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Currrent Issue: Volume 3, Number 2, 2015


AT1 Receptor Antagonists: Pharmacological Treatment of Hypertension in Brazil

1Bandeirante University, Sao Paulo, Brazil

2Ponta Grossa StateUniversity, Ponta Grossa Brazil

3Universityof São Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil

Biomedical Science and Engineering. 2015, 3(2), 41-45
doi: 10.12691/bse-3-2-3
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Vanessa Pepeliascov, Kleber de Magalhães Galvão, Dones Cláudio Janz Jr, Helen Dutra Leite, Felipe de Lara Janz. AT1 Receptor Antagonists: Pharmacological Treatment of Hypertension in Brazil. Biomedical Science and Engineering. 2015; 3(2):41-45. doi: 10.12691/bse-3-2-3.

Correspondence to: Felipe  de Lara Janz, Universityof São Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil. Email:


High blood pressure (HBP) is a multifactorial disease that affects millions of people around the world and contributes to a large number of deaths due to acute myocardial infarction, stroke and chronic kidney disease. Its etiology remains inconclusive, but it is known that it arises of central and peripheral catecholaminergic dysfunction. Thus, cellular mechanisms are still under investigation. Its pathophysiology is characterized by an increase in systolic and diastolic blood pressure levels. The national and international guidelines for hypertension indicate that effective pharmacotherapy provides a control in blood pressure values and mortality⁄ morbidityreduction. Classes of antihypertensive drugs available for clinical use are diuretics, beta-blockers, alpha-blockers, sympatholytic, calcium channel antagonists, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptor antagonists of angiotensin II (ARBs). ARBs (i.e.: candesartan, irbesartan, losartan, olmesartan, telmisartan and valsartan)represent current and often used drug class in Brazil.They have different molecular configurations with independent action mechanismsin angiotensin II AT1 receptor. The objective of this paper is to discuss the pathophysiology and pharmacotherapy of hypertension, emphasizing the antagonists of angiotensin II used in Brazil, since they constitute a class of antihypertensive drugs that has fewer side effects and greater therapeutic efficacy.



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Challenges and Advances in Near Infrared Spectroscopy for Evaluating Hemodynamics in Brain

1Department of Systems Life Engineering, Maebashi Institute of Technology, Kamisadori, Maebashi, Japan

Biomedical Science and Engineering. 2015, 3(2), 35-40
doi: 10.12691/bse-3-2-2
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Yasutomo Nomura. Challenges and Advances in Near Infrared Spectroscopy for Evaluating Hemodynamics in Brain. Biomedical Science and Engineering. 2015; 3(2):35-40. doi: 10.12691/bse-3-2-2.

Correspondence to: Yasutomo  Nomura, Department of Systems Life Engineering, Maebashi Institute of Technology, Kamisadori, Maebashi, Japan. Email:


Near infrared spectroscopy is a powerful technique to evaluate hemodynamics in cerebral tissue where the light used is subject to the low scattering effect. In this wavelength range, hemoglobin has the characteristic absorption spectra. Because of the noninvasive method, this gives valuable information containing venous blood to the clinical field such as cardiac surgery, neurosurgery and pediatrics. Although the technique originates from classical biochemistry with clear solution, researchers have proposed creative ideas to be suitable for measuring hemodynamics in living tissue optically. In this mini-review, theoretical basis from Lambert-Beer law to multiwavelength method and derivation of the linear relationship between absorption and concentration of pigments from the time-resolved method are described. Furthermore the recent advances are also outlined.



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Preliminary Calculation of Bubble Dynamics in Cracking Sound Generation

1Department of Engineering Mechanics and Energy, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Japan

2Department of Education, Hokkaido University of Education, Sapporo Campus, Sapporo, Japan

Biomedical Science and Engineering. 2015, 3(2), 30-34
doi: 10.12691/bse-3-2-1
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Tetsuya Kanagawa, Hisao Taira. Preliminary Calculation of Bubble Dynamics in Cracking Sound Generation. Biomedical Science and Engineering. 2015; 3(2):30-34. doi: 10.12691/bse-3-2-1.

Correspondence to: Tetsuya  Kanagawa, Department of Engineering Mechanics and Energy, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Japan. Email:


Bending a human joint generates a sound. This paper theoretically tackles the cracking sound generated by the manipulation of human joint such as finger. The Rayleigh-Plesset equation in the classical bubble dynamics is applied to determine the nonlinear oscillations of bubble that generates sound. Comparing the numerical solutions of the Rayleigh-Plesset equation for two types of modeling, i.e., forced- and free-oscillator assumptions for inhomogeneous terms, gives clear difference.



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