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Article

Skin Manifestations of Diabetes Mellitus among Iraqi Patients

1Detroit Medical Center, Detroit, MI, USA

2Former Instructor, College of Medicine, University of Baghdad, Iraq

3Former Instructor, College of Medicine, Al-Mustansiriya University, Baghdad, Iraq


American Journal of Medicine Studies. 2013, 1(3), 32-37
DOI: 10.12691/ajms-1-3-5
Copyright © 2013 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Fady S. Yasso, Saba S. Yaso, Petra S. Yasso. Skin Manifestations of Diabetes Mellitus among Iraqi Patients. American Journal of Medicine Studies. 2013; 1(3):32-37. doi: 10.12691/ajms-1-3-5.

Correspondence to: Fady  S. Yasso, Detroit Medical Center, Detroit, MI, USA. Email: fadyyasso@yahoo.com.

Abstract

Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a clinical syndrome that is frequently associated by a variety of skin manifestations that commonly serve as ports of entry of different microorganisms. Although diabetes mellitus can be asymptomatic, many patients present with wide spectrum of manifestations. Skin manifestations can be associated with both type 1 & type 2 Diabetes and were seen in patients who use insulin as well as those who use oral hypoglycemic agents to control their glucose level. Early recognition of these skin manifestations assists in early diagnosis and helps to lead toward appropriate treatment for diabetes mellitus patients. Early diagnosis also share in preventing long-term complications. The present cross sectional study evaluates the frequency of skin manifestations in 110 diabetic Iraqi patients in Baghdad covering both males and females from different ethnicities and occupations. This study was conducted over the period of 2005 to 2006 including patients over 20 to 75 years age. A specific questionnaire was designed then distributed to all consenting patients. The skin manifestations observed were skin infections (19.4%), itching (12.1%), skin atrophy and inter-digital maceration (10.5%), waxy skin (9.7%), lipodystrophy (9.7%), skin thickening (7.2%), sweating disturbance (7.2%), DM dermopathy (6.5%), yellow nails (6.5%) and others. The different types of infections observed in diabetic patients involved in this study are discussed thoroughly. Infection, itching, skin atrophy and sweat disturbances are the most common three initial skin manifestations in Diabetes Mellitus patients of this work. A comparison is made between this study and other studies especially with the studies in Jordan and Pakistan and both agreement and disagreement are discussed. The present study reveals that it took more than 10 years for skin manifestations to appear in 60% of the patients. On the other hand, no patient reported manifestation at 30 or more years since they have been diagnosed with Diabetes mellitus. The maximum number of patients reported skin manifestations was at 17-18 year since the onset of Diabetes mellitus diagnosis. The paper concluded that the most cutaneous manifestations in DM Iraqi patients in Baghdad are bacterial and other skin infections.

Keywords

References

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Article

Immunogenicity of Leishmania Donavani Centrin-3 Vaccines

1Department of Medical Laboratory, Faculty of Medical Technology, Sert University, Libya

2College of Arts and Science, School of Science & Technology, Nottingham Trent University


American Journal of Medicine Studies. 2014, 2(1), 1-11
DOI: 10.12691/ajms-2-1-1
Copyright © 2013 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Fathiya AA Steal, Selman A Ali. Immunogenicity of Leishmania Donavani Centrin-3 Vaccines. American Journal of Medicine Studies. 2014; 2(1):1-11. doi: 10.12691/ajms-2-1-1.

Correspondence to: Selman  A Ali, College of Arts and Science, School of Science & Technology, Nottingham Trent University. Email: selman.ali@ntu.ac.uk

Abstract

Leishmaniasis is a parasitic protozoal disease affecting humans and animals with phlebotomine sand flies as intermediate vectors. There is no effective vaccine in use against this parasite and production relies on finding potent immunogenic antigens with long lasting memory response. As part of searching for new Leishmania antigens of a potential vaccine application, the immunogenicity of L. donovani centrin-3 (Ldcen-3) was investigated in a Balb/c model. Ldcen-3 is a calcium binding protein that has been shown to be involved in duplication and segregation of the centrosome in higher and lower eukaryotes. The Ldcen-3 gene was cloned in various vectors and coated on gold particles for gene gun immunisation. Significant protection was induced by immunisation with 1μg DNA of pcDNA3.1-Ldcen-3 or pCRT7/CT-TOPO-Ldcen-3 constructs. Protection against challenge with live parasite was vector dependent where better protection was induced by pCRT7/CT-TOPO-Ldcen-3. Splenocytes from Balb/c mice immunised with pcDNA3.1-Ldcen-3 or pCRT7/CT-TOPO-Ldcen-3 had a potent CTL response against DC targets loaded with or tumour cells transfected with Ldcen-3 plasmid construct.

Keywords

References

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Article

Effect of Combination between Methotrexate and Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors on Transplantable Tumor Model

1Pharmacology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Tanta University, Tanta, Egypt


American Journal of Medicine Studies. 2014, 2(1), 12-18
DOI: 10.12691/ajms-2-1-2
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Ahmed M Kabel. Effect of Combination between Methotrexate and Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors on Transplantable Tumor Model. American Journal of Medicine Studies. 2014; 2(1):12-18. doi: 10.12691/ajms-2-1-2.

Correspondence to: Ahmed  M Kabel, Pharmacology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Tanta University, Tanta, Egypt. Email: drakabel@gmail.com

Abstract

Solid Ehrlich carcinoma is an undifferentiated tumor used in tumor studies. Methotrexate is an antimetabolite used in treatment of cancer, autoimmune diseases and induction of abortion. Valproic acid is used as anticonvulsant and is under investigation for treatment of cancer. The aim of this work was to study the effect of each of methotrexate and valproic acid alone and in combination on solid Ehrlich tumor in mice. Fifty albino mice were divided into five equal groups: Control untreated group, solid Ehrlich carcinoma, solid Ehrlich carcinoma + methotrexate, solid Ehrlich carcinoma + valproic acid, solid Ehrlich carcinoma + methotrexate + valproic acid. Tumor volume, tissue catalase, glutathione reductase, malondialdehyde, cholesterol and tumor necrosis factor-α were determined. A part of the tumor was examined for histopathological and immunohistochemical study. Methotrexate or valproic acid alone or in combination induced significant increase in tissue catalase and glutathione reductase with significant decrease in tumor volume, tissue malondialdehyde, cholesterol and tumor necrosis factor-α and alleviated the histopathological changes with significant increase in p53 expression and apoptotic index compared to solid Ehrlich carcinoma group. The combination of methotrexate and valproic acid has a better effect than each of methotrexate or valproic acid alone against solid Ehrlich tumor in mice.

Keywords

References

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Article

Genotype and Allele Frequencies of MDR-1 Gene Polymorphism in Jordanian and Sudanese Populations

1Department of Anatomy, College of Medicine and Medical Sciences, Arabian Gulf University, Manama, Kingdom of Bahrain

2Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, Suez Canal University, Ismailia, Egypt

3Department of Medical Biochemistry, College of Medicine and Medical Sciences, Arabian Gulf University, Manama, Kingdom of Bahrain

4Central Laboratory, Ministry of Science and Technology, Khartoum, Sudan

5College of Animal Production Science and Technology, Sudan University of Science and Technology, Khartoum, Sudan


American Journal of Medicine Studies. 2014, 2(1), 19-23
DOI: 10.12691/ajms-2-1-3
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Abdel Halim Salem, Muhalab Ali, Amir Ibrahim, Mohamed Ibrahim. Genotype and Allele Frequencies of MDR-1 Gene Polymorphism in Jordanian and Sudanese Populations. American Journal of Medicine Studies. 2014; 2(1):19-23. doi: 10.12691/ajms-2-1-3.

Correspondence to: Abdel  Halim Salem, Department of Anatomy, College of Medicine and Medical Sciences, Arabian Gulf University, Manama, Kingdom of Bahrain. Email: ahaleemfd@agu.edu.bh

Abstract

The aim of this study was to determine the genotype and allele frequencies of MDR1 gene C3435T polymorphism in Jordanian and Sudanese populations, and to compare them with the frequencies established in various ethnic groups. Genotyping was carried out on 116 unrelated Jordanian and 131 Sudanese subjects. The genotypes of polymorphic position C3435T were determined by PCR-RFLP assay. Results showed that 20.7% of the studied Jordanian subjects were homozygous for the CC genotype, 51.7% were heterozygous for the CT genotype and 27.6% were homozygous for the TT genotype. Among Sudanese subjects, the genotype frequencies were: CC 52.7%, CT 42.0% and TT 5.3%. The frequencies of the 3435T variant in the MDR-1 Gene in Jordanians and Sudanese were found to be 0.534 and 0.263, respectively. According to the distribution of the C3435T SNP, Jordanians were resemble Asians and Europeans but were different significantly from Sudanese, while Sudanese were similar to Africans. In conclusion, the observed distribution of the C3435T SNP in the Jordanian and Sudanese populations was within the range detected in other populations. The data obtained may give the basis for predicting effects of drugs that are substrates for MDR-1 in Jordanian and Sudanese populations and may be useful for individualized therapy of some diseases.

Keywords

References

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Article

Study of Anthranylic Acid Derivatives: Mefenamic Acid and Its Various Analogues

1Department of Pharmacy, GRD (PG) IMT, Dehradun, India


American Journal of Medicine Studies. 2014, 2(1), 24-30
DOI: 10.12691/ajms-2-1-4
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Mohammad Asif. Study of Anthranylic Acid Derivatives: Mefenamic Acid and Its Various Analogues. American Journal of Medicine Studies. 2014; 2(1):24-30. doi: 10.12691/ajms-2-1-4.

Correspondence to: Mohammad  Asif, Department of Pharmacy, GRD (PG) IMT, Dehradun, India. Email: aasif321@gmail.com

Abstract

Anthranylic acid derivatives are direct structural analogs of salicylic acid derivatives. They possess analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and antipyretic activity. They are similar to pyrazolones in terms of analgesic and antipyretic activity, yet they exceed the anti-inflammatory activity of salicylates. The mechanism of action of this series of nonsteroid, anti-inflammatory analgesics is not conclusively known. One of the early advances in the search for nonnarcotic analgesics was centered in the N-arylanthranilic acids. The outstanding characteristic of mefenamic acid is primarily anti-inflammatory , and secondarily, some possess analgesic properties.

Keywords

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Article

Systematic Review of the Role of Mannitol in Renal Diseases

1Department of Nephrology, The Sixth Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, China


American Journal of Medicine Studies. 2014, 2(2), 31-33
DOI: 10.12691/ajms-2-2-1
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Tian-Biao Zhou, Zong-Pei Jiang. Systematic Review of the Role of Mannitol in Renal Diseases. American Journal of Medicine Studies. 2014; 2(2):31-33. doi: 10.12691/ajms-2-2-1.

Correspondence to: Tian-Biao  Zhou, Department of Nephrology, The Sixth Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, China. Email: a126tianbiao@126.com

Abstract

Mannitol, a novel osmotic agent and natural polyol extensively, is sometimes effective in reversing acute renal injury, but it can also induce the acute renal tubular injury. The role of mannitol in kidney is controversial. It is a small particle, distributed only in the extracellular space, is freely filtered at the glomerulus, and is not reabsorbed by the tubules. This systematic review was conducted to sum up the association of mannitol with renal diseases. The mannitol may precipitate acute renal failure if serum osmolarity exceeds 320 mOsm/L, but the lower concentration might be positive. However, more studies should be performed in the future.

Keywords

References

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Article

Effect of Anti-Thyroperoxidase on Thyroid Gland and Breast Tissue: A Comprehensive Review

1Department of Bio-chemistry, Chalmeda Anandarao Institute of Medical Sciences, Karimnagar, India

2Department of Bio-chemistry, Vaidehi Institute of Medical Sciences, and Research Centre, Bangalore, India

3Department of Bio-chemistry, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal Universiy, Manipal, India

4Department of Microbiology, Prathima Institute of Medical Sciences, Karimnagar, India


American Journal of Medicine Studies. 2014, 2(2), 34-37
DOI: 10.12691/ajms-2-2-2
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Sabitha Kandi, Venkata Bharatkumar Pinnelli, Pragna Rao, K V Ramana. Effect of Anti-Thyroperoxidase on Thyroid Gland and Breast Tissue: A Comprehensive Review. American Journal of Medicine Studies. 2014; 2(2):34-37. doi: 10.12691/ajms-2-2-2.

Correspondence to: Sabitha  Kandi, Department of Bio-chemistry, Chalmeda Anandarao Institute of Medical Sciences, Karimnagar, India. Email: tejaswani19@gmail.com

Abstract

Relationship between thyroid disease and breast tissue has long been debated as both the tissues have same embryological origin. Recent studies have implicated the possible role of thyroid dysfunction in the development and progression of breast related disorders. In view of increased prevalence of hypo and hyper thyroidism globally, there is a possibility of hormonal imbalance which may contribute to the initiation of tumor growth. Current literature has confirmed the role of sodium-iodide symporter (NIS) gene expression in breast cancers. Elevated anti-thyroperoxidase enzyme has been associated with increased risk of breast cancer. Activity of thyroid gland in post menopausal women, role of iodide levels and its relation to breast tissue and development of breast cancer needs extensive evaluation. In this comprehensive review we describe the role of NIS in thyroid gland functioning, thyroid hormone signaling mechanism.

Keywords

References

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Article

Quetiapine Induced Cataract - A Rare Case Report

1Department of Psychiatry, Govt. Medical College & Rajindra Hospital, Patiala, INDIA

2Department of Ophthalmology, Himalayan Institutes of Medical Sciences, Dehradun, Uttarakhand, INDIA

3Department of Pharmacology, Guru Gobind Singh Medical College (Baba Farid University of Health Sciences), Faridkot INDIA


American Journal of Medicine Studies. 2014, 2(2), 38-41
DOI: 10.12691/ajms-2-2-3
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Rajnish Raj, Anuradha Raj, Raj Kumar. Quetiapine Induced Cataract - A Rare Case Report. American Journal of Medicine Studies. 2014; 2(2):38-41. doi: 10.12691/ajms-2-2-3.

Correspondence to: Rajnish  Raj, Department of Psychiatry, Govt. Medical College & Rajindra Hospital, Patiala, INDIA. Email: drrajnish_raj@yahoo.com

Abstract

Atypical antipsychotics are increasingly used as first-line treatment for bipolar disorder, in both acute mania and acute depression as well as in maintenance treatment. These have also been shown to be effective as add-on agents and in long term prophylaxis. The most common side effects are dry mouth, sedation, dyslipidemia, weight gain, constipation, altered blood glucose level and extra pyramidal side effects. Quetiapine induced cataract has been reported in animal studies and extrapolation on humans was described as rarity. Hence, the case is reported to highlight quetiapine induced cataract.

Keywords

References

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Article

Highlights and Potentials when Using the Visualization Table for Pre-operative Planning and Diagnosis in Seven Surgical and One Oncological Department – A Pilot Study at the University Hospital of Linköping

1Division of Surgery, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University Hospital, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden

2Centre for Health Care Development, Clinicum, County Council of Östergötland, University Hospital, Linköping, Sweden

3Sectra Medical Systems AB, Linköping, Sweden


American Journal of Medicine Studies. 2014, 2(3), 42-45
DOI: 10.12691/ajms-2-3-1
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Stefan Redéen, Per Elmhester, Roger Larsson, Lisa Lindfors. Highlights and Potentials when Using the Visualization Table for Pre-operative Planning and Diagnosis in Seven Surgical and One Oncological Department – A Pilot Study at the University Hospital of Linköping. American Journal of Medicine Studies. 2014; 2(3):42-45. doi: 10.12691/ajms-2-3-1.

Correspondence to: Stefan  Redéen, Division of Surgery, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University Hospital, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden. Email: Stefan.Redeen@lio.se

Abstract

Advances in radiology combined with the advances in computer technology have made the 3D (three-dimensional) representation of anatomic structures easily obtainable using CT and MRI. The data sets resulting from CT and MRI examinations commonly consist of hundreds or thousands of slice images. 3D imaging processes and integrates this image data volume and extracts more meaningful, derivative images via primarily multiplanar reconstruction. The pilot study regards the use of the Visualization Table at Linköping University Hospital. This is one of the first studies including clinical doctors, now being presented by the University Hospital in Linköping, Sweden. Prior experience has shown that the visualization table provides valuable features that improve understanding of the operations field in a new way.

Keywords

References

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Article

Alcoholism and Its Relation to Hypoglycemia – An Overview

1Department of Biochemistry, Chalmeda Anandrao Institute of Medical Sciences, Karimnagar, India

2Department of Biochemistry, Government Medical College, Nagpur, India

3Department of Biochemistry, Manipal University, Manipal, India

4Department of Microbiology, Prathima Institute of Medical Sciences, Karimnagar, India


American Journal of Medicine Studies. 2014, 2(3), 46-49
DOI: 10.12691/ajms-2-3-2
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Sabitha Kandi, Neelesh deshpande, Pragna rao, K.V. Ramana. Alcoholism and Its Relation to Hypoglycemia – An Overview. American Journal of Medicine Studies. 2014; 2(3):46-49. doi: 10.12691/ajms-2-3-2.

Correspondence to: K.V.  Ramana, Department of Microbiology, Prathima Institute of Medical Sciences, Karimnagar, India. Email: ramana_20021@rediffmail.com

Abstract

Alcohol (ethanol) is metabolized in the liver by enzymes alcohol dehydrogenase and aldehyde dehydrogenase to acetate, which is spontaneously broken down to CO2 and H2O utilizing NAD+ and Cytochrome P450 E1 (CYPE1). Thus alcohol metabolism decreases NAD+ / NADH ratio(redox state). Gluconeogenesis, the synthetic pathway of glucose from non-carbohydrate sources(propionate, lactate, aminoacids, glycerol, alanine) predominantly takes place in liver. The significance of gluconeogenic pathway is that it helps in maintaining blood glucose levels in fasting or starvation conditions. Alcoholism (>120ml /day) leads to an increase in the ratio of NAD+ / NADH, and since the gluconeogenic pathway is dependent on the NAD+ / NADH ratio, increased ratio slows down the pathway leading to hypoglycemia. There is enhanced ketone body metabolism due to hypoglycemia, leading to the accumulation of beta hydroxy butyrate resulting in alcoholic ketosis. Thus alcoholic hypoglycemia and alcoholic ketosis are associated with each other and gross change in liver can be seen after chronic alcoholism with malnutrition. Further studies are required to better understand how liver is able to maintain the redox states longer even during alcoholism.

Keywords

References

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