ISSN (Print): 2373-1257

ISSN (Online): 2373-1265

You are here

Currrent Issue: Volume 4, Number 1, 2016

Article

The Effects Induced by a Backpack Eccentric Load on the Spine of Children

1Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Sciences and Technology, Oran-Algeria

2Laboratory of Biomechanics, Polymers and Structures, ENIM-Metz, France


Biomedical Science and Engineering. 2016, 4(1), 6-22
doi: 10.12691/bse-4-1-2
Copyright © 2016 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Samir Zahaf, Bensamine Mansouri, Abderrahmane Belarbi, Zitouni Azari. The Effects Induced by a Backpack Eccentric Load on the Spine of Children. Biomedical Science and Engineering. 2016; 4(1):6-22. doi: 10.12691/bse-4-1-2.

Correspondence to: Samir  Zahaf, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Sciences and Technology, Oran-Algeria. Email: zahafsamir1983@gmail.com

Abstract

The objective of this work is to study the effect of the backpack on the components of the spine system of a child, know the effect of an eccentric force on the intervertebral discs, the creating a 3D model of the spine of child of 38 kg overall weight under the effect of three eccentric load (P2, P3, P4) plus P1 compression load and calculated by the element method ends, For the boundary conditions we fixed the sacrum (Embedding the sacrum). We propose in this section to draw up a comprehensive study of the distributions of stresses and normal elastic strain of Von Mises in the intervertebral discs based on loads supported. The results show that the stress and strain of Von Mises are highest and concentrated in four intervertebral discs (D1, D2, D3 and D4), which causes a problem that calls (herniated disc). We concluded that the cause of the posterior load, a 300 mm lever arm with a 150N force present maximum Von Mises stresses concentrated in four intervertebral discs (D1, D2, D3, D4), which justifies the distance between the load which is the point of application of the load and the axis of the spine plays a very important role in increasing the solicitation of the latter.

Keywords

References

[1]  Cheng-Hsiung Ch. A Finite Element Study of The Biomechanical Behavior of The Nonlinear Ligamentous Thoracic And Lumbar Spine. 2007.
 
[2]  Saal JA. Natural history and nonoperative treatment of lumbar disc herniation. Spine 1996; 21:2S-9S.
 
[3]  Fardon DF, Milette PC. Nomenclature and classification of lumbar disc pathology. Recommendations of the Combined task Forces of the North American Spine Society, American Society of Spine Radiology, and American Society of Neuroradiology. Spine 2001;26: E93-E113.
 
[4]  Harris W, Fleming J, Gertzbein S. Back Pain: The Workplace Safety and Insurance Appeals Tribunal. 2003.
 
[5]  Wilder DG, Pope MH, Frymoyer JW. The biomechanics of lumbar disc herniation and the effect of overload and instability. J Spinal Disord 1988; 1:16-32.
 
Show More References
[6]  Miller JA, Schmatz C, Schultz AB. Lumbar disc degeneration: correlation with age, sex, and spine level in 600 autopsy specimens. Spine 1988; 13:173-178.
 
[7]  Matsui H, Kanamori M, Ishihara H, et al. Familial predisposition for lumbar degenerative disc disease. A case-control study. Spine 1998; 23:1029-1034.
 
[8]  Tsuji H, Hirano N, Ohshima H, et al. Structural variation of the anterior and posterior anulus fibrosus in the development of human lumbar intervertebral disc. A risk factor for intervertebral disc rupture. Spine 1993; 18:204-210.
 
[9]  Taylor TK, Akeson WH. Intervertebral disc prolapse: a review of morphologic and biochemic knowledge concerning the nature of prolapse. Clin Orthop Relat Res 1971; 76:54-79.
 
[10]  Gertzbein SD, Hollopeter MR. Disc herniation after lumbar fusion. Spine 2002;27: E373-376.
 
[11]  Hernie Discale Lombaire, Service de Chirurgie orthopédique et Traumatologique, Hôpital Beaujon.
 
[12]  Dr Kassab M. Centre Avicenne Médical, 2 Av Tahar Sfar, 2092, El Manar 2, Tunis, Tunisie.
 
[13]  White Iii AA, And Panjabi MM. Clinical Biomechanics Of The Spine. 1990.
 
[14]  Marcovschi Champain S. Corrélations Entre Les Paramètres Biomécaniques Du Rachis Et Les Indices Cliniques Pour L’analyse Quantitative Des Pathologies Du Rachis Lombaire Et De Leur Traitement Chirurgical, Enam, Paris. 2008.
 
[15]  Pr. Francois L. Biomécanique Et Ostéosynthèse Du Rachis Ensm-Lbm Conférences D'enseignement De La Sofcot. 1997.
 
[16]  Starmans FJ, Steen WH, Bosman F. A Three-Dimensional, Finite-Element Analysis Of Bone Around Dental Implants In An Edentulous Human Mandible. Arch Oral Biol. 1993; 38: 491-6.
 
[17]  Ibarz E, Más Y, Mateo J, Lobo-Escolar A, Herrera A. And Gracia L. Instability Of The Lumbar Spine Due To Disc Degeneration. A Finite Element Simulation. Advances In Bioscience And Biotechnology. 2013; 4: 548-556.
 
[18]  Mingzhi S, Zhen Z, Ming L, Junwei Z, Chao D, Kai M and Shouyu W. Four Lateral Mass Screw Fixation Techniques In Lower Cervical Spine Following Laminectomy. A finite Element Analysis Study Of Stress Distribution. Biomedical Engineering Online. 2014; 13:115.
 
[19]  Steven A, Rundell, MS, Jorge E, Isaza MD, Steven M, Kurtz Phd.) Biomechanical Evaluation Of A Spherical Lumbar Interbody Device At Varying Levels Of Subsidence. Exponent, inc, philadelphia, pa, sas journal. 2011; 5: 16-25.
 
[20]  G, Vijay K, PhD, M Ankit, BS, J, Jayant, BS, Faizan A, BS, K, Ali MS, Hoy R.W, MEng, and Fauth AR, PhD. Anatomic facet replacement system (AFRS) restoration of lumbar segment mechanics to intact. a finite element study and in vitro cadaver investigation. SAS Journal. 2007; 1: 46-54.
 
[21]  Holekamp S, MS Goel V, PhD K Hiroshi, MD H Janet MS and E Nabil MD. Optimal Intervertebral Sealant Properties for the Lumbar Spinal Disc. A Finite-Element Study. SAS Journal. Spring. 2007; 1: 68-73.
 
[22]  CAE, MD, Huang H, PhD, Vestgaarden Tov, PhD, Saigal S, PhD, Clabeaux DH, RN, and Pienkowski D, PhD. Stress Reduction in Adjacent Level Discs Via Dynamic Instrumentation. A Finite Element Analysis. SAS Journal. Spring. 2007; 1: 74-81.
 
[23]  López E, Elena I, Herrera A, Mateo J, Lobo-Escolar A, Puértolas S, Gracia L. Probability Of Osteoporotic Vertebral Fractures Assessment Based On DXA Measurements And Finite Element Simulation. Advances in Bioscience and Biotechnology. 2014; 5: 527-545.
 
[24]  Kiapour A, Kiapour AM, Kodigudla M, Hill GM, Mishra S and Goel VK. A Biomechanical Finite Element Study of Subsidence and Migration Tendencies in Stand-Alone Fusion Procedures. Comparison of an In Situ Expandable Device with a Rigid Device. J Spine. 2012; 1: 2165-7939.
 
[25]  Zheng SN, Yao QQ, Wang LM, Hu WH, Wei B, Xu Y, Zhang DG. Biomechanical Effects Of Semi Constrained Integrated Artificial Discs On Zygapophysial Joints Of Implanted Lumbar Segments. Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine. 2013; 6: 1423-1430.
 
[26]  Byun DH, Ah Shin D, Kim JM, Kim SH, Kim HI. Finite Element Analysis of the Biomechanical Effect of CoflexTM on the Lumbar Spine. laboratory investigation. Korean J Spine. 2012; 9 (3): 131-136.
 
[27]  Lan ChCh, Kuo ChS, Chen ChH, Hu HT. Finite element analysis of biomechanical behavior of whole thoraco-lumbar spine with ligamentous effect. The Changhua Journal of Medicine. 2013; 11: 26-41.
 
[28]  Natarajan RN and Andersson GBJ. Modeling the annular incision in a herniated lumbar intervertebral disc to study its effect on disc stability. Comput Struct. 1997; 64: 1291-7.
 
[29]  Pitzen T, Geisler FH, Matthis D, Storz HM, Pedersen K And Steudel WI. The influence of cancellous bone density on load sharing in human lumbar spine: a comparison between an intact and a surgically altered motion segment. Eur Spine J. 2001; 10: 23-9.
 
[30]  Polikeit A. Finite element analysis of the lumbar spine: Clinical application. Inaugural dissertation. University of Bern. 2002.
 
[31]  Denozi´Ere G. Numerical modeling of a ligamentous lumber motion segment, M.S. thesis, Department of Mechanical Engineering. Georgia Institute of Technology. Georgia. USA. 2004.
 
[32]  Gwanseob Shin. Viscoelastic responses of the lumbar spine during prolonged stooping. Ph.D. dissertation, NCSU, USA. 2005.
 
[33]  Sairyo K, Goel VK, Masuda A, Vishnubhotla S, Faizan A, Biyani A, Ebraheim N, Yonekura D, Murakami RI and Terai T. Three-dimensional finite element analysis of the pediatric lumbar spine. Eur Spine J. 2006; 15: 923-9.
 
[34]  Rohlmann A, Burra Nk, Zander T, Bergmann G. Comparison of the effects of bilateral posterior dynamic and rigid fixation devices on the loads in the lumbar spine. Eur Spine J. 2007; 16: 1223-31.
 
[35]  Wilke Hj, Neef P, Caimi M, Hoogland T, Claes Le. New intradiscal pressure measurements in vivo during daily activities. Spine. 1999; 24: 755-62.
 
[36]  Smit T, Odgaard A, Schneider E. Structure and function of vertebral trabecular bone. Spine. 1997; 22: 2823-33.
 
[37]  Sharma M, Langrana Na, Rodriguez J. Role of ligaments and facets in lumbar spinal stability. Spine. 1995; 20: 887-900.
 
[38]  Lee K, Teo E. Effects of laminectomy and facetectomy on the stability of the lumbar motion segment. Med Eng Phys. 2004; 26: 183-92.
 
[39]  Rohlmann A, Zander T, Schmidt H, Wilke Hj, Bergmann G. Analysis of the influence of disc degeneration on the mechanical behaviour of a lumbar motion segment using the finite element method. J Biomech. 2006; 39: 2484-90.
 
[40]  Ng Hw, Teo Ec. Nonlinear finite-element analysis of the lower cervical spine (C4–C6) under axial loading. J Spine Disord. 2001; 14: 201-10.
 
[41]  Ng HW, Teo ECh and Zhang QH. Influence Of Laminotomies And Laminectomies On Cervical Spine Biomechanics Under Combined Flexion-Extension. Journal Of Applied Biomechanics. 2004; 20: 243-259.
 
[42]  Gong Z MM, Chen Z MD, Feng Z MD, Cao Y MM, Jiang Ch MD, Jiang X MD. Finite Element Analysis of 3 Posterior Fixation Techniques in The Lumbar Spine. Feature Article. 2014; 37: E441- E448.
 
[43]  Kim HJ, Tak Kang K, Chang BS, Lee ChK, Kim JW, And Yeom JS. Biomechanical Analysis of Fusion Segment Rigidity Upon Stress at Both the Fusion and Adjacent Segments-A Comparison between Unilateral and Bilateral Pedicle Screw Fixation. Yonsei Med J. 2014; 55(5): 1386-1394.
 
[44]  Goel VK, PhD Kiapour A, MS Faizan A, BS Krishna M, FRCS MCh (Orth) and Friesem Tai MD. Finite Element Study of Matched Paired Posterior Disc Implant and Dynamic Stabilizer (360° Motion Preservation System). SAS Journal. 2006; 1: 55-61.
 
[45]  Tang Sh, Meng Xueying. Does Disc Space Height of Fused Segment Affect Adjacent Degeneration In ALIF. A Finite Element Study. J Turkish Neurosurgery. 2010; 3: 296-303.
 
[46]  Kim KT, MD, PhD, Lee SH, MD, PhD, Suk KS, MD, PhD, Lee JH, MD, PhD Jeong BO MD. Biomechanical Changes of the Lumbar Segment After Total Disc Replacement: Charite®, Prodisc® And Maverick® Using Finite Element Model Study. J Korean Neurosurg Soc. 2010; 47: 446-453.
 
[47]  Agarwal A, Agarwal AK, Goel VK. The Endplate Morphology Changes with Change In Biomechanical Environment Following Discectomy. International Journal of Clinical Medicine. 2013; 4: 8-17.
 
[48]  Zhong ZCh, Wei SH, Wang JP, a Kol. Finite element analysis of the lumbar spine with a new cage using a topology optimization metod. Medical Engineering & Physics. 2006; 28: 90-98.
 
[49]  Sairyo K, Goel VK, Masuda A, a Kol. Three-dimensional finite element analysis of the lumbar spine. Eur Spine J. 923-929.
 
[50]  Goto K, Tajima N, Chosa E, a Kol. Mechanical Analysis Of The Lumbar Vertebrae In A Three-Dimensional Finite Element Method Model In Which Intradiscal Pressure In The Nucleus Pulposus Was Used To Establish The Model. J Orthop Sci. 2002; 243-246.
 
[51]  Rodriguez DP, Poussaint TY. Imaging of Back Pain in Children. 2010.
 
[52]  Lukhele M, Mayet Z, Dube B. Lumbar disc herniation in a 9-year-old child. 2011.
 
[53]  Erwin M J C, Emile A M B, Biene W W, Johannes S H V. Thoraco-Lumbar Junction Disc Herniationand Tight Filum: A Unique Coieunration. 2014.
 
[54]  Ehsan Afshani MD, Jerald P, Kuhn MD. Common Causes of Low Back Pain in Children. 1991.
 
Show Less References

Article

Automated Evaluation System of Japanese Mammary Gland Density Using Breast Thickness: An Initial Study

1School of Information Science and Technology, Aichi Prefectural University, Nagakute, Aichi, Japan

2Department of Radiological Technology, School of Health Science, Gifu University of Medical Science, Seki, Gifu, Japan


Biomedical Science and Engineering. 2016, 4(1), 1-5
doi: 10.12691/bse-4-1-1
Copyright © 2016 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Naoki Kamiya, Norimitsu Shinohara. Automated Evaluation System of Japanese Mammary Gland Density Using Breast Thickness: An Initial Study. Biomedical Science and Engineering. 2016; 4(1):1-5. doi: 10.12691/bse-4-1-1.

Correspondence to: Naoki  Kamiya, School of Information Science and Technology, Aichi Prefectural University, Nagakute, Aichi, Japan. Email: n-kamiya@ist.aichi-pu.ac.jp

Abstract

Data in Japan shows that the risk of developing breast cancer increases after the age of 40 and peaks in the late 40s. The most common method of breast cancer screening in Japan is through mammograms, and in recent years, experts have considered combining mammograms with an ultrasound to increase the detection rate of breast cancer. Meanwhile, in the United States, physicians alert the patients of their mammary gland density after the mammogram. The physician offers the possibility of tumors being covered up by the mammary tissue, and use this data to determine the appropriate interval between check-ups. However, this advice based on mammary gland density relies on the physician's visual assessment, and reproducibility remains a challenge. Software that quantitatively evaluates mammary gland density is already commercially available, but is optimized for the Western population. This study aims for the automatic evaluation of mammary gland density of Japanese subjects. We define an evaluation index of the mammary gland amount based on the breast thickness obtained from the DICOM header, and the characteristic amount of breast tissue measured through image analysis. We verified the accuracy of the proposed indicator in its ability to correctly classify mammary gland density across 458 cases, and found it consistent with the physician's classification in 98.5% of the cases. In the future, we look to create an index to calculate average glandular dose (AGD) based on this index.

Keywords

References

[1]  Berg, WA., Blume, JD., Cormack, JB., Mendelson, EB., Lehrer, D., Bohm-Velez, M., Pisano, ED., Jong. RA., Evans, WP., Morton, MJ., Mahoney, MC., Larsen, LH., Barr, RG., Farria, DM., Marques, HS and Boparai, K., “Combined screening with ultrasound and mammography vs mammography alone in women at elevated risk of breast cancer,” The Journal of the American Medical Association, 299 (18), 2151-63, May.2008.
 
[2]  Nothacker, M., Duda, V., Hahn, M., Warm, M., Degenhardt, F., Madjar, H., Weinbrenner, S. and Albert, US., “Early detection of breast cancer: benefits and risks of supplemental breast ultrasound in asymptomatic women with mammographically dense breast tissue. A systematic review,” BMC Cancer, 9, 335, Sep.2009.
 
[3]  Chae, EY., Kim, HH., Cha, JH., Shin, HJ. and Kim, H., “Evaluation of screening whole-breast sonography as a supplemental tool in conjunction with mammography in women with dense breasts,” Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine, 32 (9), 1573-78, Sep.2013.
 
[4]  Volpara Solution Limited, “Volpara clinical breast density and its implications for your patients,” Available: http://www.volparadensity.com/solutions/volparadensity/. [Accessed May. 2, 2016].
 
[5]  Ishihara, S., Taira, N., Kawasaki, K., Ishibe, Y., Mizoo, T., Nishiyama, K., Iwamoto, T., Nogami, T., Motoki, T., Shien, T., Matsuoka, J., Doihara, H., Komoike, Y., Sato, S. and Kanazawa, S., “Association between Mammographic Breast Density and Lifestyle in Japanese Women,” Acta Med Okayama, 67. 145-151. 2013.
 
Show More References
[6]  Dai, H., Yan, Y., Wang, P., Liu, P., Cao, Y., Xiong, L., Luo, Y., Pan, T., Ma, X., Wang, J., Yang, Z., Liu, X., Chen, C., Huang, Y., Li, Y., Wang, Y., Hao, X., Ye, Z. and Chen, K., “Distribution of mammographic density and its influential factors among Chinese women,” International Journal of Epidemiology, 43 (4), 1240-51, March.2014.
 
[7]  Bae, JM., Shin, SY., Kim, EH., Kim, YN., and Nam, CM., “Distribution of dense breasts using screening mammography in Korean women: a retrospective observational study,” Epidemiology and Health, 36, e2014027, Nov.2014.
 
[8]  Matsubara, T., Kasai, S., Seki, K., Fujita, H., Hara, T. and Endo, T., “Development of a Computer-aided Diagnostic System for Mammograms: Improvement of the Method of Extracting Low-Density Regions during Automated Mass Detection.:Improvement of the Method of Extracting Low-Density Regions during Automated Mass Detection,” Japan Association of Breast Cancer Screening, 7 (1). 87-101. 1998.
 
[9]  Matsubara, T., Tsuchimoto, T., Hara, T., Fujita, H., Iwase T. and Endo, T., “A Classification Scheme for Mammograms Based on the Evaluation of Fibroglandular Breast Tissue Density,” Japanese journal of medical electronics and biological engineering, 38 (2). 93-101. 2000.
 
[10]  Matsubara, T., Yamasaki, D., Kato, M., Hara, T., Fujita, H., Iwase, T. and Endo, T., “An automated classification scheme for mammograms based on amount and distribution of fibroglandular breast tissue density,” Proc. of the 15th International Congress and Exhibition CARS 2001, 1230, 545-552, June.2001.
 
[11]  Matsubara, T., Ichikawa, T., Hara, T., Fujita, H., Kasai, S., Endo, T. and Iwase, T., “Novel method for detecting mammographic architectural distortion based on concentration of mammary gland,” Proc. of the 18th International Congress and Exhibition CARS 2004, 1268, 867-871, June.2004.
 
[12]  Matsuda, A., Matsuda, T., Shibata, A., Katanoda, K., Sobue, T. and Nishimoto, H., “Cancer incidence and incidence rates in Japan in 2008: a study of 25 population-based cancer registries for the Monitoring of Cancer Incidence in Japan (MCIJ) project,” Japanese Journal of Clinical Oncology, 44 (4) 388-396, Feb.2014.
 
[13]  Ohuchi, N., Suzuki, A., Sobue, T., Kawai, M., Yamamoto, S., Zheng, Y.F., Endo, T., Fukao, A., Tsuji, I., Yamaguchi, T., Ohashi, Y., Fukuda M. and Ihisda, T., “Sensitivity and specificity of mammography and adjunctive ultrasonography to screen for breast cancer in the Japan Strategic Anti-cancer Randomized Trial (J-START): a randomised controlled trial,” The Lancet, 387 (10016). 341-348. Jan.2016.
 
[14]  Yafee, J. M. and Jong, A.R., “Adjunctive ultrasonography in breast cancer screening”, The Lancet, 387 (10016). 313-314. Jan.2016.
 
[15]  Dance, DR., Skinner, CL., Young, KC., Beckett, JR. and Kotre, CJ., “Additional factors for the estimation of mean glandular breast dose using the UK mammography dosimetry protocol,” Physics in Medicine and Biology, 45 (11). 3225-3340. 2000.
 
Show Less References