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International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neurology

ISSN (Print): 2379-7789

ISSN (Online): 2379-7797

Editor-in-Chief: Zhiyou Cai, MD




Neurological Complications in Sickle Cell Disease

1Consultant Hematologist, Kuwait, Amiri hospital

2Consultant Neurologist & Director of Multiple Sclerosis clinic at Alamiri Hospital, Kuwait

3Senior specialist in Radiologist, Amiri Hospital

4Consultant Neurologist, Kuwait, Mubark Al-Kabeer Hospital

International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neurology. 2016, 4(1), 9-18
doi: 10.12691/ijcen-4-1-2
Copyright © 2016 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Hassan A. Al-Jafar, Raed Alroughani, Thamer A.Abdullah, Fatma Al-Qallaf. Neurological Complications in Sickle Cell Disease. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neurology. 2016; 4(1):9-18. doi: 10.12691/ijcen-4-1-2.

Correspondence to: Hassan  A. Al-Jafar, Consultant Hematologist, Kuwait, Amiri hospital. Email:


Sickle cell disease is a common inherited blood disorder that affects red blood cells. It is a hemoglobinopathy characterized by hemoglobin polymerization, erythrocyte stiffening, and subsequent vaso-occlusions. These changes can lead to microcirculation obstructions, tissue ischemia, infarction and acute stroke. In addition, chronic cerebral ischemia and cerebral vascular anomalies are considered among the most disabling problems in sickle cell disease. Neurological complications of sickle cell disease include, Ischaemic Stroke, hemorrhagic stroke, transient ischemic attack, silent cerebral infarction, headache, Moyamoya disease, neuropathic pain, and neurocognitive impairment. Early diagnosis and proper management of sickle cell disease neurological complications require specialised hematological and neurological experties. The newly used medications under ongoing research foster the hope to overcome this devastating disease and its complications.



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Correlation between Levels of Transforming Growth Factor Beta 1 (TGF-β1) serum with Clinical Outcome on Acute Anterior Circulation Ischemic Strokes

1Department of Neurology, Faculty of Medicine Pelita Harapan University, Tangerang, Indonesia

2Department of Anatomical Pathology, Faculty of Medicine Hassanuddin University, Makassar, Indonesia

3Department of Neurology, Faculty of Medicine Hassanuddin University, Makassar, Indonesia

4Department of Clinical Pathology, Faculty of Medicine Pelita Harapan University, Tangerang, Indonesia

International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neurology. 2017, 5(1), 1-4
doi: 10.12691/ijcen-5-1-1
Copyright © 2017 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Vivien Puspitasari, Syarifuddin Wahid, Amiruddin Aliah, Budhianto Suhadi. Correlation between Levels of Transforming Growth Factor Beta 1 (TGF-β1) serum with Clinical Outcome on Acute Anterior Circulation Ischemic Strokes. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neurology. 2017; 5(1):1-4. doi: 10.12691/ijcen-5-1-1.

Correspondence to: Vivien  Puspitasari, Department of Neurology, Faculty of Medicine Pelita Harapan University, Tangerang, Indonesia. Email:


Transforming Growth Factor Beta (TGFβ) was a major regulatory molecule to suppress the immune response in the inflammatory process. TGFβ was also a growth factor that affects growth, homeostasis, angiogenesis and tissue repair. In the acute phase of stroke, astrocytes were activated and the cells were able to produce anti-inflammatory cytokines such as TGFβ. The purpose of this study was to determine whether there is a correlation between serum levels of TGFβ at acute phase of ischemic stroke and patients’ clinical outcomes. The study was conducted in patients with acute anterior system ischemic stroke who came to Siloam Hospital in Tangerang, Indonesia. Blood samples were taken to measure the levels of TGFβ-1serum at ≤ 72 hours and the 3rd day of onset. Clinical severity of stroke assessed using the National Institute of Health (NIH) Stroke Scale at 72 hours, 7th days and 30th days after stroke. The mean serum levels of TGFβ-1 at ≤ 72 hours in the group of subjects with mild NIH Stroke Scale degree was higher than in the group of subjects with moderate/severe NIH Stroke Scale degree (p = 0.046). The subjects with elevated levels of TGF-β1 in the acute phase of stroke had better clinical degrees at the 30th day after the stroke, although statistically was not significant (p = 0.241). Result of this study showed that TGFβ-1 may act as a neuroprotector against brain tissue damage after ischemic stroke.



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Hyper Homocysteinemia Related Cerebral Venous Sinus Thrombosis –Presenting as Generalised Tonic-Clonic Seizure –A Case Report

1Senior Registrar, KPC Medical College, 1F, Raja Subodh Chandra Mullick Road Jadavpur, Kolkata West Bengal, India

2Consultant Neurologist, Woodlands Hospital, Alipore Road, Alipore, Kolkata, West Bengal, India

3Post Graduate Trainee, Dept. of Tropical Medicine, School of Tropical Medicine, Chittaranjan Avenue, Kolkata, West Bengal, India

4Consultant Internist, Anandalok Hospital, D.K.7/3Salt lake City, Kolkata, West Bengal, India

5Assistant Manager, Medical Services, Biocon LTD, Kolkata

International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neurology. 2017, 5(1), 5-8
doi: 10.12691/ijcen-5-1-2
Copyright © 2017 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Soumyabrata Roy Chaudhuri, Deep Das, Subhayan Bhattacharya, Subhankar Chakraborty, Kingshuk Bhattacharjee. Hyper Homocysteinemia Related Cerebral Venous Sinus Thrombosis –Presenting as Generalised Tonic-Clonic Seizure –A Case Report. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neurology. 2017; 5(1):5-8. doi: 10.12691/ijcen-5-1-2.

Correspondence to: Soumyabrata  Roy Chaudhuri, Senior Registrar, KPC Medical College, 1F, Raja Subodh Chandra Mullick Road Jadavpur, Kolkata West Bengal, India. Email:


Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST) is a neuromuscular disorder with protean manifestation requiring a high index of suspicion. Early diagnosis is sometimes lifesaving. It is particularly challenging is to establish an accurate etiology as it guides the clinician for long term thrombo-prophylaxis. We report a young female with no conventional risk factors for CVST, who presented with headache, generalised seizures and prolonged loss of consciousness. Her work-up revealed an elevated serum homocysteine level which might be a possible causative association in the etiopathogenesis of this neuromuscular condition.



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