American Journal of Microbiological Research

ISSN (Print): 2328-4129

ISSN (Online): 2328-4137

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Molecular Screening of Staphylococcal Enterotoxin Type A Encoding Gene from MRS Clinical Isolates

1National Center for Radiation Research and Technology, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo 11787, Egypt

2Faculty of Science, Ain Shams University

3Agricultural Genetic Engineering Research Institute (AGERI)

American Journal of Microbiological Research. 2016, 4(2), 68-72
doi: 10.12691/ajmr-4-2-5
Copyright © 2016 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
H. A. Hussein, M. K. Ibrahim, H. A. Nour El-Din, E. H. El-Shatoury, M. E. El-Fouly, S. S. Abd-Eal, M. N. Abu El-Naga. Molecular Screening of Staphylococcal Enterotoxin Type A Encoding Gene from MRS Clinical Isolates. American Journal of Microbiological Research. 2016; 4(2):68-72. doi: 10.12691/ajmr-4-2-5.

Correspondence to: H.  A. Hussein, National Center for Radiation Research and Technology, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo 11787, Egypt. Email:


Antibiotic resistance is a great problem in Egyptian hospitals and clinical centers. The aim of this study was the characterize of different clinical isolates of antibiotic resistant especially methicillin resistant staphylococci (MRS) on the basis of their production of enterotoxin A. Eighty four samples of bacteria were isolated from wound pus, throat, sputum, conjunctiva, urine and stool of patients in the Egyptian National Centre for Clinical and Environmental Toxicology. Sixty-two isolates had the typical biochemical characteristics of the Staphylococcus aureus, while two isolates were identified as Staphylococcus epidermidis. Forty two of the isolates were methicillin resistant, all were showed multidrug resistant to thirteen antibiotic. Twenty isolates encoded ent A gene (nineteen were Staphylococcus aureus and one was Staphylococcus epidermidis). Only twelve out of twenty ent A gene carriers can produce ent A protein which detected by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Also, all carried mec A gene isolates were resistant to vancomycin. These findings prove that the staphylococcal clinical infections can cause food borne illness and vice versa.



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Efficacy and Safety of Leaf, Bark and Root Extract of Vitellaria paradoxa on Diarrhoea Induced Albino Rats

1Department of Microbiology, Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta (FUNAAB), P.M.B 2240, Nigeri

2Department of Food Science and Tourism, Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta (FUNAAB), P.M.B 2240, Nigeria

3Department of Biology, Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta (FUNAAB), P. M. B 2240, Nigeria

American Journal of Microbiological Research. 2016, 4(3), 73-76
doi: 10.12691/ajmr-4-3-1
Copyright © 2016 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
M. B. Falana, M. O. Bankole, D. A. Ojo, A. M. Omemu, S. O Bankole. Efficacy and Safety of Leaf, Bark and Root Extract of Vitellaria paradoxa on Diarrhoea Induced Albino Rats. American Journal of Microbiological Research. 2016; 4(3):73-76. doi: 10.12691/ajmr-4-3-1.

Correspondence to: M.  B. Falana, Department of Microbiology, Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta (FUNAAB), P.M.B 2240, Nigeri. Email:


Leaf, Root and Bark extracts of Vitellaria paradoxa have been used to cure many infectious diseases in different parts of Nigeria. However, there is need for further research to better understand the efficacy and safety of these plant parts. Methanol and omidun extracts of these plant parts studied using albino rats which were randomly assigned into four groups A-D containing five rats each. Group A rats were infected with E. coli and later treated with ciprofloxacin, group B rats were infected with E. coli only, group C rats were infected with E. coli and treated with methanol extract of root, while rats in group D were not infected nor treated. The procedure was replicated for Salmonella typhi, omidun extracts and two dosages of the extract (50mg/kg and 100mg/kg) respectively. At the end of the experiment, the rats were anaesthetized using chloroform and liver and kidney samples were collected for histopathological studies. Rats in groups A&D have similar presentation with no histhopathological changes. The group that received low concentration (50mg/ml) of leaf and bark extracts showed moderate lymphocytic aggregate and the infiltration disappears in rats that received high concentrations (100mg/ml) of leaf and bark extracts showing similar presentation with rats in group A. Organs of rats treated with low concentration of root extract showed lymphocytic aggregate at low concentration and degeneration at high concentration. Leaf and bark extracts of V. paradoxa are not associated with any adverse effects at both concentrations of treatment but there was toxicity of the root extracts of at high concentration. Hence, leaf and bark extracts are safe for consumption but the root should be consumed with caution and at low concentration.



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Effect of Trigona Honey to mRNA Expression of Interleukin-6 on Salmonella Typhi Induced of BALB/c Mice

1School of Nursing, Hasanuddin University, Makassar, Indonesia

2Department of Biochemistry, Hasanuddin University, Makassar, Indonesia

3Department of ENT, Hasanuddin University, Makassar, Indonesia

4Department of Epidemiology, Indonesia Timur University; Daya Regional Hospital-College of Health Science, Makassar, Indonesia

5Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Tadulako University, Palu, Indonesia

6Molecular Biology and Immunology Laboratory, Faculty of Medicine, Hasanuddin University, Makassar, Indonesia

American Journal of Microbiological Research. 2016, 4(3), 77-80
doi: 10.12691/ajmr-4-3-2
Copyright © 2016 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Yuliana Syam, Rosdiana Natsir, Sutji Pratiwi Rahardjo, Andi Nilawati Usman, Ressy Dwiyanti, Mochammad Hatta. Effect of Trigona Honey to mRNA Expression of Interleukin-6 on Salmonella Typhi Induced of BALB/c Mice. American Journal of Microbiological Research. 2016; 4(3):77-80. doi: 10.12691/ajmr-4-3-2.

Correspondence to: Mochammad  Hatta, Molecular Biology and Immunology Laboratory, Faculty of Medicine, Hasanuddin University, Makassar, Indonesia. Email:


Weak inflammatory response after Salmonella infection can cause persistent infection and facilitate the long survival of pathogens. Honey can induce key immunomodulators such as TNF-α, interleukin-6 (IL-6) and IL-1, that it can be used in the treatment of bacterial infectious diseases caused by Salmonella typhi. The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of honey on the mRNA expression of IL-6 in Salmonella enterica Typhi induced of BABL/c mice. The study used experimental pretest-posttest control design. Honey treatment was given for 7 days commencing after the induction of Salmonella bacteria. 20 BABL/c males mice whose weight 25-29 grams, were divided into four groups where 5 mice per group within; the negative control group was given regular feed without bacteria induction, the positive control group was given regular feed with bacteria induction, 0.27 ml/kg-weight honey group and 0.27 ml/kg-weight of Propolis honey group. Blood samples for examination of mRNA expression was examined three times that prior to the induction, 24 hours after induction and 72 hours after induction of Salmonella. The results showed that 0.27 ml/kg-weight of Propolis honey group showed the highest mRNA expression (p = 0.000) for both after 24 hours after induction of Salmonella typhi (p = 0.000) and 72 hours after induction of Salmonella typhi (p = 0.000). We conclude that there was effect of honey on the mRNA IL-6 expression in Salmonella typhi induced of BALB/c mice.



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