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American Journal of Microbiological Research is a peer-reviewed, open access journal that provides rapid publication of articles in all areas of microbiological research. The goal of this journal is to provide a platform for scientists and academicians all over the world to promote, share, and discuss various new issues and developments in different areas of microbiological research.

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ISSN (Online): 2328-4137

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16S rRNA Amplicons Survey Revealed Unprecedented Bacterial Community in Solid Biomedical Wastes

1The Nelson Mandela African Institution of Science and Technology, P.O. Box 447, Arusha, Tanzania

2BecA-ILRI Hub International Livestock Research Institute, P. O. Box 30709, Nairobi, Kenya

3Departments of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, W238A Millennium Science Complex University Park, PA 16802, Penn State University, USA

4Huck Institutes of Life Sciences, Department of Veterinary and Biomedical Sciences, 205 Wartik Laboratories, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802, USA

5Genome Sciences Centre, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Sokoine University of Agriculture, Morogoro, Tanzania

American Journal of Microbiological Research. 2015, 3(4), 135-143
doi: 10.12691/ajmr-3-4-3
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Kilaza Samson MWAIKONO, Solomon Maina, Aswathy Sebastian, Vivek Kapur, Paul Gwakisa. 16S rRNA Amplicons Survey Revealed Unprecedented Bacterial Community in Solid Biomedical Wastes. American Journal of Microbiological Research. 2015; 3(4):135-143. doi: 10.12691/ajmr-3-4-3.

Correspondence to: Kilaza  Samson MWAIKONO, The Nelson Mandela African Institution of Science and Technology, P.O. Box 447, Arusha, Tanzania. Email: kilazasmsn24@gmail.com


Despite known risks of inappropriate disposal of biomedical solid waste; most cities in developing countries are still disposing unsorted and untreated solid biomedical waste in common dumpsites. While many studies reported the presence of pathogens in fresh biomedical waste from hospitals, none has reported on the abundance and diversity of bacterial community in aged solid biomedical waste from a common dumpsite. A qualitative survey was done to identify types of solid biomedical waste on the dumpsite. Soils, sludge or washings of biomedical wastes were sampled. Total DNA was extracted and v4 region of 16S rRNA amplicons were sequenced using an Illumina MiSeq platform. A total of 1,706,442 sequences from 15 samples passed quality control. The number of sequences per sample ranged from 70664 to 174456 (mean 121765, SD 35853). Diversity was high with an InvSimpson index of 63 (Range 5 – 496, SD 121). Thirty five phyla were identified, but only 9 accounted for 96% of all sequences. The dominant phyla were Proteobacteria 37.4%, Firmicutes 34.4%, Bacteroidetes 14.1 %, Actinobacteria 5.6% and Chloroflex 1.7%. Catchall analysis predicted a mean of 9399 species per sample. Overall, 31402 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were detected, however, only 19.8% (6,202) OTUs were found more than ten times. The most predominant OTUs were Proteinclasticum (10.4%), Acinetobacter (6.9), Halomonas (3.9), Pseudomonas (1.7%), Escherichia/Shigella 1.5% and Planococcus (1.3%). Proteiniclasticum spp and Acinetobacter spp were found in 67% (10/15) of all samples at relative abundance of 1%. Taxonomic-to-phenotype mapping revealed the presence of 36.2% related to bacteria involved in dehalogenation, 11.6% degraders of aromatic hydrocarbons, 14.8% chitin degraders, 8.5% chlorophenol degradation and Atrazine metabolism 8.3%. Taxonomy-to human pathogen mapping found 34% related to human pathogens and 39.4% were unknown. Conclusions There’s rich and diverse bacterial community in aged solid biomedical waste. Some of the predominant OTUs are related to bacteria of industrial use. We found a good number of OTUs mapping to human pathogens. Most of OTUs mapped to unknown metabolism and also to group unknown whether they human pathogens or not. To our knowledge, this is the first reports on bacteria related to industrial use from solid biomedical waste. This finding will facilitate to design further research using functional metagenomics to better understand the potential of bacteria from aged solid biomedical waste.



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Screening of MRSA in and outside Benghazi Hospitals

1Department of Botany, Faculty of Science, Benghazi University, Libya

2Department of Laboratory, Eye Hospital, Benghazi, Libya

American Journal of Microbiological Research. 2015, 3(4), 144-147
doi: 10.12691/ajmr-3-4-4
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Saleh. H. Baiu, Nadia. E. AL-Abdli. Screening of MRSA in and outside Benghazi Hospitals. American Journal of Microbiological Research. 2015; 3(4):144-147. doi: 10.12691/ajmr-3-4-4.

Correspondence to: Nadia.  E. AL-Abdli, Department of Laboratory, Eye Hospital, Benghazi, Libya. Email: batul.gr155@gmail.com


Background and Purpose: Data on the carriage rate and antibiotic sensitivity pattern of Staphylococcus aureus strains prevalent in the community are not available for many developing countries including Libya. To estimate the extent of community S. aureus transmission, in particular methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), the prevalence of S. aureus nasal colonization in a population of healthy adults was determined. Factors associated with S. aureus nasal carriage and antibiotic sensitivity patterns of the isolates were also analyzed. Methods: A cross-sectional study involving 643 adults was conducted. Nasal swabs were examined for the presence of MRSA. Epidemiological information concerning risk factors for nasal carriage was also obtained. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed using the disk diffusion method according to the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards guidelines. MRSA strains isolated were further subjected to Automated BD Phoenix. Results: Screening for suspected carriers of MRSA showed that most of the healthcare workers (technicians, nurses, and doctors) were asymptomatically MRSA-positive. S. aureus isolates were confirmed by various biochemical tests as per latest CLSI guidelines. Cefoxitin Disk Diffusion test was performed for the detection of methicillin resistance and antibiotic susceptibility was performed against different antibiotics as per CLSI guidelines. Statistical analyses showed that there was no significant relation between MRSA carriage and age and sex of the study population. The prevalence of MRSA nasal carriage was (21.4%) among HCWs, with some differences between hospitals, also prevalence of MRSA nasal carriage was (9.6%) among community. Hospital acquired MRSA were more susceptible to various antibiotics as compared to Community acquired MRSA. Conclusion: MRSA nasal colonization was found to be low outside of the health care environment.



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Physicochemical and Microbiological Assessment of Drinking Water from Different Sources in Junagadh City, India

1Department of Biotechnology, Junagadh Agriculture University, Junagadh

2Department of Genetics, Faculty of Agriculture, Minufiya University, Egypt

3Scientific Research Deanship, Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering Unit, Taif University, KSA

American Journal of Microbiological Research. 2015, 3(4), 148-154
doi: 10.12691/ajmr-3-4-5
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
V.G. Vyas, Mohammad M. Hassan, S.I. Vindhani, H.J. Parmar, V.M. Bhalani. Physicochemical and Microbiological Assessment of Drinking Water from Different Sources in Junagadh City, India. American Journal of Microbiological Research. 2015; 3(4):148-154. doi: 10.12691/ajmr-3-4-5.

Correspondence to: Mohammad  M. Hassan, Department of Genetics, Faculty of Agriculture, Minufiya University, Egypt. Email: khyate_99@yahoo.com


In the present study, physicochemical and microbiological characteristics of the drinking water were determined in November 2014 from different locations in Junagadh region, Gujarat, India. Total 22 water samples were collected from different locations in and around Junagadh city. E.C (Electrical conductivity), TDS (total dissolved solids), Salinity, pH and DO (Dissolve oxygen) were analyzed for different water samples. The results indicated that E.C, TDS and Salinity were highest in W-12. pH, hardness and DO were observed higher in W-5, W-11 and W-6 Samples respectively. Enteric pathogen E. coli was found in samples viz W-22 and Enterobacter was present in the most of water samples. No coliforms were observed in samples number 1, 4, 15, 17, 18, 19 and 20. Total aerobic microbial count was higher in W-10. In conclusions relative to the water adequacy of springs and drills, water tanks and supply network, as well as the possible reasons for water quality problems are presented in the study. Generally, the water quality depends on its chemical and microbiological condition. The water is easily infected during its transportation from the source to the internal water supply network and finally to the consumer. The condition of the water supply networks is a factor which contributes to the water quality.



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