  Czerny, M, Measurement on the rock salt in ultra red for testing the theory of dispersion. Z. Physik, 65, 600, 1930.
 
[13]  Barnes, R. B. and Czerny, M, Messungen am NaCl und KCl im Sprktrabereic inher ultraroten Eigenschwingungen. Z. Physik, 72, 447, 1931.
 
[14]  Born, M. and Blackman, M, Uber die feinstruktur der reststrahlen. Z. Physik, 82, 551, 1933.
 
[15]  Blackman, M, Die feinstruktur der reststrahlen. Z. Physik, 86, 421, 1933.
 
[16]  Robert Brattain, R., Barnes, R. B. and Seitz, F, On the structure and interpretation of the infrared absorption spectra of crystals. Phys. Rev., 48, 582, 1935.
 
[17]  Ashokan, Vinod, Indu,B. D, and Dimri, A. Kr, Signature of electron-phonon interactions in high temperature superconductors, AIP Advances, 1, Article ID:032101, 2011.
 
[18]  K. N. Pathak, Theory of anharmonic crystals., Phys. Rev., 139, 1569, 1965.
 
[19]  Indu, B. D, Theory of lattice specific heat of an isotopically disordered anharmonic crystal, Int. J. Mod. Phys. B, 4, 1379, 1990.
 
[20]  Indu, B. D, Enhanced phonon density of states in impure anharmonic crystals, Mod. Phys. Lett. B, 6, 1665, 1992.
 
[21]  Singh, Hempal, Singh, Anu, Ashokan, Vinod and Indu,B. D, Signature of anharmonicities in high temperature superconductors, Ind. J. Appl. Res., 3, 35, 2013.
 
[22]  Painuli, C. P, Jagdish Chandra, and Indu, B. D, Infrared absorption in defect induced anharmonic solids, Pramana. J. Phys., 40, 345, 1993.
 
Show Less References

Article

Natural Radioactivity and Associated Dose Rates in Soil Samples in the Destroyed Fuel Fabrication Facility, Iraq

1Department of Physics, College of Science, AL-Mustansiriya University, Iraq

2Ministry of Science and Technology, Iraq


International Journal of Physics. 2016, 4(3), 50-54
doi: 10.12691/ijp-4-3-1
Copyright © 2016 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Abdulla Ahmad Rasheed, Nada Farhan Kadhum, Nadhim Khaleel Ibrahim. Natural Radioactivity and Associated Dose Rates in Soil Samples in the Destroyed Fuel Fabrication Facility, Iraq. International Journal of Physics. 2016; 4(3):50-54. doi: 10.12691/ijp-4-3-1.

Correspondence to: Nadhim  Khaleel Ibrahim, Ministry of Science and Technology, Iraq. Email: nawi1980@yahoo.com

Abstract

The activity concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides 226Ra, 232Th and 40K in soil samples collected from Fuel Fabrication Facility in Al-Tuwaitha nuclear site were measured by using a high resolution gamma spectrometry system via High Purity Germanium (HPGe) Detector with a relative efficiency of (>40%) and resolution (<1.8keV) at energy of (1.33MeV) for 60Co. The average activity concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K in soil samples were found to be 15.78±1.16, 14.09±1.33 and 306.42±18.1 Bqkg-1, respectively. The results obtained for the corresponding radionuclides are lower than the worldwide average values of 35, 30, and 400 Bqkg-1, respectively. The average absorbed dose rate in air (Dγ), the average radium equivalent activity (Raeq) and the average external hazard index (Hex) were determined as 28.90±2.12 nGyh-1, 59.52±4.45 Bqkg-1 and 0.16±0.012, respectively, which are below the permissible limit.

Keywords

References

[1]  United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR), Sources, Effects, and Risks of Ionizing Radiation (1993).
 
[2]  United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR), Report to the General Assembly, United Nations, New York (2000).
 
[3]  Bozkurt, A., Yorulmaz, N., Kam, E., Karahan, G. and Osmanlioglu, A.E. “Assessment of environmental radioactivity for Sanliurfa region of southeastern Turkey”. Rodiat, Meas.
 
[4]  Chesser R. K., Rodgers B. E., Bondarkov M., Shubber E. and Phillips C. J., “Piecing together Iraq's nuclear legacy”, Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, May/June, vol. 65, no. 3, pp. 19-33, (2009).
 
[5]  Cochran J. R. and Danneels J. J., “Support of the Iraq Nuclear Facility Dismantlement and Disposal Program” Sandia National Laboratories report, SAND2009-1732 (2009).
 
Show More References
[6]  International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), “The Iraq Decommissioning Project – Eight Years of Accomplishments”, 18 September, Vienna, Austria (2013).
 
[7]  United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effect of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR), “Ionising Radiation: Sources, and Biological Effect”, New York: United Nations. ISBN: 9211422426 (1982).
 
[8]  Authority of the Standards Policy and Strategy Committee, “Measurement of radioactivity in the environment - Soil”, British Standard, ISO 18589-1(2005).
 
[9]  Bou-Rabee, F., Bem, H., “Natural radioactivity in building materials utilized in the State of Kuwait”, Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry, 213(2): p. 143-149 (1996).
 
[10]  Beretka J. and Mathew P. J., “Natural Radioactivity of Australian Building Materials, Industrial Wastes and by Products”, Health Physics, 48: 87-95 (1985).
 
[11]  Ajayi, O. S., “Measurement of Activity Concnetrations of 40K, 226Ra and 232Th for Assessment of Radiation Hazards from Soils of the Southwestern Region of Nigeria”, Radiation and Environmental Biophysics 48, 323-332 (2009).
 
[12]  Ibrahim N., “Natural activities of 238U, 232Th and 40K in building materials”. Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, 43(3): p. 255-258 (1999).
 
[13]  International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), “Recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection 60”, in ICRP Publication 60, Pergamon Press Annals of the ICRP, Oxford, UK (1990).
 
[14]  Al-Hamarneh I. F. and Awadallah M. I., “Soil radioactivity levels and radiation hazard assessment in the highlands of northern Jordan”. Radiation Measurements, 44(1): p. 102-110 (2009).
 
[15]  Amrani, D., Tahtat, M., “Natural radioactivity in Algerian building materials”, Applied Radiation and Isotopes, 54(4): p. 687-689 (2001).
 
Show Less References

Article

Measurement of Radon 222 Concentrations in the Basements of the New Engineering Building from the Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú

1Sección Física, Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú, Lima-Perú


International Journal of Physics. 2016, 4(3), 55-58
doi: 10.12691/ijp-4-3-2
Copyright © 2016 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Rojas Jhonny, Bertín Perez, Patrizia Pereyra, María Elena Lopez, Luis Vilcapoma. Measurement of Radon 222 Concentrations in the Basements of the New Engineering Building from the Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú. International Journal of Physics. 2016; 4(3):55-58. doi: 10.12691/ijp-4-3-2.

Correspondence to: Patrizia  Pereyra, Sección Física, Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú, Lima-Perú. Email: ppereyr@pucp.edu.pe

Abstract

Historical data of 222 Radon concentrations were collected in the building of Engineering PUCP recently built with eleven levels (eight on grades and three basements). The measurements were made in the three basement levels of the building. The first results of the history of 222 Radon concentrations in the basements of this building used as a parking lot are shown. The monitoring started the first week it was opened to the public. As nuclear track detectors we use the polymer cellulose nitrate (LR115 - Type 2). Changes in the concentration of 222 Radon registered, are linked into account aspects such as the use of exhaust extractors, increase in the number of vehicles, construction time and seasonal parameters. The results show adequate levels of 222 Radon concentration in all basements, the highest value is 97, 41 Bq/ m3 at the deepest level, the third.

Keywords

References

[1]  F. Goded, V. Serradell., “Teoría de Reactores y Elementos de Ingeniería Nuclear”, Tomo I, 3° Edición, 1975.
 
[2]  World Health Organization, “SELECTED POLLUTANTS”, 2010.
 
[3]  World Health Organization, “WHO HANDBOOK ON INDOOR RADON”, 2009.
 
[4]  ICRP, 1987. Lung Cancer Risk from Exposures to Radon Daughters. ICRP Publication 50.
 
[5]  S Darby, D Hill, A Auvinen, J M Barros-Dios, H Baysson, F Bochicchio, et al., “A Radon in Homes and Risk of Lung Cancer: Collaborative Analysis of Individual Data from 13 European Case-control Studies”, British Medical Journal, 2005 January 29, 330 (7485): 223.
 
Show More References
[6]  D Krewski, JH Lubin, JM Zeilinski, M Alavanja, VS Catalan, RW Field, et al.,”A Residential Radon and Risk of Lung Cancer: A Combined Analysis of 7 North American Case-control Studies”., Epidemiology, 2005 March; 16 (2):137-45.
 
[7]  “Radon Risk If You've Never Smoked”, http://www.epa.gov/radon/healthrisks.html. 1999-2001.
 
[8]  Espinosa, G., “Trazas Nucleares en Sólidos”, UNAM. México, 1994.
 
[9]  R.L. Fleischer, P.B. Price, R.M. Walker, Nuclear Tracks in Solids, University of California Press, Berkley, 1975.
 
[10]  D. Nikezic 1, K.N. Yu., “Profiles and parameters of tracks in the LR115 detector irradiated with alpha particles”, Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B 196 (2002) 105-112.
 
[11]  Pereyra P., “Aplicación de la técnica de huellas nucleares en dosimetría de partículas alfa”, Tesis de bachiller de la Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú., 1991.
 
[12]  KP Eappen and YS Mayya Calibration factors for lr-115 (type-ii) based radon thoron discrimination dosimeter. Radiation Measurements, 38(1):5-17, 2004.
 
Show Less References