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Systemic Resistance Induction of Tomato Plants against ToMV Virus by Surfactin Produced from Bacillus subtilis BMG02

1Genetics and Cytology Department , Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology Division, National Research Centre (Affiliation ID : 60014618), Dokki, Giza, Egypt

2Plant Pathology, Botany Departement, Faculty of Agriculture, Minoufia University

3Agricultural Microbiology and Biotechnology, Botany Departement, Faculty of Agriculture, Minoufia University, Shibin El-Kom, Egypt

American Journal of Microbiological Research. 2016, 4(5), 153-158
doi: 10.12691/ajmr-4-5-5
Copyright © 2016 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Walaa Hussein, Hosam Awad, Sameh Fahim. Systemic Resistance Induction of Tomato Plants against ToMV Virus by Surfactin Produced from Bacillus subtilis BMG02. American Journal of Microbiological Research. 2016; 4(5):153-158. doi: 10.12691/ajmr-4-5-5.

Correspondence to: Sameh  Fahim, Agricultural Microbiology and Biotechnology, Botany Departement, Faculty of Agriculture, Minoufia University, Shibin El-Kom, Egypt. Email:


Tomato mosaic virus (ToMV) is a major disease of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) which can strongly reduce tomato yields. Different efforts have been made to control tomato virus infection. Among these efforts is the use of cyclic lipopeptides. The surfactin produced by Bacillus subtilis BMG02 single overproducer strain strongly reduced (ToMV) virus symptoms and was responsible for the elicitation of Induced Systemic Resistance (ISR) in tomato. Treatment with 1000 mg surfactin used as critical antivirial concentration showed a strong symptoms reduction with complete negative ELISA results. The infected seedlings showed the ideal severe symptoms with fully positive ELISA reaction, while both healthy and infected seedlings treated with surfactin showed the same effect of strong symptoms reduction with complete negative ELISA results thus confirming the antivirial activities of surfactin. The hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) pathways have been proven to be involved in the tomato plant defense responses by surfactin treatment, whereas relative gene expression of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) and β 1,3- glucanase 2 (BGL2) involved in SA and JA pathways, respectively increased in treated seedlings compared to infected ones. The healthy seedlings showed very low H2O2 levels compared to infected tomato seedlings. Moreover, high levels of H2O2 were detected in treated seedlings with the same behaviour BGL2 and PAL expression levels due to the relationship between the ISR involved substrates.



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In Vitro Antibacterial Activity of Some Natural and Trade Iraqi Honey against MRSA Staphylococcus Heamolyticus Isolated from Some Burned Patients in Misan City

1College of Science, Misan University, Iraq

2College of Basic Education, Misan University, Iraq

American Journal of Microbiological Research. 2016, 4(5), 159-163
doi: 10.12691/ajmr-4-5-6
Copyright © 2016 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Mohammed A. Abd Ali, Sailh M. Kidem, Ali A. Fadhil, Nusaybah KH.Saddam. In Vitro Antibacterial Activity of Some Natural and Trade Iraqi Honey against MRSA Staphylococcus Heamolyticus Isolated from Some Burned Patients in Misan City. American Journal of Microbiological Research. 2016; 4(5):159-163. doi: 10.12691/ajmr-4-5-6.

Correspondence to: Mohammed  A. Abd Ali, College of Science, Misan University, Iraq. Email:


The study is aimed to evaluate the antibacterial activity of both natural Iraqi honeys (Sidr, Eucalyptus) and trade honey sample against MRSA Staphylococcus heamolyticus isolated from burned patients in alsader hospital-misan city then were analyzed between (October to December in 2015). The samples were taken in order to determine the bacterial profile and antibiotic susceptibility. The isolates of Staphylococcus heamolyticus were tested against 5 different antibiotics by a disk diffusion method 100% of the Staphylococcus heamolyticus isolates were resistant to the Optochin, Lincomycin, Ampicillin, Amphotercin, while the inhibitory effect of Amikacin antibiotic were (24mm) on MRSA Staphylococcus heamolyticus. Total antibacterial activity was evaluated by measuring the clear zone around the well. Honey samples were tested in different concentration (75%, 50 %, 25%, 10% and 100%). However, the results showed the absences of inhibitory zone to both natural and trade honeys type on MRSA Staphylococcus heamolyticus tested bacteria after dilution of(25% Sidr honey sample, 50% Eucalyptus honey sample, 50% Trade honey sample), while Sidr honey sample have more effective in 75%v/v concentration against MRSA Staphylococcus heamolyticus tested bacteria. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the Sidr honey sample were also determined. Finally cytotoxicity evaluating toward human RBC, the results revealed the Iraqi honeys sample have not any cytotoxicity in all concentration. The good antimicrobial potency of sidr and Eucalyptus Iraqi honeys could potentially be used as therapeutic against MRSA Staphylococcus heamolyticus as an alternative to the costly antibiotics.



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Prevalence of Plasmodium vivax Malaria among Children in Kassala State, Eastern Sudan

1Faculty of Medicine, University of Kassala, Kassala, Sudan

2College of Medicine, University of Bisha, Bisha, Saudi Arabia

3Faculty of Medicine, Al-Neelain University, Khartoum, Sudan

American Journal of Microbiological Research. 2016, 4(6), 164-167
doi: 10.12691/ajmr-4-6-1
Copyright © 2016 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Mamoun Magzoub, Mustafa A Alkawad, Mohamed A Mohamed, Hamza M Ali, Abdallah M Osman, Elhady E Elmubarak, Shamselfalah M Osman, Osman E Osman. Prevalence of Plasmodium vivax Malaria among Children in Kassala State, Eastern Sudan. American Journal of Microbiological Research. 2016; 4(6):164-167. doi: 10.12691/ajmr-4-6-1.

Correspondence to: Mamoun  Magzoub, Faculty of Medicine, University of Kassala, Kassala, Sudan. Email:


Background: All over the world 2.6 billion people per year are at risk of Plasmodium vivax malaria, 56% of all malaria cases outside Africa are due to Plasmodium vivax, also about 70-80 million malaria cases per year worldwide are due to Plasmodium vivax. To the best of our knowledge, there is no epidemiological study assessing the prevalence of Plasmodium vivax malaria in Sudan. Methods: This retrospective study was carried out at Kassala state, eastern Sudan. Thick and thin blood films were prepared from capillary blood sample from two thousand, eight hundred and seven febrile patients. The slides were stained with Giemsa and screened for the presence of malaria parasites and parasite species. Stained blood films were examined microscopically with (X100) oil immersion lens. Results: Plasmodium vivax was detected in 41 blood samples (1.5 %) when examined microscopically. Most of them 28 (1.0 %) were Rashieda tribe (p value = 0.03). Conclusion: The prevalence of Plasmodium vivax malaria was low in our study area comparing with the neighbor countries like Ethiopia. More researches can be performed in this area where Plasmodium falciparum is predominant.



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