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American Journal of Medicine Studies

ISSN (Print): 2333-8881

ISSN (Online): 2333-889X

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Socio-demographic Determinants of Herbal Medicine Use in Pregnancy Among Nigerian Women Attending Clinics in a Tertiary Hospital in Imo State, South-East, Nigeria

1Department of Community Medicine Imo State University, Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria

2Department of HIV Care/Community Medicine, Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital, Nnewi, Anambra State

3Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nnewi, Anambra State

4Department of Community Medicine, Madonna University, Elele, Rivers State

5Department of Community Medicine, Imo State University Teaching Hospital, Orlu, Imo State, Nigeria

American Journal of Medicine Studies. 2016, 4(1), 1-10
doi: 10.12691/ajms-4-1-1
Copyright © 2016 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Chukwuma B. Duru, Kenechi A. Uwakwe, Nnebue C. Chinomnso, Ikechukwu I. Mbachi, Kevin C. Diwe, Chuka C. Agunwa, Anthony C. Iwu, Irene A. Merenu. Socio-demographic Determinants of Herbal Medicine Use in Pregnancy Among Nigerian Women Attending Clinics in a Tertiary Hospital in Imo State, South-East, Nigeria. American Journal of Medicine Studies. 2016; 4(1):1-10. doi: 10.12691/ajms-4-1-1.

Correspondence to: Chukwuma  B. Duru, Department of Community Medicine Imo State University, Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria. Email:,


Introduction: The use of herbal medicines has been on the increase in many developing and industrialized countries. This high use may be due to accessibility, affordability, availability and acceptability by majority of the population especially in developing countries. Aim: This was to assess the socio-demographic factors affecting the pattern of herbal use during pregnancy among pregnant and nursing mothers attending clinics in a Tertiary Hospital in South East, Nigeria. Methodology: This is a hospital based cross-sectional study of 500 pregnant and nursing mothers attending clinics in a Tertiary Hospital in South East, Nigeria. Data was collected using a pretested, semi-structured, interviewer administered questionnaire and participants were selected using the systematic sampling technique. Data was analyzed using a computer software package (EPI-Info 7.1.3) and p-value was set at 0.05 significant levels. Results: The prevalence of herbal medicine use among the participants was 36.8% (184) and the commonest herbal used was bitter leaf/iron weed plant (vernonia Amygdalina), 54.3%. Socio-demographic characteristics of participants found to affect herbal medicine use in pregnancy were; age, (p=0.035), marital Status, (p=0.000), educational level, (p=0.000), educational level of partner, (p=0.014) and monthly income, (p=0.003). Conclusion: Prevalence of herbal medicine use was high and most of the determinants observed are modifiable, thus there is need to institute control appropriate measures by relevant authorities to tackle this problem.



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Giant Prolactinomas: Report of 6 Cases and Review of Literature

1Department of endocrinology, Hedi Chaker Hospital, Sfax, Tunisia

2Department of radiology, Habib Bourguiba Hospital, Sfax, Tunisia

American Journal of Medicine Studies. 2016, 4(1), 11-16
doi: 10.12691/ajms-4-1-2
Copyright © 2016 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Mouna Ammar, Faten hadjkacem, Manel Akrout, Ayman Maalej, Nadia Charfi, Mohamed Abid. Giant Prolactinomas: Report of 6 Cases and Review of Literature. American Journal of Medicine Studies. 2016; 4(1):11-16. doi: 10.12691/ajms-4-1-2.

Correspondence to: Mouna  Ammar, Department of endocrinology, Hedi Chaker Hospital, Sfax, Tunisia. Email:


Introduction: Giant prolactinomas are rare tumors, representing only 2- 3% of all prolactin (PRL)-secreting tumors. Endocrine symptoms are often present but overlooked for a long period of time. The management of giant prolactinomas remains a major challenge, despite dopamine agonists being the first line of treatment, owing to its efficacy to normalize prolactin levels and reduce tumor volume. Aim of the study: Describe clinical and radiological features, the treatment modalities and outcomes of 6 cases of giant prolactinomas and review of the literature. Methods: Retrospective data collection involving 6 patients diagnosed with giant prolactinoma in the Department of Endocrinology, Hedi Chaker Hospital, Sfax, Tunisia from January 2010 to December 2014. Results: All patients were men between the age of 19 and 65 years. The most common presenting features include headache and visual defects. Proptosis was reported in one patient. Tumor size ranged from 56 to 84 mm and pre-treatment PRL from 1470 to 642387 ng/mL. Endocrine evaluation performed at baseline showed secondary hypogonadism in all patients. Secondary hypothyroidism and adrenal insufficiency were found in one and four patients respectively. IGF-I level was within the normal range for age and gender for all patients. Dopamine agonists served as the primary therapy for all the patients in the present study. Trans-frontal pituitary surgery was performed in one patient with apoplexy and severe neuro-ophthalmic signs. Serum prolactin concentrations and tumor volume significantly decreased following treatment with dopamine agonists. Conclusion: Giant prolactinomas are uncommon and often raising both diagnostic and therapeutic challenges.



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Development and Implementation of a Pharmacological Toolkit to Help Providers Manage Level of Consciousness Following Traumatic Brain Injury: A Quality Improvement Project

1University of Massachusetts Boston, Capstone Defense

American Journal of Medicine Studies. 2017, 5(1), 1-17
doi: 10.12691/ajms-5-1-1
Copyright © 2017 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Peter Iremar Santana. Development and Implementation of a Pharmacological Toolkit to Help Providers Manage Level of Consciousness Following Traumatic Brain Injury: A Quality Improvement Project. American Journal of Medicine Studies. 2017; 5(1):1-17. doi: 10.12691/ajms-5-1-1.

Correspondence to: Peter  Iremar Santana, University of Massachusetts Boston, Capstone Defense. Email:


Introduction: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a serious public health concern in the USA. Each year, TBIs contribute to a total of 52,000 deaths, accounting for 30% of all injury-related deaths and cases of permanent disability. Approximately 5 million survivors of TBI in the USA live with some form of disability [1]. Due to the severity of the brain injuries, some patients will experience a reduced level of consciousness. Early use of pharmacological treatment is fundamental to improve patient outcomes. Background: Providers presently seek guidelines to help them choose the right medication quickly and accurately. A pharmacological toolkit was designed to help providers in the neurology unit to enhance patients’ level of consciousness and improve quality of care following a traumatic brain injury. The theoretical model for this project is the Havelock Theory of Change, which was used to guide the team during the stages of change. The Logic Model was used during the development and implementation of the toolkit. Methods: This project was developed and implemented in the medical neurological unit at the long term acute care and rehabilitation hospital. An educational program was initiated for providers to help them use the evidence based pharmacological toolkit to prescribe neuro-stimulates for patients with TBIs who demonstrated poor levels of consciousness. The Coma Recovery Scale -Revised (CRS-R) scale [2] was used to reassure if effectiveness of the neuropharmacology was feasible to treat poor alertness. The percentage of improvement on CRS-R score of 27.68%, with improvement of 3 points on CRS-R score, is a significant improvement to this QI project. The data was collected over six months and captured the variability reflecting improvement. A post implementation survey was answered by providers to track the benefit and practicability of the tool. Results: The level of satisfaction was high based on the survey response. Conclusion: Use of a neuropharmacological toolkit promises to help providers to treat severe traumatic brain injury in patients experiencing poor level of alertness. In conclusion, following the national brain injury organization recommendations, every institution needs to develop their own guideline to treat TBIs.



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