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Currrent Issue: Volume 4, Number 1, 2016


The Effects Induced by a Backpack Eccentric Load on the Spine of Children

1Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Sciences and Technology, Oran-Algeria

2Laboratory of Biomechanics, Polymers and Structures, ENIM-Metz, France

Biomedical Science and Engineering. 2016, 4(1), 6-22
doi: 10.12691/bse-4-1-2
Copyright © 2016 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Samir Zahaf, Bensamine Mansouri, Abderrahmane Belarbi, Zitouni Azari. The Effects Induced by a Backpack Eccentric Load on the Spine of Children. Biomedical Science and Engineering. 2016; 4(1):6-22. doi: 10.12691/bse-4-1-2.

Correspondence to: Samir  Zahaf, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Sciences and Technology, Oran-Algeria. Email:


The objective of this work is to study the effect of the backpack on the components of the spine system of a child, know the effect of an eccentric force on the intervertebral discs, the creating a 3D model of the spine of child of 38 kg overall weight under the effect of three eccentric load (P2, P3, P4) plus P1 compression load and calculated by the element method ends, For the boundary conditions we fixed the sacrum (Embedding the sacrum). We propose in this section to draw up a comprehensive study of the distributions of stresses and normal elastic strain of Von Mises in the intervertebral discs based on loads supported. The results show that the stress and strain of Von Mises are highest and concentrated in four intervertebral discs (D1, D2, D3 and D4), which causes a problem that calls (herniated disc). We concluded that the cause of the posterior load, a 300 mm lever arm with a 150N force present maximum Von Mises stresses concentrated in four intervertebral discs (D1, D2, D3, D4), which justifies the distance between the load which is the point of application of the load and the axis of the spine plays a very important role in increasing the solicitation of the latter.



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Automated Evaluation System of Japanese Mammary Gland Density Using Breast Thickness: An Initial Study

1School of Information Science and Technology, Aichi Prefectural University, Nagakute, Aichi, Japan

2Department of Radiological Technology, School of Health Science, Gifu University of Medical Science, Seki, Gifu, Japan

Biomedical Science and Engineering. 2016, 4(1), 1-5
doi: 10.12691/bse-4-1-1
Copyright © 2016 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Naoki Kamiya, Norimitsu Shinohara. Automated Evaluation System of Japanese Mammary Gland Density Using Breast Thickness: An Initial Study. Biomedical Science and Engineering. 2016; 4(1):1-5. doi: 10.12691/bse-4-1-1.

Correspondence to: Naoki  Kamiya, School of Information Science and Technology, Aichi Prefectural University, Nagakute, Aichi, Japan. Email:


Data in Japan shows that the risk of developing breast cancer increases after the age of 40 and peaks in the late 40s. The most common method of breast cancer screening in Japan is through mammograms, and in recent years, experts have considered combining mammograms with an ultrasound to increase the detection rate of breast cancer. Meanwhile, in the United States, physicians alert the patients of their mammary gland density after the mammogram. The physician offers the possibility of tumors being covered up by the mammary tissue, and use this data to determine the appropriate interval between check-ups. However, this advice based on mammary gland density relies on the physician's visual assessment, and reproducibility remains a challenge. Software that quantitatively evaluates mammary gland density is already commercially available, but is optimized for the Western population. This study aims for the automatic evaluation of mammary gland density of Japanese subjects. We define an evaluation index of the mammary gland amount based on the breast thickness obtained from the DICOM header, and the characteristic amount of breast tissue measured through image analysis. We verified the accuracy of the proposed indicator in its ability to correctly classify mammary gland density across 458 cases, and found it consistent with the physician's classification in 98.5% of the cases. In the future, we look to create an index to calculate average glandular dose (AGD) based on this index.



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