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An integrated in Vitro and in Vivo Testing Approach to Assess Pulmonary Toxicity of Engineered Cadmium-Doped Silica Nanoparticles

1Department of Clinical Surgical, Diagnostic and Pediatric Sciences, Faculty of Medicine and Surgery, University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy

2Department of Pathophysiology, Experimental Medicine, and Public Health, University of Siena, Siena, Italy

3Laboratory of Clinical and Experimental Toxicology, Toxicology Division, IRCCS Salvatore Maugeri Foundation, Scientific Institute of Pavia Medical Centre, Pavia, Italy

American Journal of Nanomaterials. 2015, 3(2), 40-56
doi: 10.12691/ajn-3-2-1
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Uliana De Simone, Elisa Roda, Cinzia Signorini, Teresa Coccini. An integrated in Vitro and in Vivo Testing Approach to Assess Pulmonary Toxicity of Engineered Cadmium-Doped Silica Nanoparticles. American Journal of Nanomaterials. 2015; 3(2):40-56. doi: 10.12691/ajn-3-2-1.

Correspondence to: Teresa  Coccini, Laboratory of Clinical and Experimental Toxicology, Toxicology Division, IRCCS Salvatore Maugeri Foundation, Scientific Institute of Pavia Medical Centre, Pavia, Italy. Email:


An in vitro and in vivo testing strategy for assessing the pulmonary effects was used to investigate the safety characteristics of silica nanoparticles doped with cadmium (Cd-SiNPs). In A549 cells, Cd-SiNPs (0.5-100 μg/ml) caused (i) mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptosis at 1 μg/ml, (ii) GSH depletion at 10μg/ml, (iii) membrane alterations at 25 μg/ml, after 1-day, and (iv) cell growth and proliferation inhibition at 0.05 μg/ml after prolonged exposure. Cd-SiNP effects were more pronounced compared to CdCl2. SiNPs affected GSH content only. In vivo results revealed early (1 day) and persistent (until 1 month) rat lung damage after intratracheal instillation of Cd-SiNPs (1mg/rat) in terms of enhanced apoptotic phenomena and altered lung parenchyma morphology. Cd-SiNPs and CdCl2 caused a delayed occurrence of oxidative stress by increasing SOD1, iNOS, and F2-IsoPs. The latter was preceded by marked increase of F2-IsoPs levels in plasma. SiNPs did not cause oxidative stress. Cd-SiNPs showed a higher reactivity than CdCl2 and SiNPs. In vitro and in vivo data on Cd-SiNP toxicity suggest that the lung is a susceptible target tissue. These findings support the concept that multiple assays and an integrated testing strategy should be recommended to characterize toxicological response to NPs.



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Synthesis of TiO2 Nanoparticles and Their Photocatalytic Activity for Methylene Blue

1Minia University, Egypt

American Journal of Nanomaterials. 2015, 3(2), 57-63
doi: 10.12691/ajn-3-2-2
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Aghareed M. Tayeb, Dina S. Hussein. Synthesis of TiO2 Nanoparticles and Their Photocatalytic Activity for Methylene Blue. American Journal of Nanomaterials. 2015; 3(2):57-63. doi: 10.12691/ajn-3-2-2.

Correspondence to: Dina  S. Hussein, Minia University, Egypt. Email:


The Photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue dye (MB) was studied using Titanate nanoparticles catalyst under UV light in a tubular reactor. Titanate nanoparticles were synthesized by hydrothermal reaction using TiO2 and NaOH as the precursors and calcinations at 500°C for 4 hr. The products were characterized with TEM and XRD. The parameters studied are Titanate nanoparticles catalyst dosage, initial concentration of dye and pH of the reaction mixture. The degradation of dye was found to be effective in the range: catalyst dose 0.10, 0.15, 0.20 g catalyst/ 400 mL of dye solution, initial dye concentration 5, 10, 15 ppm and pH of reaction mixture 1.4, 7, 12.6. Experimentation on different concentrations of TiO2 nanoparticles showed that 0.2 g TiO2/ 400 ml of effluent is the most suitable catalyst concentration. Photocatalytic processes were found to work better in basic medium and the present study showed that the best pH value was 12.6. The effect of the initial methylene blue concentration on the percentage degradation was also studied, demonstrating that the degradation of methylene blue generally increased when decreasing its concentration. The results showed that a percentage methylene blue degradation of 97.6% could be obtained when treating an effluent with 5 ppm of methylene blue for 90 minutes at 0.2 g TiO2/ 400 ml of effluent and pH 12.6. This corresponds to 97.2% degradation when working on an effluent with 10 ppm methylene blue and 93%, when treating an effluent with 15 ppm of methylene blue for 90 minutes.



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Measurement of Forced Convective Heat Transfer Coefficient of Low Volume Fraction CuO-PVA Nanofluids under Laminar Flow Condition

1Department of Applied Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Technology, University of Dhaka, Dhaka, Bangladesh

2Pilot Plant and Process Development Center (PP & PDC), Bangladesh Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, Dhaka, Bangladesh

3Institute of Radiation and Polymer Technology, Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission, Savar, Dhaka, Bangladesh

American Journal of Nanomaterials. 2015, 3(2), 64-67
doi: 10.12691/ajn-3-2-3
Copyright © 2016 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Ismat Zerin Luna, A. M. Sarwaruddin Chowdhury, M. A. Gafur, Ruhul A. Khan. Measurement of Forced Convective Heat Transfer Coefficient of Low Volume Fraction CuO-PVA Nanofluids under Laminar Flow Condition. American Journal of Nanomaterials. 2015; 3(2):64-67. doi: 10.12691/ajn-3-2-3.

Correspondence to: Ismat  Zerin Luna, Department of Applied Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Technology, University of Dhaka, Dhaka, Bangladesh. Email:


Experimental investigations of forced convective heat transfer coefficient of CuO-PVA nanofluids under uniform and constant heat flux are reported in this paper. Different nanofluid samples at different volume concentrations (0.05, 0.1 & 0.2%) were prepared by dispersing CuO NPs with an average size of 32.50 nm in 4 wt% PVA solution using ultrasonication and magnetic stirring. The forced convective heat transfer coefficient of the CuO-PVA nanofluids was measured with the help of vertical shell-and-tube heat exchanger where spiral circular copper tube was used. All the experiments were performed under laminar conditions ( Re ≤ 2300). The results under laminar flow conditions showed considerable enhancement of convective heat transfer with the use of nanofluids. There was increase in heat transfer coefficient of nanofluids CuO-PVA when compared with their base fluids. The increase is significant even though the concentration is less.



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