American Journal of Microbiological Research

ISSN (Print): 2328-4129

ISSN (Online): 2328-4137

Website: http://www.sciepub.com/journal/AJMR

Article

Bacteriological Assessement of Vegetables Cultivated in Soils Treated with Poultry Manure and the Manure-Treated Soil Samples

1Department of Microbiology, College of Natural Sciences, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike, Umuahia, Abia State, Nigeria


American Journal of Microbiological Research. 2014, 2(6), 189-200
DOI: 10.12691/ajmr-2-6-5
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
OBI C. N.. Bacteriological Assessement of Vegetables Cultivated in Soils Treated with Poultry Manure and the Manure-Treated Soil Samples. American Journal of Microbiological Research. 2014; 2(6):189-200. doi: 10.12691/ajmr-2-6-5.

Correspondence to: OBI  C. N., Department of Microbiology, College of Natural Sciences, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike, Umuahia, Abia State, Nigeria. Email: b4brocliff@gmail.com

Abstract

Bacteriological quality of four vegetables: waterleaf (W), pumpkin (P), cucumber (C) and tomatoes (T) cultivated in soils treated with poultry manure and the manure-treated soil samples (S1, S2, S3 and S4) were assessed using standard microbiological methods. Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella spp., Bacillus spp, Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp were recovered from the soil and vegetable samples. The total bacterial count of the soil samples ranged from 1.75×109 (S3) to 5.9×104cfu/ml (S4) while the total bacterial count for the vegetable samples ranged from 2.65×109 (P) to 1.50×105cfu/ml (W). The total coliform count of the soil samples ranged from 1.65×107(S3) to 6.9×104cfu/ml (S4) while that of the vegetable samples ranged from 1.20×108(P) to 7.2×105cfu/ml (W). S1 was significantly different from S2 and S4 for the total bacteria count for the soil samples while P and W were significantly different for the vegetable samples (P< 0.05). For Salmonella-Shigella plate counts, S1 and S4 were significantly different and S2 and S3 were same (P< 0.05); while for the vegetable samples, P, W, C and T were significantly different (P< 0.05). S1, S2, S3, and S4 were significantly different for the total coliform count for the soil samples and same for P, W and C (P<0.05). Sensitivity screening for the isolates showed that Bacillus spp was most sensitive to Ofloxacin (25mm) while Staphylococcus aureus was most sensitive to Ofloxacin (22mm). Shigella was most sensitive to Ciprofloxacin (25mm) while E. coli showed highest sensitivity to Ciproflacin (25mm) and Ofloxacin (25mm). In addition, Klebsiella spp was most sensitive to Ciprofloxacin (23mm) and Ofloxacin (23mm) and Salmonella showed resistance to all the antibiotics. This study demonstrated that there is a high level of microbial contamination associated with the cultivation of vegetables in soils in which organic manure has been applied to which is of risk to the consumers.

Keywords

References

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Article

Bioremediation of Ammonia from Polluted Waste Waters- A Review

1Department of biotechnology, Gitam institute of science, Gitam University, Visakhapatnam, India

2Department of biotechnology, Gitam institute of Technology, Gitam University, Visakhapatnam, India


American Journal of Microbiological Research. 2014, 2(6), 201-210
DOI: 10.12691/ajmr-2-6-6
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Sheela. B, Khasim Beebi. Sk. Bioremediation of Ammonia from Polluted Waste Waters- A Review. American Journal of Microbiological Research. 2014; 2(6):201-210. doi: 10.12691/ajmr-2-6-6.

Correspondence to: Sheela.  B, Department of biotechnology, Gitam institute of science, Gitam University, Visakhapatnam, India. Email: sheela_bethapudi@yahoo.com

Abstract

Global water pollution due to industries became a major concern now. Some industrial facilities generate ordinary domestic sewage that can be treated in municipal sewage systems whereas industries that generate waste waters high in conventional pollutants like ammonia need exclusive treatments for their removal from the effluents before discharging. Ammonia can be removed by means of physical, chemical, biological methods. Out of all the methods, bioremediation appears as a promising tool for ammonia pollution as it is a cost effective and converts ammonia into harmless dinitrogen gas. This paper mainly focuses on bioremediation methods available for the removal of ammonia form the industrial effluents and their drawbacks.

Keywords

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Article

Antimicrobial Susceptibility, Heavy Metals Tolerance and Plasmid Curing of Shigella Species Isolated from El- Dakahlia, Egypt

1Botany and Microbiology Department, Faculty of Science, Al- Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt


American Journal of Microbiological Research. 2014, 2(6), 211-216
DOI: 10.12691/ajmr-2-6-7
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Gamal M. EL-Sherbiny, Shehata M. E.. Antimicrobial Susceptibility, Heavy Metals Tolerance and Plasmid Curing of Shigella Species Isolated from El- Dakahlia, Egypt. American Journal of Microbiological Research. 2014; 2(6):211-216. doi: 10.12691/ajmr-2-6-7.

Correspondence to: Gamal  M. EL-Sherbiny, Botany and Microbiology Department, Faculty of Science, Al- Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt. Email: gamalelsherbiny1970@yahoo.com

Abstract

The aim of this study was carried out determine the antibiotic susceptibility, heavy metals tolerance and plasmid curing of Shigella species isolating from diarrheal stool samples were collected from different hospitals in El- Dakahlia and Nile River waters, Egypt, from January 2012 to August 2014. After characterization and identification the results obtained show that 172 isolates isolated from stool samples belong to four Shigella species (Shigella sonnei 48.25 %, Shigella flexneri 29.65 %, Shigella dysenteriae 13.95 % and Shigella boydii 8.13 %) while 5 isolates isolated from Nile River water were found belong to (Shigella sonnei 40%, Shigella dysenteriae 40 % and Shigella flexneri 20 %).The antibiotics susceptibility of Shigella sp. to11 antibiotics revealed that the most potent antibiotics were found co-amoxyclav, ciprofloxacin and ceftriaxone respectively while penicillin, ampicillin, co-trimoxazole and chloramphenicol respectively give low activity. The tolerance of Shigella sp. to heavy metals, (cadmium, nickel cobalt and zinc) revealed that all isolates sensitive to 1 and 0.1M concentration. Plasmid profile analysis of ten isolates Shigella sonnei shown that this isolates having numerous plasmid ranged from 8.5 to 4.3 kb. Treat isolates with SDS 2% for 24 hours to plasmid curing after recovery subject to antibiotic sensitivity and heavy metals tolerance. In conclusion, Shigella-associated diarrhea remains relatively common in Egypt and can be used ciprofloxacin and ceftriaxone for treat Shigella sp. infection. The heavy metal tolerance of Shigella sp .associated with resistance to antibiotics ampicillin, tetracycline and chloramphenicol. Present Shigella sp. in Nile River waters indicates polluted with sewage waters and becomes sources of some epidemic diseases.

Keywords

References

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Article

Molecular Characterization and in Silico Analysis of a Novel Mutation in TEM-1 Beta-Lactamase Gene among Pathogenic E. coli infecting a Sudanese Patient

1Institute of Endemic Diseases, University of Khartoum, Khartoum, Sudan

2Department of microbiology, Faculty of medicine, university of Khartoum, Sudan

3Head department of biotechnology, Biotechnology Park, Africa city of technology, Sudan

4Botany department, Faculty of Science, University of Khartoum, Sudan


American Journal of Microbiological Research. 2014, 2(6), 217-223
DOI: 10.12691/ajmr-2-6-8
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Hisham N Altayb, Nagwa M El Amin, Maowia M. Mukhtar, Mohamed Ahmed Salih, Mohamed A M Siddig. Molecular Characterization and in Silico Analysis of a Novel Mutation in TEM-1 Beta-Lactamase Gene among Pathogenic E. coli infecting a Sudanese Patient. American Journal of Microbiological Research. 2014; 2(6):217-223. doi: 10.12691/ajmr-2-6-8.

Correspondence to: Hisham  N Altayb, Institute of Endemic Diseases, University of Khartoum, Khartoum, Sudan. Email: hishamaltayb@yahoo.com

Abstract

The presence of ESBLs in many E. coli strains are of serious concern, since these organisms are the most common cause of different human infections. In this study we isolate an E. coli bacterium with high hydrolytic activity against cefotaxime. The ESBLs production was confirmed by phenotypic confirmatory test, while the ESBLs genes were detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). This isolate was positive for TEM gene and negative for CTX-M and SHV genes. DNA sequencing was done for TEM gene. The nucleotide sequences and translated proteins were subjected to BLAST for sequences similarity and homology, BLASTp result revealed a substitution of aspartic acid in TEM-1(gb: AFI61435.1) to Threonine at position 262. In Silico tools was used for mutation analysis and prediction of secondary and tertiary structure of wild and mutant type genes. We conclude that our mutant gene is completely different from the wild types TEM-1 gene, within phenotypic and genotypic levels. So we conclude a novel mutant TEM gene with ESBLs activity is been detected in Sudan Phylogenetic tree revealed that the possible source of our gene is Iran.

Keywords

References

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Article

Detection of Cryptosporidium oocyts in Commonly Consumed Fresh Salad Vegetables

1Department of Food Processing and Preservation, Hajee Mohammad Danesh Science and Technology University, Dinajpur, Bangladesh

2Department of Agricultural chemistry, Hajee Mohammad Danesh Science and Technology University, Dinajpur, Bangladesh

3Department of Chemistry, Hajee Mohammad Danesh Science and Technology University, Dinajpur, Bangladesh


American Journal of Microbiological Research. 2014, 2(6), 224-226
DOI: 10.12691/ajmr-2-6-9
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Jiaur Rahman, Aminul Islam Talukder, Farid Hossain, Sultan Mahomud, M. Atikul Islam, Shamsuzzoha. Detection of Cryptosporidium oocyts in Commonly Consumed Fresh Salad Vegetables. American Journal of Microbiological Research. 2014; 2(6):224-226. doi: 10.12691/ajmr-2-6-9.

Correspondence to: Jiaur  Rahman, Department of Food Processing and Preservation, Hajee Mohammad Danesh Science and Technology University, Dinajpur, Bangladesh. Email: jia.hstu@yahoo.com

Abstract

The aim of this study was to determine the degree of contamination caused by Cryptosporidium oocyts in regularly consumed salad vegetables sold at various wholesale and retail markets in northern part of Bangladesh. A total number of 165 samples of salad vegetables collected from different wholesale and retail markets were examined for detection of Cryptosporidium oocysts using sucrose flotation medium of 1.18 specific gravity and Ziehl Neelsen staining technique with some modifications. Cryptosporidium oocysts were detected in 47 (30%) of the total examined samples. About 40 Tomato, 35 Cucumber, 20 Lettuce, 35 Carrot and 35 Mint’s leaf samples were examined while Lettuce had the highest (40%) contamination rate followed by Tomato (32.5%), Carrot (31.4%), Cucumber (25.7%), and Mint’s leaf (22.8%). There was no significant difference (x2 = 2.278; p <0.05) among occurrences of Cryptosporidium oocysts in usually consumed salad vegetables sold at market. This study has shown that salad vegetables sold at wholesale and retail markets in northern part of Bangladesh are contaminated with Cryptosporidium oocysts, may pose a health risk to consumers of such products. This reveals food safety and significance of public health.

Keywords

References

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Article

Molecular Characteristic and Insilico Analysis of KatG Gene in Isoniazid Resistance Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Isolate from Sudan

1Department of Microbiology, university of Bahri, Sudan

2Department of Microbiology, Khartoum College of Medical Sciences, Sudan

3Department of Bioinformatics, Africa City of Technology, Sudan

4Department of Computer Sciences, Najran University, KSA

5Department of Histopathology, ALzaim AL-Azhari University, Sudan

6Department of Microbiology Al borg Medical Laboratories, UAE

7Department of environmental Health, University of Hail, KSA

8Division of Molecular Genetics, University of Tuebingen, Germany;University, HNO –universities Klink-Tuebingen (Germany)


American Journal of Microbiological Research. 2014, 2(6), 227-233
DOI: 10.12691/ajmr-2-6-10
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Gusai H.Abdel Samad, Solima M. A. Sabeel, Walaa A. Abuelgassim, Abeer E. Abdelltif, Wisam M. Osman, Mona A. Haroun, Somaya M. Soliman, Sami. A. B. Salam, Hamid. A. Hamdan, Mohamed A. Hassan. Molecular Characteristic and Insilico Analysis of KatG Gene in Isoniazid Resistance Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Isolate from Sudan. American Journal of Microbiological Research. 2014; 2(6):227-233. doi: 10.12691/ajmr-2-6-10.

Correspondence to: Solima  M. A. Sabeel, Department of Microbiology, Khartoum College of Medical Sciences, Sudan. Email: solima89@gmail.com

Abstract

The KatG gene of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis has been associated with isoniazid (INH) drug resistance. While isoniazid (INH) considered as corner stone and main chemotherapy used throughout the world to manage tuberculosis, thus the Progress in apprehension of principle concepts associated with resistance to isoniazid (INH) has allowed molecular tests in addition to bioinformatics tool for the detection of drug-resistant tuberculosis to be developed. In Consecutive isolates (n = 20) of multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis, part of the katG was sequenced for INH resistance analysis. BLAST analysis of all sequences revealed 100% identity with the available strain “EGY-K361” Mycobacterium tuberculosis with Accession No: KC49137.1 except 6 isolates :isolate1, 2, 4, 11, 15, and isolate 20 revealed 99% identity. Thosesix isolates (30%) have detected mutation in Catalase-peroxidase enzyme S315T; three isolate from six 3/6 (50%) of mutant isolates have SNP AGC>ACC substitution while others 3/6 have substitution C>G in position 1280 which may contributed in altering gene expression. The secondary structure of wild and mutant proteins had been done using phyre2 software while the three dimensional structures of them had been done by Chimera software. Stability of mutant protein was increased which detected by i-mutant. Phylogenetic tree of the sequences revealed two distinct phylogroups: mutant isolates and wild isolates phylogroups with controls from different countries retrieved from Gene bank. Serine at position 315 is one of potential drug active sites that proved via SiteEngine soft ware, therefore any substitution will change efficiency of INH.

Keywords

References

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Article

Effect of Some Non steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs on Growth, Adherence and Mature Biofilms of Candida spp.

1Undergraduate student, faculty of pharmacy, Minia university

2Undergraduate student, Faculty of science, Minia university

3Demonstrator, Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Minia university

4A researcher, Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Minia university

5Lecturer of Microbiology, Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Minia university


American Journal of Microbiological Research. 2015, 3(1), 1-7
DOI: 10.12691/ajmr-3-1-1
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Ahmad Ashraf, Fatma Yousri, Nora Taha, Omar Abd El-Waly, Abd El-Kareem Ramadan, Esraa Ismail, Reham Hamada, Mohamed Khalaf, Mohamed Refaee, Sameh Ali, Abobakr Madyn, Rehab Mahmoud Abd El-Baky. Effect of Some Non steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs on Growth, Adherence and Mature Biofilms of Candida spp.. American Journal of Microbiological Research. 2015; 3(1):1-7. doi: 10.12691/ajmr-3-1-1.

Correspondence to: Rehab  Mahmoud Abd El-Baky, Lecturer of Microbiology, Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Minia university. Email: dr_rehab010@yahoo.com

Abstract

Candida spp. are the most common cause of fungal diseases and the fourth commonest cause of nosocomial invasive infections which are considered in many cases as life threatening. Among Candida spp., C. albicans is the most common cause of many fungal diseases, but non-albicans spp. infections are in increase. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs have previously been shown to have antifungal activity. In this study we determine the antifungal activity of the tested NSAIDs using agar well diffusion method, their effect on the dimorphic transition of C. albicans by testing their ability to form germ tube in the presence of human serum. Determining the effect of NSAIDs on the adherence to plastic surfaces and on the mature biofilms formed by the tested Candida spp.. The results indicated that Sodium Diclofenac showed lower MIC against C. albicans and C. glabrata while Ibuprofen had lower MIC against C. krusei. upon examining the effect of Diclofenac sodium, Ibuprofen and ketoprofen on biofilm formed on polyurethane segments by Scanning electron microscope (SEM), a damage to membranes of the tested species was observed. Sodium Diclofenac showed the highest inhibitory effect on the adherence (51.1-76.9% at MIC and 56.6-83.3% at 2XMIC) of C. albicans and C. glabrata but Ibuprofen showed a higher inhibitory effect against the adherence of C. krusei. For mature biofilms, the highest disruptive effect on mature biofilms formed by all tested Candida Spp. (37.72-59.29% at MIC and 42.68-63.06% at 2XMIC) was observed by Diclofenac sodium. Sodium Diclofenac inhibited dimorphic transition of C. albicans but a decrease in germ tube formation was shown by others. In conclusion, the tested drugs showed antifungal, anti-adherent and anti-biofilm activity that make them useful in the treatment of fungal infection and the prevention of biofilm formation on the surface of medical devices.

Keywords

References

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Article

The Effect of the Petroleum Ether Extracts from Mangosteen Pericarp (Garcinia mangostana L.) on Interferon-gammaand, Interleukin-12 Activities in AlbinoWistar Rats (Rattus norvegicus) Infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis

1Biology Study Programm, Faculty of Mathematic and Sciences, Pattimura University, Ambon, Indonesia

2Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Hasanudin University, Makassar, Indonesia

3Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Mulawarman University, Samarinda, Indonesia

4Molecular Biology and Immunology Laboratory for Infectious Diseases, Faculty of Medicine, Hasanuddin University, Makassar, Indonesia


American Journal of Microbiological Research. 2015, 3(1), 8-13
DOI: 10.12691/ajmr-3-1-2
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Martha Kaihena, Syamsu, Yadi Yasir, Mochammad Hatta. The Effect of the Petroleum Ether Extracts from Mangosteen Pericarp (Garcinia mangostana L.) on Interferon-gammaand, Interleukin-12 Activities in AlbinoWistar Rats (Rattus norvegicus) Infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. American Journal of Microbiological Research. 2015; 3(1):8-13. doi: 10.12691/ajmr-3-1-2.

Correspondence to: Mochammad  Hatta, Molecular Biology and Immunology Laboratory for Infectious Diseases, Faculty of Medicine, Hasanuddin University, Makassar, Indonesia. Email: hattaram@indosat.net.id

Abstract

Background. Garcinia mangostana L(GML) pericarp extract is known to contain active substances called Xanthones (α, β and γ Mangosteens) which is the biggest derivative and has strong antioxidant effects. This substance also has antiinflammatory, antilipid, anticancer, antibacteria and antituberculosis effects. However, its mechanism is still unclear. Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) invasion into the lungs through the respiratory tract can cause severe infection. The body has an immune system which controls infection by eliminating germs to ease the burden of infection. Interferon gamma (IFN- γ) and Interleukin 12 (IL-12) acts as positive feedback in stimulating macrophages to kill M. tuberculosis. During this process, oxidative compounds (ROI,RNI,NO) that plays an important role in the phagolysosome fusion process are produced. Not only does the consumption of GML pericarp extract as an antioxidant becomes the immunomodulator to enhance the immune’s activities, it also functions as an antioxidant that can neutralize the oxidative compounds produced by the immune system. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of EPEBh GML on IFN-γ and IL-12 secretion activities in mice infected with M. tuberculosis. Materials and method. This study used 30 Wistar rats, 150-200g of weight and 8-10 weeks old. Rats were randomly divided into 6 groups each consisting of 5 rats, including the negative control (without infection and without EPEKBh GML intervention) and a positive control (rats were infected with M.tb H37Rv at a dose of 106cfuas much as 0.2 ml through the trachea for 6 weeks). Once infected, the rats were then intervened with EPEKBhGML 30, 60, 120 dose and 180 mg/kg bodyweigh/day for 1 month. Afterward the rats were necropsied and dissected for the blood to be taken directly from the heart. Levels of IFN-γ and IL-12 were analyzed using the ELISA method. Data were then analyzed using One-Way ANOVAtest followed by Post-Hoc test (LSD), a significant P <0.05, to assess the comparison between groups. Results. Results show that EPEKBh GML significantly affect the rise of IFN-γ levels, with a P value 0,000<0,05 and IL-12, with a P value of 0,045 <0,05. Conclusion. EPEKBh GML was effective in increasing the activity of IFN-γ and IL-12 and the most effective dose to increase IFN-γ and IL-12activity was 120 mg/kgbody weight/day. Also, increasing the dose to a higher dosage had no effect on IFN-γ and IL-12 activity, in fact it tended to decline.This results need to further study to understand what the reason.

Keywords

References

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Article

Relationship between Temperature, Ph and Population of Selected Microbial Indicators during Anaerobic Digestion of Guinea Grass (Panicum Maximum)

1Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Biological Science, College of Natural and Applied Sciences, University of Port Harcourt, P.M.B. 5323 Port Harcourt, Nigeria


American Journal of Microbiological Research. 2015, 3(1), 14-24
DOI: 10.12691/ajmr-3-1-3
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Ogbonna. C. B., Berebon. D. P., Onwuegbu. E. K.. Relationship between Temperature, Ph and Population of Selected Microbial Indicators during Anaerobic Digestion of Guinea Grass (Panicum Maximum). American Journal of Microbiological Research. 2015; 3(1):14-24. doi: 10.12691/ajmr-3-1-3.

Correspondence to: Ogbonna.  C. B., Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Biological Science, College of Natural and Applied Sciences, University of Port Harcourt, P.M.B. 5323 Port Harcourt, Nigeria. Email: chukwukaogbonna@gmail.com

Abstract

In this study, the relationship between process temperature, process pH and population of selected microbial indicators during anaerobic digestion of guinea grass (Panicum maximum) at ambient condition was investigated. A one stage batch-type mesophilic anaerobic digestion system was configured using rumen fluid (RF) as inoculums (ADRF) and a low solid loading of approximately 7.0% total solid (TS). Physicochemical parameters such as process temperature (PTMRF), process pHRF and volatile fatty acid (VFARF) were monitored with time. Selected indicator microbial populations were monitored by standard cultural techniques based on metabolic capacity and oxygen sensitivity with respect to time. Result showed that average PTMRF increased from 27.5°C to 35.2°C, average process pHRF ranged from 6.5 to 7.9 and VFARF ranged from 1,080.00 mg/L to 4,800.33 mg/L with time. In terms of metabolic capacity and oxygen sensitivity, the populations of cellulolytic bacteria (CBRF), lactose and glucose fermenting (acidogenic) bacteria (LFBRF and GFBRF), propionate and ethanol oxidizing (acetogenic) bacteria (POBRF and EOBRF), acetate oxidizing methanogens (AOMRF), obligate anaerobic bacteria (OABRF) and total facultative bacteria (FAABRF) increased (about 10-fold) respectively with time. Correlation analysis showed positive relationships between the process temperature (PTMRF) and the population of selected microbial indicators with time. However, there were negative relationships between the process pHRF and the population of selected microbial indicators with time. Furthermore, there were positive relationships between the populations of selected microbial indicators with time. Rumen fluid significantly (P < 0.05) affected the dynamics of the process temperature (PTMRF) and process pHRF inside the ADRF system with time respectively. These kinds of relationships between biotic factors and between biotic and abiotic factors could be used to monitor the state of anaerobic digestion process with respect to time.

Keywords

References

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