American Journal of Microbiological Research

ISSN (Print): 2328-4129

ISSN (Online): 2328-4137

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Prevalence of GBV-C and Its Impacts among Patients with Hepatitis B and C Viruses in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

1Department of Microbial Cellular & Molecular Biology, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

2Schools of Medicine, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

3Infectious and Non-infectious Diseases Research Directorate, Ethiopian Health & Nutrition Research

American Journal of Microbiological Research. 2017, 5(1), 1-6
doi: 10.12691/ajmr-5-1-1
Copyright © 2017 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Mohamed Farouk, Abate Bane Shewaye, Desta Kassa, Mekuria Lakew. Prevalence of GBV-C and Its Impacts among Patients with Hepatitis B and C Viruses in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. American Journal of Microbiological Research. 2017; 5(1):1-6. doi: 10.12691/ajmr-5-1-1.

Correspondence to: Mohamed  Farouk, Department of Microbial Cellular & Molecular Biology, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Email:


Background: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) caused by hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) is currently one of the most common neoplasms worldwide. GB virus C/hepatitis G virus (HGV/GBV-C) is a virus in the Flaviviridae family isolated from patients with liver disease. It has the same mode of transmission with HBV and HCV and is common in high risk group. The impact of HGV/GBV-C in clinical outcome among HBV and HCV is controversy. Therefore, this study was conducted to determine the prevalence and the association of (HGV/GBV-C) in the clinical outcome among HCV and HBV patients. Materials: This case-control study was performed in Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia. The cases were 101 patients with viral hepatitis collected from Adera internal medical specialty center. The control group consisted of 50 healthy individuals collected from the Ethiopian Public Health and Research Institutes. The serological analysis and liver enzyme levels were determined for each of the participants. RNA was extracted, reversed transcribed, and amplified by Real Time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), using primers for 5- untranslated region (5-UTR) of the GBV-C. Results: Analysis of the 101 samples of the hepatitis patients showed that; 83(82.2%) were positive for HBV while only18 (17.8%) for HCV. The prevalence of (HGV/GBV-C) RNA was 11(13.2%) in HBV, 2 (11.1%) in HCV and rests of the control group were negative. There was no significant difference (P > 0.05) in the liver enzymes level among (HGV/GBV-C) negative and positive individuals. Conclusion: Our study showed that the co-infection rate of (HGV/GBV-C) RNA among hepatitis patients was significantly higher (P <0.05) in HBV than in HCV patients, and the virus has no association in the course of the disease.



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Antagonistic Fungi, Soil Amendment and Soil Solarization as an Integrated Tactics for Controlling Fusarium Root Rot of Lupine (Lupinus termis)

1Department of Botany and Microbiology, Faculty of Science, University of Port Said, Port Said, Egypt

2Department of Biological sciences, University of Calgary, Alberta, Canada

American Journal of Microbiological Research. 2017, 5(1), 7-14
doi: 10.12691/ajmr-5-1-2
Copyright © 2017 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Mohsen E. Ibrahim, Ahmed E. M. Abdelaziz. Antagonistic Fungi, Soil Amendment and Soil Solarization as an Integrated Tactics for Controlling Fusarium Root Rot of Lupine (Lupinus termis). American Journal of Microbiological Research. 2017; 5(1):7-14. doi: 10.12691/ajmr-5-1-2.

Correspondence to: Mohsen  E. Ibrahim, Department of Botany and Microbiology, Faculty of Science, University of Port Said, Port Said, Egypt. Email:


The efficient control of soil-borne pathogens while avoiding environmental hazards and degradation of natural resources is the paramount challenge in crop protection sciences. Lupinus termis (lupine) is a fabaceous crop grown in Egypt for food, medical and industrial uses. The management of Fusarium root rot pathogens, which are responsible for serious losses on a number of economically important crops, including lupine, is being investigated. This study aimed to control Fusarium lupine root rot, under field conditions with no or low environmental impact; by using different control measures such as: antagonistic fungi, soil amendment and solarization singly or as an integrated disease management strategy. The integration of pest management methods is not only merely worthy, but also the more powerful practical solution for controlling soil-borne pests. Results showed that the solarized treated soil as well as the fungal antagonists, as single treatment methods in controlling Fusarium root rot revealed 80% and 81% healthy plants compared with their control that showed only 41%. Integrating soil solarization with mixed fungal inocula and soil organic amendment have been improving efficacy of controlling of lupine-fusarium-root rot by increasing the percentage number of healthy plants from 81 %, 79 % in treated unsolarized soil to 86 %, 82 % respectively in treated solarized soil. Using tactics such as solarization antagonistic fungi, and organic amendment as an integrated method, proved to be efficient for controlling the Fusarium root rot pathogen in Lupinus termis.



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Phenotyping Groundnut Rhizobia Native to Phosphorus Deficient Soils in Western Kenya

1Department of Biological Sciences, University of Eldoret, P.O. Box 1125-30100, Eldoret, Kenya

American Journal of Microbiological Research. 2017, 5(1), 15-24
doi: 10.12691/ajmr-5-1-3
Copyright © 2017 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Velma Okaron, Beatrice A. Were, Benson O. Nyongesa. Phenotyping Groundnut Rhizobia Native to Phosphorus Deficient Soils in Western Kenya. American Journal of Microbiological Research. 2017; 5(1):15-24. doi: 10.12691/ajmr-5-1-3.

Correspondence to: Velma  Okaron, Department of Biological Sciences, University of Eldoret, P.O. Box 1125-30100, Eldoret, Kenya. Email:


Most soils in western Kenya are characterized by high acidity level and phosphorus (P) deficiency, which affect nodulation and nitrogen fixation of groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.). This study aimed at characterising rhizobia capable of nodulating groundnut in P deficient soils in Western Kenya. Sixty four isolates out of the 68 were confirmed to be rhizobia due to their ability to nodulate groundnut. Ninety six percent of the isolates exhibited semi-globose to globose colony shape on yeast extract mannitol agar (YEMA). Groundnut was nodulated by both fast and slow growing rhizobia isolates with 81% being fast growers. Fifty one isolates representing 75% produced acid on YEMA medium supplemented with bromothymol blue (BTB). The isolates varied in their response to pH with 39 and 61 growing at pH 4.0 and 5.5, respectively. All the isolates grew at pH 7.0 and 8.5. YEMA medium containing glucose, sucrose, starch and citrate had 64, 61, 56 and 5 isolates growing, respectively. Sixty four isolates exhibited clear zone of solubilization on medium containing dicalcium phosphate as source of inorganic phosphate. Solubilization index (SI) varied from 1.1 to 6.8. Fast-growing rhizobia isolates N01, B02, I06, Q01, F05, C02, E01, Q03, I01 and B01 recorded the highest solubilization index of 3.8, 4.5, 4.6, 4.6, 4.7, 5.0, 5.1, 6.1, 6.1 and 6.8, respectively. Groundnut rhizobia showed variation in their potential to solubilize inorganic phosphate and effectively nodulate the host. The most promising isolates from this study would be used as bio-fertilizer upon further validation in the greenhouse and field.



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