Special Issue "A review about Futsal"

A special issue of American Journal of Sports Science and Medicine

Deadline for manuscript submissions: (February 28, 2014)

Special Issue Editor(s)

Chief Guest Editor

Dr Daniel Berdejo-del-Fresno
The Football Association (England)
Email: daniberdejo@gmail.com

Guest Editor

Dr Amador J. Lara-Sánchez
University of Jaén (Spain)
Email: alara@ujaen.es

Dr Antonio Tessitore
University of Rome “Foro Italico” (Italy)
Email: antonio.tessitore@uniroma4.it

Special Issue Information

Futsal is the format of Small Sided Football that is recognised and supported by FIFA and UEFA with World and African, Asian, American (North and Central and South), Oceanian and European Championships for Club and National Teams.

The name “Futsal” simply combines the Spanish words for “Hall” – Sala and “Football” – Fútbol into futsal. It is a five-a-side game, played with hockey sized goals and a smaller ball with a reduced bounce.

Futsal is also the World’s fastest growing indoor sport. In fact, the IOC are in talks deciding if Futsal becomes an Olympic Sport or not for the next Olympic Games in Rio de Janeiro (Brasil) or in 2020. Futsal was developed in Brasil and Uruguay in the 1930s and 1940s as a solution to the lack of available football fields. Since the beginnings Futsal has been very popular in South America, Portugal, Spain and Italy. In the last decade, Futsal has increased a lot in Asian countries such as Iran, Japan, Kuwait...

However, there is a lack of scientific papers about futsal in English language. Only a couple of authors (one Spanish and one Italian) have published some futsal articles in English. On the contrary, there are hundreds of papers, articles and documents about futsal written in Portuguese, Spanish or Italian. This fact is not helping to develop futsal in the right way, as many international coaches, S&C coaches, physiotherapists, doctors cannot understand those language. Therefore, if we want to develop futsal as a professional sport, we need to be able to increase the level in futsal in all the fields. The only way to get that objective is trying to get as many as possible articles in English, since that language is the international one.

Keywods

Published Papers

   
Abstract: In England, there is a growing interest in futsal, driven by people who enjoy participating in the sport and others who see futsal as a development tool for those looking to succeed in football - dubbed the countries national sport. Nationally, the development of the sport has been overseen by futsal's governing body, The Football Association (FA), to improve the fortunes of the national futsal team and to provide a structure for the sport to grow at both grassroots and elite level. A lack of research into futsal exists, particularly around participation in the sport, and therefore there is insufficient knowledge to supply the elevated interest in the sport. The study establishes baseline measures to gain a greater understanding of futsal participation in England, to provide an indication of how many people participate in the sport; who participates, where, why and how? The study methodology was two-fold, firstly, analysis of primary and secondary data was undertaken to identify the number of teams and participants playing competitively between 7th January and 4th March 2013 - to provide a snapshot of futsal participation in England. The results, although indicative, show that during the course of this research there were 1975 teams playing organised competitive futsal and approximately 12,449 participants playing the sport during this period. Secondly, the research provides insight into participation trends of futsal from online survey responses of 108 futsal participants and 30 County FA coordinators, responsible for the development of the game nationwide. The evidence from respondents indicates that futsal is more popular than other variants of small sided football, with many respondents substituting or displacing their participation in other formats, to play futsal, while many also wish to increase their participation in the sport. Barriers to participation are also prevalent, particularly with regards to the availability and quality of facilities.
Abstract: This document systematically reviews literature to provide a summary of evidence based research related to the sport of futsal. The review draws on diverse subjects including coaching, physiological, psychological, technical and tactical elements of the sport as well as reviewing subjects relating to the development of futsal. The methodology included a scoping study and review protocol to systematically review 601 documents relating to futsal; 44 of these documents were reviewed in the study. The review aims to provide a resource for fellow researchers, to study the sport and encourage further English language studies in futsal. To that end, gaps in the literature are highlighted by the researchers, and therefore this document acts as a guide for further study.
Abstract: Futsal is a FIFA sanctioned form of 5-a-side football. It is controlled by two referees who run up and down the touchlines either side of the pitch ensuring the laws of the game are enforced. The match is played over two halves of 20 minutes, with the clock being stopped every time the ball goes out of play; so each half can last up to 40 minutes including stoppage time. To date there has been minimal research which has looked at the physiological demands of refereeing futsal. This pilot study was undertaken over consecutive days when two International futsal games took place involving four referees. Heart rate, core temperature, blood lactate and hydration status were monitored prior to the match, again at half time and at full time. The results showed that the referees operated at between 81 and 84% Heart Rate Maximum (HRmax). There was a marked difference between the first and second referee in both games and between the first and second halves. Core temperature increased during the game with the referees becoming progressively dehydrated towards the end of the game. Blood lactate was found on average to be higher at the end of the first half compared to the end of the second half (2.33 vs. 1.8 mmol.l-1) and referees in the first game had readings higher than the second game (HT 2.8 vs. 1.9 mmol.l-1; FT 2.4 vs. 1.2 mmol.l-1). In conclusion, the major findings show that further investigation is needed into the physiological demands of Futsal Refereeing and that in future, activity profiling should also be considered.
Abstract: Compare cardiovascular responses and adaptations of a professional futsal player both at rest and in action over an uninterrupted twelve-year period. Cross-over case study. Data analysis was performed by descriptive analysis, which results are expressed as percentages (percentiles) and mean ± standard deviation (SD). The study was conducted between 1999 and 2012 sport seasons. Laboratory tests (Electrocardiogram and echocardiography, maximum stress test) and field test (competitive and training games).The VO2 max of our athlete decreased from 57.8 to 52.7 ml/kg/min however the anaerobic threshold significantly improved, as it increased from 80.4% to 92% of his heart rate maximum (HRmax). The athlete’s HRmax changed from 194 bpm in 1999 to 176 bpm in 2012 and his mean heart rate (MHR) from 168.1 ± 13 bpm to 142 ± 13 bpm. In 1999 the athlete’s performance was < 150 bpm 9.1% of time while in 2012 his heart rate (HR) was < 150 bpm 60.30% of time. In 1999, he had 150-170 bpm 32.9% of time, while in 2012 he was 39.7% of time with this HR. He changed from having a HR >170 bpm 57.8% of time in 1999 to not have this HR at any time in 2012. Comparative analysis indicated that intensity variability over a decade is < 10%, as it was 86.5% in 1999 and 80.6% in 2012. Conclusions: Age is the main factor causing heart rate variability in team sports players since maximum heart rate decreases with age. Using heart rate as an indicator of work intensity involves using relative values of percentage of work intensity with respect to their maximum heart rate.
Abstract: Recently FIFA have called on referees to be fitter and to look like athletes therefore the aim of this research was to retrospectively examine the results from the fitness test results undertaken by Futsal referees operating in and below the National Futsal League. Futsal is the FIFA sanctioned form of 5 a side football and is controlled by two referees who operate up and down the touchlines either side of the pitch. Research has shown that the referees operating at an average intensity of 76% heart rate maximum (HRmax)HRMAX and spent more time sprinting and working at high intensity compared to referees in the 11 a side game. Currently FIFA recommend a. and as such the current 1000 m run, but this is not thought to match the actual movements or intensity of futsal referees or matches. As such the Yo-Yo IE2 test was introduced this season as it has been found to correlate highly with high intensity running (r=0.75; p<0.05). Twenty-two National group and 36 Non-national group futsal referees underwent pre-season testing which in-cooperating the Yo-Yo Intermittent Endurance Level 2 Fitness Test, a sprint test and a 70 m agility run test. The result showed a trivial effect size difference for Yo-Yo IE2 test distance (0.21), a small effect size difference for 40 m speed test and a extremely large effect size difference for agility run. A moderate to large correlation was found between age and Yo-Yo IE2 distance (r=-0.577) and BMI and Yo-Yo IE2 distance (r=-0.452). Therefore the Yo-Yo IE2 can be used to differentiate between different levels of futsal referees and it may be possible to use the test to identify those referees who show the fitness attributes for further development.
Abstract: Futsal is a variant of soccer that is played on a smaller playing surface and mainly indoors. Futsal is played between two teams of five players, and unlimited substitutions per team are permitted. The purpose of this study has been to determine and to compare hydration habits and level of dehydration in elite futsal players during competition in relation to playing position. 4 defenders (DF) and 5 forwards (FW) were studied during 3 official matches (22- and relative humidity 32-42.33%) in the Spanish Futsal League (LNFS). Sweat loss was assessed through changes in body mass after correction for fluid intake (ad libitum) and urine loss. To analyze this data the statistics used are descriptive and not parametric. Mean sweat lost was higher in FW (2458±670.91 mL) than in DF (1695.56 ± 673.732 mL). Fluid intake was higher in FW (1700.36 ± 857.12 mL) than in DF (1493.33 ± 770.35 mL). FW replaced less total fluid lost (63.64 ± 29.55%) than DF (79.53 ± 38.71%), so FW incurred a mean body mass deficit of 1.23 ± 1.10%, higher than DF (0.59 ± 1.10%). Even FW and DF were aware of the impact that dehydration has on performance. There is a significant correlation between game time and body weight loss (Spearman’s Rho = 0.419, p ≤ 0.05). There is significant difference in sweat lost in relation to playing position (p = 0.020; ES = -1.311). We conclude that in these players, during official games, and independently of position, hydration status can be seen to maintain itself through regular substitutions and also the correct level of fluid intake. However, data allow for an individualisation of player hydration strategies, not taking exclusively into account playing position or game time.
Abstract: In the absence of questionnaires addressing the analysis of the rule’s change in futsal and the need to find an instrument that is capable of carrying out this objective, the aim of this study is to design and develop a questionnaire to assess the loss of entertainment in futsal. To do this, the sample consisted of 279 subjects with roles as a coach, player, physiotherapist, amateur referee and journalist since all of them are part of the sport. The instrument is based on the new rules imposed by FIFA in the kick-in and corner and their impact on the show. This descriptive cross-sectional study where is designed and implemented a closed-responses ad hoc questionnaire to subjects related with futsal in the first category to obtain objective information was undertaken. The analysis of data showed satisfactory results in terms of reliability and validity. It can be concluded that this scale is valid and reliable instrument to analyze changes in the rules of futsal.
Abstract: Futsal is a high-intensity, intermittent sport where accelerations and short sprints are performed at maximal or almost maximal intensity, interspersed by brief recovery periods, during a period of time relatively long. The aim of this study was to analyse the recovery and regeneration, as well as the hydration status of the futsal players in a 1-week period (3 days out, 1 travelling day and 3 days in a camp). Twenty elite level male futsal players from a national team that compete internationally, volunteered to participate in this study. Anthropometric measures, TQR questionnaires and Urine Osmolality status were analysed. The TQR questionnaire showed that there are statistical differences (p < 0.05) between both periods; in and out the training camp. Also, the hydration status of the players was not the desirable. The TQR questionnaire and the analysis of the urine with a refractometer might be two good methods to give feedback to the players about the categories where they should implement an action plan with the main aim to educate them.
Abstract: The analysis of Futsal goalkeeper acquires great relevance due to the characteristics demanded by the competition that requires its position with respect to the other players and the importance that has this specific position in the game. For this reason we have analyzed the existing interactions between the conducts of the Futsal goalkeeper and different variables (actions, play area, goal-block or error-goal, game situation and team). We have used and observational methodology, because it is one the options of the scientific study of the behavior, as much in real situations as in controlled situations. The results show that in the shots made to the goal, a 76.5% of them are goalkeeper interventions, in situation of positional attack (54%), with an incidence in the game on the sidelines areas of the field (L-39%, R-33%) and being the technical action more important the cross (33.7%). Therefore, it is observed relation between the goalkeeper’s action and the zone where the opponent shots, between the actions performed by the goalkeeper and the goal (success-block/error-goal), and between the action and the belonging to a specific team. Otherwise, it is not observed relation between goalkeeper’s action and the diverse situations of the game.
Abstract:

Special Issue "Role of Exercise in Prevention of Obesity in Children"

A special issue of American Journal of Sports Science and Medicine

Deadline for manuscript submissions: (January 31, 2014)

Special Issue Editor(s)

Chief Guest Editor

Dr. Indranil Manna
Department of Physiology, Midnapore College
Email: Indranil_manna@yahoo.com

Guest Editor

Dr Reza Nuri
Department of Exercise Physiology, Kish International Campus (International branch of University of Tehran), University of Tehran, Kish Island, Iran
Email: nuri_r7@yahoo.com

Dr. Johnny Padulo
Faculty of Medicine and Surgery, University of “Tor Vergata” Rome, Italy
Email: sportcinetic@gmail.com

Special Issue Information

In a major attempt to emphasize the importance of research and evidence-based practical information in advancing all aspects of the Role of Exercise in Prevention of Obesity in Children, the American Journal of Sports Science and Medicine published a Special Issue on February, 2014. Childhood obesity is a condition in which excess body fat negatively related with the child's health or well being. Due to the increasing trend of obesity in children and its adverse health effects it is emerging as a serious public health problem. In order to prevent obesity in children it would be fruitful to perform a population wide evaluation of the dietary intake in relation to physical activity.In order to help children, parents, educators, students, coaches, researchers and practitioners seek assistance from the vast amount of technical information that is available in the form of books, journals or websites. This special issue of the American Journal of Sports Science and Medicine published articles original research and specific reviews that enriches the current understanding of Role of Exercise in Prevention of Obesity in Children.

Keywods

  • Role of Endurance Exercise in Prevention of Obesity in Children.
  • Nutrition and Physical Activity in Prevention of Obesity in Children.
  • Anthropometric variables for the Assessment of Obesity in Children.
  • Physical and Physiological fitness for the Prevention of Obesity in Children.
  • Biochemical assessment of fitness and Obesity.
  • Molecular Mechanism of Obesity.
  • Obesity and Cardiovascular Disease.
  • Obesity and Diabetes.
  • Obesity and Reproductive Health.
  • Obesity and Metabolic Changes.
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Published Papers

   
Abstract:
Abstract: Obesity, defined as abnormal or excessive fat accumulation that presents a risk to health, is on the rise including in the pediatric population in developed as well as less developed countries. As children are now fast adopting computer based activity both habitual and recreational with minimal level of physical effort, the prevalence of childhood obesity is a major concern. Indian dancing has been practised as a popular recreational activity for a long period of time. Bharatnatyam dancing is a traditional form of Indian classical dance which involves different body postures with continuous rhythmic body movements and therefore it may have some impact on body composition. A study has been undertaken in this backdrop, to assess the effect of Indian classical. Bharatanatyam dancing on body composition variables of girl children. Female individuals (12-18 year), receiving Bharatanatyam dancing training for at least a period of five years and practicing daily for an hour for 6 days in a week, constituted the Bharatanatyam dancing group (DG). Children of similar age and socioeconomic background with no regular physical activity including any form of dancing were randomly selected for constituting control group. It has been observed that training in Bharatnatyam dancing has significant (P < 0.05) favourable impact on the body composition parameters measured anthropometrically compared to the age and sex matched counterparts. It could therefore be concluded that Bharatnatyam dancing has specific beneficial impact on maintaining favourable body composition variables in children and thereby reducing the chance of obesity in adulthood.
Abstract: This study examined the influence of daily life Physical Activity (PA ) on obesity parameters (BMI: Body Mass Index, WHR: Waist Hip Ratio, Body fat percentage) and cardiorespiratory fitness or CRF (PFI: Physical Fitness Index). The influence of the later two on academic performance was also documented. The study was conducted on 720 healthy Bengali adolescents involving 240 subjects from each of the three age groups ( Age group I: 13-14 yrs, Age group II:15-16 yrs, Age group III:17-18 yrs). Subjects of both the genders were chosen from urban and rural areas by random sampling method. Physical activity questionnaire for adolescents (PAQ-A) was used to classify adolescents into low, moderate and high PA levels. Obesity parameters and PFI was measured using standard techniques. Percentage (%) of the mean of the three years total marks of annual school examination was computed to get the academic score (%) of the participant. In most of the instances, obesity parameters were significantly (p < 0.05) varied among different PA levels. PFI also showed similar trend of results.It was seen that rural urban impact on obesity parameters may not always be necessarily present whereas in case of PFI it was consistently significant. Obesity parameters was found to have significant negative correlation (p < 0.001) with PA and academic performance. PFI possessed significant (p < 0.001) positive correlation with PA and academic performance.However, multiple regression analysis found that only body fat percentage independently and significantly predicted academic performance in both the genders. The present data highlighted the importance of practicing sufficient PA in daily life not only to keep check against increased body fat levels and prevent obesity but also to increase CRF. Additively, it indicated that higher levels of body fat and lower levels of CRF may possibly restrict performance in examination. PA induced lowering of body fat and improvements in CRF may be expected to bring about some positive changes in academic performance.
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of a strength training exercise intervention on body composition and cardiovascular risk factors in obese children, by pubertal stage. The sample included 60 obese schoolchildren of both genders, aged 8 to 13 years, recruited from a school in the city of Santiago (Chile). The intervention included physical exercise (strength training 3 times per week), during 3 months. Multi-compartmental body composition was estimated using isotopic dilution, plethysmography, radiographic absorptiometry and 4C model as the gold standard. Presence of metabolic syndrome was diagnosed according to Cook criteria and cardiovascular risk factors were determined using anthropometric and biochemical indicators. We found differences in schoolchildren in pubertal stages III & IV. Compared to girls, boys showed significant reductions in body fat in kg and percentage (4-Component model) and isotopic dilution in kg (p < 0,05). Likewise, we observed an increase in the fat-free mass in kg, in the 4-Component Model (p < 0,01). In all groups, the prevalence of metabolic syndrome decreased from baseline to 3 months, but the reduction was significant only among boys of Tanner I & II (p = 0.03). Only this group showed a significant reduction in the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors from baseline to 3 months (p = 0.02). This study provides evidence on the positive impact of a strength training physical exercise program on reductions of body fat, metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular risk factors, supporting the use of exercise as a treatment for obesity and its comorbidities in schoolchildren.
Abstract: Canadian who were living in Toronto for the past fifteen years after migrating from their own countries and maintaining their own traditional food habits, were studied for their adiposity and body composition. Body composition was analyzed by bio-impedance method using bioelectrical body composition analyzer and BMI was calculated by standard method. Average age, height, weight, fat % and BMI for the males were 34.2 yr (± 12.3), 175.8 cm (± 8.2), 85.5 kg (± 17.5), 23.6 % (± 7.4) and 27.6 kg.m2 (± 5.2) respectively whereas those for their female counterparts were 30.9 yr (± 11.3), 163.7 cm (± 6.5), 71.1 kg (± 17.1), 31.8 % (± 8.2) and 26.5 kg.m-2 (± 5.9) respectively. A wide range of Fat % were observed in both male and female Canadians which were 7.3% - 50.0% for male and 8.5 %-52.6% for female. Similar wide ranges were also observed in BMI where males had a range of 14.6 kg.m-2 - 48.5 kg.m-2 and female had 15.2 kg.m-2 and 50.2 kg.m-2. In males, 66.12 % were in overweight category, out of which 38.74% were in pre-obese and 27.38% were in obese group. Similarly, in females, 52.72% were in overweight category, out of which 30.96% were in pre-obese category and 21.75% were in obese category. High adiposity was also observed both in males and females. The reason might be due to their life style and food habit.
Abstract: The present study is conducted on 62 girls, out of which 31 girls belong to physically active group with a training age of 8.95 years and 31 girls are from physically inactive group considered as control group. The girls were evaluated for their decimal age, age at menarche, height, weight body fat percentage and BMI. The body mass index and body fat percentages were significantly correlated and an inverse correlation was found. The higher body mass index, the lower was the age at menarche. The physically inactive girls were overweight and also early mature. The age of menarche of physically active girls was significantly delayed as compared to their inactive counterparts.
Abstract: Childhood obesity is the one of the serious problem globally which keeps on increasing with high rate. Physical activity plays an important role in handling the childhood obesity. Physical activity has long been considered an integral component of weight management, but exercise alone is a reasonably ineffective means for reducing fat percentage. Physical activity along with healthy nutrition boosts the process of fat percentage discount and also helpful in monitoring the hypothalamus part of brain which plays an important role in regulating the food intake. Data suggested that anthropometry is a key component of nutritional status assessment in children especially body mass index, which is quite effective and reliable. Without engaging the children’s in physical activity leads to increased chances of obesity, cardiovascular diseases, cancer and diabetes in future and that fastenings the attention of fitness personal and policy makers. Hence, parents and policymakers have to plan accordingly to make their child healthy and fit. This article reviews the available literature regarding the role of physical activity and nutrition in the prevention and handling of childhood obesity along with various anthropometric assessment methods.
Abstract: Childhood obesity is a prevalent global health problem that leads to onset of serious health problems. One of such major health problems is respitarory disorders induced by obesity especially in childhood. Peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) is a convenient tool for quantitative and qualitative estimation of pulmonary function, which can easily be measured by peak flow meter. Present review has been focused to find out the applicability of PEFR as a marker of childhood obesity induced respiratory complications. Several studies revealed that obesity has strong association with PEFR that was significantly lower in individuals with obesity. Such association was attributed to the increased airway resistance and respiratory muscle dysfunction as a result of excess fat deposition. BMI, a good predictor of obesity also exhibited significant correlated with spirometric variables, e.g., FEV1, FVC, PEFR, etc. Waist to hip ratio has also been found to be an alternative of BMI for prediction of PEFR. Researchers hypothesised that fat accumulation over the chest wall reduces the PEFR mostly among all the pulmonary function indices and negative correlation was observed between pulmonary function parameters and visceral adiposity that in turn establishes that visceral fat deposition negatively affects the pulmonary activities and affects airway hyper responsiveness (AHR) in asthmatic and non-asthmatic children. Evidences further suggest that obesity causes asthma in children. It may further be hypothesized that PEFR is a good marker to diagnose the pulmonary disorders originated as a result of obesity that in turn may be evaluated from BMI or waist to hip ratio.
Abstract: Selected schools in Slovenia have launched an initiative to replace school chairs with large gymnastics balls (LGBs) in order to improve children’s posture. The rational given was that LGB saffect posture in a way that is beneficial to the body because they mimic the frequencies of body movement during walking. To identify the influence of seating furniture on the frequency of postural sway, the postural dynamics of eight school children were studied. A comparison was made of their posture while they were sitting on a stool and on a LGB, each for 30 minutes. The lumbar lordosis (LL) and pelvicinclination (PI) angles were both studied. They were measured from the sagittal plane with a video measurement system (3 fps). From the time pattern of each angle, calculations were made to determine the frequency spectrum median and distribution of power in frequency spectra at four intervals: 1) 0.01–0.05 s−1, 2) 0.05–0.1 s−1, 3) 0.1–0.33 s−1, and 4) 0.33–0.6 s−1. It was determined that the median for LL is at a higher frequency on a LGB (LGB = 0.17 s−1 0.03 s−1, stool = 0.14 s−1 0.03 s−1, p < 0.05), but no differences were found in PI. Sitting on a LGB had more power in the third interval with a typical sway period of 5 s (p < 0.05), whereas sitting on as tool had more power in the first interval with a typical sway period of 33 s (p < 0.05). Sitting on a LGB influences the upper body dynamics and promotes a sitting posture with a period of sway that is closer to the sway pattern experienced during walking as compared to sitting on a stool.
Figure of 5
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of socioeconomic factors on vertical jumping performance as well as on anthropometric parameters in athletic Tunisian children aged 7 to 13 in both sexes.Four hundred and seven athletic Tunisian children (218 boys and 189 girls) ranging from 7 to 13 were randomly selected to participate in our study. They were asked to perform Squat jumps (SJ) and Countermovement jumps (CMJ) and to response to a questionnaire. Jump heights and leg power were simultaneously provided by the optojump device. Correlations and regression models were calculated in order to identify which factors influenced jumping performance variables. In our population of athletic Tunisian children, the socioeconomic status did not influence vertical jumping parameters whereas morphological factors were the main predictive factors of jumping. This research may help verifying the effectiveness of a specific training program and detecting highly talented athletes.
Abstract: Purpose: The purpose of the study was to determine if various convenient and cost affordable body composition techniques correlate well with more expensive “gold standard” instruments for measuring body composition in female collegiate athletes. Methods: Thirty-two Division I track and field and basketball female athletes participated in the study. The host university’s Institutional Review Board approved the protocols towards ethical treatment of all subjects before the study commenced. Within one hour, each subject underwent body composition assessments via air displacement plethysmography (ADP), skinfold (SF) measurements, and bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA). Results: No significant differences were found between basketball and track athletes thus data was normalized. No significant difference in calculated percent body fat was noted between ADP and SF (p = .002), but there was a significant difference between ADP and BIA (p = .478). Per Pearson correlations, moderate correlations existed between body fat percentages obtained by ADP and SF (r = .689) as well as between body fat percentages estimated by ADP and BIA (r = .447). Conclusions: Results indicate the SF technique had the highest correlation when compared to the BOD POD®. Skinfold measurements obtained with the Harpenden Skinfold Calipers may be used as a quick, affordable, and reliable technique for measuring body fat percentages in female collegiate athletes when performed by an experienced skinfold assessor.