ISSN (Print): 2328-4129

ISSN (Online): 2328-4137

Editor-in-Chief: Apply for this position

Website: http://www.sciepub.com/journal/AJMR

   

Article

Prevalence and Impact of GBV-C among HIV-1 Infected Patients under HAART in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

1Department of Microbial Cellular & Molecular Biology, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

2Addis Ababa City Administration Health Research Bureaus, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia


American Journal of Microbiological Research. 2016, 4(6), 172-177
doi: 10.12691/ajmr-4-6-3
Copyright © 2016 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Mohamed Farouk, Abraham Tesfaye, Mekuria Lakew. Prevalence and Impact of GBV-C among HIV-1 Infected Patients under HAART in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. American Journal of Microbiological Research. 2016; 4(6):172-177. doi: 10.12691/ajmr-4-6-3.

Correspondence to: Mohamed  Farouk, Department of Microbial Cellular & Molecular Biology, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Email: mohamed.f.mirghani@gmail.com

Abstract

Hepatitis G virus or GB virus C (GBV-C) is a virus in the Flaviviridae family that does not cause any disease, but from various epidemiological observations was found to improve the clinical outcomes of HIV infection and treatment. It has the same mode of transmission with HIV. In Ethiopia, there has not been any study made on the prevalence or genotyping of GBV-C in circulation. Therefore no information is available. To fill this gap prevalence study was conducted on HIV patients under treatment. Eighty one serum samples were collected from patients on follow up study at the Addis Ababa Regional Laboratories and Research Institutes. RNA was extracted, reversed transcribed, and amplified by Real Time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), using primers for 5- untranslated region (5-UTR) of the GBV-C. Results showed 7 (8.6%) out of the 81 of HIV patients to be coinfected with GBV-C. Comparison of the mean CD4 count of the coinfected subject was found to be significantly different from the GBV-C negative patients at (P < 0.05). Further studies on clinical, immunological and genotypic analysis on larger samples are under investigation.

Keywords

References

[1]  UNAIDS. (2014). Factsheet 2014: Global Statistics. Geneva. p. 1.
 
[2]  World Health Organization. (2015). HIV/AIDS Fact sheet N°360. Geneva.
 
[3]  Hazenberg MD, Hamann D, Schuitemaker H, Miedema F (2000) T cell depletion in HIV-1 infection: how CD4+ T cells go out of stock. Nat Immunol 1: 285-9.
 
[4]  Sarafianos SG, Marchand B, Das K, Himmel DM, Michael A. Parniak MA, Hughes SH, and Arnold E. 2009. Structure and Function of HIV-1 Reverse Transcriptase: Molecular Mechanisms of Polymerization and Inhibition. Journal of Molecular Biology. 385: 693-713.
 
[5]  Gulick, R.M., Meibohm, A., Havlir, D., Eron, J.J., Mosley, A., Chodakewitz, J.A., Isaacs, R., Gonzalez, C., McMahon, D., Richman, D.D., Robertson, M., Mellors, J.W., 2003. Six-year follow-up of HIV-1-infected adults in a clinical trial of antiretroviral therapy with indinavir, zidovudine, and lamivudine. AIDS 17, 2345-2349.
 
Show More References
[6]  World Health Organization. (2014). Global Update on the Health Sector Response to HIV, 2014. Geneva. p. 50.
 
[7]  World Health Organization (2013). Consolidated Guidelines on The use of Antiretroviral Drugs and Preventing HIV Infection. (http://www.who.int/hiv/pub/guidelines/arv2013).
 
[8]  Geeraert L, Kraus G and Pomerantz RJ (2008). Hide-and-seek: the challenge of viral persistence in HIV-1 infection. Annu Rev Med; 59:487-501.
 
[9]  Sunil K. Khattar, Sweety Samal, Anthony L DeVico, Peter L Collins and Siba K. Samal, Newcastle Disease Virus Expressing Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Envelope Glycoprotein Induces Strong Mucosal and Serum Antibody Responses in Guinea Pigs, Journal of Virology, 85(20): 10529-10541. 2011.
 
[10]  Robert J Natuk, Pranabk C, Michaled L, Alan R, James W, Richard H, Mark W, Bheem B, Satoshi M, Sally L, Ally L, Jorg E, Robert G, Paul H, and Marjorie G, Adenovirus-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) envelope recombinant vaccines elicit high titered HIV-neutralizing antibodies in the dog model, Proc Nad Acad Sci,89 7777-7781.1992.
 
[11]  Polgreen, P. M., J. Xiang, Q. Chang, and J. T. Stapleton. 2003. GB virus type C/hepatitis G virus: a nonpathogenic flavivirus associated with prolonged survival in HIV-infected individuals. Microbes Infect. 5: 1255-1261.
 
[12]  Linnen, J., J. Wages, Jr., Z. Y. Zhang-Keck, K. E. Fry, K. Z. Krawczynski, H. Alter, E. Koonin, M. Gallagher, M. Alter, S. Hadziyannis, P. Karayiannis, K. Fung, Y. Nakatsuji, J. W. Shih, L. Young, M. Piatak, Jr., C. Hoover, J. Fernandez, S. Chen, J. C. Zou, T. Morris, K. C. Hyams, S. Ismay, J. D. Lifson, G. Hess, S. K. Foung, H. Thomas, D. Bradley, H. Margolis, and J. P. Kim. 1996. Molecular cloning and disease association of hepatitis G virus: a transfusion-transmissible agent. Science 271:505-508.
 
[13]  Leary, T. P., A. S. Muerhoff, J. N. Simons, T. J. Pilot-Matias, J. C. Erker, M. L. Chalmers, G. G. Schlauder, G. J. Dawson, S. M. Desai, and I. K. Mushahwar. 1996b. Sequence and genomic organization of GBV-C: a novel member of the flaviviridae associated with human non-A-E hepatitis. J Med Virol 48:60-67.
 
[14]  Simons, IN., Leary, T.P., Dawson, G.I, Pilot-Matias, T.J., Muerhoff AS., Schlauder, G.G., Desai, S.M. and Mushahwar, IK (1995). Isolation of novel virus-like sequences associated with human hepatitis. Nature Medicine 1, 564-569.
 
[15]  Toyoda H, Fukuda Y, Hayakawa T, Takamatsu J, and Saito H (1998). Effect of GB virus C/hepatitis G virus co-infection on the course of HIV infection in hemophilia patients in Japan. Journal Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes.17:209-13.
 
[16]  Tillmann HL, Heiken H, Knapik-Botor A, Heringlake S, Ockenga J, Wilber JC, Goergen B, Detmer J, McMorrow M, Stoll M, Schmidt RE, and Manns MP (2001). Infection with GB virus C and reduced mortality among HIV-infected patients. N Engl J Med, 345:715-24.
 
[17]  Xiang J, Wunschmann S, Diekema DJ, Klinzman D, Patrick KD, George SL, and Stapleton JT (2001). Effect of co-infection with GB virus C (hepatitis G virus) on survival among patients with HIV infection. New England Journal of Medicine. 345:707-14.
 
[18]  Heringlake S, Ockenga J, Tillmann HL, Trautwein C, Meissner D, Stoll M, Hunt J, Jou C, Solomon N, Schmidt RE, and Manns MP (1998). GB virus C/hepatitis G virus infection: a favorable prognostic factor in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients? Journal of Infectious Diseases.177: 1723-6.
 
[19]  Souza IE, Zhang W, Diaz RS, Chaloner K, Klinzman D, Stapleton JT (2006). Effect of GB virus C on response to antiretroviral therapy in HIV-infected Brazilians. HIV Med; 7: 25-31.
 
[20]  Gilles, N., Christian, R. and Pascal, V. (1999). Clearance of hepatitis G viremia in a Human immunodeficiency virus -positive patient by high-activity antiretroviral therapy. Clin Infect Dis. 29: 1332-1333.
 
[21]  Rodriguez B, Woolley I, Lederman MM, Zdunek D, Hess G, Valdez H (2003). Effect of GB virus C coinfection on response to antiretroviral treatment in human immunodeficiency virusinfected patients. J Infect Dis. 187:504-507.
 
[22]  Lefrère JJ, Ferec C, Roudot-Thoraval F, Loiseau P, Cantaloube JF, Biagini P, Mariotti M, LeGac G, and Mercier B, GBV-C/ hepatitis G virus (HGV) RNA load in immunodeficient individuals and in immunocompetent individuals. J Med Virol, 59: 32-37. 1999.
 
[23]  Yeo AE, Matsumoto A, Hisada M, Shih JW, Alter HJ and Goedert JJ. Effect of hepatitis G virus infection on progression of HIV infection in patients with hemophilia. Multicenter Hemophilia Cohort Study. Ann Intern Med, 132: 959-963. 2000.
 
[24]  Williams CF, Klinzman D, Yamashita TE, Xiang, Polgreen P M, Rinaldo C,Liu C, Phair J, Margolic JB, Zdunek D, Hees G and Stapleton JT, Persistent GB virus C infection and survival in HIV-infected men. N Engl J Med, 350: 981-990. 2004.
 
[25]  Maidana-Giret MT, Silva TM, Sauer MM, Tomiyama H, Levi JE, Bassichetto KC, Nishiya A, Diaz RS, Sabino EC, Palacios R, and Kallas EG. GB virus type C infection modulates T-cell activation independently of HIV-1 viral load. AIDS 23: 2277-2287. 2009.
 
[26]  Stapleton JT, Chaloner K, J. Zhang, D. Klinzman, I. E. Souza, J. Xiang, A. Landay, J. Fahey, R. Pollard, and R. Mitsuyasu. GBV-C viremia is associated with reduced CD4 expansion in HIV-infected people receiving HAART and interleukin-2 therapy. AIDS 23:605-610. 2009.
 
[27]  Bjorkman P, Flamholc L, Molnegren V, Marshall A, Guner N, and Widell A (2007). Enhanced and resumed GB virus C replication in HIV-1-infected individuals receiving HAART. AIDS. 21(12): 1641-1643.
 
[28]  Ruiz V, Giordano M, Rivero CW, Minassian ML, Cuestas ML, Trinks J, Mathet VL, and Oubina JR (2010). GB virus C quasispecies detected in plasma and lymphocyte subsets in a natural human infection. J Gen Virol, 91(Pt 7): 1687-1692.
 
[29]  Schwarze-Zander C, Blackard JT, Zheng H, and Juergen K Rockstroh, Role of GB virus C in modulating HIV disease, Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther, 10(5): 563-572. 2012.
 
[30]  Muerhoff AS, Dawson GJ, Desai SM (2006). A previously unrecognized sixth genotype of GB virus C revealed by analysis of 5’-untranslated region sequences. J Med Virol 78: 105-111.
 
[31]  Schwarze-Zander C, Blackard JT, Zheng H, Addo MM, Lin W, Robbins GK, Sherman KE, Zdunek D, Hess G, Chung RT; and AIDS Clinical Trial Group A5071 Study Team, GB virus C (GBV-C) infection in hepatitis C virus (HCV)/HIV-coinfected patients receiving HCV treatment: importance of the GBV-C genotype. J Infect Dis, 194:410-9. 2006.
 
[32]  Shimizu YK, Hijikata M, Kiyohara T, Yoshihiro Kitamura, and Hiroshi Yoshikura. (1999). Replication of GB virus C (hepatitis G virus) in interferon-resistant Daudi cells, J Virol. 73:8411-4.
 
[33]  George SL, Xiang J and Stapleton JT, Clinical isolates of GB virus type C vary in their ability to persist and replicate in peripheral blood mononuclear cell cultures, Virology, 316:191-201. 2003
 
[34]  Feng Y, Zhao W, Dai J, Li Z, Zhang X, Liu L, Bai J, Zhang H, Lu L, and Xia X. (2011). A novel genotype of GB virus C: its identification and predominance among injecting drug users in Yunnan, China. PLoS One 6: e21151.
 
[35]  Naito H, Win KM, Abe K (1999). Identification of a novel genotype of hepatitis G virus in Southeast Asia. J Clin Microbiol 37: 1217-1220.
 
[36]  Sathar MA, York DF (2001) Group 5: GBV-C/HGV isolates from South Africa. J Med Virol 65: 121-122.
 
[37]  Sathar MA, Soni PN, Pegoraro R, Simmonds P, Smith DB, Dhillon AP and Dusheiko GM. (1999). A new variant of GB virus C/hepatitis G virus (GBV-C/HGV) from South Africa. Virus Res 64: 151-160.
 
[38]  Smith DB, Basaras M, Frost S, Haydon D, Cuceanu N, Prescott L, Kamenka C, Millband D, and Sathar MA, Simmonds P.. (2000). Phylogenetic analysis of GBV-C/hepatitis G virus. J Gen Virol 81: 769-780.
 
[39]  Tucker TJ, Smuts HE (2000) GBV-C/HGV genotypes: proposed nomenclature for genotypes 1-5. J Med Virol 62: 82-83.
 
[40]  Tucker TJ, Smuts H, Eickhaus P, Robson SC, Kirsch RE (1999). Molecular characterization of the 5’ non-coding region of South African GBV-C/HGV isolates: major deletion and evidence for a fourth genotype. J Med Virol 59: 52-59.
 
[41]  Gemechu Kejela, Lemessa Oljira, Yadeta Dessie, and Direslgne Misker, Comprehensive HIV/AIDS knowledge level among out-of-school youths in Wayu Tuka district, Western Ethiopia, European Journal of Preventive Medicine; 3(1): 11-16. 2015.
 
[42]  Laskus T, Radkowski M, Wang LF, Vargas H and Rakela J. (1997). Lack of hepatitis G virus replication in the livers of patients coinfected with hepatitis C and G viruses. J. Virol. 71, 7804-7806.
 
[43]  Alter HJ, Nakatsuji, Y, Melpolder, J, Wages, J, Wesley, R, Shih, and Kim JP. (1997b). The incidence of transfusion-associated hepatitis G virus infection and its relation to liver disease. N EngI. J. Med. 336, 747-754.
 
[44]  Alter H.J. The cloning and clinical implications of HGV and HGBVC. N Engl J Med 1996; 334: 1536-7.
 
[45]  Rey D, Fraize S, Vidinic J, et al. High prevalence of GB virus C/hepatitis G virus RNA in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus. J Med Virol 1999; 57: 75-9.
 
[46]  Wachtler M, Hofmann A, Muller G, et al. Prevalence of GB virus C/ hepatitis G virus RNA and anti-E2 glycoprotein antibodies in homosexual men with HIV coinfection. Infection 2000; 28: 297-300.
 
[47]  Rendina D, Vigorita E, Bonavolta R, et al. HCV and GBV-c/HGV infection in HIV positive patients in southern Italy. Eur J Epidemiol 2001; 17: 801-7.
 
[48]  Kozal MJ, Friedland G, Chiarella J, Kyriakides T, Concato J, Klinzman D & Stapleton JT. Prevalence of HIV and GBV-C coinfection and the likelihood of genotypic resistance development. 9th Conference on Retroviruses & Opportunistic Infections. 24-28 February 2002, Seattle, WA, USA.
 
[49]  Ruiz V, Espinola L, Mathet VL, Perandones CE and Oubina JR, Design, development and evaluation of a competitive RT-PCR for quantitation of GBV-C RNA, J Virol Methods, 2006;136:58-64.
 
[50]  Thomas DL, Vlahov D, Alter HI, Hunt, Marshall R, Astemborski I and Nelson KE. (1998). Association of antibody to GB Virus C (Hepatitis G Virus) with viral clearance and protection from reinfection. J. Infect. Dis. 177, 539-542.
 
[51]  Scallan MF, Clutterbuck D, Jarvis LM, Scott G, Simmonds P (1998). Sexual transmission of GB virus C/hepatitis G virus. J Med Virol, 55: 203-208.
 
Show Less References

Article

Identification of Nematode Trapping Fungus Monacrosporium eudermatum Based on Genetic Diversity Using RAPD Technique

1Biological Department, College of Sciences, Misan University, Misan, Iraq


American Journal of Microbiological Research. 2016, 4(6), 178-180
doi: 10.12691/ajmr-4-6-4
Copyright © 2016 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Ali A. Kasim, Maitham Dragh. Identification of Nematode Trapping Fungus Monacrosporium eudermatum Based on Genetic Diversity Using RAPD Technique. American Journal of Microbiological Research. 2016; 4(6):178-180. doi: 10.12691/ajmr-4-6-4.

Correspondence to: Ali  A. Kasim, Biological Department, College of Sciences, Misan University, Misan, Iraq. Email: alimycol@yahoo.com

Abstract

Nematode-trapping fungus Monacrosporium eudermatum a predacious fungus of nematodes, has been very useful in understanding the most relationship between nematophagous fungi and their nematode hosts. M.eudermatum is by far the common nematode-trapping fungus with the characteristic ability of forming adhesive trapping nets once in contact with nematodes. Total DNA was extracted from M.eudermatum sera and amplified by RAPD-PCR using three random primers (OPA-16, OPB-08, OPF-05). The results show amplification of all markers (OPF-05, OPB-08, OPA-16) with the genomic DNA studied. As evidenced by the results, all the markers covered in the study showed high polymorphism (up to 60%) with the exception of the primer (OPB-08) which showed no polymorphism.

Keywords

References

[1]  Williams, J.G.K., Hanafey, M.K., Rafalski, J.A. and Tingey S.V., “Genetic analysis using random amplified polymorphic DNA markers,” Methods Enzymol., 218: 704-741. 1993.
 
[2]  Mc-Donald, B.A., “The population-genetics of fungi tools and techniques,” Phytopathology, 87: 448-453. April. 1997.
 
[3]  Williams, J.G., Kubelik, A.R., Livak K.J., Rafalski, J.A. and Tingey, S.V. “DNA polymorphisms amplified by arbitrary primers are useful as genetic markers,” Nucleic Acids Res. 18(22): 6531-6535. Nov.1990.
 
[4]  Atkins, S.D., Clark, I.M., Sosnowska, D., Hirsch, P.R. and Kerry, B.R. “Detection and quantification of Plectosphaerella cucumerina, a potential biological control agent of potato cyst nematodes, by using conventional PCR, real-time PCR, selective media, and baiting,” Appl. Environ. Microbiol, 69(8):4788-93.Aug.2003.
 
[5]  Morton, C.O., Mauchline, T.H., Kerry, B.R. and Hirsch, P.R., “PCR-based DNA finger-printing indicates host-related genetic variation in the nematophagous fungus Pochonia chlamydosporia,” Mycol. Res., 107(Pt 2):198-205. Feb.2003.
 
Show More References
[6]  Sugimoto, M., Koike, M., Hiyama, N. and Nagao, H., “Genetic, morphological, and virulence characterization of the entomopathogenic fungus Verticillium lecanii.” J Invertebr Pathol, 82(3):176-87. Mar.2003.
 
[7]  Zhang, Y., Qiao, M., Xu, J., Cao, Y., Zhang, K.-Q.and Yu, Z.F., “Genetic diversity and recombination in natural populations of the nematode-trapping fungus Arthrobotrys oligospora from China,” Ecol Evol., 3(2):312-25.Feb.2013.
 
[8]  Persson, Y., Erland, S. and Jansson, H. B., “Identification of nematode-trapping fungi using RFLP analysis of the PCR-amplified ITS region of ribosomal DNA.” Mycol. Res, 100: 531-534. May.1996.
 
[9]  Ahrén, D., Faedo, M., Rajastiekar, B. and Tunlid, A., “Low genetic diversity among isolates of the nematode-trapping fungus Duddingtoniaflagrans: evidence for recent world wide dispersion from a single common ancestor,” Mycol. Res, 108 (10): 1205-1214. Oct.2004.
 
[10]  Meyer, S. L. F., Carta, L. K. and Rehner, S.A., “Morphological variability and molecular phylogeny of the nematophagous fungus Monacro-sporium drechsleri.” Mycologia, 97(2). 405-415. Mar./Apr. 2005.
 
[11]  Muhammad, N. U., Saifullah, M. A., Ijaz, A., Aqib, I. and Naqib, U. K., “Genetic characterization of Verticillium chlamydosporium isolated from Pakistan using Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) primers,” Pak. J. Bot., 45(2): 467-472. 2013.
 
[12]  Herrera-Estrella, A., Casas-Flores, S. and Kubicek, C. P., “Nematophagous Fungi”. Environmental and Microbial Relationships 3rd Edition, The Mycota IV I.S. Druzhinina and C.P. Kubicek, (Eds.© Springer International Publishing Switzerland ), 2016, 247-267.
 
[13]  Miller, S.A., Dykes, D.D. and Polesky, H.F, “A simple salting out procedure for extracting DNA from human nucleated cells,” Nucleic Acids Res. 11; 16(3): 1215Feb.1988.
 
[14]  Ahren, D., Ursing B. M., and Tunlid, A., “Phylogeny of nematode-trapping fungi based on 18S rDNA sequences,” FEMS Microbiol. Lett., 158:179-184. Jan.1988.
 
[15]  Li, Y., Hyde, K. D., Jeewon, R., Cai L., Vijaykrishna, V. and Zhang, K. Q., “Phylogenetics and evolution of nematode-trapping fungi (Orbiliales) estimated from nuclear and protein coding genes,” Mycologia 97(5):1034-46. Sep-Oct. 2005.
 
[16]  Yang, Y., Yang, E., An, Z. and Liu, X., “Evolution of nematode-trapping cells of predatory fungi of the Orbiliaceae based on evidence from rRNA-encoding DNA and multiprotein sequences,” Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 104: 8379-8384.May. 2007.
 
[17]  Yang, E., Xu, L., Yang, Y., Zhang, X., Xiang, M., Wang, C. “Origin and evolution of carnivorism in theAscomycota (fungi),” Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 109:10960-10965. Jul. 2012.
 
[18]  Zhang, W., Cheng, X. , Liu, Y. and Xiang, M., “Genome Studies on Nematophagous and Entomogenous Fungi in China,” J. Fungi, 2, 9 :1-14. Feb.2016.
 
[19]  Smith, M. E. and Jaffee, B. A.,”PCR Primers with Enhanced Specificity for Nematode-Trapping Fungi (Orbiliales),” Microb Ecol, 58:117-128. Jul.2009.
 
[20]  Castañeda-Ramírez, G.S., Mendoza-de-Gives, P., Aguilar-Marcelino, L., López-Arellano, M. E. and Hernández-Romano, J., “Phylogenetic Analysis of Nucleotide Sequen-ces from the ITS Region and Biological Characterization of Nematophagous Fungi from Morelos, Mexico,” Journal of Mycology. V. Article ID 8502629, 13 p. 2016.
 
[21]  Mauchline, T.H., Kerry, B.R. and Hirsch, P.R., “The biocontrol fungus Pochonia chlamy-dosporia shows nematode host preference at the in fraspecific level,” Mycol. Res., 108: 161-169. Feb. 2004.
 
[22]  Mauchline, T.H., Kerry, B.R. and Hirsch, P.R., “Quantification in Soil and the Rhizosphere of the Nemato-phagous Fungus Verticillium chlamydosporium by Com-petitive PCR,” Appl Environ Microbiol, 68(4): 1846-53. Apr.2002,
 
[23]  Siebert, P.D., and Larric, J.W. “Competitive PCR,” Nature, 359: 557-558. Oct. 1992.
 
Show Less References

Article

Prevalence of GBV-C and Its Impacts among Patients with Hepatitis B and C Viruses in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

1Department of Microbial Cellular & Molecular Biology, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

2Schools of Medicine, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

3Infectious and Non-infectious Diseases Research Directorate, Ethiopian Health & Nutrition Research


American Journal of Microbiological Research. 2017, 5(1), 1-6
doi: 10.12691/ajmr-5-1-1
Copyright © 2017 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Mohamed Farouk, Abate Bane Shewaye, Desta Kassa, Mekuria Lakew. Prevalence of GBV-C and Its Impacts among Patients with Hepatitis B and C Viruses in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. American Journal of Microbiological Research. 2017; 5(1):1-6. doi: 10.12691/ajmr-5-1-1.

Correspondence to: Mohamed  Farouk, Department of Microbial Cellular & Molecular Biology, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Email: mohamed.f.mirghani@gmail.com

Abstract

Background: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) caused by hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) is currently one of the most common neoplasms worldwide. GB virus C/hepatitis G virus (HGV/GBV-C) is a virus in the Flaviviridae family isolated from patients with liver disease. It has the same mode of transmission with HBV and HCV and is common in high risk group. The impact of HGV/GBV-C in clinical outcome among HBV and HCV is controversy. Therefore, this study was conducted to determine the prevalence and the association of (HGV/GBV-C) in the clinical outcome among HCV and HBV patients. Materials: This case-control study was performed in Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia. The cases were 101 patients with viral hepatitis collected from Adera internal medical specialty center. The control group consisted of 50 healthy individuals collected from the Ethiopian Public Health and Research Institutes. The serological analysis and liver enzyme levels were determined for each of the participants. RNA was extracted, reversed transcribed, and amplified by Real Time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), using primers for 5- untranslated region (5-UTR) of the GBV-C. Results: Analysis of the 101 samples of the hepatitis patients showed that; 83(82.2%) were positive for HBV while only18 (17.8%) for HCV. The prevalence of (HGV/GBV-C) RNA was 11(13.2%) in HBV, 2 (11.1%) in HCV and rests of the control group were negative. There was no significant difference (P > 0.05) in the liver enzymes level among (HGV/GBV-C) negative and positive individuals. Conclusion: Our study showed that the co-infection rate of (HGV/GBV-C) RNA among hepatitis patients was significantly higher (P <0.05) in HBV than in HCV patients, and the virus has no association in the course of the disease.

Keywords

References

[1]  Hu DJ, Bower WA, Ward JW. Viral hepatitis. In: Morse S, Moreland AA, Holmes KK, eds. Atlas of sexually transmitted diseases and AIDS. London: Elsevier; 2010: 203-29.
 
[2]  CDC. Recommendations for prevention and control of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and HCV-related chronic disease. MMWR 1998; 47.
 
[3]  Armstrong GL, Wasley A, Simard EP, McQuillan GM, Kuhnert WL, Alter MJ. The prevalence of hepatitis C virus infection in the United States, 1999 through 2002. Ann Intern Med 2006; 144: 705-4.
 
[4]  Peters MG. Special populations with hepatitis B virus infection. Hepatology 2009; 49(Suppl 5): S146-S155.
 
[5]  Koopmans M., Duizer E. (2004): Foodborne viruses: an emerging problem. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 90, 23-41.
 
Show More References
[6]  Vasickova P., Dvorska L., Lorencova A., Pavlik I. (2005): Viruses as a cause of foodborne diseases: a review of the literature. Veterinarni Medicina 50, 89-104.
 
[7]  Ashbolt N.J. (2004): Microbial contamination of drinking water and disease outcomes in developing regions. Toxicology, 198, 229-238.
 
[8]  Global policy report on the prevention and control of viral hepatitis (2013).World Health organization; Geneva, Switzerland.
 
[9]  Nassal M.HBV cccDNA: viral persistence reservoir and key obstacle for a cure of chronic hepatitis B. Gut 2015; 64: 1972-84.
 
[10]  Penin F. structural biology of hepatitis C virus. Clin Liver Dis 2003; 7: 1-21.
 
[11]  Stapleton JT, Foung S, Muerhoff AS, Bukh J, Simmonds P. The GB viruses: a review and proposed classification of GBV-A, GBV-C (HGV), and GBV-D in genus Pegivirus within the family Flaviviridae. J Gen Virol 2011; 92: 233-46.
 
[12]  Lavanchy D. Hepatitis B virus epidemiology, disease burden, treatment, and current and emerging prevention and control measures. J Viral Hepat. 2004; 11(2): 97-107.
 
[13]  Fattovich G. Natural history and prognosis of hepatitis B. Semin Liver Dis 2003; 23: 47-58.
 
[14]  McMahon BJ. The natural history of chronic hepatitis B virus infection. Semin Liver Dis 2004; 24: 17-21.
 
[15]  World Health Organization. Hepatitis C Fact Sheet N°164. Available from: Http: //www. who. int/ mediacentre /factsheets /fs164/en/. Last accessed: March 2016.
 
[16]  Sultan MT, Rahman MM, Begum S. Epidemiology of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. J Bangladesh Coll Phy Surg. 2009; 27: 160-2.
 
[17]  Lee MH, Yang HI, Yuan Y, Lltalien G, Chen CJ (2014). Epidemiology and natural history of hepatitis C virus infection. World J. Gastroenterol. 20(28): 9270-9280.
 
[18]  Lavanchy D. Evolving epidemiology of hepatitis C virus. Clin Microbiol Infect 2011;17: 107-115
 
[19]  Simons, J. N., T. P. Leary, G. J. Dawson, T. J. Pilot-Matias, A. S. Muerhoff, G. G. Schlauder, S. M. Desai, and I. K. Mushahwar. 1995a. Isolation of novelvirus-like sequences associated with human hepatitis. Nat Med 1: 564-569.
 
[20]  Linnen, J., J. Wages, Jr., Z. Y. Zhang-Keck, K. E. Fry, K. Z. Krawczynski, H. Alter, E. Koonin, M. Gallagher, M. Alter, S. Hadziyannis, P. Karayiannis, K. Fung, Y. Nakatsuji, J. W. Shih, L. Young, M. Piatak, Jr., C. Hoover, J. Fernandez, S. Chen, J. C. Zou, T. Morris, K. C. Hyams, S. Ismay, J. D. Lifson, G. Hess, S. K. Foung, H. Thomas, D. Bradley, H. Margolis, and J. P. Kim. 1996. Molecular cloning and disease association of hepatitis G virus: a transfusion-transmissible agent. Science 271: 505-508.
 
[21]  Leary, T. P., A. S. Muerhoff, J. N. Simons, T. J. Pilot-Matias, J. C. Erker, M. L. Chalmers, G. G. Schlauder, G. J. Dawson, S. M. Desai, and I. K. Mushahwar. 1996. Sequence and genomic organization of GBV-C: a novel member of the flaviviridae associated with human non-A-E hepatitis. J Med Virol 48: 60-67.
 
[22]  Cheung RC, Keeffe EB, and Greenberg HB, Hepatitis G virus: Is it a hepatitis virus? West J Med 167: 23-33. 1997.
 
[23]  Pavesi A, Detection of signature sequences in overlapping genes and prediction of a novel overlapping gene in hepatitis G virus. J Mol Evol 50: 284-295. 2000
 
[24]  Feng Y, Zhao W, Dai J, Li Z, Zhang X, Liu L, Bai J, Zhang H, Lu L, and Xia X, A novel genotype of GB virus C: its identification and predominance among injecting drug users in Yunnan, China, PLoS One 6: e21151. 2011.
 
[25]  Sathar MA, York DF, Group 5: GBV-C/HGV isolates from South Africa, J Med Virol 65: 121-122. 2011.
 
[26]  Scallan MF, Clutterbuck D, Jarvis LM, et al., Sexual transmission of GB virus C/hepatitis G virus, J Med Virol, 1998; 55: 203-8.
 
[27]  Nerurkar VR, Chua PK, Hoffmann PR, et al., High prevalence of GB virus C/hepatitis G virus infection among homosexual men infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1: evidence for sexual transmission, J Med Virol, 1998; 56: 123-7.
 
[28]  Fischler B, Lara C, Chen M, et al., Genetic evidence for mother-to-infant transmission of hepatitis G virus, J Infect Dis, 1997; 176: 281-5.
 
[29]  Dawson,G.J. et al. Prevalence studies of GB virus-C infection using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. J Med V irol 50, 97-103 (1996).
 
[30]  Liu,H.F., Muyembe-Tamfum,J.J., Dahan,K., Desmyter,J. & Goubau,P. High prevalence of GB virus C/hepatitis G virus in Kinshasa. J Med Virol 60, 159-165 (2000).
 
[31]  Tucker,T.J., Louw,S.J., Robson,S.C., Isaacs,S. & Kirsch,R.E. High prevalence of GBV-C hepatitis G virus infection in a rural South African population. J Med Virol 53, 225-228 (1997).
 
[32]  Bhattarai N, Stapleton JT, GB virus C: the good boy virus? Trends Microbiol, 20(3): 124-30. 2012.
 
[33]  Toyoda H, Fukuda Y, Hayakawa T, Takamatsu J, and Saito H, Effect of GB virus C/hepatitis G virus co-infection on the course of HIV infection in hemophilia patients in Japan. Journal Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes.17: 209-13. 1998.
 
[34]  Heringlake S, Ockenga J, Tillmann HL, Trautwein C, Meissner D, Stoll M, Hunt J, Jou C, Solomon N, Schmidt RE, and Manns MP, GB virus C/hepatitis G virus infection: a favorable prognostic factor in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients? Journal of Infectious Diseases.177: 1723-6. 1998.
 
[35]  Bjorkman P, Flamholc L, Molnegren V, Marshall A, Guner N, Widell A (2007). Enhanced and resumed GB virus C replication in HIV-1-infected individuals receiving HAART. AIDS. 21(12): 1641-1643.
 
[36]  Yoshiba M, Okamoto H, Mishiro S. Detection of the GBV-C hepatitis virus genome in serum from patients with fulminant hepatitis of unkown etiology. Lancet 1995; 346: 1131-2.
 
[37]  Alter J. A reassessment of the literature on the hepatitis G virus. Transfusion 1997; 37: 569-72.
 
[38]  Chams V, Fournier-Wirth C, Chabanel A, et al. Is GB virus-C alias “hepatitis G” involved in human pathology. Trans Clin Bioi 2003; 10: 292 306.
 
[39]  Birgit Kallinowski, Christine Buhrmann, Stefanie Seipp, Tobias Goeser, Wolfgang Stremmel, Gerd Otto, and Lorenz Theilmann (1998). Incidence, Prevalence, and Clinical Outcome of Hepatitis GB-C Virus Infection in Liver Transplant Patients. Liver Transplantation and Surgery, (4)1: 28-33.
 
[40]  Yue Feng, Li Liu, Yue-Mei Feng, Wenhua Zhao, Zheng Li, A-Mei Zhang, Yuzhu Song, and Xueshan Xia (2014). GB Virus C infection in Patients With HIV/Hepatitis C Virus Coinfection: Improvement of the Liver Function in Chronic Hepatitis C. Hepat Mon. 14(3): e14169.
 
[41]  Berg T, Naumann U, Fukumoto T, Lobeck W, Bechstein P, Neuhaus P, et al. GB virus C infection in patients with chronic hepatitis B and C before and after liver transplantation. Transplantation 1996;62: 711-714
 
[42]  Alvarado-Mora MV, Botelho L, Nishiya A, Neto RA, Gomes-Gouvea MS, Gutierrez MF, Carrilho FJ, Pinho JR (2011) Frequency and genotypic distribution of GB virus C (GBV-C) among Colombian population with Hepatitis B (HBV) or Hepatitis C (HCV) infection. Virol J 8: 345.
 
[43]  Tanaka E, Alter HJ, Nakatsuji Y, et al. Effect of hepatitis G virus infection on chronic hepatitis C. Ann Intern Med. 1996; 125(9): 740-3.
 
[44]  Ruiz V, Espinola L, Mathet VL, Perandones CE and Oubina JR, Design, development and evaluation of a competitive RT-PCR for quantitation of GBV-C RNA, J Virol Methods, 2006; 136: 58-64.
 
[45]  Thomas DL, Vlahov D, Alter HI, Hunt, Marshall R, Astemborski I and Nelson KE. (1998) Association of antibody to GB Virus C (Hepatitis G Virus) with viral clearance and protection from reinfection. J. Infect. Dis. 177, 539-542.
 
[46]  Masaru Enomoto, Shuhei,Shiguchi, Katsuhiko Fukuda, Tetsuo Kuroki, Motoharu Tanaka, Shuzo Otani, Masayuki Ogami, and Takeyuki Monna (1998). Characteristics of Patients with Hepatitis C Virus With and Without GB Virus C/Hepatitis G Virus Co-infection and Efficacy of Interferon Alfa. HEPATOLOGY, (27)5.
 
[47]  Tanaka Y, Mizokami M, Orito E, Ohba K, Nakano T, Kato T, Kondo Y, Ding X, Ueda R, Sonoda S, Tajima K, Miura T, Hayami M: GB virus C/hepatitis G virus infection among Colombian native Indians. Am J Trop Med Hyg 1998, 59: 462-467.
 
[48]  Berzsenyi MD, Bowden DS, Kelly HA, Watson KM, Mijch AM, Ham¬mond RA, et al. Reduction in hepatitis C-related liver disease associated with GB virus C in human immunodeficiency virus coinfection. Gastroenterology. 2007; 133(6): 1821-30.
 
[49]  El-Zayadi AR, Abe K, Selim O, Naito H, Hess G, Ahdy A: Prevalence of GBVC/ hepatitis G virus viraemia among blood donors, health care personnel, chronic non-B non-C hepatitis, chronic hepatitis C and hemodialysis patients in Egypt. J Virol Methods 1999, 80: 53-58.
 
[50]  Monica, V., Alvarado, M., Livia, B., Anna, N., Raymundo, A., Neto3, M. and Maria, F. (2011). Frequency and genotypic distribution of GB virus C (GBV-C) among Colombian population with Hepatitis B (HBV) or Hepatitis C (HCV) infection. Virol J. 8: 345.
 
[51]  Abu Odeh RO, Al‐Moslih MI, Al‐Jokhdar MW, Ezzeddine SA. Detection and genotyping of GBV‐C virus in the United Arab Emirates. J Med Virol 2005; 76: 534-40.
 
[52]  Akcali S, Sanlidag T, Ozbakkaloglu B. Prevalence of GBV-C/ hepatitis G virus viremia among chronic hepatitis B, chronic hepatitis C and hemodialysis patients in Turkey. Ann Saudi Med 2006; 26: 68-9.
 
[53]  Grassi M, Raffa S, Traditi F, Ferrazzi M, Cioschi S, Fontana M, et al. Detection and clinical evaluation of GBV-C/HGV in plasma from patients with chronic hepatitis of unknown etiology. Clin Ter. 2000 Jul-Aug; 151(4): 241-5.
 
[54]  Ramezani A, Gachkar L, Eslamifar A, et al. Detection of hepatitis G virus envelope protein E2 antibody in blood donors. Int J Infect Dis. 2008; 12: 57-61.
 
Show Less References