Special Issue "Optimizing Patient Care through Effective Pharmacy Practice Models"

A special issue of American Journal of Pharmacological Sciences

Deadline for manuscript submissions: (October 01, 2014)

Special Issue Editor(s)

Chief Guest Editor

Madeeha Malik
Hamdard Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Hamdard University, Islamabad, Pakistan
Email: madeehamalik15@gmail.com

Guest Editor

Azhar Hussain
Hamdard Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Hamdard University, Islamabad, Pakistan
Email: azharhussain10971@gmail.com

M. Shafiq
Hamdard Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Hamdard University, Islamabad, Pakistan
Email: shafiqajmi@yahoo.com

Special Issue Information

In the face of rising demands and skyrocketing costs, all the occupations and institutions in the field of health care are being challenged to develop more effective and economical interventions for the delivery of their services. Improvement in medicine use is very much dependent on the health systems within which care is delivered. The contributions of pharmacy practice has helped many countries in achieving better health outcomes, reducing the costs of treatment, building the patient trust on healthcare system, reduced side effects and risk of treatments, decreased morbidity and mortality, improved access to safe and timely treatments and improved quality of life resulting in achievements of millennium development goals.

This issue will contain state-of-the-art reviews and original research articles covering outstanding and most recent research from the eminent scientists working in the field of pharmacy practice. This issue not only highlights the major challenges and their solutions in designing optimizing patient care models but also in-depth mechanism relating to the strategies of overcoming the irrational drug use will be presented. It is envisaged that this issue will contain 5-10 outstanding manuscripts including original research and outstanding review articles from authors around the globe.


  • Rational drug use
  • Prescribing Practices
  • Health Related Quality of Life
  • Drug Management
  • Healthcare Models
  • Community pharmacies
  • Pharmacoeconoims studies

Published Papers

Abstract: Health related quality of life (HRQoL) is used to measure both the present health status and the impact of health care interventions on the patients. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the improvement in health related quality of life of the hypertensive patients after pharmaceutical care provided by pharmacist in Pakistan. A repeated measure prospective intervention study was conducted at Armed Forces Institute of Cardiology, Rawalpindi, Pakistan. 286 hypertensive patients were enrolled at baseline, out which 116 patients kept enrolled till the end of the study. After taking the demographic data at baseline, the health related quality of life was measured by using the Urdu version of generic EQ-5D instrument of Euroqol Group at baselines and follow up visits after 2 months, 4 months and 6 months. All the data was entered and analyzed by using SPSS version 16. Paired t test and Pearson’s correlation coefficient were performed to compare EQ-5D values and association between baselines and follow up visits. The EQ-5D Index score and EQ-5D VAS score were 0.8789 ± 0.17993 and 65.56 ± 16.67 at baseline which were raised to 0.9276 ± 0.1392 and 78.00 ± 12.649 respectively after 6 months. The study showed that health related quality of life of these hypertensive patients were significantly improved after pharmaceutical care interventions.
Abstract: Thromboprophylaxis is the mainstay therapy for preventing thromboembolic events such as stroke in Atrial Fibrillation patients. Patients with moderate or high risk of stroke should receive warfarin as it has shown to be superior in clinical trials, with increase in relative reduction of stroke and similar incidence of bleeding compared to aspirin alone. A descriptive cross-sectional study was designed to assess common types and frequencies of PCIs in AF patients receiving thromboprohylaxis and use of thromboprophylactic agents in accordance to stroke risk stratification. Retrospective data was collected by reviewing medical record of hundred patients diagnosed with AF receiving thromboprophylaxis admitted in Serdang Hospital between January-December 2012. Patients were chosen using random sampling technique from PIS data base of the hospital with the help of random number table software. Pharmacist Workup of Drug Therapy (PWDT) form by the Ministry of Health, Government of Malaysia used for patient evaluation in all the hospitals of Malaysia was modified according to the research objectives of the study and was used as data collection tool. Out of 100 patients (n=56 %) were females while n = 44 (44 %) were males. The mean age for males was 60.93 years ± 7.64 and females was 62.84 ± 13.52 years. A total of 15% patients were not treated according to CPG recommendations regarding thromboprophylaxis. The mean CHA2DS2VASc score was (3.3,± 1.1) while mean SD HAS-BLED (bleeding risk) score was (1.37, ± 0.92). A total of 274 pharmaceutical care issues were identified. The most common pharmaceutical care issues were drug-drug interaction (n=143), non-compliance to treatment (n=31), drug-food interaction (n=16), non-compliance to dietary requirements (n=15) and lack of patient counselling (n=35).The study reported identification of varieties of PCIs in AF patients receiving thromboprophylaxis which supports the need of dedicated clinical pharmacist to work in collaboration with healthcare team and patients.
Abstract: Seven brands of ciprofloxacin (One multinational and six local) were evaluated in terms of their bioavailability and efficacy. Pharmaceutical Parameters like weight variation, hardness, disintegration, dissolution and content assay were determined. Antibacterial susceptibility assay was performed on standard Strain of Salmonella typhi (ATCC 14028). MIC and ZOI were assessed. The results of the study indicated that three local brands had content less than the stated claim of USP and one brand did not pass the disintegration and dissolution tests, so they cannot be used as therapeutic alternatives. Antibacterial assay showed less MIC value of the brands having greater drug content while drug with lesser amount had greater MIC value. Similarly, one local brand showed greater zone of inhibition (ZOI) as compared to multinational brand having more price than the local brand.
Abstract: This review paper highlights the importance of a cost effective intervention in global polio eradication fight for developing nations. The main aim of this paper is to propose an intervention which is highly cost effective for Nigeria where polio is still prevalent. This paper examines cost effectiveness analysis of a feign one-year vaccination intervention using the oral polio vaccine (OPV) in Kano State, Nigeria. To establish cost-effectiveness healthy days saved by this vaccination intervention were used instead of Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYS). In this case cost effectiveness was established by dividing intervention cost ($1.7 million) to the number of healthy days saved ($2485) to get cost per day of healthy life ($472). This cost effective intervention gives about $472 cost per day of healthy life which was then compared with the GDP per income of Kano ($1288). It was evident from the results of the study that as the cost of the intervention is below the GDP per capita of Kano, Nigeria which means this method is highly cost efficient. The cost effectiveness of this intervention implies that the program of vaccination is economically viable and should therefore be encouraged, than just concentrating on treating polio. With the economic crunch times in the world, there is a strong urge for cost effective programs to address for deadly diseases and the evaluated intervention would be one of them.
Abstract: The Action Plan for Pharmacy Practice is a long-term collaborative initiative for managing the changes required in pharmacy practice to meet the health care needs of Pakistani population. The main aim of this paper is to propose a pharmacy practice model for optimizing patient care. Hamdard Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Hamdard University took a new initiative for collaborative concept mapping that mapping that embodies effective capacity building processes by enabling exploration, articulation and negotiation of shared motives and opportunities to formulate strategy and action plan for effective pharmacy practice in Pakistan. The authors commenced this journey by first conceptualizing different pharmacy practice models as a working paper in developed and developing world as it appears in the literature and then moved to capacity building process as there is chronic shortage of pharmacy practice experts in Pakistan. A focus group discussion was held on the theme “Need for Action Plan for Pharmacy Practice in Pakistan” as the first step towards translating this action plan into practice. Approximately fifteen stakeholders all pharmacists from Drug Regulatory Authority, Academia, Hospitals and Community pharmacies participated in the discussion. Patient centric model which aptly defined the aims and means of the action plan for successful implementation of pharmacy practice was proposed to be implemented in Pakistan. The proposed plan highlighted a clear motive and purpose by all stakeholders to understand their role and commit to shared goals, such as inclusion of status of pharmacist as provider care, implementation of integrated hospital and community practice models, capacity building, training and research.