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Qualitative Phytochemistry and Antibacterial Resistance Pattern of Leaves and Stem Bark Extracts of Jatropha curcas

1Department of Biological Science, Faculty of Science, Federal University Gashua, Yobe State, Nigeria

2Department of Biological Science, Faculty of Science, Nigerian Defence Academy, Kaduna State, Nigeria

3Department of Microbiology and Biotechnology, Faculty of Science, Federal University Dutse, Jigawa State, Nigeria

4Department of Pure and Applied Biology, Faculty of Pure and applied Sciences, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Ogbomoso, Oyo State, Nigeria

American Journal of Microbiological Research. 2016, 4(5), 143-146
doi: 10.12691/ajmr-4-5-3
Copyright © 2016 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Richard Rebecca, Denwe D Samuel, Yerima M.Bello, Olatunde K.Simeon. Qualitative Phytochemistry and Antibacterial Resistance Pattern of Leaves and Stem Bark Extracts of Jatropha curcas. American Journal of Microbiological Research. 2016; 4(5):143-146. doi: 10.12691/ajmr-4-5-3.

Correspondence to: Richard  Rebecca, Department of Biological Science, Faculty of Science, Federal University Gashua, Yobe State, Nigeria. Email:


Jatropha caurcas (Euphorbiaceae) is used in folklore medicine to cure various ailments in Africa, Asia and Latin America. Present study investigated the phytochemical components and antimicrobial activities of Jatropha caurcas against some selected clinical isolates. The leaf and stem bark was macerated successively in ethanol and aqueous solvent for 24 hrs each. Qualitative phytochemistry screening of aqueous and ethanolic solvent extracts of plant materials was conducted using standard methods. The antibacterial susceptibility assay was carried out on three clinical isolates by preparing discs of a standard concentration of aqueous extracts of Jatropha caurcas. Result obtained indicates the presence of some secondary metabolites which are glycosides, flavonoids, phenols, tannin, steroids, reducing sugar and terpenoids. It was observed that alkaloids and saponins were absence in aqueous extract of leaves and stem bark solvent extract but present in stem bark extracts. However, ethanolic leaves extract contains no alkaloids and saponins. Susceptibility pattern of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and Shigella dysentriae was measured to be 17mm, 23mm and 24mm respectively. Present investigation could serve as a panacea for emergence of multidrug resistance bacteria and also, the analysis of the secondary metabolites will provide the pharmacognosy and drug development sector preliminary information about the phytochemical constituent of Jatropha caurcas (Euphorbiaceae).



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Exopolysaccharide (EPS) Production by Exiguobacterium aurantiacum isolated from Marchica Lagoon Ecosystem in Morocco

1Laboratory of Microbiology, Pharmacology, Biotechnology and Environment, University Hassan II, Faculty of Sciences Ain-Chock, route El Jadida, B.P. 5366, Casablanca, Morocco

American Journal of Microbiological Research. 2016, 4(5), 147-152
doi: 10.12691/ajmr-4-5-4
Copyright © 2016 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Y. D. Dah Dossounon, K. Lee, K. Belghmi, F. Benzha, M. Blaghen. Exopolysaccharide (EPS) Production by Exiguobacterium aurantiacum isolated from Marchica Lagoon Ecosystem in Morocco. American Journal of Microbiological Research. 2016; 4(5):147-152. doi: 10.12691/ajmr-4-5-4.

Correspondence to: Y.  D. Dah Dossounon, Laboratory of Microbiology, Pharmacology, Biotechnology and Environment, University Hassan II, Faculty of Sciences Ain-Chock, route El Jadida, B.P. 5366, Casablanca, Morocco. Email:


Exiguobacterium aurantiacum, a member of the Bacilli class, has the ability to synthesize and secrete exopolysaccharides. The strain, isolated from Marchica lagoon in Morocco, produced exopolysaccharide (EPS), mainly during its exponential growth phase but also to a lesser extent during the stationary phase. The optimum pH and temperature for growth and exopolysaccharide (EPS) production were 8 and 37°C respectively, the dry weight of the exopolysaccharides products and biomass was found to be 259. 05 ± 1.48 mg/100ml and 150.25 ± 0. 35 mg/100ml respectively. The partially purified exopolysaccharide (EPS) samples were chemically analyzed. The results showed that the temperature and pH have no effect on the protein amount produced by E. aurantiacum while the carbohydrate amount varied. The functional groups in the partially purified exopolysaccharides were determined by the FT-IR. Because of its ability to produce large quantities of exopolysaccharides; this bacterium may prove to be an excellent model species for the development of biotechnology products.



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Systemic Resistance Induction of Tomato Plants against ToMV Virus by Surfactin Produced from Bacillus subtilis BMG02

1Genetics and Cytology Department , Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology Division, National Research Centre (Affiliation ID : 60014618), Dokki, Giza, Egypt

2Plant Pathology, Botany Departement, Faculty of Agriculture, Minoufia University

3Agricultural Microbiology and Biotechnology, Botany Departement, Faculty of Agriculture, Minoufia University, Shibin El-Kom, Egypt

American Journal of Microbiological Research. 2016, 4(5), 153-158
doi: 10.12691/ajmr-4-5-5
Copyright © 2016 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Walaa Hussein, Hosam Awad, Sameh Fahim. Systemic Resistance Induction of Tomato Plants against ToMV Virus by Surfactin Produced from Bacillus subtilis BMG02. American Journal of Microbiological Research. 2016; 4(5):153-158. doi: 10.12691/ajmr-4-5-5.

Correspondence to: Sameh  Fahim, Agricultural Microbiology and Biotechnology, Botany Departement, Faculty of Agriculture, Minoufia University, Shibin El-Kom, Egypt. Email:


Tomato mosaic virus (ToMV) is a major disease of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) which can strongly reduce tomato yields. Different efforts have been made to control tomato virus infection. Among these efforts is the use of cyclic lipopeptides. The surfactin produced by Bacillus subtilis BMG02 single overproducer strain strongly reduced (ToMV) virus symptoms and was responsible for the elicitation of Induced Systemic Resistance (ISR) in tomato. Treatment with 1000 mg surfactin used as critical antivirial concentration showed a strong symptoms reduction with complete negative ELISA results. The infected seedlings showed the ideal severe symptoms with fully positive ELISA reaction, while both healthy and infected seedlings treated with surfactin showed the same effect of strong symptoms reduction with complete negative ELISA results thus confirming the antivirial activities of surfactin. The hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) pathways have been proven to be involved in the tomato plant defense responses by surfactin treatment, whereas relative gene expression of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) and β 1,3- glucanase 2 (BGL2) involved in SA and JA pathways, respectively increased in treated seedlings compared to infected ones. The healthy seedlings showed very low H2O2 levels compared to infected tomato seedlings. Moreover, high levels of H2O2 were detected in treated seedlings with the same behaviour BGL2 and PAL expression levels due to the relationship between the ISR involved substrates.



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