International Journal of Physics

ISSN (Print): 2333-4568

ISSN (Online): 2333-4576

Website: http://www.sciepub.com/journal/IJP

Article

Consideration and the Refinement of Some Laws and Concepts of Classical Electrodynamics and New Ideas in Modern Electrodynamics

1B.I. Verkin Institute for Low Temperature Physics and Engineering, NAS Ukraine, 47 Lenin Ave., Kharkov, 61164, Ukraine


International Journal of Physics. 2014, 2(6), 231-263
DOI: 10.12691/ijp-2-6-8
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
F.F. Mende. Consideration and the Refinement of Some Laws and Concepts of Classical Electrodynamics and New Ideas in Modern Electrodynamics. International Journal of Physics. 2014; 2(6):231-263. doi: 10.12691/ijp-2-6-8.

Correspondence to: F.F.  Mende, B.I. Verkin Institute for Low Temperature Physics and Engineering, NAS Ukraine, 47 Lenin Ave., Kharkov, 61164, Ukraine. Email: mende_fedor@mail.ru

Abstract

The problems considered refer to the material equations of electromagnetic and magnetoelectric induction and physical interpretation of the parameters ε(ω) and μ(ω). Some contradictions found in fundamental studies on classical electrodynamics have been explained. The notion magnetoelectric induction has been introduced, which permits symmetrical writing of the induction laws. It is shown that the results of the special theory of relativity can be obtained from these laws through the Galileo conversions with the accuracy to the v2/c2 terms. The permittivity and permeability of materials media are shown to be independent of frequency. The notions magnetoelectrokinetic and electromagnetopotential waves and kinetic capacity have been introduced. It is shown that along with the longitudinal Langmuir resonance, the transverse resonance is possible in nonmagnetized plasma, and both the resonances are degenerate. A new notion scalar-vector potential is introduced, which permits solution of all present-day problems of classical electrodynamics. The use of the scalar-vector potential makes the magnetic field notion unnecessary.

Keywords

References

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Article

Carl Sagan’s Conjecture of a Message in π

1B&E Scientific Ltd, Seaford BN25 4PA, United Kingdom


International Journal of Physics. 2014, 2(6), 264-266
DOI: 10.12691/ijp-2-6-9
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Arne Bergstrom. Carl Sagan’s Conjecture of a Message in π. International Journal of Physics. 2014; 2(6):264-266. doi: 10.12691/ijp-2-6-9.

Correspondence to: Arne  Bergstrom, B&E Scientific Ltd, Seaford BN25 4PA, United Kingdom. Email: arne.bergstrom@physics.org

Abstract

In his novel Contact, the astrophysicist Carl Sagan hypothesized an alien message to be buried somewhere deep inside the numerical representation of the transcendental number π. The present article looks for markers that might possibly support such a hypothesis, and surprisingly finds a sequence of seven successive zeros (actually seven successive nines rounded off) at a depth of 3256 digits into the representation of 2π in the special case of base ten. Finding such a sequence of zeros within the first 1000 digits has a probability of 1 in 10000. No such occurrences happen even remotely for 2π at any base other than ten, nor even remotely in corresponding representations of other common transcendental numbers, such as e, which appear in physical applications. In π, this occurrence thus also remarkably appears at a depth that is a multiple of the same power of two as bits in a computer byte, which thus makes it even more enigmatic. Still, these effects are most probably just numerical coincidences without physical relevance.

Keywords

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Article

Outstanding Outcomes from a Recent Theory of Gravity

151 A, S.P. 57 Accesso a M. 03017 Morolo Italy


International Journal of Physics. 2014, 2(6), 267-276
DOI: 10.12691/ijp-2-6-10
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Sandro Antonelli. Outstanding Outcomes from a Recent Theory of Gravity. International Journal of Physics. 2014; 2(6):267-276. doi: 10.12691/ijp-2-6-10.

Correspondence to: Sandro  Antonelli, 51 A, S.P. 57 Accesso a M. 03017 Morolo Italy. Email: antonelli41@live.it

Abstract

This article intends to fathom a development by M. Tailherer which introduces a second gravitational equation devised to complete General Relativity (TGR), based on the ansatz of equating the curvature tensor opportunely contracted to the 4-vorticity by a new constant S as measure of the intrinsic inertia of the curved Space-Time. After justifying the need to deal with the 2nd fundamental tensor in Relativity in discussing the dynamics of Space-Time structure, it has been shown how the model exhibits unforeseen analogies with the electromagnetic theory. As direct continuation of the analysis of the gravitational wave propagation in free space, it has been seen that on asymptotic conditions the polarization state can be retrieved as mixture of two independent modes likewise TGR as from harmonic constraints on the homogeneous solution of wave equation. Actually, in this gravitational framework, at least for one polarization state, transverse waves propagate causing equal in-phase deformation displacement, not counter-phase as expected in gravitational interferometry experiments at present status. Computation of gravitational power losses for the keplerian system B 1913+16 in the solution by approximations of the inhomogeneous problem has been carried out to the 1st order, which has allowed the assessment of a new universal gravitational constant for the first time ever.

Keywords

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Article

Cubic Atom and Crystal Structures

1Wayne State University, 42 W Warren Ave, Detroit

2Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai, China

3Northwestern University, 633 Clark St, Evanston, IL 60208


International Journal of Physics. 2014, 2(6), 277-281
DOI: 10.12691/ijp-2-6-11
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Zhiliang Cao, Henry Gu Cao. Cubic Atom and Crystal Structures. International Journal of Physics. 2014; 2(6):277-281. doi: 10.12691/ijp-2-6-11.

Correspondence to: Zhiliang  Cao, Wayne State University, 42 W Warren Ave, Detroit. Email: williamcao12252000@yahoo.com

Abstract

The paper "Unified field theory" (UFT) unified four fundamental forces with help of the Torque model. UFT gives a new definition of Physics: “A natural science that involves the study of motion of space-time-energy-force to explain and predict the motion, interaction and configuration of matter.” One of important pieces of matter is the atom. Unfortunately, the configuration of an atom cannot be visually observed. Two of the important accepted theories are the Pauli Exclusion Principle and the Schrodinger equations. In these two theories, the electron configuration is studied. Contrary to the top down approach, UFT theory starts from structure of Proton and Neutron using bottom up approach instead. Interestingly, electron orbits, electron binding energy, Madelung Rules, Zeeman splitting and crystal structure of the metals, are associated with proton’s octahedron shape and three nuclear structural axes. An element will be chemically stable if the outmost s and p orbits have eight electrons which make atom a symmetrical cubic. Most importantly, the predictions of atomic configurations in this paper can be validated by characteristics of chemical elements which make the UFT claims credible. UFT comes a long way from space-time-energy-force to the atom. The conclusions of UFT are more precise and clearer than the existing theories that have no proper explanation regarding many rules, such as eight outer electrons make element chemically stable and the exception on Madelung's rules. Regardless of the imperfections of the existing atomic theories, many particle Physics theories have no choice but to build on top of atomic theories, mainly Pauli Exclusion Principle and Schrodinger equations. Physics starts to look for answer via ambiguous mathematical equations as the proper clues are missing. Physics issues are different from mathematical issues, as they are Physical. Pauli Exclusion works well in electron configuration under specific physical condition and it is not a general Physics principal. Schrodinger’s mathematical equations are interpreted differently in UFT. UFT is more physical as it built itself mainly on concept of Space, Time, Energy and Force, in the other word, UFT is Physics itself. Theory of Everything (ToE), the final theory of the Physics, can be simply another name for UFT. This paper connects an additional dot to draw UFT closer to ToE.

Keywords

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Article

The Effect of Gamma Irradiation on the Structural Properties of Porous Silicon

1Department of Physics, College Of Science, Mosul University, Mosul, IRAQ


International Journal of Physics. 2015, 3(1), 1-7
DOI: 10.12691/ijp-3-1-1
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Ismail Khalaf Abbas, Laith Ahmed Najam, Abd UlKahliq AuobSulaiman. The Effect of Gamma Irradiation on the Structural Properties of Porous Silicon. International Journal of Physics. 2015; 3(1):1-7. doi: 10.12691/ijp-3-1-1.

Correspondence to: Laith  Ahmed Najam, Department of Physics, College Of Science, Mosul University, Mosul, IRAQ. Email: prof.lai2014@gmail.com

Abstract

Porous silicon layers (PSi) were prepared from p-type silicon wafer by using electrochemical cell with etching time 20 min, current 30 mA and fixed electrolyte solution HF:C2H5OH (1:4). The effect of increase of γ-ray intensity (50Gy and 100Gy) on the structural properties of porous silicon has been studied using SEM, AFM, XRD and Raman spectrum. The SEM images before irradiation shows high density and randomly distributed of pores that cover all of the surface which have different size and spherical shape. After irradiation by 50Gy, the pores seems more obvious, discriminate and larger diameters. The initial elementary pores on the PSi surface decrease with the increasing of radiation intensity to 100Gy, as a result of formation of new pores with in the initial layer of Psi. The AFM images show that the roughness of the samples increase with irradiation. XRD spectrum before irradiation did not show clearly any featured peaks while the spectra after irradiation show the presence of different peaks but the most important distinctive was <111> peaks at ( 2θ = 28.12) which give indication that the structure is cubic. An extremely symmetric band shape were recognized from Raman spectra of the samples after and before irradiation.

Keywords

References

[1]  Ma., Concepc, N., Arenas, Marina Vega, OmarMartnez and Oscar H. Salinas, (2011), “Nanocrystalline Porous Silicon: Structural, Optical, Electrical and Photovoltaic Properties crystalline properties and uses", prof. Sukumar, Bash (Ed), ISBN:251, intecech.
 
[2]  N., Naderi, M.R., Hashim, (2012), “Effect of Surface Morphology on Electrical Properties of Electrochemically-Etched Porous Silicon Photodetectors ", Int. J. Electrochem. Sci., 7, p.11512-11518.
 
[3]  KasraBehzad, Wan Mahmood Mat Yunus, ZainalAbidinTalib, AzmiZakaria and AfarinBahrami, (2013), "Effect of Preparation Parameters on Physical, Thermal and Optical Properties of n-type Porous Silicon ", Int. J. Electrochem. Sci., 7, p.8266-8275.
 
[4]  Hasan, H. H.,(2013), "study of characteristics of porous silicon by electrochemical etching ", Eng. and Tech. Journal, Vol.31, No.1.
 
[5]  N., Jeyakumaran, B., Natarajan, S., Ramamurthy and V., Vasu, (2007), "Structural and optical properties of n- type porous silicon– effect of etching time", IJNN, Vol.3, No.1.
 
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[7]  Bisi, O., Ossicini, S., Pavesi, L., (2000), "porous silicon: a quantum sponge structure for silicon based optoelectronics, surface science", reports 38, p. 1-126.
 
[8]  Khaldun, A., Salman, Z., Hassan, Khalid Omar, (2012), “Effect of Silicon Porosity on Solar Cell Efficiency", Int. J. Electrochem. Sci., p.7 376-386.
 
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[10]  Mingyuan, Ge, JiepenRony, Xin Fang, Any Zhang yunhao Luand Choywu, Zhou, (2013), "Scalable preparation of porous silicon nanoparticles and their application for Lithium ion battery anodes", Nano Res., 6 (3), p. 174-181.
 
[11]  Paillard, V., Puech, P., Laguna, M.A., Carkes, R.,Kohn, B. Huisken, F., (1999), "improved one phonon confinement model for an accurate size determination of silicon nanocrystal", J.Appl.Phys. Vol.86, No.4, p.1921-1924.
 
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Article

First Step to Ellipsometry

1Material Science Research Lab, S.G.T.B. Khalsa College, University of Delhi, Delhi, India


International Journal of Physics. 2015, 3(1), 8-11
DOI: 10.12691/ijp-3-1-2
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Yashika Gupta, P. Arun. First Step to Ellipsometry. International Journal of Physics. 2015; 3(1):8-11. doi: 10.12691/ijp-3-1-2.

Correspondence to: P.  Arun, Material Science Research Lab, S.G.T.B. Khalsa College, University of Delhi, Delhi, India. Email: arunp92@physics.du.ac.in

Abstract

Ellipsometry is a non-destructive, fast and accurate characterization technique used for determining the thickness and the optical constants of a material. However, this method has a drawback considering that the experimentally measured data are not meaningful in itself and one has to interpret the data based on modelling making ellipsometry dependent on the model selection, computation power/time and fitting. This makes ellipsometry, a difficult characterization method. However, it also presents a wonderful opportunity to apply the various topics taught in physics classes at undergraduate level. This paper provides the detailed insight into the self-standing film, the simplest case possible and hence the first step of ellipsometry experimentation which can be useful for substrate analysis in complex systems if the nature of the substrate is not known.

Keywords

References

[1]  W.McGahan, B.Johs and J.A.Woollam, “Technique for ellipsometric measurement of the thickness and optical constants of thin absorbing film”, Thin Solid Films 234, (1993) 443.
 
[2]  M. Oikkonen. “Ellipsometric studies on Zinc Sulfide thin films grown by atomic layer epitaxy", J Appl. Phys. 62, (1987) 1385.
 
[3]  S.Lee, J.Hong, “Comparison of various parameterization models for optical functions of amorphous materials: Application of sputtered Titanium Dioxide thin films", Jpn J Appl. Phys., 39 (2000) 241.
 
[4]  D.Franta, D. Necas, J. Ohlidal, M.Hrdlicka, M.Pavlista, M. Frumar, M. Ohlidal, “Combined method of spectroscopic ellipsometry and photometry as an efficient tool for the optical characterization of chalcogenide thin films", J Optoelect. Adv. Mater., 11 (2009) 1891.
 
[5]  A.K.Ghatak and K. Thyagarajan, “Optoelectronics", Cambridge University Press (London 1989).
 
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[6]  R.M.A.Azzam and N.M.Bashara, ``Ellipsometry and Polarized Light", Elsevier (Amsterdam, 1977).
 
[7]  H.Fujiwara, “Spectroscopic Ellipsometry Principles and Application”, John Wiley (NY 2007).
 
[8]  K.V.Popov, A.V. Tikhonravov, J.Campmany, E. Bertran, S.Boch, A. Canillas, “Spectroscopic ellipsometric characterization of transparent thin film amorphous electronic materials: Integrated Analysis”, Thin Solid Films, 313 (1998) 379.
 
[9]  T.E.Jenkins, “Multiple angle of incidence ellip -sometry", J Phys. D:Appl. Phys., 32 (1999) R45-R56
 
[10]  F.A. Jenkins and H.E. White, “Fundamentals of Optics, (4th ed.), McGraw-Hill, Inc. (NY, 1981).
 
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Article

The Direction of Time and the Dynamical Evolution of the World

1Diel Software Entwicklung und Beratung, Seestr. 102, 71067 Sindelfingen, Germany


International Journal of Physics. 2015, 3(1), 12-16
DOI: 10.12691/ijp-3-1-3
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Hans H. Diel. The Direction of Time and the Dynamical Evolution of the World. International Journal of Physics. 2015; 3(1):12-16. doi: 10.12691/ijp-3-1-3.

Correspondence to: Hans  H. Diel, Diel Software Entwicklung und Beratung, Seestr. 102, 71067 Sindelfingen, Germany. Email: diel@netic.de

Abstract

The possible identification of an arrow of time with the dynamical evolution of the world, based on the laws of physics and without recourse to the flow of entropy, is investigated. It is concluded that when, in addition to their declarative semantics, the laws of physics are considered in the context of their overall goal, namely, describing the dynamical evolution of the world, a direction of time becomes apparent.

Keywords

References

[1]  Barbour J. The End of Time. Oxford University Press, 2001.
 
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[4]  Frisch M. Causal Models and the Asymmetry of State Preparation. in EPSA Philosophical Issues in the Sciences, vol.2, eds. M. Suárez, M. Dorato, and M. Redei, 2010.
 
[5]  Frisch M. Laws in Physics. European Review, Volume 22, pp S33-S49, 2014.
 
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[6]  Horwich P. Asymmetries in Time. MIT Press, Cambridge Ma, 1987.
 
[7]  Lemons D S. A Student’s Guide to Entropy. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge UK, 2013.
 
[8]  Maudlin T. Philosophy of Physics - Space and Time. Princeton University Press, 2012.
 
[9]  Maudlin T. Three Measurement Problems. Topoi-Int Rev Philos 14, 1995.
 
[10]  Penrose R. The Road to Reality. Vintage Books, New York, 2005.
 
[11]  Price H. Time's and Archimedes' Point. Oxford University Press, 1996.
 
[12]  Smolin L Time Reborn. From the Crisis in Physics to the Future of the Universe. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, New York, 2013.
 
[13]  Stewart I Seventeen Equations that Changed the World. Profile Books, London, 2012.
 
[14]  Weinberg S. The Quantum Theory of Fields, Volume 1, Foundations. Cambridge University Press, 2005.
 
[15]  Zeh H D. Physik ohne Realitaet: Tiefsinn oder Wahnsinn. Springer Verlag, Heidelberg, 2012.
 
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Article

Ether, Dark Matter and Topology of the Universe

1Department of Physics, Inria Saclays, Saclays, France


International Journal of Physics. 2015, 3(1), 17-28
DOI: 10.12691/ijp-3-1-4
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Thierry DELORT. Ether, Dark Matter and Topology of the Universe. International Journal of Physics. 2015; 3(1):17-28. doi: 10.12691/ijp-3-1-4.

Correspondence to: Thierry  DELORT, Department of Physics, Inria Saclays, Saclays, France. Email: tdelort@yahoo.fr

Abstract

The article is divided in 2 parts. In the 1st part (PART I) we propose that a substance, called ether-substance, fills and constitutes all what is called “vacuum” in the Universe. We assume that it has a mass and consequently it could be the nature of dark matter. Modelling it as an ideal gas, we obtain the flat rotation curve of spiral galaxies. Using a very simple model of thermal transfer between baryonic particles and ether-substance, we obtain the baryonic Tully-Fisher’s law. So we introduce a new concept of ether, different from the pre-relativistic concept of ether, and we called “Cosmology based on ether” (CBE) Cosmology based on this new concept. In this CBE, topology of the Universe is much simpler and more attractive than topologies proposed by the Standard Cosmological model (SCM) (whose some fundamental aspects are kept in CBE). We propose 2 models in CBE. The first one does not need dark energy nor cosmological constant, and does not need the complex mathematics of General Relativity, contrary to SCM (and to the 2nd model of CBE). Nonetheless, we obtain in the 1st model of CBE a very simple Hubble’s constant, in 1/t, t age of the Universe, and many cosmological observations that were previously explained only by the SCM. Moreover we interpret in both models of CBE the Referential in which fossil radiation is isotropic. CBE is, as SCM, compatible with Special and General Relativity, despite that it is based on a new concept of ether. In the 2nd part, (Part II), we will study some problems raised by the Part I (motion of galaxies in the space, concentration of ether-substance around stars…).

Keywords

References

[1]  Stacy Mc Gaugh, A Novel Test of Modified Newtonian Dynamics with Gaz rich Galaxies, Physical Review Letter, open archives arXiv.
 
[2]  Thierry Delort, Théories d’ or 6e édition, Editions Books on Demand, Paris (2013).
 
[3]  T. Delort, Theory of Ether, Physics Essays 13, 4 (2000).
 
[4]  T. Delort, Applications of Theory of Ether, Physics Essays 17,3 (2004).
 
[5]  D.J Raine,E.G Thomas, An introduction to the science of Cosmology, Institute of physics, London (2001).
 
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[8]  G. A Tammann and B. Reindl, Astronomy and Astrophysics 549(2013) (on arXiv).
 
[9]  P. Kroupa, M. Pawlowski, M. Milgrom, The failures of the standard model of Cosmology require a new paradigm, International Journal of Physics D21 (2012).
 
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[11]  Perlmutter et al, Discovery of a supernova explosion at half the age of the universe, Nature 391, 51-54 (1998).
 
[12]  D. R Alves, C. A Nelson, The rotation curve of the Large Magellanic cloud and the implications for Microlensing, The astrophysical journal (October 2000).
 
[13]  T. Delort, Ether,dark matter and topology of the Universe, open archives vixra, Internet archives.
 
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Article

Gravitational Mass Defect

1B.I. Verkin Institute for Low Temperature Physics and Engineering NAS, Ukraine, Lenin Ave., Kharkov, Ukraine


International Journal of Physics. 2015, 3(1), 29-31
DOI: 10.12691/ijp-3-1-5
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
F. F. Mende. Gravitational Mass Defect. International Journal of Physics. 2015; 3(1):29-31. doi: 10.12691/ijp-3-1-5.

Correspondence to: F.  F. Mende, B.I. Verkin Institute for Low Temperature Physics and Engineering NAS, Ukraine, Lenin Ave., Kharkov, Ukraine. Email: mende_fedor@mail.ru

Abstract

Explosive energy in the nucleus of the galaxy NGC 3034 composed 9 • 1048 J. In this case of its nucleus of galaxy was rejected the mass equal to 5,9 • 107 of the masses of the sun. At present are not known the physical mechanisms, which can explain such immense explosions. In the article is examined the new physical phenomenon, gravitational mass defect, which can explain the phenomenon indicated. This phenomenon leads to the fact that the summary mass of bodies before and after the collisions differ. Indicated we will call mass defect gravitational mass defect and it can serve as a reason for explosions in the nuclei of galaxies.

Keywords

References

[1]  J. P. Pskov. New andsupernovae, Moscow, 1985.
 
[2]  D. Yu. Tsvetkov. Supernovae, SAI, Moscow, 2001.
 
[3]  S. B. Popov. How toexplodegrown thingiants?, SAI, Moscow, 2011.
 
[4]  T. A. Agekyan. Stars, galaxy, metagalaxy. Publ. Science, 1981.
 
[5]  F. F.Mende. Problemsof modern physicsand their solutions, PALMARIUM Academic Publishing, 2012.
 

Article

Free- free Scattering Theory of the Elastic Scattering of an Electron

1Central Department of Physics, Tribhuvan University, Kirtipur, Nepal


International Journal of Physics. 2015, 3(1), 32-39
DOI: 10.12691/ijp-3-1-6
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Kishori Yadav, Jeevan Jyoti Nakarmi. Free- free Scattering Theory of the Elastic Scattering of an Electron. International Journal of Physics. 2015; 3(1):32-39. doi: 10.12691/ijp-3-1-6.

Correspondence to: Jeevan  Jyoti Nakarmi, Central Department of Physics, Tribhuvan University, Kirtipur, Nepal. Email: nakarmijeevan@gmail.com

Abstract

In the present work, the elastic scattering of an electron from the target by absorbing a photon from the laser field has been studied. Since the solution of the Schrödinger equation of whole three-body system has not been found, we consider such intensities of electromagnetic field (Laser field) that the electron field coupling is the dominant process and the target is transparent to the field such that photon- target coupling can be ignored. Internal structure of target can be ignored and represented just as a scattering potential. For number of photon, l = -1, i.e, absorption of a photon (inverse Bremsstrahlung), The differential scattering cross section of an electron depends upon the fourth power of the wavelength (λ4) and the intensity of the Laser field The certain values of laser parameters the differential scattering cross section of scattered electron decreases with increase in scattering angle and attains a minimum value of 0.1 barn and further increase in scattering angle also increases in differential scattering cross section and attains a maximum value of 0.3 barn.

Keywords

References

[1]  M. Vos, R.P. McEachran, E. Weigold, R.A. Bonham, Elastic electron scattering cross sections at high momentum transfer, Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, 300, (2013), 62-67.
 
[2]  D. Bote, F. Salvat, A. Jablonski, C.J. Powell,The effect of inelastic absorption on the elastic scattering of electrons and positrons in amorphous solids,Journal of Electron Spectroscopy and Related Phenomena, 175, 1-3, (2009), 41-54.
 
[3]  A. Jablonski, Analytical applications of elastic electron backscattering from surfacesProgress in Surface Science, 74, 1–8, (2003), 357-374.
 
[4]  H. Aouchiche, C. Champion, D. Oubaziz,Electron and positron elastic scattering in gaseous and liquid water: A comparative stud,Radiation Physics and Chemistry, 77, 2, (2008), 107-114.
 
[5]  C.J. Powell, A. Jablonski, Effects of elastic-electron scattering on measurements of silicon dioxide film thicknesses by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Journal of Electron Spectroscopy and Related Phenomena, 114(2001), 1139-1143.
 
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