International Journal of Environmental Bioremediation & Biodegradation. 2014, 2(4), 151-159DOI:
Abstract: Environmental pollution by petroleum is an increasing global problem with phytoremediation being one of the viable tools for cleansing crude oil polluted soil. The aim of this study was to ascertain the remediating effect of Piper guineense and Azadirachta indica on the levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) on the leaves of deliberately crude oil polluted germinating Telfairia occidentalis. Vessel I contains growing plant and water only, vessel II contains growing plant + crude oil only, vessel III, IV and V had growing plant+crude oil + 100g of Azadirachta indica, 77g of P. guineense and 100g of Azadirachta indica +77g of P. guineense leaves respectively. After 8weeks of plant growth, the levels of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in the plants were determined using gas chromatography. The result indicates that naphthalene levels were significantly higher (p<0.05) in plants grown on vessels with 77 g P. guineense (4.2 ± 0.003 µg/Kg) and 77 g P. guineense + 100 g A. indica (4.2 ± 0.007 µg/Kg) compared to the crude oil only vessel (2.1 ± 0.003 µg/Kg). Phenanthrene levels were significantly lower (p<0.05) in plants grown on vessels with 100 g A. indica (1.7 ± 0.002 µg/Kg) compared to levels in crude oil only grown plants (2.2 ± 0.003 µg/Kg). Acenaphthylene, acenaphthene, fluorene benzo(k)fluoranthene and benzo(a)pyrene levels were significantly higher (p<0.05) in plants grown in vessels III,IV and V compared to the crude oil only vessel. Also, dibenzo(a,b)anthracene and indenol(1,2,3cd)pyrene levels were significantly lower (p<0.05) in plants grown on vessels remediated with 100 g A. indica and 77 g P. guineense + 100 g A. indica when compared with plants grown in crude oil only vessel. Therefore, it could be concluded that P. guineense and A. indica leaves could be good for phytoremediation of phenanthrene, benzo(b)fluoranthene, dibenzo(a,b)anthracene and indeno(1,2,3cd)pyrene.