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American Journal of Medicine Studies

ISSN (Print): 2333-8881

ISSN (Online): 2333-889X

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Deletion Polymorphism of Glutathione S-transferases M1 and T1 genes in the Sudanese Population

1Department of Biochemistry, College of Medicine and Medical Sciences, Arabian Gulf University, Manama, Bahrain

2Central Laboratory, Ministry of Science and Technology, Khartoum, Sudan

3College of Animal Production Science and Technology, Sudan University of Science and Technology, Khartoum, Sudan

4Department of Anatomy, College of Medicine and Medical Sciences, Arabian Gulf University, Manama, Bahrain

5Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, Suez Canal University, Ismailia, Egypt

American Journal of Medicine Studies. 2015, 3(1), 8-12
doi: 10.12691/ajms-3-1-3
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Muhalab Ali, Amir T. Ibrahim, Mohamed T. Ibrahim, Abdel Halim A. Salem. Deletion Polymorphism of Glutathione S-transferases M1 and T1 genes in the Sudanese Population. American Journal of Medicine Studies. 2015; 3(1):8-12. doi: 10.12691/ajms-3-1-3.

Correspondence to: Abdel  Halim A. Salem, Department of Anatomy, College of Medicine and Medical Sciences, Arabian Gulf University, Manama, Bahrain. Email:


Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) play a major role in the detoxification of various compounds. Polymorphic variants in GST genes were reported for different populations. The main objective of this study was to determine the frequencies of GSTM1 and GSTT1 null genotypes in the Sudanese population. GST genotyping was carried out using multiplex PCR. Study population included 114 unrelated healthy Sudanese subjects. The results showed that the prevalence of GSTM1 and GSTT1 deletion homozygosity among Sudanese were 54.7% and 42.1%, respectively. There are no significant differences in allelic distribution of GSTM1 gene between the Sudanese and other ethnic groups except for sub-Saharan Africans. As regards the allelic distribution of GSTT1 genes, the Sudanese population is similar to sub-Saharan Africans but significantly different from Europeans. Combined analysis of both genes revealed that 24.6% of Sudanese harbor the deleted genotype of both genes and it is the highest reported so far for an Arab and African population. This is the first study that addresses deletion polymorphism of GST genes in Sudanese. We provide a reference database of allelic frequencies of the GSTM1 and GSTT1 genotypes among Sudanese.



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Socio-demographic Determinants of Herbal Medicine Use in Pregnancy Among Nigerian Women Attending Clinics in a Tertiary Hospital in Imo State, South-East, Nigeria

1Department of Community Medicine Imo State University, Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria

2Department of HIV Care/Community Medicine, Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital, Nnewi, Anambra State

3Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nnewi, Anambra State

4Department of Community Medicine, Madonna University, Elele, Rivers State

5Department of Community Medicine, Imo State University Teaching Hospital, Orlu, Imo State, Nigeria

American Journal of Medicine Studies. 2016, 4(1), 1-10
doi: 10.12691/ajms-4-1-1
Copyright © 2016 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Chukwuma B. Duru, Kenechi A. Uwakwe, Nnebue C. Chinomnso, Ikechukwu I. Mbachi, Kevin C. Diwe, Chuka C. Agunwa, Anthony C. Iwu, Irene A. Merenu. Socio-demographic Determinants of Herbal Medicine Use in Pregnancy Among Nigerian Women Attending Clinics in a Tertiary Hospital in Imo State, South-East, Nigeria. American Journal of Medicine Studies. 2016; 4(1):1-10. doi: 10.12691/ajms-4-1-1.

Correspondence to: Chukwuma  B. Duru, Department of Community Medicine Imo State University, Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria. Email:,


Introduction: The use of herbal medicines has been on the increase in many developing and industrialized countries. This high use may be due to accessibility, affordability, availability and acceptability by majority of the population especially in developing countries. Aim: This was to assess the socio-demographic factors affecting the pattern of herbal use during pregnancy among pregnant and nursing mothers attending clinics in a Tertiary Hospital in South East, Nigeria. Methodology: This is a hospital based cross-sectional study of 500 pregnant and nursing mothers attending clinics in a Tertiary Hospital in South East, Nigeria. Data was collected using a pretested, semi-structured, interviewer administered questionnaire and participants were selected using the systematic sampling technique. Data was analyzed using a computer software package (EPI-Info 7.1.3) and p-value was set at 0.05 significant levels. Results: The prevalence of herbal medicine use among the participants was 36.8% (184) and the commonest herbal used was bitter leaf/iron weed plant (vernonia Amygdalina), 54.3%. Socio-demographic characteristics of participants found to affect herbal medicine use in pregnancy were; age, (p=0.035), marital Status, (p=0.000), educational level, (p=0.000), educational level of partner, (p=0.014) and monthly income, (p=0.003). Conclusion: Prevalence of herbal medicine use was high and most of the determinants observed are modifiable, thus there is need to institute control appropriate measures by relevant authorities to tackle this problem.



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Giant Prolactinomas: Report of 6 Cases and Review of Literature

1Department of endocrinology, Hedi Chaker Hospital, Sfax, Tunisia

2Department of radiology, Habib Bourguiba Hospital, Sfax, Tunisia

American Journal of Medicine Studies. 2016, 4(1), 11-16
doi: 10.12691/ajms-4-1-2
Copyright © 2016 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Mouna Ammar, Faten hadjkacem, Manel Akrout, Ayman Maalej, Nadia Charfi, Mohamed Abid. Giant Prolactinomas: Report of 6 Cases and Review of Literature. American Journal of Medicine Studies. 2016; 4(1):11-16. doi: 10.12691/ajms-4-1-2.

Correspondence to: Mouna  Ammar, Department of endocrinology, Hedi Chaker Hospital, Sfax, Tunisia. Email:


Introduction: Giant prolactinomas are rare tumors, representing only 2- 3% of all prolactin (PRL)-secreting tumors. Endocrine symptoms are often present but overlooked for a long period of time. The management of giant prolactinomas remains a major challenge, despite dopamine agonists being the first line of treatment, owing to its efficacy to normalize prolactin levels and reduce tumor volume. Aim of the study: Describe clinical and radiological features, the treatment modalities and outcomes of 6 cases of giant prolactinomas and review of the literature. Methods: Retrospective data collection involving 6 patients diagnosed with giant prolactinoma in the Department of Endocrinology, Hedi Chaker Hospital, Sfax, Tunisia from January 2010 to December 2014. Results: All patients were men between the age of 19 and 65 years. The most common presenting features include headache and visual defects. Proptosis was reported in one patient. Tumor size ranged from 56 to 84 mm and pre-treatment PRL from 1470 to 642387 ng/mL. Endocrine evaluation performed at baseline showed secondary hypogonadism in all patients. Secondary hypothyroidism and adrenal insufficiency were found in one and four patients respectively. IGF-I level was within the normal range for age and gender for all patients. Dopamine agonists served as the primary therapy for all the patients in the present study. Trans-frontal pituitary surgery was performed in one patient with apoplexy and severe neuro-ophthalmic signs. Serum prolactin concentrations and tumor volume significantly decreased following treatment with dopamine agonists. Conclusion: Giant prolactinomas are uncommon and often raising both diagnostic and therapeutic challenges.



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