Welcome to American Journal of Microbiological Research

American Journal of Microbiological Research is a peer-reviewed, open access journal that provides rapid publication of articles in all areas of microbiological research. The goal of this journal is to provide a platform for scientists and academicians all over the world to promote, share, and discuss various new issues and developments in different areas of microbiological research.

ISSN (Print): 2328-4129

ISSN (Online): 2328-4137

Editor-in-Chief: Apply for this position

Website: http://www.sciepub.com/journal/AJMR

   

Article

Molecular Study of Panton-Valentine Leukocidin Genes among Staphylococcus aureus Clinical Isolates in Khartoum State, Sudan

1Department of Biotechnology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Omdurman Islamic University, Sudan

2College of Applied Medical Science, Shaqra University, KSA

3Department of Microbiology, Tropical Medicine Research Institute, National Center for Research, Sudan

4Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, King Khalid University, KSA

5Department of Biotechnology, Biotechnology Park, Africa City of Technology, Sudan


American Journal of Microbiological Research. 2015, 3(3), 107-111
doi: 10.12691/ajmr-3-3-2
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Najem Aldin M. Osman, Intisar E. Alrayah, Yassir Mahgoub Mohamed, Ali M El-Eragi, Muataz M. Eldirdery, Mohamed Ahmed Salih. Molecular Study of Panton-Valentine Leukocidin Genes among Staphylococcus aureus Clinical Isolates in Khartoum State, Sudan. American Journal of Microbiological Research. 2015; 3(3):107-111. doi: 10.12691/ajmr-3-3-2.

Correspondence to: Najem  Aldin M. Osman, Department of Biotechnology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Omdurman Islamic University, Sudan. Email: najemosman@hotmail.com

Abstract

Staphylococcus aureus strains carrying Panton- Valentine Leukocidin genes (PVL) are an emerging threat worldwide, causing variety of infections even in healthy individuals. Intensive efforts through the last years have been carried out towards the detection and analysis of PVL genes. The prevalence and characterization of such genes has not been done in Sudan. In this study we investigated the prevalence and the molecular characteristics of PVL genes among S. aureus clinical isolates, comparing their PVL allelic variant with that of PVL positive strains from different countries. Standard microbiological procedures were used for the identification of isolates, polymerase chain reaction for determination of PVL genes and standard sequencing for mapping of lukS/F-PV genes. In Silico tools were used for sequence analysis. Among 210 S. aureus isolates, PVL genes were detected in 122 (58%). Sequence analysis for lukS/F-PV genes from 12 representative isolates detected a new point mutation in lukS PV region. Collectively, our findings showed a high frequency of PVL genes among S. aureus isolates and revealed a novel nonsynonymous mutation. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that Sudanese isolates were closely related to each other.

Keywords

References

[1]  Holmes A, Ganner M, McGuane S, Pitt TL, Cookson BD, Kearns AM: Staphylococcus aureus isolates carrying Panton-Valentine leucocidin genes in England and Wales: frequency, characterization, and association with clinical disease. Journal of clinical microbiology 2005, 43(5):2384-2390.
 
[2]  Prevost G, Mourey L, Colin DA, Menestrina G: Staphylococcal pore-forming toxins. Current topics in microbiology and immunology 2001, 257:53-83.
 
[3]  Ward PD, Turner WH: Identification of staphylococcal Panton-Valentine leukocidin as a potent dermonecrotic toxin. Infection and immunity 1980, 28(2):393-397.
 
[4]  Prevost G, Cribier B, Couppie P, Petiau P, Supersac G, Finck-Barbancon V, Monteil H, Piemont Y: Panton-Valentine leucocidin and gamma-hemolysin from Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 49775 are encoded by distinct genetic loci and have different biological activities. Infection and immunity 1995, 63(10):4121-4129.
 
[5]  Lina G, Piemont Y, Godail-Gamot F, Bes M, Peter MO, Gauduchon V, Vandenesch F, Etienne J: Involvement of Panton-Valentine leukocidin-producing Staphylococcus aureus in primary skin infections and pneumonia. Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America 1999, 29(5):1128-1132.
 
Show More References
[6]  Diep BA, Sensabaugh GF, Somboonna N, Carleton HA, Perdreau-Remington F: Widespread skin and soft-tissue infections due to two methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains harboring the genes for Panton-Valentine leucocidin. Journal of clinical microbiology 2004, 42(5):2080-2084.
 
[7]  McClure J, Conly JM, Lau V, Elsayed S, Louie T, Hutchins W, and Zhang K: Novel multiplex PCR assay for detection of Staphylococcus virulence marker Panton-Valentine Leukocidin genes and simultaneous discrimination of Methicillin-susceptible from resistant staphylococci. Novel multiplex PCR assay for detection of Staphylococcus virulence marker Panton-Valentine Leukocidin genes and simultaneous discrimination of Methicillin-susceptible from resistant staphylococci 2006, 44(3):1141-1144.
 
[8]  Naas T, Fortineau N, Spicq C, Robert J, Jarlier V, and Nordman P: Three years survey of community acquired methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus producing Panton-Valentine Leukocidin in French university hospital. . J Hosp Infect 2005 61:321-329.
 
[9]  Steward CD, Raney PM, Morrell AK, Williams PP, McDougal LK, Jevitt L, McGowan JE, Jr., Tenover FC: Testing for induction of clindamycin resistance in erythromycin-resistant isolates of Staphylococcus aureus. Journal of clinical microbiology 2005, 43(4):1716-1721.
 
[10]  Etienne J: Panton-Valentine leukocidin: a marker of severity for Staphylococcus aureus infection? Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2005, 41(5):591-593.
 
[11]  O'Hara FP, Guex N, Word JM, Miller LA, Becker JA, Walsh SL, Scangarella NE, West JM, Shawar RM, Amrine-Madsen H: A geographic variant of the Staphylococcus aureus Panton-Valentine leukocidin toxin and the origin of community-associated methicillin-resistant S. aureus USA300. The Journal of infectious diseases 2008, 197(2):187-194.
 
[12]  Otokunefor K, Sloan T, Kearns AM, James R: Molecular characterization and panton-valentine leucocidin typing of community-acquired methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus clinical isolates. Journal of clinical microbiology 2012, 50(9):3069-3072.
 
[13]  Nakagawa S, Taneike I, Mimura D, Iwakura N, Nakayama T, Emura T, Kitatsuji M, Fujimoto A, Yamamoto T: Gene sequences and specific detection for Panton-Valentine leukocidin. Biochemical and biophysical research communications 2005, 328(4):995-1002.
 
[14]  Berglund C, Prevost G, Laventie BJ, Keller D, Soderquist B: The genes for Panton Valentine leukocidin (PVL) are conserved in diverse lines of methicillin-resistant and methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus. Microbes and infection / Institut Pasteur 2008, 10(8):878-884.
 
[15]  Dumitrescu O, Tristan A, Meugnier H, Bes M, Gouy M, Etienne J, Lina G, Vandenesch F: Polymorphism of the Staphylococcus aureus Panton-Valentine leukocidin genes and its possible link with the fitness of community-associated methicillin-resistant S. aureus. The Journal of infectious diseases 2008, 198(5):792-794.
 
[16]  Cowan ST, Steel KJ, Barrow GI, Feltham RKA: Cowan and Steel's manual for the identification of medical bacteria, 3rd edn. Cambridge ; New York: Cambridge University Press; 1993.
 
[17]  Collee JG, Duguid JP, Fraser AG, and Marmion BP: Mackie & MacCarteny practical medical microbiology., 13 edn. London: Churchill Livingstone; 1989.
 
[18]  Atschul S, Madden TL, al SAe: Gapped BLAST and PSI-BLAST. A new generation of protein database search programmes. NucleicAcid Res 1997, 25:3389-3402.
 
[19]  Hall T: BioEdit: a user-friendly biologicalsequence alignment editor and analysis programfor Windows 95/98/NT. Nucl Acids Symp Ser 1999, 41:95-98.
 
[20]  Besemer J, Lomsadze A, Borodovsky M: GeneMarkS: a self-training method for prediction of gene starts in microbial genomes. Implications for finding sequence motifs in regulatory regions. Nucleic acids research 2001, 29(12):2607-2618.
 
[21]  Dereeper A, Guignon V, Blanc G, Audic S, Buffet S, Chevenet F, Dufayard JF, Guindon S, Lefort V, Lescot M et al: Phylogeny.fr: robust phylogenetic analysis for the non-specialist. Nucleic acids research 2008, 36(Web Server issue):W465-469.
 
[22]  Tamura K, Stecher G, Peterson D, Filipski A, Kumar S: MEGA6: Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis version 6.0. Molecular biology and evolution 2013, 30(12):2725-2729.
 
[23]  Ramdani-Bouguessa N, Bes M, Meugnier H, Forey F, Reverdy ME, Lina G, Vandenesch F, Tazir M, Etienne J: Detection of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains resistant to multiple antibiotics and carrying the Panton-Valentine leukocidin genes in an Algiers hospital. Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy 2006, 50(3):1083-1085.
 
[24]  Steward CD RP, Morrell AK, Williams PP, McDougal LK, and Jevitt, L.: Testing for Induction of Clindamycin Resistance in Erythromycin-Resistant Isolates of Staphylococcus aureus. Journal of clinical microbiology 2005, 43:1716-1721.
 
[25]  Bocchini CE, Hulten KG, Mason EO, Jr., Gonzalez BE, Hammerman WA, Kaplan SL: Panton-Valentine leukocidin genes are associated with enhanced inflammatory response and local disease in acute hematogenous Staphylococcus aureus osteomyelitis in children. Pediatrics 2006, 117(2):433-440.
 
[26]  Labandeira-Rey M, Couzon F, Boisset S, Brown EL, Bes M, Benito Y, Barbu EM, Vazquez V, Hook M, Etienne J et al: Staphylococcus aureus Panton-Valentine leukocidin causes necrotizing pneumonia. Science 2007, 315(5815):1130-1133.
 
[27]  Enany S, Yaoita E, Yoshida Y, Enany M, Yamamoto T: Molecular characterization of Panton-Valentine leukocidin-positive community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates in Egypt. Microbiological research 2010, 165(2):152-162.
 
Show Less References

Article

Microbial and Parasitic Contamination on Vegetables Collected From Retailers in Main Market, Akure, Nigeria

1Department of Microbiology, The Federal University of Technology, Akure, Nigeria


American Journal of Microbiological Research. 2015, 3(3), 112-117
doi: 10.12691/ajmr-3-3-3
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Dada E. O., Olusola-Makinde O. O.. Microbial and Parasitic Contamination on Vegetables Collected From Retailers in Main Market, Akure, Nigeria. American Journal of Microbiological Research. 2015; 3(3):112-117. doi: 10.12691/ajmr-3-3-3.

Correspondence to: Olusola-Makinde  O. O., Department of Microbiology, The Federal University of Technology, Akure, Nigeria. Email: makanjuolabuks@yahoo.com

Abstract

Laboratory investigations were carried out on six different vegetable samples; Amaranthus cruentus (Amaranth), Talinum triangulare (Waterleaf), Solanecio biafrae (Worowo), Brassica olerecea (Cabbage), Lactuca sativa (Lettuce) and Daucus carota (Carrot) purchased from retailers in main market, Akure, Nigeria to determine the microbial and parasitic contamination. One part of each sample was washed with distilled water while the other part was washed with physiological saline. For parasitological analysis, the solutions were centrifuged, decanted and viewed under the microscope while culturing was done for microbial analysis using the pour plate technique. Only L. sativa was contaminated with helminth; Ascaris lumbricoides. All samples were found to be populated with various species of microorganisms. Seven bacteria belonging to different genera and six fungi were isolated randomly and identified from the vegetables. Bacteria include Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Serratia marcescens, Salmonella typii and Proteus vulgaris while fungi are Aspergillus niger, Saccharomyces sp, Penicillium sp, Rhizopus stolonifer, Fusarium sp and Mucor mucedo. The total bacterial count ranged from 3.2×106 to 7.2 ×106cfu/g for samples washed with distilled water and 1.6 x 106 to 4.8×106cfu/g for samples washed with physiological saline. S. aureus had the highest occurrence of 25% while Salmonella typhii had the least occurrence of 10%. The fungal count ranged from 3.0×105 to 5.0×105sfu/g for samples washed with distilled water and 1.0×105 to 3.0×105sfu/g for samples washed with physiological saline. R. stolonifer had the highest percentage of occurrence of 33.3%. Saccharomyces had the occurrence of 22.2% and Penicillium sp, A. niger, Mucor mucedo, Fusarium sp had the least occurrence of 11.1%. This study showed the presence of organisms of health significance on retail vegetables. Reduction of risk of human illness associated with raw produce can be achieved through controlling points of potential contamination.

Keywords

References

[1]  Vandekinderen, I., Van Camp, J., Devlieghere, F., Veramme, K., Denon, Q., Ragaert, P., De Meulenaer, B. Effect of decontamination agents on the microbial population, sensorial quality, and nutrient content of grated carrots (Daucus carota L.). Journal of Agricultural Food Chemistry, 2008, 56: 5723-5731.
 
[2]  Beuchat, LR. Ecological factors influencing survival and growth of human pathogens on raw fruits and vegetables. Microbes and Infection 2002, 4: 413-423.
 
[3]  Sengun, IY. And Karapinar, M. Effectiveness of lemon juice, vinegar and their mixture in the elimination of Salmonella typhimurium on carrots (Daucus carota L.). International Journal of Food Microbiology. 2004, 96: 301-305.
 
[4]  Ayhan, T., Ufuk, B., and Sine, O.T. Efficacy of Different Decontamination Treatment on Microbial Population of Leafy Vegetables. Journal of Geographic Information and Decision Analysis. 2011, 36(1): 9-13.
 
[5]  Amoah, P., Drechsel, P., Abaidoo, RC., and Klutse, A. Effectiveness of common and improved sanitary washing methods in selected cities of West Africa for the reduction of coliform bacteria and helminth eggs on vegetables. Tropical Medicine and International Health, 2007, 12, S40-S50.
 
Show More References
[6]  Simoes, M., Pisani, B., Margues, EGL., Prandi, MAG., Martini, MH and Chiarini, PFT. Hygienic-sanitary condition of vegetables and irrigation water from kitchen gardens in the municipality of Campinas, SP. Brazilian Journal of Microbiology; 2001, 32: 331-333.
 
[7]  Akinyele, BJ., Oladejo, BO., Bankefa, EO. And Ayanyemi, SA. Microbiological analysis and antimicrobial sensitivity pattern of microorganism isolated from vegetables sold in Akure, Nigeria. International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences. 2013, 2(10): 306-313.
 
[8]  Tsado, EK., Adesina, OA. And Oyeleke, SB. A Survey on the Bacterial Load of Selected Fruits and Leafy Vegetables in Minna Metropolis of Niger State, Nigeria. Journal of Animal Production Advances 2013, 3(1): 6-11.
 
[9]  Benti, G. and Gemechu, F. Parasitic contamination of vegetables irrigated with Awash River in selected farms, Eastern Showa, Ethiopia,Journal of Parasitology and Vector Biology, 2014, 6(7): 103-109.
 
[10]  Glenn, L. Sia, S., Clara, M., Mariano, N., Shayne, A. and Gliceria, B. Assessing parasitic infestation of vegetables in selected markets in Metro Manila, Philippines. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Disease. 2012, 51-54.
 
[11]  Nwele, D. E., Uhuo, A. C., Okonkwo, E. C., Ibiam, G. A., Onwe, C. S., Ugwu. J. I., Onwe, J. C. and Nwuzo, A. C. Parasitological examination of Ava stream used in irrigation in Enugu State, South- Eastern Nigeria: An implication for helminth transmission. Journal of Parasitology and Vector Biology. 2013, 5(8): 112-115.
 
[12]  Cheesbrough, Monica. District laboratory practice in tropical countries. Part 1, Cambridge university press. New York. 2005, 2nd Ed, 194-197.
 
[13]  Michael, J. Pelczar., E.C.S. Chan and Noel, R. Krieng. Microbiology, New Delhi, Tata McGraw Hill. 2005, 5th Ed. 793-811.
 
[14]  Abougrain, AK., Nahaisi, MH., Madi, NS., Saied, MM. and Ghenghesh, KS.. Parasitological contamination in salad vegetables in Tripoli-Libya. Food Control. doi:2009, 10, 1016.
 
[15]  Kayser, FH., Bienz, KA., Eckert, J. and Zinkernagel, RM. Medical Microbiology.. Thieme Stuttgart, New York. 2005, 10th German Ed, 571-578.
 
[16]  Solomon, C., Michael, U., Bitrus, J., Micheal, A., Aloysius, U., Godwin, O., Joan, P., Richard A. and Joseph, A. Parasitological Evaluation of Domestic Water Sources in a Rural Community in Nigeria. British Microbiology Research Journal. 2013, 3(3): 393-399.
 
[17]  Buck, J. W., Walcott, R. R. and Beuchat, L. R. Recent trend in microbiological safety of fruits and Vegetables. Online. Plant Health Progress. doi: 2003, 10. 1094.
 
[18]  Poorna, V. Prevalence and growth of pathogens on salad vegetables, fruits and sprouts. International Journal of Hygiene and environmental health, 2001, 203(3):205-213.
 
[19]  Mead, PS., Slutsker, L., Dietz, V., McCaig, LF.,Bresee, JS., and Shapiro, C. Food related illness and death in the United States. Emerging Infectious Disease Journal. 1999, 5: 607-625.
 
[20]  Nester, E. U., Roberts, C. E., and Nester, M. T. Microbiology a Human Perspective. W.C. Brown Oxford. 2004, 6th Ed. 524- 540.
 
[21]  Beuchat, L. R. Surface Decontamination of Fruits and Vegetables Eaten Raw: A Review. Food Safety Unit, World Health Organization. WHO/FSF/FOS/Publication 98.2. Geneva. 1998, 31-42. http://www.int/foodsafety/publications/fs_mana.
 
[22]  Aloush, V., Navon-Venezia, S., Seigman-Igra, Y., Cabili, S. and Carmeli, Y. Multidrug-Resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa: Risk Factors and Clinical Impact. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotheraphy. 2006, 50(1): 43-48.
 
[23]  Willey, JM., Sherwood, LM., and Woolverton, CJ. (). Microbiology. McGraw Hill companies. New York. 2008, 5th Ed. 505, 964-970.
 
[24]  Akintobi, AO., Okonko, IO., Akano, OR., Agunbiade, SO. and Onianwa, O. Isolation and identification of fungi associated with the spoilage of some selected fruits in Ibadan, South Western Nigeria. Academia Arena 2011, 3(11): 1-10.
 
[25]  Baiyewu, RA., Amusa, NA., Ayoola, OA. And Babalola, OO. Survey of the post harvest diseases and aflatoxin contamination of marketed Pawpaw fruit (Carica papaya L) in South Western Nigeria. African Journal of Agricultural Research. 2007, 2(4): 178-181.
 
[26]  Effiuvwevwere, BJO. Microbial Spoilage Agents of Tropical and Assorted fruits and Vegetables (An Illustrated References Book). Paragraphics publishing company, Port Harcourt. 2000, 1st Ed. 1-39.
 
[27]  Chuku, EC., Ogbonna, DN., Onuegbu, BA. And Adeleke, MTV. Comparative Studies on the Fungi and Bio-Chemical Characteristics of Snake Guard (Trichosanthes curcumerina Linn) and Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentus mill) in Rivers state, Nigeria. Journal of Applied Sciences. 2008, 8(1): 168-172.
 
[28]  Akinmusire, OO. Fungal Species Associated with the Spoilage of Some Edible Fruits in Maiduguri, Northern Eastern Nigeria. Advances in Environmental Biology. 2011, 5(1): 157-161.
 
[29]  Onyia, VN.,Mbuka, CO., Ihejirika, GO., Obilor, OP., Duruigbo, CI. And Onweremadu, EC. Studies on the Performance and Incidence of Fusarium wilt of Tomatoes under different colours of plastic mulch. Nigerian Society of Plant proceedings. 32nd Ann. Conf. Book of Abstract, 2005, 23-25.
 
Show Less References

Article

The Evaluation on Molecular Techniques of Reverse Transcription Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification (RT-LAMP), Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR), and Their Diagnostic Results on MinIONTM Nanopore Sequencer for the Detection of Dengue Virus Serotypes

1Department of Clinical Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Sam Ratulagi University, Manado, Indonesia

2Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Hasanuddin, Makassar, Indonesia

3Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Hasanuddin, Makassar, Indonesia.

4Molecular Biology and Immunology Laboratory, Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Hasanuddin, Makassar, Indonesia


American Journal of Microbiological Research. 2015, 3(3), 118-124
doi: 10.12691/ajmr-3-3-4
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Arthur Elia Mongan, Irawan Yusuf, Isra Wahid, Mochammad Hatta. The Evaluation on Molecular Techniques of Reverse Transcription Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification (RT-LAMP), Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR), and Their Diagnostic Results on MinIONTM Nanopore Sequencer for the Detection of Dengue Virus Serotypes. American Journal of Microbiological Research. 2015; 3(3):118-124. doi: 10.12691/ajmr-3-3-4.

Correspondence to: Mochammad  Hatta, Molecular Biology and Immunology Laboratory, Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Hasanuddin, Makassar, Indonesia. Email: hattaram@indosat.net.id

Abstract

Background and aims:. Reverse Transcription Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification (RT-LAMP) Assay is a method described as a simple, rapid, and cost-effective, and a powerful gene amplification technique for rapid identification of microbial infection. The aims of this study were to validate a reverse-transcription LAMP method (RT-LAMP) with a reverse-transcription PCR technique (RT-PCR) for DENV serotype detection, and to evaluate the potential of this RT-LAMP method from which its amplification product can be applied for MinIONTM Nanopore sequencing. Methods: This study was performed by using 26 patient serum samples from the Confirmed group and 23 sera from the Suspected group, and 10 sera from Healthy volunteer group. The same validation study to confirm the sensitivity and specificity between the RT-LAMP assay and RT-PCR was also conducted by making a serial dilution of template as well as dengue serotype detected sera. Furthermore, experiments of MinIONTM Nanopore sequencer using the amplification product (amplicon) of RT-LAMP assay from patient serum samples and its comparative diagnostics with RT-PCR and Sanger’s Sequencing were also done. Results: From the validation study, 17 (65.4%) out of the 26 sera of Confirmed group were serotype detected by RT-LAMP assay, compared to that of RT-PCR which was only 10 (38.4%). Same result in Suspected group, there were 11 (47.8%) out of 23 sera of Suspected group were serotype detected by RT-LAMP assay, compared to that of RT-PCR which was only 1 (4.3%). For the Healthy group, the result was somewhat comparable between the two methods. In the serial dilution study, RT-LAMP was superior than that of the RT-PCR technique, particularly seen in the serial dilution of clinical serum samples. The limit of detection of RT-LAMP was down to the titer of 1/1000x, while RT-PCR was only 1/10x. Secondly, amplicon of RT-LAMP assay from patient serum samples fits to be sequenced by the MinIONTM. In the comparative study, the results showed that RT-LAMP was more sensitive and specific compared to that of the RT-PCR technique and Sanger’s Sequencing. Conclusions: RT-LAMP assay was more sensitive to that of RT-PCR technique. In the comparative study using MinIONTM Nanopore sequencer for the detection of dengue virus serotypes, the RT-LAMP was more sensitive and specific to that of RT-PCR and Sanger’s Sequencing. The method of RT-LAMP should be applied more because its sensitive and specific, simple, rapid, cost-effective, and also can be a tool of point of care testing for the detection of dengue virus serotypes.

Keywords

References

[1]  Setiati T.E, Wagenaar J.F.P., de Kruif M.D., Mairuhu A.T.A.,van Gorp E.C.M.and Soemantri A. 2006. Changing Epidemiology of Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever in Indonesia, Dengue Bulletin-Vol. 30 (1-14).
 
[2]  Anonymous. World Health Organization Regional Office for South-East Asia. Comprehensive Guidelines for Prevention and Control of Dengue and Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever. 15 September 2011 [downloaded:3November2012]. http://www.searo.who.int/en/Section10Section332/Section554.hm.
 
[3]  Henchal E.A., Putnak J.R. 1990. The Dengue Viruses. Clinical Microbiology Reviews 3(4):376-396.
 
[4]  Gubler D.J., 1998. Dengue and Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever. Clinical Microbiology Rev. 11(3):480-496.
 
[5]  Guzman M.G., Kouri G. 2004. Dengue diagnosis, advance and challenges. International Journal of Infectious Diseases 8: 69-80.
 
Show More References
[6]  Noisakran S. and Perng G.C. 2008. Alternate Hypothesis on the Pathogenesis of Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever (DHF) / Dengue Shock Syndrome (DSS) in Dengue Virus Infection. Exp Biol Med, 233:401-408.
 
[7]  Guzman M.G., Halstead S.B., Artsob H., Buchy P., Farrar J., Gubler D.J., Hunsperger E., Kroeger A., Margolls H.S., Martinez E., Nathan M.B., Pelegrino J.L., Simmons C., Yoksan S., Peeling R.W. 2010. Dengue: a continuing global threat. Nat Rev Microbiol. 8(12 0): S7-16.
 
[8]  Subedi D., Taylor-Robinson A.W. 2014. Laboratory diagnosis of dengue infection: current techniques and future strategies. Open Journal of Clinical Diagnostics. 4:63-70.
 
[9]  Peeling R.W., Artsob H., Pelegrino J. L., Buchy P., Cardosa M.J. Devi S., Enria D.A., Farrar J., Gubler D.J., Guzman M.G., Halstead S.B., Hunsperger E., Kliks S., Margolis H.S., Nathanson C.M., Nguyen V.C., Rizzo N., Vazquez S., Yoksan S. 2010. Evaluation of diagnostic tests: dengue. TDR. Macmillan Publishers Limited. Nature Reviews Microbiology. S30-S38.
 
[10]  Kosasih H., Alisjahbana B., Widjaja S., Nurhayati., de Mast Q., Parwati I., Blair P.J., Burgess T.H., van der Ven A., Williams M. 2013. The diagnostic and prognostic value of dengue non structural-1 antigen detection in a hyper-endemic region in Indonesia. PloS ONE 8(11):e80891.
 
[11]  Kassim F.Md., Izati M.N., TgRogayah T.A.R., Apandi Y.M., and Saat Z. 2011. Use of Dengue NS1 Antigen for Early Diagnosis of Dengue Virus Infection. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health. 42(3); 562-569.
 
[12]  Lanciotti R.S, Calisher C.H, Gubler D.J., Chang.G-J., and Vorndam A.V. 1992. Rapid detection and typing of dengue viruses from clinical samples by using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. J. Clin. Microbiol. 30(3):545-551.
 
[13]  Shu P-Y., Chang S-F., Kuo Y-C., Yueh Y-Y., Chien L-J., Sue C-L., Lin T-H., dan Huang J-H. 2003. Development of Group- and Serotype-spesific, One-Step SYBR Green I-Based Real-Time Reverse Transcription-PCR Assay for Dengue Virus. J. Clin. Microbiol. 41(6): 2408-2416.
 
[14]  Klungthong C., Gibbons R.V., Thaisomboonsuk B., Nisalak A., Kalayanarooj S., Thirawuth V., Nutkumhang N., Mammen M.P.Jr., and Jarman R.G. 2007. Dengue virus detection using whole blood for reverse transcriptase PCR and virus isolation. J. Clin. Microbiol. 45(8): 2480-2485.
 
[15]  Gomes A.L.V., Silva A.M., Cordeiro M.T., Guimaraes G.F., Marques Jr E.T.A., and Abath F.G.C. (in memorium). 2007. Single-tube nested PCR using immobilized internal primers for the identification of dengue virus serotypes. J Virol Methods. 145(1): 76-79
 
[16]  Notomi T., Okayama H., Masubuchi H., Yonekawa T., Watanabe K., Amino N., and Hase T. 2000. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification of DNA. Nucleic Acids Research. 28(12): e63-2485.
 
[17]  Nagamine K., Hase T., and Notomi T. 2002. Accelerated reaction by loop-mediated isothermal amplification using loop primers. Molecular and Cellular Probes. 16: 223-229.
 
[18]  Kalvatchev Z.,Tsekov I.,Kalvatchev N. 2010. Loop-mediated amplification for sensitive and specific detection of viruses. Biotechnol. & Biotechnol.Eq. 24(1), 1559-1561.
 
[19]  Parida M., Santhosh S.R., Dash P.K., Tripathi N.K., Lakshmi V., Mamidi N., Shrivastva A., Gupta N., Saxena P., Babu J.P., Rao P.V.L., Morita K. 2007, Rapid and Real-Time Detection of Chikungunya Virus by Reverse Transcription Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification Assay. J. Clin. Micobiol. 45: 351-357.
 
[20]  Parida M., Horioke K., Ishida H., Dash P.K., Saxena P., Jana A.M., Islam M.A., Inoue S., Hosaka N., and Morita K. 2005. Rapid Detection and Differentiation of Dengue Virus Serotypes by a Real-Time Reverse Transcription-Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplifiaction Assay. J. Clin. Micobiol. 43 (6): 2895-2903.
 
[21]  Sahni B.A.K., Grover C.N., Sharma B.A., Khan M.I.D., Kishore J. 2013. Reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) for diagnosis of dengue. M JAFI. 69: 246-253.
 
[22]  Teoh B.T., Sam S-S., Tan K-K., Johari J., Danlami M.B., Hooi P.S., Md-Esa R., and Abubakar S. 2013. Detection of dengue viruses using reverse transcription-loop-mediated isothermal amplification. BMC Infectious diseases 13: 387(1-9).
 
[23]  Anonymous,2015. Introduction to nanopore sensing. Oxford Nanopore Technologies. https://www.nanoporetech.com/
 
[24]  Branton D., Deamer D.W., Marziali A., Bayley H., Benner S.A., Butler T., Di Ventra M., Garaj S., Hibbs A., Huang X., Jovanovich S.B., Krstic P.S., Lindsay S., Ling S.X., Mastrangelo C.H., Meller A., Oliver J.S., Pershin Y.V., Ramsey J.M., Riehn R., Soni G.V., Tabard-Cossa V., Wanunu M., Wiggin M., and Schloss J.A. 2008. The potential and challenges of nanopore sequencing. Nat Biotechnol. 26(10):1146-1153.
 
[25]  Bayley H., 2015. Nanopore Sequencing: From Imagination to Reality. Clinical Chemistry 61; 1: 25-31.
 
Show Less References