ISSN (Print): 2328-4129

ISSN (Online): 2328-4137

Editor-in-Chief: Apply for this position

Website: http://www.sciepub.com/journal/AJMR

   

Article

Antifungal Activity of Lactic Acid Bacteria against Molds Isolated from Corn and Fermented Corn Paste

1Department of Food Engineering and Quality Control, University Institute of Technology, University of Ngaoundere, Cameroon

2Department of Microbiology, University of Yaounde I, Cameroon

3Department of Food Sciences and Nutrition, National High School of Agro-Industrial Science, University of Ngaoundere, Cameroon


American Journal of Microbiological Research. 2016, 4(4), 90-100
doi: 10.12691/ajmr-4-4-1
Copyright © 2016 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Leopold Ngoune Tatsadjieu, Roger Tchikoua, Carl Moses Mbofung Funtong. Antifungal Activity of Lactic Acid Bacteria against Molds Isolated from Corn and Fermented Corn Paste. American Journal of Microbiological Research. 2016; 4(4):90-100. doi: 10.12691/ajmr-4-4-1.

Correspondence to: Leopold  Ngoune Tatsadjieu, Department of Food Engineering and Quality Control, University Institute of Technology, University of Ngaoundere, Cameroon. Email: tatsadjieu@yahoo.fr

Abstract

A total of 336 molds were isolated from dried corn, soaked corn and fermented corn paste. The macroscopic and microscopic studies of fungal growth in the following identification media, grouped all the 336 molds into 21 strains. The strains belonged mainly to 4 fungal genera: Aspergillus, Fusarium, Penicillium and Rhizopus. In addition, the aflatoxinogenic strains were dominant and were mostly isolated from Maroua (63 strains of Aspergillus flavus). Moreover, the antifungal activity of 53 Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from the samples was performed against 21 fungal strains. After a screening test, 06 were selected for their potent antifungal activity and were identified as Lactobacillus brevis (2 isolates), Lactobacillus buchneri (1 isolate), Lactobacillus cellobiosus (1 isolate) and Lactobacillus fermentum (2 isolates). During the antifungal tests in solid medium, most of the LAB inhibited the growth of molds but Lactobacillus brevis G25 (80 ± 0.5 mm) and Lactobacillus cellobiosus (82 ± 0.1 mm) had the greatest antifungal activities after 48 hours against Aspergillus carbonarius G23 and Aspergillus carbonarius G24. However, the antifungal activity was more efficient in liquid medium and Lactobacillus brevis G11 and Lactobacillus fermentum N33 totally inhibited the growth of the 21 molds tested in liquid medium. Thus organic acids were identified as substances responsible for the antifungal activity of the LAB. These results show the possibility of exploiting some of these LABs as starters to fight against spoilage molds in fermented corn paste.

Keywords

References

[1]  Tabuc, C, Flore fongique de différents substrats et conditions optimales de production de mycotoxines, Thèse de Doctorat. Institut National Polytechnique de Toulouse et de l’Université De Bucarest, 2007, 190 p.
 
[2]  Castells, M, Marin, S, Scanchis, V. and Ramos, A.J, “Distribution of fumonisins and aflatoxins in corn fractions during industrial cornflake processing” International Journal of Food Microbiology, 123, 81-87, 2008.
 
[3]  Mosaad, A.A, Hanaa, H, Ahmed, H.H. and Mohamed M.H, “Prevention of aflatoxin B1-initiated hepatotoxicity in rat by marine algae extracts”, Journal of Applied toxicology, 25, 218-23, 2005.
 
[4]  Oswald, I.P, Marin, D.E, Bouhet, S., Pinton, P., Taranu, I. and Accensi, F, “Immunotoxicological risk of mycotoxins for domestic animals” Food Additives and Contaminants, 22, 354-60, 2005.
 
[5]  Viljoen, B.C, “The interaction between yeasts and bacteria in dairy environments”, International Journal of Food Microbiology, 69, 37-44, 2001.
 
Show More References
[6]  Ross, R.P., Morgan, S. and Hill, C, “Preservation and fermentation: past, present and future”, International Journal of Food Microbiology 79, 3-16, 2002.
 
[7]  Stiles M.E, “Biopreservation by lactic acid bacteria”, Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek, 70, 331-345, 1996.
 
[8]  Pitt, J.I. and Hoking, A.D, Fungi and Food Spoilage, Blackie Academic & Profesional, 1997.
 
[9]  Nkwe, D.O., Taylor, J.E. and Siame, B.A, “Fungi, aflatoxins, fumonisin B1 and zearalenone contaminating sorghum-based traditional malt, wort and beer in Botswana”, Mycopathologia, 160, 177-186, 2005.
 
[10]  Lin, M.T. and Dianese, J.C, “A coconut-agar medium for rapid detection of aflatoxin production by Aspergillus spp.”, Phytopathology, 66, 1466-1469, 1976.
 
[11]  Voulgari, K., Hatzikamari, M., Delepoglou, A., Georgakopoulos, P., Litopoulou-Tzanetaki, E. and Tzanetakis, N, “Antifungal activity of non-starter lactic acid bacteria isolates from dairy products”, Food Control, 21, 136-142, 2010.
 
[12]  Lind, H., Jonsson, H. and Schnürer, J, “Antifungical effect of dairy propionibacteria-contribution of organic acids”, International journal of food Microbiology, 98, 157-165, 2005.
 
[13]  Coallier-Ascah, J. and Idziak, E.E, “Interaction between Streptococcus lactis and Aspergillus flavus on production of aflatoxin” Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 49, 163-167, 1985.
 
[14]  Trials, R., Bañeras, L., Montesinos, E. and Badosa, E, « Lactic acid bacteria from fresh fruit and vegetables as biocontrol agents of phytopathogenic bacteria and fungi”, International Microbiology, 11, 231-236, 2008.
 
[15]  Jrad, Z., El Hatmi, H., Fguiri, I., Arroum, S., Assadi, M. and Khorchani, T, “Antibacterial activity of Lactic acid bacteria isolated from Tunisian camel milk”, African Journal of Microbiology Research, 12, 1002-1008, 2013.
 
[16]  Njobeh, P.B., Dutton, M.F., Koch, S.H., Chuturgoon, A.A., Stoev, S.D. and Seifert, K, “Contamination with storage fungi of human food commodities from Cameroon”, International Journal of Microbiology, 135, 193-198, 2009.
 
[17]  Zinedine, A, Détermination des mycotoxines dans les aliments et étude de la réduction des aflatoxines par les bactéries lactiques isolées des ferments panaires traditionnels. Thèse de Doctorat, Université Sidi Mohammed Ben Abdellah, 2004, 162 p.
 
[18]  Xiaoxue, X., Jinyin, C., Houjuan, X. and Duochuan, L, “Role of a major facilitator superfamily transporter in adaptation capacity of Penicillium funiculosum under extreme acidic stress”, Fungal Genetics and Biology; 69, 75-83, 2014.
 
[19]  Magnusson, J., Ström, K., Roos, S., Sjögren, J. and Schnürer, J, “Broad and complex antifungal activity among environmental isolates of lactic acid bacteria”, FEMS Microbiology Letters, 219, 129-135, 2003.
 
[20]  Nguyen, T.M, Identification des espèces de moisissures, potentiellement productrices de mycotoxines dans le riz commercialisé dans cinq provinces de la région centrale du Vietnam - étude des conditions pouvant réduire la production des mycotoxines. Thèse de Doctorat, Institut National Polytechnique de Toulouse, 2007.
 
[21]  Kaktcham, P.M., Zambou, N.F., Tchouanguep, F.M., El-Soda, M. and Choudhary, M.I, «Antimicrobial and Safety Properties of Lactobacilli Isolated from two Cameroonian Traditional Fermented Foods”, Scientia pharmaceutica, 80, 189-203, 2012.
 
[22]  Louembé, D., Kéléké, S., Kobawila, S.C. and Nzouzi, J.P, « Bactéries lactiques de la pâte fermentée de maïs au Congo », Tropicultura, 21, 3-9, 2003.
 
[23]  Asmahan, A.A. and Muna, M.M, “Use of Starter Cultures of Lactic Acid Bacteria and Yeasts in the Preparation of Kisra, a Sudanese Fermented Food”, Pakistan Journal of Nutrition, 8, 1349-1353, 2009.
 
[24]  Jeong-Dong, K, “Antifungal Activity of Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Kimchi Against Aspergillus fumigatus”, Mycobiology, 33, 210-214, 2005.
 
[25]  De vuyst, L., Avonts, L. and Makras, E, Probiotics, prebiotics and gut health. In: Remacle C. (Ed.), Functional Foods, Ageing and Degenerative Disease, Taylor & Francis Publishers, London, 2004.
 
[26]  Bower, C.K. and Daeschel, M.A, “Resistance responses of microorganisms in food environments”, International Journal of Food Microbiology, 50, 33-44, 1999.
 
[27]  Adebayo, C.O. and Aderiye, B.I, “Antifungal activity of bacteriocins of lactic acid bacteria from some Nigerian fermented foods”, Research Journal of Microbiology, 5, 1070-1082, 2010.
 
[28]  Gerez, C.L., Torino, M.I., Rollán, G. and Font de Valdez G, “Prevention of bread mould spoilage by using lactic acid bacteria with antifungal properties”, Food Control, 20, 144-148, 2009.
 
[29]  Rosalia, T., Luis, B., Emilio, M. and Esther, B, “Lactic acid bacteria from fresh fruit and vegetables as biocontrol agents of phytopathogenic bacteria and fungi”, International Microbiology, 11, 231-236, 2008.
 
[30]  Lavermicocca, P., Valerio, F. and Visconti, A, “Antifungal activity of phenyllactic acid against molds isolated from bakery products”, Applied Environmental Microbiology; 69, 634-640, 2003.
 
Show Less References

Article

In Silico Prediction of a Novel Universal Multi-epitope Peptide Vaccine in the Whole Spike Glycoprotein of MERS CoV

1Department of Biotechnology, Africa city of Technology- Khartoum, Sudan

2Department of medical microbiology, Faculty of Medical Laboratory Sciences, University of Khartoum-Khartoum, Sudan

3Sudan Armed forces hospital- Khartoum, Sudan


American Journal of Microbiological Research. 2016, 4(4), 101-121
doi: 10.12691/ajmr-4-4-2
Copyright © 2016 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Marwan Mustafa Badawi, Maryam Atif SalahEldin, Marwa Mustafa Suliman, Samah Awad AbduRahim, Alaa Abd elghafoor Mohammed, Alaa Salah Aldein SidAhmed, Marwa Mohamed Osman, Mohamed Ahmed Salih. In Silico Prediction of a Novel Universal Multi-epitope Peptide Vaccine in the Whole Spike Glycoprotein of MERS CoV. American Journal of Microbiological Research. 2016; 4(4):101-121. doi: 10.12691/ajmr-4-4-2.

Correspondence to: Marwan  Mustafa Badawi, Department of Biotechnology, Africa city of Technology- Khartoum, Sudan. Email: mmbadwi44new@gmail.com

Abstract

Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) is a new viral emergent human disease caused by a novel strain of Coronavirus. First known case of MERS occurred in Jordan in April 2012, by December 2015, the disease had already struck 1,621 persons of whom 584 died. Despite of the high mortality rate of the infection, there are no clinically approved vaccines or antiviral drugs, thus, the aim of this study is to analyze Spike glycoprotein strains using in silico approaches looking for conservancy, which is further studied to predict all potential epitopes that can be used after in vitro and in vivo confirmation as a therapeutic peptide vaccine. Total of 255 Spike glycoprotein variants retrieved from NCBI database were aligned, to select the conserved regions for epitopes prediction. By means of IEDB analysis resource B and T cell epitopes were predicted and population coverage was calculated. Two epitopes were proposed for international therapeutic peptide vaccine for B cell (GTPPQVY and LTPRSVRSVP). Regarding T cell, FSFGVTQEY epitope was highly recommended as therapeutic peptide vaccine to interact with MHC class I along with eight other epitopes that showed good population coverage against the whole world population. Four epitopes showed high affinity to interact with MHC class II alleles (FNLTLLEPV, FAAIPFAQS, SFAAIPFAQ and FYVYKLQPL) with excellent population coverage throughout the world and Saudi Arabia. Herd immunity protocols can be conducted in countries with low population coverage to minimize the active transmission of the virus especially among people contacting camels and other groups at risk.

Keywords

References

[1]  World Health Organization. Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV). http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/mers-cov/en/.
 
[2]  Memish ZA, Cotten M, Watson SJ, Kellam P, Zumla A, Alhakeem RF, etal. Community Case Clusters of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus in Hafr Al-Batin, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia: A Descriptive Genomic study. Int J Infect Dis. 2014; 23: 63-68.
 
[3]  Cotten M, Watson SJ, Zumla AI, Makhdoom HQ, Palser AL, Ong SH, etal. Spread, circulation, and evolution of the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus. MBio. 2014; 5(1):e01062-13.
 
[4]  Chastel C. Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS): bats or dromedary, which of them is responsible?. Bull Soc Pathol Exot. 2014; 107(2):69-73.
 
[5]  Al-Dorzi HM, Alsolamy S, Arabi YM. Critically ill patients with Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus infection. Crit Care. 2016; 20(1): 65.
 
Show More References
[6]  Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS). http://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/mers/about/index.htm.
 
[7]  World Health Organization Regional Office for the Eastern Mediterranean. New coronavirus identified in two patients in the EMR. Weekly Epidemiologi-cal Monitor. 2012; 5(39) http://www.emro.who.int/images/stories/csr/documents/epi___issue_no__39.coronavirus.pdf.
 
[8]  World Health Organization.Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) – Saudi Arabia. http://www.who.int/csr/don/4-december-2015-mers-saudi-arabia/en/.
 
[9]  Malczyk AH, Kupke A, Prüfer S, Scheuplein VA, Hutzler S, Kreuz D etal. A Highly Immunogenic and Protective Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Vaccine Based on a Recombinant Measles Virus Vaccine Platform. J Virol. 2015; 89(22):11654-67.
 
[10]  Scobey T, Yount BL, Sims AC, Donaldson EF, Agnihothram SS, Menachery VD, etal. Reverse genetics with a full-length infectious cDNA of the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus. Proc Natl Acad Sci. 2013; 110(40):16157-62.
 
[11]  Public Health England. Risk assessment of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV). https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data 505701/MERS-COV_RA_Mar2016_240216_RP__3_.pdf.
 
[12]  Song F, Fux R, Provacia LB, Volz A, Eickmann M, Becker S, etal. Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus spike protein delivered by modified vaccinia virus Ankara efficiently induces virus-neutralizing antibodies. J Virol. 2013;87(21):11950-4.
 
[13]  Memish ZA, Cotten M, Meyer B, Watson SJ, Alsahafi AJ, Al Rabeeah AA, etal. Human infection with MERS coronavirus after exposure to infected camels, Saudi Arabia, 2013. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014 Jun; 20(6):1012-5.
 
[14]  Reusken C, Messadi L, Feyisa A, Ularamu H, Godeke G, Danmarwa A, etal. Geographic distribution of MERS coronavirus among dromedary camels, Africa .Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014; 20(8):1370-1374.
 
[15]  Levinson W. Medical Microbiology and Immunology (examination and board review). 8th edition. McGraw-Hill, San Francisco, 2004; p268.
 
[16]  van Boheemen S, de Graaf M, Lauber C, Bestebroer TM, Raj VS, Zaki AM, etal. Genomic characterization of a newly discovered coronavirus associated with acute respiratory distress syndrome in humans. mBio. 2012; 3(6):e00473-12.
 
[17]  Qian Z, Dominguez SR, Holmes KV. Role of the Spike Glycoprotein of Human Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in Virus Entry and Syncytia Formation. PLoS One. 2013; 8(10): e76469.
 
[18]  Gierer S, Bertram S, Kaup F, Wrensch F, Heurich A, Krämer-Kühl A, etal. The spike protein of the emerging betacoronavirus EMC uses a novel coronavirus receptor for entry, can be activated by TMPRSS2, and is targeted by neutralizing antibodies. J Virol. 2013 May; 87(10):5502-11.
 
[19]  Shi J, Zhang J, Li S, Sun J, Teng Y, Wu M, etal. Epitope-Based Vaccine Target Screening against Highly Pathogenic MERS-CoV: An In Silico Approach Applied to Emerging Infectious Diseases. PLoS One. 2015; 10(12): e0144475.
 
[20]  de Groot RJ, Baker SC, Baric RS, Brown CS, Drosten C, Enjuanes L, etal. Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV): announcement of the Coronavirus Study Group. J Virol. 2013;87(14):7790-2.
 
[21]  World Health Organization. Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) .http:// www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/mers-cov/en/.
 
[22]  Graham RL, Donaldson EF, Baric RS. A decade after SARS: strategies for controlling emerging coronaviruses. Nat Rev Microbiol. 2013 D; 11(12):836-48.
 
[23]  Ying T, Du L, Ju TW, Prabakaran P, Lau CC, Lu L, etal. Exceptionally potent neutralization of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus by human monoclonal antibodies. J Virol. 2014; 88(14):7796-805.
 
[24]  Wang L, Shi W, Joyce MG, Modjarrad K, Zhang Y, Leung K, etal. Evaluation of candidate vaccine approaches for MERS-CoV. Nat Commun. 2015; 6:7712.
 
[25]  Rappuoli R. Reverse vaccinology. Curr Opin Microbiol. 2000; 3 (5):445-50.
 
[26]  Purcell AW, McCluskey J, Rossjohn J. More than one reason to rethink the use of peptides in vaccine design. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2007; 6(5):404-14.
 
[27]  Hall, T.A. 1999. BioEdit: a user-friendly biological sequence alignment editor and analysis program for Windows 95/98/NT. Nucl. Acids. Symp. Ser. 41:95-98.
 
[28]  Vita R, Overton JA, Greenbaum JA, Ponomarenko J, Clark JD, Cantrell JR, Wheeler DK, Gabbard JL, Hix D, Sette A, Peters B. The immune epitope database (IEDB) 3.0. Nucleic Acids Res. 2014 Oct 9. pii: gku938. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 25300482.
 
[29]  Anayet Hasan, Mehjabeen Hossain and Md. Jibran Alam. A Computational Assay to Design an Epitope-Based Peptide Vaccine Against Saint Louis Encephalitis Virus. Bioinformatics and Biology Insights 2013:7 347-355.
 
[30]  Jens Erik Pontoppidan Larsen, Ole Lund and Morten Nielsen. Improved method for predicting linear B-cell epitopes. Immunome Res. 2006; 2: 2.
 
[31]  Emini EA, Hughes JV, Perlow DS, Boger J. 1985. Induction of hepatitis A virus-neutralizing antibody by a virus-specific synthetic peptide. J Virol 55:836-839.
 
[32]  Kolaskar AS, Tongaonkar PC. 1990. A semi-empirical method for prediction of antigenic determinants on protein antigens. FEBS Lett276:172-174.
 
[33]  Parker JM, Guo D, Hodges RS. 1986. New hydrophilicity scale derived from high-performance liquid chromatography peptide retention data: correlation of predicted surface residues with antigenicity and X-ray-derived accessible sites. Biochemistry 25:5425-5432.PMID: 2430611.
 
[34]  Osman et al. HLA-A, -B, -C, -DRB1, and -DQB1 allele Lineages and Haplotype Frequencies among Saudis. Immunology and Immunogenetics Insights 2014:6 1-6.
 
[35]  Hajeer AH, Sawidan FA, Bohlega S, et al. HLA class I and class II polymorphisms in Saudi patients with myasthenia gravis. Int J Immunogenet. 2009;36: 169-172.
 
[36]  Hajeer AH, Al Balwi MA, Aytül Uyar F, et al. HLA-A, -B, -C, -DBR1 and -DQB1 allele and haplotype frequencies in Saudis using next generation sequencing technique. Tissue Antigens. 2013;82:2520258.
 
[37]  Gonzalez-Galarza FF, Christmas S, Middleton D, Jones AR. Allele frequency net: a database and online repository for immune gene frequencies in worldwide populations. Nucleic Acids Res. 2011;39:D9130D919.
 
[38]  Valluri V, Mustafa M, Santhosh A, et al. Frequencies of HLA-A, HLA-B, HLA-DR, and HLA-DQ phenotypes in the United Arab Emirates population. Tissue Antigens. 2005;66:107-113.
 
[39]  Kim Y, Ponomarenko J, Zhu Z, Tamang D, Wang P, Greenbaum J, Lundegaard C, Sette A, Lund O, Bourne PE, Nielsen M, Peters B. 2012. Immune epitope database analysis resource. NAR.
 
[40]  Nielsen M, Lundegaard C, Worning P, Lauemøller SL, Lamberth K, Buus S, Brunak S, Lund O. 2003. Reliable prediction of T-cell epitopes using neural networks with novel sequence representations. Protein Sci 12:1007-1017.
 
[41]  Lundegaard C, Lamberth K, Harndahl M, Buus S, Lund O, and Nielsen M. 2008. NetMHC-3.0: Accurate web accessible predictions of Human, Mouse, and Monkey MHC class I affinities for peptides of length 8-11. NAR 36:W509-512.
 
[42]  Peters B, Sette A. 2005. Generating quantitative models describing the sequence specificity of biological processes with the stabilized matrix method. BMC Bioinformatics 6:132.
 
[43]  Sidney J, Assarsson E, Moore C, Ngo S, Pinilla C, Sette A, Peters B. 2008. Quantitative peptide binding motifs for 19 human and mouse MHC class I molecules derived using positional scanning combinatorial peptide libraries. Immunome Res 4:2.
 
[44]  Kim Y, Ponomarenko J, Zhu Z, et al. Immune epitope database analysis resource. Nucleic Acids Research. 2012;40(Web Server issue):W525-W530.
 
[45]  Wang P, Sidney J, Dow C, Mothé B, Sette A, Peters B. 2008. A systematic assessment of MHC class II peptide binding predictions and evaluation of a consensus approach. PLoS Comput Biol. 4(4):e1000048.
 
[46]  Wang P, Sidney J, Kim Y, Sette A, Lund O, Nielsen M, Peters B. 2010. Peptide binding predictions for HLA DR, DP and DQ molecules. BMC Bioinformatics. 11:568.
 
[47]  Pratik Narain Srivastava, Richa Jain, Shyam Dhar Dubey, Sharad Bhatnagar, Nabeel Ahmad. Prediction of Epitope-Based Peptides for Vaccine Development from Coat Proteins GP2 and VP24 of Ebola Virus Using Immunoinformatics, International Journal of Peptide Research and Therapeutics (2016) 22:119-133.
 
[48]  Zhang, Q., Wang, P., Kim, Y., Haste-Andersen, P., Beaver, J., Bourne, P. E. et al. (2008). Immune epitope database analysis resource (IEDB-AR).Nucleic Acids Research36(Web Server issue), W513-W518.
 
[49]  Bui HH,Sidney J, Dinh K, Southwood S, Newman MJ, Sette A. Predicting population coverage of T-cell epitope-based diagnostics and vaccines. BMC Bioinformatics. 2006 Mar 17;7:153.
 
[50]  The Phyre2 web portal for protein modeling, prediction and analysis Kelley LA et al. Nature Protocols 10, 845-858 (2015).
 
[51]  UCSF Chimera--a visualization system for exploratory research and analysis. Pettersen EF, Goddard TD, Huang CC, Couch GS, Greenblatt DM, Meng EC, Ferrin TE. J Comput Chem. 2004 Oct;25(13):1605-12.
 
[52]  Bachler, B.C.; Humbert, M.; Palikuqi, B.; Siddappa, N.B.; Lakhashe, S.K.; Rasmussen, R.A.; Ruprecht, R.M. Novel biopanning strategy to identify epitopes associated with vaccine protection. J. Virol. 2013, 87, 4403-4416.
 
[53]  Perrie, Y.; Kirby, D.; Bramwell, V.W.; Mohammed, A.R. Recent developments in particulate-based vaccines. Recent Pat. Drug Deliv. Formul. 2007, 1, 117-129.
 
[54]  Black, M.; Trent, A.; Tirrell, M.; Olive, C. Advances in the design and delivery of peptide subunit vaccines with a focus on toll-like receptor agonists. Expert Rev. Vaccines 2010, 9, 157-173.
 
[55]  Sesardic, D. Synthetic peptide vaccines. J. Med. Microbiol. 1993, 39, 241-242.
 
[56]  Liu, Y.; McNevin, J.; Zhao, H.; Tebit, D.M.; Troyer, R.M.; McSweyn, M.; Ghosh, A.K.; Shriner, D.; Arts, E.J.; McElrath, M.J.; et al. Evolution of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 cytotoxic T-lymphocyte epitopes: Fitness-balanced escape. J. Virol. 2007, 81, 12179-12188.
 
[57]  Kolesanova, E.F.; Sanzhakov, M.A.; Kharybin, O.N. Development of the schedule for multiple parallel -difficult Peptide synthesis on pins. Int. J. Pept. 2013.
 
[58]  Epstein, J.E.; Giersing, B.; Mullen, G.; Moorthy, V.; Richie, T.L. Malaria vaccines: Are we getting closer? Curr. Opin. Mol. Ther. 2007, 9, 12-24.
 
[59]  Volpina, O.M.; Gelfanov, V.M.; Yarov, A.V.; Surovoy, A.Y.; Chepurkin, A.V.; Ivanov, V.T. New virus-specific T-helper epitopes of foot-and-mouth disease viral VP1 protein. FEBS Lett. 1993, 333, 175-178.
 
[60]  Tarradas, J.; Monso, M.; Munoz, M.; Rosell, R.; Fraile, L.; Frías, M.T.; Domingo, M.; Andreu, D.; Sobrino, F.; Ganges, L. Partial protection against classical swine fever virus elicited by dendrimeric vaccine-candidate peptides in domestic pigs. Vaccine 2011, 29, 4422-4429.
 
[61]  Stanekova, Z.; Kiraly, J.; Stropkovska, A.; Mikušková, T.; Mucha, V.; Kostolanský, F.; Varečková, E. Heterosubtypic protective immunity against influenza a virus induced by fusion peptide of the hemagglutinin in comparison to ectodomain of M2 protein. Acta Virol. 2011, 55, 61-67.
 
[62]  Oscherwitz, J.; Yu, F.; Cease, K.B. A synthetic peptide vaccine directed against the 2ss2–2ss3 loop of domain 2 of protective antigen protects rabbits from inhalation anthrax. J. Immunol. 2010, 185, 3661-3668.
 
[63]  Solares, A.M.; Baladron, I.; Ramos, T.; Valenzuela, C.; Borbon, Z.; Fanjull, S.; Gonzalez, L.; Castillo, D.; Esmir, J.; Granadillo, M.; et al. Safety and immunogenicity of a human papillomavirus peptide vaccine (CIGB-228) in women with high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia: first-in-human, proof-of-concept trial. ISRN Obstet. Gynecol. 2011.
 
[64]  Bernhardt, S.L.; Gjertsen, M.K.; Trachsel, S.; Møller, M.; Eriksen, J.A.; Meo, M.; Buanes, T.; Gaudernack, G. Telomerase peptide vaccination of patients with non-resectable pancreatic cancer: A dose escalating phase I/II study. Br. J. Cancer 2006, 95, 1474-1482.
 
[65]  Brunsvig, P.F.; Aamdal, S.; Gjertsen, M.K.; Kvalheim, G.; Markowski-Grimsrud, C.J.; Sve, I.; Dyrhaug, M.; Trachsel, S.; Møller, M.; Eriksen, J.A.; et al. Telomerase peptide vaccination: A phase I/II study in patients with non-small cell lung cancer. Cancer Immunol. Immunother. 2006, 55, 1553-1564.
 
[66]  Brunsvig, P.F.; Kyte, J.A.; Kersten, C.; Sundstrøm, S.; Møller, M.; Nyakas, M.; Hansen, G.L.; Gaudernack, G.; Aamdal, S. Telomerase peptide vaccination in NSCLC: A phase II trial in stage III patients vaccinated after chemoradiotherapy and an 8-year update on a phase I/II trial. Clin. Cancer Res. 2011, 17, 6847-6857.
 
[67]  Kyte, J.A.; Gaudernack, G.; Dueland, S.; Trachsel, S.; Julsrud, L.; Aamdal, S. Telomerase peptide vaccination combined with temozolomide: A clinical trial in stage IV melanoma patients. Clin. Cancer Res. 2011, 17, 4568-4580.
 
[68]  Greten, T.F.; Forner, A.; Korangy, F.; N’Kontchou, G.; Barget, N.; Ayuso, C.; Ormandy, L.A.; Manns, M.P.; Beaugrand, M.; Bruix, J. A phase II open label trial evaluating safety and efficacy of a telomerase peptide vaccination in patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma. BMC Cancer 2010, 10, e209.
 
[69]  Kyte, J.A.; Trachsel, S.; Risberg, B.; Thor, S.P.; Lislerud, K.; Gaudernack, G. Unconventional cytokine profiles and development of T cell memory in long-term survivors after cancer vaccination. Cancer Immunol. Immunother. 2009, 58, 1609-1626. 25.
 
[70]  Du L, Zhao G, Yang Y, Qiu H, Wang L, Kou Z, et al. A conformation-dependent neutralizing monoclonal antibody specifically targeting receptor-binding domain in Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus spike protein. J Virol2014;88:7045-53.
 
[71]  Jiang L, Wang N, Zuo T, Shi X, Poon KM, Wu Y, et al. Potent neutralizationof MERS-CoV by human neutralizing monoclonal antibodies to the viral spikeglycoprotein. Sci Transl Med 2014;6:234ra59.
 
[72]  Ying T, Du L, Ju TW, Prabakaran P, Lau CC, Lu L, et al. Exceptionally potent neutralization of middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus by human monoclonal antibodies. J Virol 2014;88:7796-805.
 
[73]  Zhang N, Jiang S, Du L. Current advancements and potential strategies in thedevelopment of MERS-CoV vaccines. Expert Rev Vaccines 2014;13:761-74.
 
[74]  Mou H, Raj VS, van Kuppeveld FJ, Rottier PJ, Haagmans BL, Bosch BJ. The receptor binding domain of the new Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus maps to a 231-residue region in the spike protein that efficiently elicits neutralizing antibodies. J Virol 2013;87:9379-83.
 
[75]  Du L, Zhao G, Kou Z, Ma C, Sun S, Poon VK, et al. Identification of a receptor-binding domain in the S protein of the novel human coronavirus Middle Eastrespiratory syndrome coronavirus as an essential target for vaccine develop-ment. J Virol 2013;87:9939-42.
 
[76]  Tuhin ali et al, Bioinformation 10(8): 533-538 (2014).
 
[77]  Wang, L. et al. Evaluation of candidate vaccine approaches for MERS-CoV. Nat. Commun. 6:7712.
 
Show Less References

Article

Antimicrobial Sensitivity Pattern of Escherichia coli Causing Urinary Tract Infection in Bangladeshi Patients

1Department of Microbiology, Delta Medical College

2Department of Nephrology, Bangladesh Medical College & Hospital


American Journal of Microbiological Research. 2016, 4(4), 122-125
doi: 10.12691/ajmr-4-4-3
Copyright © 2016 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Nayareen Akhtar, Rezwanur Rahman, Shahin Sultana. Antimicrobial Sensitivity Pattern of Escherichia coli Causing Urinary Tract Infection in Bangladeshi Patients. American Journal of Microbiological Research. 2016; 4(4):122-125. doi: 10.12691/ajmr-4-4-3.

Correspondence to: Nayareen  Akhtar, Department of Microbiology, Delta Medical College. Email: nayareen07@gmail.com

Abstract

Objectives: Urinary tract infection (UTI) is a common bacterial infection in the Bangladesh community. There has been an increasing resistance by Escherichia coli to the commonly available antibiotics. The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of UTI, the common causative bacteria & antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of E. coli responsible for urinary tract infections (UTIs) to currently used antimicrobial agents. Methods and Results: In this study, three hundred urine specimens from clinically suspected UTI patients were collected from both outpatient and inpatient department during the period of February 2015 to January 2016 from a tertiary level hospital in the central part of country. The inclusion criteria included patients presenting with symptoms suggestive of UTI at the study site and who gave informed written consent to participate in the study. The exclusion criteria included patients on antibiotics within the last 2 weeks, and those with recent history of instrumentation. The urine samples received were processed using standard methods. Antimicrobial sensitivity patterns were performed on all E. coli isolates obtained from urine samples by disc diffusion method. Among 300 urine samples, (59%) yielded significant bacteriuria; 123 samples (41%) showed no growth. Out of 177 urine samples which showed significant bacterial growth, 72 (40.7%) samples comprised of males and 105 (59.3%) of females. Females within the age group of 20–29 years(26.67%) and elderly males of ≥60 years(34.7%) showed higher prevalence of UTI. 75.7% of isolates were found to be Escherichia coli, 7.9% Klebsiella pneumoniae, 5.6% Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa 5.1%, 1.7% Enterococci faecalis, 2.8% Staphylococci saprophyticus and 1.1% were Staphylococcus aureus. E. coli as the predominant cause of UTI, showed the highest percentage of resistance to co-trimoxazole, nalidixic acid and amoxicillin. The isolates were most sensitive to Imipenam, Meropenam, Nitrofurantoin and Amikacin. Klebsiella pneumoniae was the second most prevalent pathogen. Conclusion: E. coli was the most frequent isolate. Imipenam, Meropenam, Nitrofurantoin and Amikacin were shown to be very effective against E. coli organisms.

Keywords

References

[1]  Levi ME, Redington J, Barth L. The Patient With Urinary Tract Infection. Manual of Nephrology 6th Edition. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. 2005; 7: 91.
 
[2]  Delanghe J, Kouri TT, Huber AR, Hannemann-Pohl K, Guder WG, Lun A, et al. The role of automated urine particle flow cytometry in clinical practice. Clin Chim Acta 2000; 301: 1-18.
 
[3]  Johnson EK, Wolf JS. Urinary Tract Infections in Pregnancy. [Accessed October 12, 2013]; Medscape. Available from: http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/452604-overview.
 
[4]  Patterson TF, Andriole VT. Bacteriuria in pregnancy. Infect Dis Clin North Am. 1987;1(4):807-822.
 
[5]  Schieve LA, Handler A, Hershow R, Persky V, Daris F. Urinary tract infection during pregnancy: its association with maternal morbidity and perinatal outcome. Am J Public Health. 1994; 84(3): 405-410.
 
Show More References
[6]  Gupta KAD, Hooton CL, Wobe, Stamm WE, 1999. The prevalence of antimicrobial resistance among uropathogens causing uncomplicated cystitisin young women. International Journal ofAntimicrobial agents 11: 305-308.
 
[7]  Nicole W, Jon DM. Deciphering Dysuria. Emerg Med. 2008; 40(9): 29.
 
[8]  Pezzlo M. Detection of urinary tract infection by rapid methods. Clin Microbiol Rev 1988;3:268-80.
 
[9]  Bonadio M, Meini M, Spetaleri P, Gilgi C. Current microbiological and clinical aspects of urinary tract infections. Eur J Urol 2001;40:439-45.
 
[10]  Cunningham FG, Gant NF, Leveno KJ, Gilstrap LC, III, Hauth JC, Wenstrom KD. Renal and Urinary Tract Disorders. In: Andrea Seils, Noujaim SR, Daris K., editors. Williams Obstetrics. 21st ed. New York: McGraw-Hill Medical Publishing Divsion; 2001. pp. 1251-1272.
 
[11]  Arias F. Abnormalities of the urinary system during pregnancy. In: Daftary SN, Bhide AG, editors.Practical Guide to High Risk Pregnancy and Delivery. A South Asian Perspective. 3rd ed. New Delhi: Elsevier; 2008. pp. 489-505.
 
[12]  Blondeau JM. Current issues in the management of urinary tract infections: extended-release ciprofloxacin as a novel treatment option. Drugs. 2004; 64(6): 611-28.
 
[13]  National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards. Performance standards for antimicrobial disc susceptibility tests. 7th ed. Wayne, Pennsylvania, USA: NCCLS; 2000. M2-A7.
 
[14]  Abdul IF, Onile BA. Bacterial isolates from urine of women in Ilorin and their antibiotic susceptibility patterns. Trop J Obstet Gynaecol. 2001;18(2):61-65.
 
[15]  Arias F. Abnormalities of the urinary system during pregnancy. In: Daftary SN, Bhide AG, editors.Practical Guide to High Risk Pregnancy and Delivery. A South Asian Perspective. 3rd ed. New Delhi: Elsevier; 2008. pp. 489–505.
 
[16]  Goldstein FW. Antibiotic susceptibility of bacterial strains isolated from patients with community-acquired urinary tract infections in France. Multicentre Study Group. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2000; 19:112-7.
 
[17]  Ezechi OC, Fasubaa OB, Dare FO. Antibiotic sensitivity patterns of microbial Isolates from urine of pregnant women with urinary tract infections. Trop J Obstet Gynaecol. 2003;20(2):113-115.
 
[18]  Ashkenazi S, EvenTov S, Samra Z, et al. Uropathogens of various childhood populations and their antibiotic susceptibility. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 1991; 10: 742-6.
 
[19]  Grude N, Tveten Y, Kristiansen BE. Urinary tract infections in Norway: bacterial etiology and susceptibility, a retrospective study of clinical isolates. Clin Microbiol Infect 2001;7:543-7.
 
[20]  Kripke C. Duration of therapy for women with uncomplicated UTI. Am Fam Physician 2005;72:2219.
 
[21]  Daniel F. Sahm, Clyde Thornsberry, David C. Mayfield,Mark E. Jones, James A. Karlowsky, 2001.Multidrug-Resistant Urinary Tract Isolates of Escherichia coli: Prevalence and Patient Demographics in the United States. Journal of Antimicrobial Agents Chemotherapy Vol. 45;5: 1402-1406.
 
[22]  Nicolle LE, 2001. Epidemiology of urinary tract infection, Journal of Infection Medicine,18:153-162.
 
[23]  J. G. Collee, R. S. Miles, and B. Watt, “Tests for the identification of bacteria,” in Mackie and Mc Artney Practical Medical Microbiology, J. G. Collee, A. G. Fraser, B. P. Marmion, and A. Simmons, Eds., p. 433, Churchill Livingstone, London, UK, 1996.
 
[24]  V. Rajalakshmi and V. Amsaveni, “Antibiotic susceptibility of bacterial pathogens isolated from diabetic patients,” International Journal of Microbiological Research, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 30-32, 2012.
 
[25]  S. Sood and R. Gupta.Antibiotic resistance pattern of community acquired uropathogens at a tertiary care hospital in Jaipur, Rajasthan. Indian Journal of Community Medicine. 2012. 37(1): 39-44.
 
[26]  O. A. Aiyegoro, O. O. Igbinosa, I. N. Ogunmwonyi, E. Odjadjaro, O. E. Igbinosa, and A. I. Okoh, “Incidence of urinary tract infections (UTI) among children and adolescents in Ile-Ife, Nigeria,” African Journal of Microbiological Research, vol. 1, pp. 13-19, 2007.
 
[27]  K. C. Arul, K. G. Prakasam, D. Kumar, and M. Vijayan, “A cross sectional study on distribution of urinary tract infection and their antibiotic utilization pattern in Kerala,” International Journal of Research in Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Sciences, vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 1125-1130, 2012.
 
[28]  B. A. M. Adedeji and O. A. Abdulkadir. Etiology and antimicrobial resistance pattern of bacterial agents of urinary tract infections in students of tertiary institution in Yola metropolis. Advances in Biological Researchno. 2009.3. (4): 67-70.
 
[29]  I. Shaifali, U. Gupta, S. E. Mahmood, and J. Ahmed. Antibiotic susceptibility patterns of urinary pathogens in female outpatients. North American Journal of Medical Sciences. 2012. 4(4): 163-169.
 
[30]  T. M. Hooton, D. Scholes, J. P. Hughes et al.A prospective study of risk factors for symptomatic urinary tract infection in young women. The New England Journal of Medicine.1996. 335. (7): 468-474.
 
[31]  Jawetz, E. and Melnick, 1995. Clinical correlations: urinary tract in Medical Microbiology, 20th Ed. London, UK, PrenticeHall Intl Inc. p. 634.
 
[32]  S. Shankel, Urinary Tract Infections Genitourinary Disorders, The Merck Manuals Online Medical Library, 2007.
 
[33]  K. Shigemura, K. Tanaka, H. Okada et al., “Pathogen occurrence and antimicrobial susceptibility of urinary tract infection cases during a 20-year period (1983-2002) at a single institution in Japan,”Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases, vol. 58, no. 5, pp. 303-308, 2005.
 
[34]  M. Dash, S. Padhi, I. Mohanty, P. Panda, and B. Parida, “Antimicrobial resistance in pathogens causing urinary tract infections in a rural community of Odisha, India,” Journal of Family and Community Medicine, vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 20-26, 2013.
 
[35]  O. Omigie, L. Okoror, P. Umolu, and G. Ikuuh, “Increasing resistance to quinolones: a four-year prospective study of urinary tract infection pathogens,” International Journal of General Medicine, vol. 2, pp. 171-175, 2009.
 
[36]  E. M. Abubakar, “Antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of pathogenic bacteria causing urinary tract infections at the Specialist Hospital, Yola, Adamawa State, Nigeria,” Journal of Clinical Medicine Research, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 001-008, 2009.
 
[37]  Johnson JR.Virulence factors in Escherichia coli urinary tract infection.Clin Microbiol Rev.1991;4(1):80-128.
 
[38]  M. Sharifian, A. Karimi, S. R. Tabatabaei, and N. Anvaripour, “Microbial sensitivity pattern in urinary tract infections in children: a single center experience of 1,177 urine cultures, Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases, vol. 59, no. 6, pp. 380-382, 2006.
 
[39]  E. M. Abubakar, “Antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of pathogenic bacteria causing urinary tract infections at the Specialist Hospital, Yola, Adamawa State, Nigeria,” Journal of Clinical Medicine Research, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 001-008, 2009.
 
[40]  J. C. Uwaezuoke and N. Ogbulie, “Antibiotic sensitivity pattern of urinary tract pathogens in Port-Harcourt, Nigeria,” Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management, vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 103-107, 2006.
 
[41]  Majumder MI, Ahmed T, Hossain D, Begum SA. Bacteriology and antibiotic sensitivity patterns of urinary tract infections in a tertiary hospital in Bangladesh. Mymensingh Med J. 2014 Jan; 23(1):99-104.
 
[42]  Khotaii Q, Mamishi S, Saligeh RN. Antibiotic resistance of germs isolated from urinary tract infections. Iran J Pediatr 2002;12:28-32.
 
[43]  Garau J, Xercavins M, Rodriguez-Carballeira M, Gomez-Vera JR, Coll I, Vidal D, et al. Emergence and dissemination of quinoloneresistant Escherichia coli in the community. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 1999; 43: 2736-41.
 
[44]  Natsch S, Conrad C, Hartmeier C, Schmid B. Use of amoxicillin-clavulanate and resistance in Escherichia coli over a 4-year period. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 1998;19:653-6.
 
[45]  N. Goel, U. Chaudhary, R. Aggarwal, and K. Bala, “Antibiotic sensitivity pattern of gram negative bacilli isolated from the lower respiratory tract of ventilated patients in the intensive care unit,” Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine, vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 148-151, 2009.
 
[46]  M.-L. Joly-Guillou, M. Kempf, J.-D. Cavallo et al., “Comparative in vitro activity of Meropenem, Imipenem and Piperacillin /tazobactam against 1071 clinical isolates using 2 different methods: a French multicentre study,” BMC Infectious Diseases, vol. 10, article 1471, 2010
 
[47]  A. J. Al-Zahran and N. Akhtar, “Susceptibility patterns of extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae isolated in a teaching hospital,” Pakistan Journal of Medical Research, vol. 44, pp. 64-67, 2005.
 
Show Less References