R. Moore, J. Radford
American Journal of Sports Science and Medicine. 2014, 2(3), 117-122
Publication Date (Web): 29 February 2004DOI:
Abstract: In England, there is a growing interest in futsal, driven by people who enjoy participating in the sport and others who see futsal as a development tool for those looking to succeed in football - dubbed the countries national sport. Nationally, the development of the sport has been overseen by futsal's governing body, The Football Association (FA), to improve the fortunes of the national futsal team and to provide a structure for the sport to grow at both grassroots and elite level. A lack of research into futsal exists, particularly around participation in the sport, and therefore there is insufficient knowledge to supply the elevated interest in the sport. The study establishes baseline measures to gain a greater understanding of futsal participation in England, to provide an indication of how many people participate in the sport; who participates, where, why and how? The study methodology was two-fold, firstly, analysis of primary and secondary data was undertaken to identify the number of teams and participants playing competitively between 7th January and 4th March 2013 - to provide a snapshot of futsal participation in England. The results, although indicative, show that during the course of this research there were 1975 teams playing organised competitive futsal and approximately 12,449 participants playing the sport during this period. Secondly, the research provides insight into participation trends of futsal from online survey responses of 108 futsal participants and 30 County FA coordinators, responsible for the development of the game nationwide. The evidence from respondents indicates that futsal is more popular than other variants of small sided football, with many respondents substituting or displacing their participation in other formats, to play futsal, while many also wish to increase their participation in the sport. Barriers to participation are also prevalent, particularly with regards to the availability and quality of facilities.
R. Moore, S. Bullough, S. Goldsmith, L. Edmondson
American Journal of Sports Science and Medicine. 2014, 2(3), 108-116
Publication Date (Web): 01 March 2014DOI:
Abstract: This document systematically reviews literature to provide a summary of evidence based research related to the sport of futsal. The review draws on diverse subjects including coaching, physiological, psychological, technical and tactical elements of the sport as well as reviewing subjects relating to the development of futsal. The methodology included a scoping study and review protocol to systematically review 601 documents relating to futsal; 44 of these documents were reviewed in the study. The review aims to provide a resource for fellow researchers, to study the sport and encourage further English language studies in futsal. To that end, gaps in the literature are highlighted by the researchers, and therefore this document acts as a guide for further study.
American Journal of Sports Science and Medicine. 2014, 2(3), 103-107
Publication Date (Web): 16 February 2014DOI:
Abstract: Futsal is a FIFA sanctioned form of 5-a-side football. It is controlled by two referees who run up and down the touchlines either side of the pitch ensuring the laws of the game are enforced. The match is played over two halves of 20 minutes, with the clock being stopped every time the ball goes out of play; so each half can last up to 40 minutes including stoppage time. To date there has been minimal research which has looked at the physiological demands of refereeing futsal. This pilot study was undertaken over consecutive days when two International futsal games took place involving four referees. Heart rate, core temperature, blood lactate and hydration status were monitored prior to the match, again at half time and at full time. The results showed that the referees operated at between 81 and 84% Heart Rate Maximum (HRmax). There was a marked difference between the first and second referee in both games and between the first and second halves. Core temperature increased during the game with the referees becoming progressively dehydrated towards the end of the game. Blood lactate was found on average to be higher at the end of the first half compared to the end of the second half (2.33 vs. 1.8 mmol.l-1) and referees in the first game had readings higher than the second game (HT 2.8 vs. 1.9 mmol.l-1; FT 2.4 vs. 1.2 mmol.l-1). In conclusion, the major findings show that further investigation is needed into the physiological demands of Futsal Refereeing and that in future, activity profiling should also be considered.
J. Álvarez-Medina, V. Murillo-Lorente, P. Manonelles-Marqueta, L. Giménez-Salillas
American Journal of Sports Science and Medicine. 2014, 2(3), 98-102
Publication Date (Web): 26 January 2014DOI:
Abstract: Compare cardiovascular responses and adaptations of a professional futsal player both at rest and in action over an uninterrupted twelve-year period. Cross-over case study. Data analysis was performed by descriptive analysis, which results are expressed as percentages (percentiles) and mean ± standard deviation (SD). The study was conducted between 1999 and 2012 sport seasons. Laboratory tests (Electrocardiogram and echocardiography, maximum stress test) and field test (competitive and training games).The VO2 max of our athlete decreased from 57.8 to 52.7 ml/kg/min however the anaerobic threshold significantly improved, as it increased from 80.4% to 92% of his heart rate maximum (HRmax). The athlete’s HRmax changed from 194 bpm in 1999 to 176 bpm in 2012 and his mean heart rate (MHR) from 168.1 ± 13 bpm to 142 ± 13 bpm. In 1999 the athlete’s performance was < 150 bpm 9.1% of time while in 2012 his heart rate (HR) was < 150 bpm 60.30% of time. In 1999, he had 150-170 bpm 32.9% of time, while in 2012 he was 39.7% of time with this HR. He changed from having a HR >170 bpm 57.8% of time in 1999 to not have this HR at any time in 2012. Comparative analysis indicated that intensity variability over a decade is < 10%, as it was 86.5% in 1999 and 80.6% in 2012. Conclusions: Age is the main factor causing heart rate variability in team sports players since maximum heart rate decreases with age. Using heart rate as an indicator of work intensity involves using relative values of percentage of work intensity with respect to their maximum heart rate.
American Journal of Sports Science and Medicine. 2014, 2(3), 93-97
Publication Date (Web): 18 January 2014DOI:
Abstract: Recently FIFA have called on referees to be fitter and to look like athletes therefore the aim of this research was to retrospectively examine the results from the fitness test results undertaken by Futsal referees operating in and below the National Futsal League. Futsal is the FIFA sanctioned form of 5 a side football and is controlled by two referees who operate up and down the touchlines either side of the pitch. Research has shown that the referees operating at an average intensity of 76% heart rate maximum (HRmax)HRMAX and spent more time sprinting and working at high intensity compared to referees in the 11 a side game. Currently FIFA recommend a. and as such the current 1000 m run, but this is not thought to match the actual movements or intensity of futsal referees or matches. As such the Yo-Yo IE2 test was introduced this season as it has been found to correlate highly with high intensity running (r=0.75; p<0.05). Twenty-two National group and 36 Non-national group futsal referees underwent pre-season testing which in-cooperating the Yo-Yo Intermittent Endurance Level 2 Fitness Test, a sprint test and a 70 m agility run test. The result showed a trivial effect size difference for Yo-Yo IE2 test distance (0.21), a small effect size difference for 40 m speed test and a extremely large effect size difference for agility run. A moderate to large correlation was found between age and Yo-Yo IE2 distance (r=-0.577) and BMI and Yo-Yo IE2 distance (r=-0.452). Therefore the Yo-Yo IE2 can be used to differentiate between different levels of futsal referees and it may be possible to use the test to identify those referees who show the fitness attributes for further development.
J. V. García-Jiménez, J. L. Yuste, J. J. García-Pellicer
American Journal of Sports Science and Medicine. 2014, 2(3), 88-92
Publication Date (Web): 11 January 2014DOI:
Abstract: Futsal is a variant of soccer that is played on a smaller playing surface and mainly indoors. Futsal is played between two teams of five players, and unlimited substitutions per team are permitted. The purpose of this study has been to determine and to compare hydration habits and level of dehydration in elite futsal players during competition in relation to playing position. 4 defenders (DF) and 5 forwards (FW) were studied during 3 official matches (22- and relative humidity 32-42.33%) in the Spanish Futsal League (LNFS). Sweat loss was assessed through changes in body mass after correction for fluid intake (ad libitum) and urine loss. To analyze this data the statistics used are descriptive and not parametric. Mean sweat lost was higher in FW (2458±670.91 mL) than in DF (1695.56 ± 673.732 mL). Fluid intake was higher in FW (1700.36 ± 857.12 mL) than in DF (1493.33 ± 770.35 mL). FW replaced less total fluid lost (63.64 ± 29.55%) than DF (79.53 ± 38.71%), so FW incurred a mean body mass deficit of 1.23 ± 1.10%, higher than DF (0.59 ± 1.10%). Even FW and DF were aware of the impact that dehydration has on performance. There is a significant correlation between game time and body weight loss (Spearman’s Rho = 0.419, p ≤ 0.05). There is significant difference in sweat lost in relation to playing position (p = 0.020; ES = -1.311). We conclude that in these players, during official games, and independently of position, hydration status can be seen to maintain itself through regular substitutions and also the correct level of fluid intake. However, data allow for an individualisation of player hydration strategies, not taking exclusively into account playing position or game time.
J. Cachón-Zagalaz, P. Valdivia-Moral, A. Lara-Sánchez, M. L. Zagalaz-Sánchez, D. Berdejo-del-Fresno
American Journal of Sports Science and Medicine. 2014, 2(3), 83-87
Publication Date (Web): 10 January 2014DOI:
Abstract: In the absence of questionnaires addressing the analysis of the rule’s change in futsal and the need to find an instrument that is capable of carrying out this objective, the aim of this study is to design and develop a questionnaire to assess the loss of entertainment in futsal. To do this, the sample consisted of 279 subjects with roles as a coach, player, physiotherapist, amateur referee and journalist since all of them are part of the sport. The instrument is based on the new rules imposed by FIFA in the kick-in and corner and their impact on the show. This descriptive cross-sectional study where is designed and implemented a closed-responses ad hoc questionnaire to subjects related with futsal in the first category to obtain objective information was undertaken. The analysis of data showed satisfactory results in terms of reliability and validity. It can be concluded that this scale is valid and reliable instrument to analyze changes in the rules of futsal.
D. Berdejo-del-Fresno, M. W. Laupheimer
American Journal of Sports Science and Medicine. 2014, 2(3), 77-82
Publication Date (Web): 05 January 2014DOI:
Abstract: Futsal is a high-intensity, intermittent sport where accelerations and short sprints are performed at maximal or almost maximal intensity, interspersed by brief recovery periods, during a period of time relatively long. The aim of this study was to analyse the recovery and regeneration, as well as the hydration status of the futsal players in a 1-week period (3 days out, 1 travelling day and 3 days in a camp). Twenty elite level male futsal players from a national team that compete internationally, volunteered to participate in this study. Anthropometric measures, TQR questionnaires and Urine Osmolality status were analysed. The TQR questionnaire showed that there are statistical differences (p < 0.05) between both periods; in and out the training camp. Also, the hydration status of the players was not the desirable. The TQR questionnaire and the analysis of the urine with a refractometer might be two good methods to give feedback to the players about the categories where they should implement an action plan with the main aim to educate them.
A. Paz-Franco, A. Bores-Cerezal, R. Barcala-Furelos, M. Mecias-Calvo
American Journal of Sports Science and Medicine. 2014, 2(3), 71-76
Publication Date (Web): 06 November 2013DOI:
Abstract: The analysis of Futsal goalkeeper acquires great relevance due to the characteristics demanded by the competition that requires its position with respect to the other players and the importance that has this specific position in the game. For this reason we have analyzed the existing interactions between the conducts of the Futsal goalkeeper and different variables (actions, play area, goal-block or error-goal, game situation and team). We have used and observational methodology, because it is one the options of the scientific study of the behavior, as much in real situations as in controlled situations. The results show that in the shots made to the goal, a 76.5% of them are goalkeeper interventions, in situation of positional attack (54%), with an incidence in the game on the sidelines areas of the field (L-39%, R-33%) and being the technical action more important the cross (33.7%). Therefore, it is observed relation between the goalkeeper’s action and the zone where the opponent shots, between the actions performed by the goalkeeper and the goal (success-block/error-goal), and between the action and the belonging to a specific team. Otherwise, it is not observed relation between goalkeeper’s action and the diverse situations of the game.