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The Future Challenges Facing Antimicrobial Therapy: Resistance and Persistence

1Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Minia University, Minia Egypt

American Journal of Microbiological Research. 2016, 4(1), 1-15
doi: 10.12691/ajmr-4-1-1
Copyright © 2016 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Dr. Rehab Mahmoud abd El-Baky. The Future Challenges Facing Antimicrobial Therapy: Resistance and Persistence. American Journal of Microbiological Research. 2016; 4(1):1-15. doi: 10.12691/ajmr-4-1-1.

Correspondence to: Dr.  Rehab Mahmoud abd El-Baky, Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Minia University, Minia Egypt. Email:


The emergence of resistance to antimicrobial agents is a pressing concern for human health that increases the need for the development of novel antimicrobial drugs. Antimicrobial resistance means that microorganism keep on growing even in the presence of a drug due to specific defense mechanisms [e.g. efflux-pumps]. Many of infectious diseases are difficult to be treated with antimicrobials not due to resistance but persisters [non-multiplying cells]. Distinction is important as persistent cells need an entirely design of new antimicrobial agents. Non-multiplying cells, do not cause overt disease but prolong the duration of therapy, increasing the chance of the emergence of resistance [i.e. bacterial or fungal biofilms and latent tuberculosis] resulting in therapy failure. Persisters are phenotypic variants of the wild type that present in all microorganisms which are able to survive antimicrobial treatment without acquiring resistance-conferring genetic changes and upon re-growth they produce a population of sensitive cells and new persisters. Persistence may arise spontaneously regardless to the presence of drug or environmentally induced due to starvation, DNA damage, oxidative stress and quorum sensing. Many approaches targeting non-multipliers would shorten the duration of therapy and decrease the emergence of resistance. Some depends on studying the effectiveness of the existing therapeutics against non-multipliers [i.e. pyrazinamide and gatifloxacin] and others depend on the discovery of new compounds targeting microbial genes that might be essential to non-multipliers viability or specific enzymatic or metabolic pathway [i.e. TG44 targets outer membrane of Helicobacter pylori and TMC207 targets proton pump of the ATP synthetase in Mycobacterium tuberculosis]. Clinical trials and studies are needed to produce a marketed antimicrobial agent active against both multiplying and non multiplying organisms and to know whether the approach of targeting non-multiplying bacteria is clinically relevant and will produce compounds that reduce the rate of emergence of bacterial resistance.



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Antibacterial Activity of Essential Oils and in Combination with Some Standard Antimicrobials against Different Pathogens Isolated from Some Clinical Specimens

1Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Deraya University, Minia, Egypt

2Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Minia University

3Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Hail University, KSA

American Journal of Microbiological Research. 2016, 4(1), 16-25
doi: 10.12691/ajmr-4-1-2
Copyright © 2016 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Abobakr M. Mahmoud, Rehab Mahmoud Abd El-Baky, Abo Bakr F Ahmed, Gamal Fadl Mahmoud Gad. Antibacterial Activity of Essential Oils and in Combination with Some Standard Antimicrobials against Different Pathogens Isolated from Some Clinical Specimens. American Journal of Microbiological Research. 2016; 4(1):16-25. doi: 10.12691/ajmr-4-1-2.

Correspondence to: Rehab  Mahmoud Abd El-Baky, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Minia University. Email:


The clinical effectiveness of most of the marketed antimicrobials is found to be threatened by the rapid emergence of multidrug resistant pathogens which increase the need to find alternatives. Hundred years ago, essential oils have been known for their biologic activities in the folkloric medicine in many countries. The objective of our study was to investigate the antibacterial activity of some essential oils against different microorganisms and to study the possible effects between the tested oils and some standard antimicrobials. The antibacterial activity of 11 essential oils was evaluated against Staphylococcus aureus, E. coli, Klebseilla pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa and 50 clinical strains isolated from different infections each alone and in combination with some standard antimicrobials using well diffusion method. Minimum inhibitory concentrations were determined using linear regression analysis. Results showed that all tested essential oils have good antimicrobial activity. As Coriander oil showed the highest antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and E.coli followed by Origanum and Ivy oil. Cumin oil showed the highest activity against E. coli followed by Origanum oil while Chammomile and Onion oil showed the highest activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In-vitro interaction between the tested antimicrobials and oils showed variable results against the tested bacteria. The results are of significance in health care system and microbial diseases treatment. As our study showed that essential oils possessed good antimicrobial activity against the tested strains. Most of essential oils/antimicrobials combinations showed synergistic effects. Essential oils can be used as adjuvant to antibiotic therapy.



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Multiple Heavy Metal and Antibiotic Resistance of Acinetobacter baumannii Strain HAF – 13 Isolated from Industrial Effluents

1Department of Botany and Microbiology, Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt

2Department of Biology, Faculty of Science and Arts, Northern Border University (Rafha), Saudi Arabia

American Journal of Microbiological Research. 2016, 4(1), 26-36
doi: 10.12691/ajmr-4-1-3
Copyright © 2016 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Mohamed Helal El-Sayed. Multiple Heavy Metal and Antibiotic Resistance of Acinetobacter baumannii Strain HAF – 13 Isolated from Industrial Effluents. American Journal of Microbiological Research. 2016; 4(1):26-36. doi: 10.12691/ajmr-4-1-3.

Correspondence to: Mohamed  Helal El-Sayed, Department of Botany and Microbiology, Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt. Email:


The emergence of multiple metal/antibiotic resistance among bacterial populations poses a potential threat to human health. Heavy metal and antibiotic resistance have been shown to have a strong correlation in nature, and their inter-relation is an important subject of study. The present study had an objective to isolate and identify multiple metal/antibiotic resistant bacteria from industrial wastewater of a Plastic Factory at Hafar Al Baten governorate, Saudi Arabia. Initially a total of 14 bacterial cultures (coded HAF – 1 to HAF – 14) were isolated on nutrient agar plates supplemented with different concentrations; 10, 15, 25, 25 and 30 mg/l of the five heavy metals; Hg2+, Pb2+, Cd2+, As5+ and Cr6+ respectively. Out of 14 isolates, 5 (35.71 %) isolates (HAF – 2, HAF – 6, HAF – 7, HAF – 9 & HAF – 13) were selected as a multiple heavy metal resistant (MHMR) organisms with maximum tolerable concentrations (MTCs); 75 – 100 mg/l for Hg2+, 125 – 175 mg/l for Pb2+, 200 mg/l for Cd2+ and 200 – 250 mg/l for Cr6+ and As5+. Antibiotic resistance pattern of the selected MHMR isolates was determined by Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method against 15 different antibiotics belonging to 10 classes. Out of 5 isolates, 4 (80 %) isolates were multiple antibiotic resistance (MAR) with varying degrees. Among them isolate, HAF – 13 showed a wide range of resistance to all tested antibiotics; Amikacin, Augmentin, Ceftazidime, Chloramphenicol, Ciprofloxacin, Clindamycin, Cotrimoxazole, Erythromycin, Gentamicin, Levofloxacin, Oxacillin, Tetracycline, Vancomycin and Penicillin Gexcept Imipenem. Strain HAF – 13 was selected for its multiple metal/antibiotic resistance and identified by morphological, physiological and biochemical characteristics in addition to the phylogenetic analysis of the nucleotide sequence of 16S rRNA gene, which indicated that this strain is belonged to the genus Acinetobacter with high similarity 98% to Acinetobacter baumannii (accession number KU310899.1) and designated Acinetobacter baumannii strain HAF – 13.



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