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Article

Nasal Carriage of Staphylococcus in Health Care Workers in Benghazi Hospitals

1Department of Laboratory, Eye Hospital, Benghazi, Libya

2Department of Botany, Faculty of Science, Benghazi University, Libya


American Journal of Microbiological Research. 2014, 2(4), 110-112
DOI: 10.12691/ajmr-2-4-1
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Nadia. E. Al-Abdli, Saleh.H. Baiu. Nasal Carriage of Staphylococcus in Health Care Workers in Benghazi Hospitals. American Journal of Microbiological Research. 2014; 2(4):110-112. doi: 10.12691/ajmr-2-4-1.

Correspondence to: Nadia.  E. Al-Abdli, Department of Laboratory, Eye Hospital, Benghazi, Libya. Email: batul.gr155@gmail.com

Abstract

This study was aimed to determine the frequency of staphylococcal nasal carriage of health care workers (HCWs) and antimicrobial susceptibility profile of the isolates in hospitals of Benghazi, Libya. The study was conducted in the period between April 2013 and August 2013 on HCWs from ten hospitals in Benghazi-Libya. Nasal swabs from anterior nares of HCWs were cultured and identified as Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), coagulase - negative staphylococci (CoNS) and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) by using standard methods. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed on Muller Hinton Agar using disc diffusion method. Of the 472 HCWs, (47.5%) were nasal carriers of S. aureus, (21.4%) for MRSA and (26.1%) for MSSA, (36.4%) of CoNS. The highest carriage rate for S. aureus was in Physician (30.6%) followed by nurses (20.4%), helpers (22.9%) and technicians (10.9%). Almost all of the isolates showed high resistance against penicillin (97.5%) and ampicillin (98.2%). The lowest resistance recorded was for augmentin (14.2%), gentamycin (7.1%), clindamycin (7.5%) ciprofloxacin (3.2%) and vancomycin (2.1%). Most of isolated strains were susceptible to rifampicin (98.9%). The emergence of resistant strains of S.aureus should be prevented by controlling the amount of antibiotics used in and out of hospitals. Also, better control measures of nosocomial infection must be established.

Keywords

References

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Article

Synergistic Bio-preservative Effects of Vernonia Amygdalina Leaves and Sacoglottis Gabonensis Stem Bark on Palm Wine from Elaeis Guineensis and Raphia Hookeri from Uturu, Nigeria

1Department of Microbiology, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike, Abia State, Nigeria


American Journal of Microbiological Research. 2014, 2(4), 113-117
DOI: 10.12691/ajmr-2-4-2
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Onwuakor Chijioke .E, Ukaegbu-Obi K.M. Synergistic Bio-preservative Effects of Vernonia Amygdalina Leaves and Sacoglottis Gabonensis Stem Bark on Palm Wine from Elaeis Guineensis and Raphia Hookeri from Uturu, Nigeria. American Journal of Microbiological Research. 2014; 2(4):113-117. doi: 10.12691/ajmr-2-4-2.

Correspondence to: Onwuakor  Chijioke .E, Department of Microbiology, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike, Abia State, Nigeria. Email: chijiokeonwuakor@gmail.com

Abstract

The synergistic bio-preservative effects of leaves and stem bark of Vernonia amygdalina and Sacoglottis gabonensis respectively on two (2) palm wine types namely, Elaeis guineensis and Raphia hookeri from Uturu-Nigeria was evaluated. The microbiological and biochemical changes of the palm wine brands were determined. R. hookeri brands were found to support more heterotrophic and coliform populations than the E. guineensis, while the later contained more yeast species. Identification of isolated species revealed the presence of Bacillus sp., Micrococcus sp., Lactobacillus sp., Brevibacterium sp. and Saccharomyces sp. from E. guineensis and R. hookeri. Moreso, heterotrophic counts and pH were observed to decrease as the fermentation time progressed. The combination of both V. amygdalina and S. gabonensis as preservatives lowered the bacterial and fungal load compared to the control and individual plant preservatives and reduced the rate of CO2 emission as well as keeping the pH fairly constant.

Keywords

References

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Article

Biotic Relationships: Distribution of Antibiotic Resistance Genes in Nosocomial Pathogens

1Department of Biological & Environmental Sciences, Troy University, Troy, AL 36082


American Journal of Microbiological Research. 2014, 2(4), 118-121
DOI: 10.12691/ajmr-2-4-3
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Tejpreet Chadha. Biotic Relationships: Distribution of Antibiotic Resistance Genes in Nosocomial Pathogens. American Journal of Microbiological Research. 2014; 2(4):118-121. doi: 10.12691/ajmr-2-4-3.

Correspondence to: Tejpreet  Chadha, Department of Biological & Environmental Sciences, Troy University, Troy, AL 36082. Email: tchadha@troy.edu

Abstract

The strong selective pressure exerted by excessive use of antibiotics in the last decades has increased the acquisition of resistance genes by horizontal gene transfer. Horizontal gene transfer contributed to the diversification of microorganisms by influencing traits such as metabolic potential of a bacterial cell, antibiotic resistance, symbiosis, fitness, and adaptation. The study of biotic relationships helped to examine how they may contribute to virulence such as transfer of toxin genes, antibiotic resistance genes. The current study examines the pattern of distribution of Ambler (molecular) classes of β-lactamases (A, B, C, D) that provides a basic understanding and an initial assessment of resistance genes that may have a different role in the natural environment in free living and symbiotic nosocomial pathogens. The distribution of the four different Ambler (molecular) classes of β-lactamases (A, B, C, and D) differs among different bacterial species. The results from absolute abundance data showed prevalence of class B β-lactamases was highest in free living and lowest in symbiotic bacterial species. Interestingly, class D β-lactamases was absent in symbiotic bacterial species. However, relative abundance class D β-lactamases was lowest for free-living bacterial species. The prevalence of class B β-lactamases based upon the total number of sequences checked predominated in pathogens that are free living when compared to other Ambler classes of β-lactamases. The study of biotic relationships helps to understand what selective or stimulatory pressures are driving the spread of antibiotic resistance genes. In the future, this may help to design effective strategies for preventing further increases in the incidence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria.

Keywords

References

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Article

Using Water with Oil Immersion Lens to Detect Malaria Parasite in Blood Film and Making a Comparison between Oil and Water Method

1Department of microbiology, Faculty of Medical Laboratory Science, The National Ribat University


American Journal of Microbiological Research. 2014, 2(4), 122-124
DOI: 10.12691/ajmr-2-4-4
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Hiba Siddig Ibrahim, Shamsoun Khamis Kafi. Using Water with Oil Immersion Lens to Detect Malaria Parasite in Blood Film and Making a Comparison between Oil and Water Method. American Journal of Microbiological Research. 2014; 2(4):122-124. doi: 10.12691/ajmr-2-4-4.

Correspondence to: Hiba  Siddig Ibrahim, Department of microbiology, Faculty of Medical Laboratory Science, The National Ribat University. Email: hibasiddig55@gmail.com

Abstract

Background: Oil immersion lens it is one of the microscope lenses that used in medical laboratory filed. It is used to magnify the smallest things and for detection of some important infectious diseases such as bacteria, parasite, anemia’s and bone marrow films, but uses lens alone without oil makes the image imperfect and unclear, so to make a better image scientists were used oil with these lenses (immersion oils lens) to avoid bending of light . Objectives: The main aim of this study is to be used distill water with oil immersion lens instead of synthetic oil to detect malaria parasite to low cost of using synthetic oil especially in faraway places due to difficulties of paying synthetic oil and also to be arrived to rural area, and so on to be used with other tests, beside avoiding using impurity oil due to the comment of D/ Fahad Awad (National Coordinator for Malaria Program), against using sesame oil especially in some laboratories at Al Gedaraf State, see Aray Alaam newspaper 5th December, 2013. Methodology: In this study a total of 200 subjects were included. A 3 drops from capillary blood samples were collected in clean dry dust free slides after disinfectant the 3ed or 4th finger for adult and the big toe hand or foot for child with 70% alcohol to make a thick blood films, or Aliquots of 2.5 ml of venous blood were collected by venous puncture after disinfectant the site of collection and the collected blood was drawn into EDITA containers to make thick blood films as above. The films were lets to dry by air, staining with Giemsa stain for 10 minute and then examined for the first times with DW with objective lens and for the second times with synthetic oil. Results: There were no differences between using oil or distill water (DW) for detection of malaria parasite by both techniques (100%), unless the high quality of oil image (100%), when comparing with distill water (DW) image (90%), due to variation in numerical aperture (NA) between both techniques. Conclusion: Based on the results of this study we can used distill water (DW) but with caution to detect malaria parasite by 90% when compared with oil 100% in case of poverty areas to low cost of using synthetic oil, and so on the image quality can arrives (99.5%) if do it in proper way.

Keywords

References

[1]  Cheesbrough M (2004). Microscope. In: District Laboratory Practice in Tropical Countries. Part 1, Low price Egyptian edition 2004. The Anglo-Egyptian Bookshop & Cambridge University Press, pp: 110
 
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[5]  Solliday J (2007). History of Oil Immersion Lenses. http://www.smecc.org/history_of_oil_immersion_lenses.htm
 

Article

Effect of Varied Culture Conditions on Crude Supernatant (Bacteriocin) Production from Four Lactobacillus Species Isolated from Locally Fermented Maize (Ogi)

1Department of Microbiology, College of Natural Sciences, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture Umudike, Abia State, Nigeria

2Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Biological & Physical Sciences, Abia State University Uturu, Abia State, Nigeria

3Department of Product Development Programme, National Root Crop Research Institute Umudike, Abia State, Nigeria


American Journal of Microbiological Research. 2014, 2(5), 125-130
DOI: 10.12691/ajmr-2-5-1
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
C.E Onwuakor, V.O Nwaugo, C.J Nnadi, J.M Emetole. Effect of Varied Culture Conditions on Crude Supernatant (Bacteriocin) Production from Four Lactobacillus Species Isolated from Locally Fermented Maize (Ogi). American Journal of Microbiological Research. 2014; 2(5):125-130. doi: 10.12691/ajmr-2-5-1.

Correspondence to: C.E  Onwuakor, Department of Microbiology, College of Natural Sciences, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture Umudike, Abia State, Nigeria. Email: chijiokeonwuakor@gmail.com

Abstract

This Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) predominates the micro flora of fermented products. They produce metabolites that inhibit the growth of food borne pathogens and spoilage microorganisms. The isolation and identification of LAB from fermented maize (Ogi) and the effect of varied culture conditions on crude supernatant production and activity was evaluated. Four (4) isolates of bacteriocin producing lactobacillus species (L. lactis, L. fermentum, L. casei and L. plantarum) with antibacterial activity against Salmonella typhimurium (ATCC 14028) and Shigella dysenteriae (ATCC 23351) were subjected to varying growth medium conditions. The crude supernatant production was tested at different physical and cultural conditions such as temperature (25, 30, 35 and 40°C), pH (5, 6, 7 and 8), sodium chloride (NaCl) concentration (2, 4, 6 and 8%) and incubation duration (12, 24, 48 and 72 hours). The optimum bacteriocin production judged by their different zones of inhibition of crude supernatant was recorded at temperature, 30°C and then 35°C. There were significant differences between all the incubation temperatures at P<0.05. Duration of incubation showed highest crude supernatant activity after 72 hours. Furthermore, optimal conditions for crude supernatant production were observed to be highest at pH 6.0 followed by 5.0 and then 2% NaCl concentration. There were significant differences between the zones of inhibition of crude supernatants produced against the indicator organisms at various media pH and salt concentrations at P<0.05. These crude supernatants may have a potential use in reducing contaminations during industrial processes, as food preservatives and may help in improving the gastro-intestinal tract by fighting off pathogenic bacteria.

Keywords

References

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Article

Enrichment of Activated Sludge Process in the Treatment of Industrial Waste Water

1Industrial Waste Water Research Laboratory, Division of Applied & Environmental Microbiology, Enviro Technology Limited, Ankleshwar, Gujarat, India


American Journal of Microbiological Research. 2014, 2(5), 131-137
DOI: 10.12691/ajmr-2-5-2
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Maulin P Shah. Enrichment of Activated Sludge Process in the Treatment of Industrial Waste Water. American Journal of Microbiological Research. 2014; 2(5):131-137. doi: 10.12691/ajmr-2-5-2.

Correspondence to: Maulin  P Shah, Industrial Waste Water Research Laboratory, Division of Applied & Environmental Microbiology, Enviro Technology Limited, Ankleshwar, Gujarat, India. Email: shahmp@uniphos.com

Abstract

In this paper, bioaugmentation was applied to upgrade a full-scale activated sludge system (A) into a contact oxidation system (B). Results showed that when chemical oxygen demand (COD) and ammonia nitrogen (NHþ4-N) concentration of the industrial wastewater were 320–530 mg/L and 8–25 mg/L, respectively, the bioaugmented process (A) took only 20 days when they were below 80 mg/L and 10 mg/L, respectively. However, the unbioaugmented conventional activated sludge process (B) spent 30 days to reach the similar effluent quality. As the organic loading rate (OLR) increased from 0.6 to 0.9 and finally up to 1.10 kg COD/m3 d, A showed strong resistance to shock loadings and restored after three days compared to the seven days required by B. Based on the results of this paper, it shows that bioaugementation application is feasible and efficient for the process upgrade due to the availability of the bioaugmented specialized consortia.

Keywords

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Article

Proximate Composition, Biochemical and Microbiological Changes Associated with Fermenting African Oil Bean (Pentaclethra macrophylla Benth) Seeds

1Department of Microbiology, College of Natural Sciences, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture Umudike, Abia State, Nigeria


American Journal of Microbiological Research. 2014, 2(5), 138-142
DOI: 10.12691/ajmr-2-5-3
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Eze V.C, Onwuakor C.E, Ukeka E. Proximate Composition, Biochemical and Microbiological Changes Associated with Fermenting African Oil Bean (Pentaclethra macrophylla Benth) Seeds . American Journal of Microbiological Research. 2014; 2(5):138-142. doi: 10.12691/ajmr-2-5-3.

Correspondence to: Eze  V.C, Department of Microbiology, College of Natural Sciences, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture Umudike, Abia State, Nigeria. Email: mekus2020@gmail.com

Abstract

The proximate composition, biochemical changes and microbiology of fermenting Pentaclethra macrophylla (Ugba) seeds were evaluated. Studies were carried out to screen for microorganisms associated with the natural fermentation of the oil bean seeds. Bacterial isolates obtained include species of Bacillus, Streptococcus, Salmonella, Micrococcus, Lactobacillus and Proteus. Fungal isolates include Yeast, species of Penicillium, Aspergillus, Fusarium and Rhizopus. Total aerobic counts (TAC) ranged from 1.5 x 106 to 2.5 x 106 cfu/g, while total coliform counts (TCC) ranged from 1.7 x 103 to 7.2 x 103 cfu/g. More so, total lactic acid bacterial counts ranged from 2.6 x 105 to 4.6 x 105 cfu/g. Among the various bacterial isolates obtained from the fermenting Ugba, Bacillus and lactic acid bacteria were dominant from the beginning to the end of the fermentation the oil bean seeds. The proximate composition of the fermenting seeds showed the presence of protein, fats, fibre, carbohydrates, and ash. Temperature variations in oil bean seed fermentation showed higher temperatures in the purchased Ugba compared to the laboratory Ugba after 72 hours fermentation. There were significant reduction in pH and titratable acidity as the fermentation time progressed, showing that temperature, pH and titratable acidity of fermenting African oil bean seeds were affected by the metabolic activities of resident microorganisms.

Keywords

References

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Article

Realization of Influent Waste Water on Microbial Community Structure of Activated Sludge Process

1Industrial Waste Water Research Laboratory, Division of Applied & Environmental Microbiology, Enviro Technology Limited, Ankleshwar-393002 Gujarat, India


American Journal of Microbiological Research. 2014, 2(5), 143-150
DOI: 10.12691/ajmr-2-5-4
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
M. Shah. Realization of Influent Waste Water on Microbial Community Structure of Activated Sludge Process. American Journal of Microbiological Research. 2014; 2(5):143-150. doi: 10.12691/ajmr-2-5-4.

Correspondence to: M.  Shah, Industrial Waste Water Research Laboratory, Division of Applied & Environmental Microbiology, Enviro Technology Limited, Ankleshwar-393002 Gujarat, India. Email: shahmp@uniphos.com

Abstract

The assembling of microbial consortia in wastewater treatment facilities is a significance of environmental conditions. In the present research work, activated sludge from different wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) were exploited at a molecular level to determine the influence of the complexity of the influent composition on the species structure and the diversity of bacterial consortia. The community fingerprints and technological data were subjected to the canonical correspondence and correlation analyses. The number of separated biological processes realized in the treatment line and the presence of industrial wastewater in the influent were the key factors determining the species structure of total and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria in biomass. The N2O-reducers community composition depended significantly on the design of the facility; the highest species richness of denitrifiers was noted in the WWTPs with separated denitrification tanks. The contribution of industrial streams to the inflow affected the diversity of total and denitrifying bacterial consortia and diminished the diversity of ammonia oxidizers. The obtained data are valuable for engineers since they revealed the main factors, including the design of wastewater treatment plant, influencing the microbial groups critical for the stability of purification processes.

Keywords

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Article

Microbial Degradation of Acid Orange and Reactive Black in Presence of Anaerobic Granular Sludge

1Industrial Waste Water Research Laboratory, Division of Applied & Environmental Microbiology, Enviro Technology Limited, Gujarat, India


American Journal of Microbiological Research. 2014, 2(5), 151-156
DOI: 10.12691/ajmr-2-5-5
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
M. Shah. Microbial Degradation of Acid Orange and Reactive Black in Presence of Anaerobic Granular Sludge. American Journal of Microbiological Research. 2014; 2(5):151-156. doi: 10.12691/ajmr-2-5-5.

Correspondence to: M.  Shah, Industrial Waste Water Research Laboratory, Division of Applied & Environmental Microbiology, Enviro Technology Limited, Gujarat, India. Email: shahmp@uniphos.com

Abstract

This study mainly focuses on the biodegradation of two azo dyes, Acid Orange and Reactive Black, was evaluated in batch experiments where anaerobic and aerobic conditions were integrated by exposing anaerobic granular sludge to oxygen. Under these conditions, the azo dyes were reduced, resulting in a temporal accumulation of aromatic amines. Subsequently, aniline was degraded further in the presence of oxygen by the facultative aerobic bacteria present in the anaerobic granular sludge. Acid Orange and Reactive Black were also degraded, if inoculum from aerobic enrichment cultures were added to the batch experiments. Due to rapid autoxidation of Acid Orange, no enrichment culture could be established for this compound. The results of this study indicate that aerobic enrichment cultures developed on aromatic amines combined with oxygen tolerant anaerobic granular sludge can potentially be used to completely biodegrade azo dyes under integrated anaerobic/aerobic conditions.

Keywords

References

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[2]  Maulin P Shah, Patel KA, Nair SS, Darji AM. Microbial Decolorization of Methyl Orange Dye by Pseudomonas spp. ETL-M. International Journal of Environmental Bioremediation and Biodegradation. 2013 (1), 2, 54-59.
 
[3]  Maulin P Shah, Patel KA, Nair SS, Darji AM. Microbial Degradation and Decolorization of Reactive Orange Dye by Strain of Pseudomonas Spp. International Journal of Environmental Bioremediation and Biodegradation. 2013 (1), 1, 1-5.
 
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Article

Exploited Application of Pyrosequencing in Microbial Diversity of Activated Sludge System of Common Effluent Treatment Plants

1Industrial Waste Water Research Laboratory Division of Applied & Environmental Microbiology Enviro Technology Limited Gujarat, India


American Journal of Microbiological Research. 2014, 2(5), 157-165
DOI: 10.12691/ajmr-2-5-6
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
M. P. Shah. Exploited Application of Pyrosequencing in Microbial Diversity of Activated Sludge System of Common Effluent Treatment Plants. American Journal of Microbiological Research. 2014; 2(5):157-165. doi: 10.12691/ajmr-2-5-6.

Correspondence to: M.  P. Shah, Industrial Waste Water Research Laboratory Division of Applied & Environmental Microbiology Enviro Technology Limited Gujarat, India. Email: shahmp@uniphos.com

Abstract

Microbial Communities are actively present in the Activated Sludge System. We have applied PCR-based Pyrosequencing to investigate the bacterial communities of Activated Sludge samples from different common effluent treatment plants. A total of 259K effective sequences of 16S rRNA gene V4 region were obtained from these Activated Sludge samples. These sequences revealed huge amount of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) in Activated Sludge, that is, 1183–3567 OTUs in a sludge sample, at 3% cutoff level and sequencing depth of 16 489 sequences. Clear geographical differences among the Activated Sludge samples from effluent treatment Plant No.1 and No.2 were revealed by (1) cluster analyses based on abundances of OTUs or the genus/family/order assigned by Ribosomal Database Project (RDP) and (2) the principal coordinate analyses based on OTUs abundances, RDP taxa abundances and UniFrac of OTUs and their distances. In addition to certain unique bacterial populations in each Activated Sludge sample, some genera were dominant, and core populations shared by multiple samples, including two commonly reported genera of Zoogloea and Dechloromonas, three genera not frequently reported and three genera not well described so far. Pyrosequencing analyses of multiple Activated Sludge samples in this study also revealed the minority populations that are hard to be explored by traditional molecular methods and showed that a large proportion of sequences could not be assigned to taxonomic affiliations even at the phylum/class levels.

Keywords

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