American Journal of Microbiological Research»Articles

Article

Bioinformatic Analysis of Surface Proteins of Streptococcus pneumoniae Serotype 19F for Identification of Vaccine Candidates

1Department of Biotechnology, Razi Vaccine and Serum Research Institute, Karaj, Iran


American Journal of Microbiological Research. 2014, 2(6), 174-177
DOI: 10.12691/ajmr-2-6-2
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Shirin Tarahomjoo. Bioinformatic Analysis of Surface Proteins of Streptococcus pneumoniae Serotype 19F for Identification of Vaccine Candidates. American Journal of Microbiological Research. 2014; 2(6):174-177. doi: 10.12691/ajmr-2-6-2.

Correspondence to: Shirin  Tarahomjoo, Department of Biotechnology, Razi Vaccine and Serum Research Institute, Karaj, Iran. Email: starahomjoo@hotmail.com

Abstract

Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 19F is one of major pneumococcal serotypes responsible for pneumococcal invasive disease in children less than 5 years worldwide. Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) were developed through chemical coupling of capsular polysaccharides of pneumococci to immunogenic carrier proteins and World Health Organization recommends the inclusion of these vaccines in national immunization programs for children. However, costly manufacture of PCVs can prevent their implementation in developing countries. This issue can be addressed by construction of protein based vaccines against pneumococci. Cell surface proteins are key factors in infectious processes of pathogens and are attractive as vaccine candidates. LPxTG motif containing proteins, lipoproteins, and choline binding proteins are among main groups of pneumococcal surface proteins. In this study, therefore, we aim to identify suitable candidates among these proteins for development of proteinaceous vaccines against S. pneumoniae serotype 19F infection using bioinformatic tools. These proteins were then identified in proteome data of S. pneumoniae 19F-14 through BLAST with LPxTG, lipobox consensus motifs, and the choline binding protein consensus sequence. PRED-LIPO online tool was used to confirm the presence of lipoprotein specific signal peptide. The cellular location of the proteins was analyzed with PSORTb v.3.0. Vaxijen v.2.0 was used to evaluate the protein antigenicity. BLAST against human proteome was done to remove the possibility for autoimmunity induction by the proteins. Moreover, the presence of homolog proteins in other pneumococcal serotype 19F strains including S. pneumoniae A026, S. pneumoniae G54, and S. pneumoniae ST556 were investigated. Our analysis revealed that cell wall surface anchor family protein ( YP_002741626.1), D-alanyl-D-alanyl-carboxy peptidase, surface protein PspC, and choline binding protein D are promising candidates for development of protein based vaccines against S. pneumoniae serotype 19F infection.

Keywords

References

[[[[[[[[[
[[1]  Mook-Kanamori, B. B., Geldhoff, M., van der Poll, T. and van de Beek, D, “Pathogenesis and pathophysiology of pneumococcal meningitis,” Clin Microbiol Rev, 24 (3), 557-591, Jul. 2011.
 
[[2]  WHO, “Pneumococcal vaccines, WHO position paper,” Wkly Epidemiol Rec, 87 (14), 129-144, Apr. 2012.
 
[[3]  Johnson, H. L., Deloria-Knoll, M., Levin, R. S. et al, “Systematic evaluation of serotypes causing invasive pneumococcal disease among children under five: the pneumococcal global serotype project,” PLoS Med, 7 (10), e1000348, Oct. 2010.
 
[[4]  Foster, T. J., Geoghegan J. A., Ganesh, V. K. and Hook, M, “Adhesion, invasion and evasion: the many functions of surface proteins of Staphylococcus aureus,” Nature Rev Microbiol, 12 (1), 49-62, Dec. 2014.
 
[[5]  Bergmann, S. and Hammerschmidt, S, “Versatility of pneumococcal surface proteins,” Microbiol, 152 (2), 295-303, Feb. 2006.
 
Show More References
[6]  Leenhouts, K., Buist, G. and Kok, J, “Anchoring of proteins to lactic acid bacteria,” Antonie van Leeuwen, 76 (1-4), 367-376, Jul.-Nov. 1999.
 
[7]  Venema, R., Tjalsma, H., van Dijl, J. M. et al, “Active lipoprotein precursors in the gram positive eubacterium Lactococcus lactis,” J Biol Chem, 278 (17), 14739-14746, Apr. 2003.
 
[8]  Tjalsma, H., Kontinent, V. P., Pragai, Z. et al, “The role of lipoprotein processing by signal peptidase II in the gram-positive eubacterium Bacillus subtilis,” J Biol Chem, 274 (3), 1698-1707, Jan. 1998.
 
[9]  Davis, M. N. and Flower, D. R, “Harnessing bioinformatics to discover new vaccines,” Drug Discov Today, 12 (9-10), 389-395, May 2007.
 
[10]  Kelly, D. F. and Rappuoli, R, Hot topics in infection and immunity in children II, Springer, New York, 2005, 217-223.
 
[11]  Blank, M., Krause, I., Fridkin, M. et al, “Bacterial induction of autoantibodies to β2-glycoprotein-I accounts for the infectious etiology of antiphospholipid syndrome,” J Clin Investig, 109 (6), 797-804, March 2002.
 
[12]  Scheffers, D-J. and Pinho, M. G, “Bacterial cell wall synthesis: new insights from localization studies,” Microb Mol Biol Rev, 69 (4), 585-607, Dec. 2005.
 
[13]  Ogunniyi, A. D., Woodrow, M. C., Poolman, J. T., Paton, J.C, “Protection against Streptococcus pneumoniae elicited by immunization with pneumolysin and CbpA,” Infect Immun, 69 (10), 5997-6003, Oct. 2001.
 
[14]  Kausmally, L., Johnsborg, O., Lunde, M., Knutsen, E. and Havarstein, L. S, “Choline-binding protein D (CbpD) in Streptococcus pneumoniae is essential for competence induced cell lysis,” J Bacteriol, 187 (13), 4338-4345, July 2005.
 
Show Less References

Article

An Application of Polymerase Chain Reaction in Detection of Ammonia Oxidizing Bacteria

1Industrial Waste Water Research Laboratory, Division of Applied & Environmental Microbiology, Enviro Technology Limited, Ankleshwar, Gujarat, India


American Journal of Microbiological Research. 2014, 2(6), 166-173
DOI: 10.12691/ajmr-2-6-1
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
M P. Shah. An Application of Polymerase Chain Reaction in Detection of Ammonia Oxidizing Bacteria. American Journal of Microbiological Research. 2014; 2(6):166-173. doi: 10.12691/ajmr-2-6-1.

Correspondence to: M  P. Shah, Industrial Waste Water Research Laboratory, Division of Applied & Environmental Microbiology, Enviro Technology Limited, Ankleshwar, Gujarat, India. Email: shahmp@uniphos.com

Abstract

The PCR was used as the basis for the development of a sensitive and specific assay for the detection of ammonium-oxidizing bacteria belonging to the beta-subclass of the class Proteobacteria. PCR primers were selected on the basis of nucleic acid sequence data available for seven species of nitrifiers in this subclass. The specificity of the ammonium oxidizer primers was evaluated by testing known strains of nitrifiers, several serotyped environmental nitrifier isolates, and other members of the Proteobacteria, including four very closely related, nonnitrifying species (as determined by rRNA sequence analysis). DNA extracts from 19 different samples collected from effluent treatment plant were assayed for the presence of ammonium oxidizers. By using a two-stage amplification procedure, ammonium oxidizers were detected in samples collected from both sites. Chemical data collected simultaneously support the occurrence of nitrification and the presence of nitrifiers. This report describes PCR primers specific for ammonium-oxidizing bacteria and the successful amplification of nitrifier genes coding for rRNA from DNA extracts from different samples. This application of PCR is of particular importance for the detection and study of microbes, such as autotrophic nitrifiers, which are difficult or impossible to isolate from indigenous microbial communities.

Keywords

References

[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[
[[1]  Rennenberg H, Dannenmann M, Gessler A, Kreuzwiesser J, Simon J, Papen H. 2009. Nitrogen balance in forest soils: nutritional limitation of plants under climate change stresses. Plant Biology, 11, 4-23.
 
[[2]  Shen J P, Zhang L M, Di H J, He J Z. 2012. A review of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria and archaea in Chinese soils. Frontiers in Microbiology, doi: 10.3389/fmicb. 00296, 1-7.
 
[[3]  Miao Y X, Bobby A S, Zhang F S. 2011. Long-term experiments for sustainable nutrient management in China. A review of Agronomy Sustain, 31, 397-414.
 
[[4]  Chanasyk D S, Whitson I R, Mapfumo E, Burke J M, Prepas E E. 2003. The impacts of forest harvest and wildfire on soils and hydrology in temperate forests: a baseline to develop hypotheses for the Boreal Plain. Journal of Environmental Engineering and Science, 2, 51-62.
 
[[5]  Grigal D F. 2000. Effects of extensive forest management on soil productivity. Forest Ecology and Management, 138, 167-185.
 
Show More References
[6]  Prosser J I.1989. Autotrophic nitrification in bacteria. Advances in Microbial Physiology, 30, 125-181.
 
[7]  Wrage N, Velthof G L, van Beusichem M L, Oenema O. 2001. Role of nitrifier denitrification in the production of nitrous oxide. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 33, 1723-1732.
 
[8]  Kowalchuk GA, Stephen JR. 2001. Ammonia-oxidizing bacteria: a model for molecular microbial ecology. Annual Review of Microbiology, 55,485-529.
 
[9]  Shen X Y, Zhang L M, Shen J P, Li L H, Yuan C L, He J Z. 2011. Nitrogen loading levels affect abundance and composition of soil ammonia oxidizing prokaryotes in semi-arid temperate grassland. Journal of Soil Sediment, 11, 1243-1252.
 
[10]  Kowalchuk G A, Stephen J R, De Boer W, Prosser J I, Embley T M, Woldendorp J W. 1997. Analysis of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria of the beta subdivision of the class Proteobacteria in coastal sand dunes by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and sequencing of PCR- amplified 16S ribosomal DNA fragments. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 63, 1489-1497.
 
[11]  Bäckman J S K, Klemedtsson A K, Klemedtsson L, Lindgren P. 2004. Clear-cutting affects the ammonia-oxidizing community differently in limed and non-limed coniferous forest soils. Biology and Fertility of Soils, 40, 260-267.
 
[12]  Hastings R C, Ceccherini M T, Miclaus N, Saunders J R, Bazzicalupo M, McCarthy A J. 1997. Direct molecular biological analysis of ammonia oxidizing bacteria populations in cultivated soil plots treated with swine manure. FEMS Microbiology Ecology, 23, 45-54.
 
[13]  Mintie A T, Heichen R S, Cromack K, Myrold D D, Bottomley P J. 2003. Ammonia-oxidizing bacteria along meadow-to-forest transects in the Oregon cascade mountains. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 69, 3129-3136.
 
[14]  Avrahami S, Conrad R. 2005. Cold-temperature climate: a factor for selection of ammonia oxidizers in upland soil? Canadian Journal of Microbiology, 51, 709-714.
 
[15]  Backman J S K, Hermansson A, Tebbe C C. Liming induces growth of a diverse flora of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria in acid spruce forest soil as determined by SSCP and DGGE. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 2003, 35, 1337-1347.
 
[16]  Yeager C M, Northup D E, Grow C C, Barns S M, Kuske C R. 2005. Changes in nitrogen-fixing and ammonia-oxidizing bacterial communities in soil of a mixed conifer forest after wildfire. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 71, 2713-2722.
 
[17]  Boyle-Yarwood S A, Bottomley P J, Myrold D D. 2008. Community composition of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria and archaea in soils under stands of red alder and Douglas fir in Oregon. Environmental Microbiology, 10, 2956-2965.
 
[18]  Nugroho R A, Röling W F M, Laverman A M, Zoomer H R, Verhoef H A. 2005. Presence of Nitrosospira cluster 2 bacteria corresponds to N transformation rates in nine acid Scots pine forest soils. FEMS Microbiology Ecology, 53, 473-481.
 
[19]  Tong D, Xu R. 2012. Effects of urea and (NH4)2SO4 on nitrification and acidification of Ultisols from southern China. Journal of Environmental Science (in China), 24, 682-689.
 
[20]  dos Santos A C F, Marques E L S, Gross E, Souza S S, Dias J C T, Brendel M, Rezende R P. 2012. Detection by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria in microcosms of crude oil-contaminated mangrove sediments. Genetics and Molecular Research, 11, 190-201.
 
[21]  Muyzer G, De Waal EC, Uitterlinden AG. 1993. Profiling of complex microbial populations by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis of polymerase chain reaction-amplified genes coding for 16S rRNA. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 59, 695-700.
 
[22]  Nicolaisen M H, Ramsing N B. 2002. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) approaches to study the diversity of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria. Journal of Microbiological Methods, 50, 189-203.
 
[23]  Giovannoni, S. J., T. B. Britschgi, C. L. Moyer, and K. G. Field. 1990. Genetic diversity in Sargasso Sea bacterioplankton. Nature (London) 345: 60-62.
 
[24]  Schmidt, T. M., E. F. DeLong, and N. R. Pace. 1991. Analysis of a marine picoplankton community by 16S rRNA gene cloning and sequencing. J. Bacteriol. 173: 4371-4378.
 
[25]  Stahl, D. A., D. J. Lane, G. J. Olsen, and N. R. Pace. 1985. Characterization of a Yellowstone hot spring microbial community by 5S rRNA sequences. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 49: 1379-1384.
 
[26]  Ward, D. M., R. Weller, and M. M. Bateson. 1990. 16S rRNA sequences reveal numerous uncultured microorganisms in a natural community. Nature (London) 345: 63-65.
 
[27]  Wegmu¨ller, B., J. Lu¨thy, and U. Candrian. 1993. Direct polymerase chain reaction detection of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli in raw milk and dairy products. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 59: 2161-2165.
 
[28]  Amann, R., N. Springer, W. Ludwig, H.-D. Go¨rtz, and K.-H. Schleifer. 1991. Identification in situ and phylogeny of uncultured bacterial endosymbionts. Nature (London) 351: 161-164.
 
[29]  Distel, D. L., E. F. DeLong, and J. B. Waterbury. 1991. Phylogenetic characterization and in situ localization of the bacterial symbiont of shipworms (Teredinidae: Bivalvia) by using 16S rRNA sequence analysis and oligodeoxynucleotide probe hybridization. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 57: 2376-2382.
 
[30]  Head, I. M., W. D. Hiorns, T. Martin, A. J. McCarthy, and J. R. Saunders. 1993. The phylogeny of autotrophic ammonia-oxidizing bacteria as determined by analysis of 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequences. J. Gen. Microbiol. 139: 1147-1153.
 
[31]  Teske, A., E. Alm, J. M. Regan, S. Toze, B. E. Rittmann, and D. A. Stahl. 1994. Evolutionary relationships among ammonia- and nitrite-oxidizing bacteria. J. Bacteriol. 176: 6623-6630.
 
[32]  Woese, C. R., W. G. Weisburg, C. M. Hahn, B. J. Paster, L. B. Zablen, B. J. Lewis, T. J. Macke, W. Ludwig, and E. Stackebrandt. 1985. The phylogeny of the purple bacteria: the gamma subdivision. Syst. Appl. Microbiol. 6: 25-33.
 
[33]  Woese, C. R., W. G. Weisburg, B. J. Paster, C. M. Hahn, R. S. Tanner, N. R. Krieg, H.-P. Koops, H. Harms, and E. Stackebrandt. 1984. The phylogeny of the purple bacteria: the beta subdivision. Syst. Appl. Microbiol. 5: 327-336.
 
[34]  Ward, B. B., and M. J. Perry. 1980. Immunofluorescent assay for the marine ammonium-oxidizing bacterium Nitrosococcus oceanus. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 39: 913-918.
 
[35]  Soriano, S., and N. Walker. 1968. Isolation of ammonia oxidizing autotrophic bacteria. J. Appl. Bacteriol. 31: 493-497.
 
[36]  Carlucci, A. F., and J. D. H. Strickland. 1968. The isolation, purification and some kinetic studies of marine nitrifying bacteria. J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 2: 156-166.
 
[37]  Carlucci, A. F., and D. Pramer. 1957. Factors influencing the plate method for determining abundance of bacteria in sea water. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 96: 392-394.
 
[38]  Ward, B. B., and A. F. Carlucci. 1985. Marine ammonia- and nitrite-oxidizing bacteria: serological diversity determined by immunofluorescence in culture and in the environment. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 50: 194-201.
 
[39]  Liesack, W., H. Weyland, and E. Stackebrandt. 1991. Potential risks of gene amplification by PCR as determined by 16S rDNA analysis of a mixedculture of strict barophilic bacteria. Microb. Ecol. 21: 191-198.
 
[40]  Don, R. H., P. T. Cox, B. J. Wainwright, K. Baker, and J. S. Mattick. 1991. ‘‘Touchdown’’ PCR to circumvent spurious priming during gene amplification. Nucleic Acids Res. 19: 4008.
 
[41]  Ausubel, F. M., R. Brent, R. E. Kingston, D. D. Moore, J. G. Seidman, J. A. Smith, and K. Struhl (ed.). 1989. Current protocols in molecular biology. Green Publishing Associates and Wiley-Interscience, New York.
 
[42]  Jinks-Robertson, S., R. L. Gourse, and M. Nomura. 1983. Expression of rRNA and tRNA genes in Escherichia coli: evidence for feedback regulation by products of rRNA operons. Cell 33: 865-876.
 
[43]  Ward, B. B. 1987. Nitrogen transformations in the Southern California Bight. Deep-Sea Res. 34: 785-805.
 
[44]  Ward, B. B., and K. A. Kilpatrick. 1993. Methane oxidation associated with mid-depth methane maxima in the Southern California Bight. Cont. Shelf Res. 13: 1111-1122.
 
[45]  Horrigan, S. G., A. F. Carlucci, and P. M. Williams. 1981. Light inhibition of nitrification in sea surface films. J. Mar. Res. 39: 557-565.
 
[46]  Seal, S. E., L. A. Jackson, and M. J. Daniels. 1992. Isolation of a Pseudomonas solanacearum-specific DNA probe by subtraction hybridization and construction of species-specific oligonucleotide primers for sensitive detection by the polymerase chain reaction. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 58: 3751-3758.
 
[47]  Sykes, P. J., S. H. Neoh, M. J. Brisco, E. Highes, J. Condon, and A. A. Morley. 1992. Quantitation of targets for PCR by use of limiting dilution. BioTechniques 13: 444-449.
 
[48]  Steffan, R. J., and R. M. Atlas. 1988. DNA amplification to enhance detection of genetically engineered bacteria in environmental samples. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 54: 2185–2191.
 
[49]  Steffan, R. J., J. Goksoyr, A. K. Bej, and R. M. Atlas. 1988. Recovery of DNA from soils and sediments. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 54: 2908-2915.
 
[50]  Tsai, Y. L., and B. H. Olson. 1992. Detection of low numbers of bacterial cells in soils and sediments by polymerase chain reaction. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 58: 754-757.
 
[51]  Abbaszadegan, M., M. S. Huber, C. P. Gerba, and I. L. Pepper. 1993. Detection of enteroviruses in groundwater with the polymerase chain reaction. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 59: 1318-1324.
 
[52]  Kopecka, H., S. Dubrou, J. Prevot, J. Marechal, and J. M. Lo´pez-Pila. 1993. Detection of naturally occurring enteroviruses in waters by reverse transcription, polymerase chain reaction, and hybridization. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 59: 1213-1219.
 
Show Less References

Article

Exploited Application of Pyrosequencing in Microbial Diversity of Activated Sludge System of Common Effluent Treatment Plants

1Industrial Waste Water Research Laboratory Division of Applied & Environmental Microbiology Enviro Technology Limited Gujarat, India


American Journal of Microbiological Research. 2014, 2(5), 157-165
DOI: 10.12691/ajmr-2-5-6
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
M. P. Shah. Exploited Application of Pyrosequencing in Microbial Diversity of Activated Sludge System of Common Effluent Treatment Plants. American Journal of Microbiological Research. 2014; 2(5):157-165. doi: 10.12691/ajmr-2-5-6.

Correspondence to: M.  P. Shah, Industrial Waste Water Research Laboratory Division of Applied & Environmental Microbiology Enviro Technology Limited Gujarat, India. Email: shahmp@uniphos.com

Abstract

Microbial Communities are actively present in the Activated Sludge System. We have applied PCR-based Pyrosequencing to investigate the bacterial communities of Activated Sludge samples from different common effluent treatment plants. A total of 259K effective sequences of 16S rRNA gene V4 region were obtained from these Activated Sludge samples. These sequences revealed huge amount of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) in Activated Sludge, that is, 1183–3567 OTUs in a sludge sample, at 3% cutoff level and sequencing depth of 16 489 sequences. Clear geographical differences among the Activated Sludge samples from effluent treatment Plant No.1 and No.2 were revealed by (1) cluster analyses based on abundances of OTUs or the genus/family/order assigned by Ribosomal Database Project (RDP) and (2) the principal coordinate analyses based on OTUs abundances, RDP taxa abundances and UniFrac of OTUs and their distances. In addition to certain unique bacterial populations in each Activated Sludge sample, some genera were dominant, and core populations shared by multiple samples, including two commonly reported genera of Zoogloea and Dechloromonas, three genera not frequently reported and three genera not well described so far. Pyrosequencing analyses of multiple Activated Sludge samples in this study also revealed the minority populations that are hard to be explored by traditional molecular methods and showed that a large proportion of sequences could not be assigned to taxonomic affiliations even at the phylum/class levels.

Keywords

References

[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[
[[1]  Bibby K, Viau E, Peccia J. (2010). Pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene to reveal bacterial pathogen diversity in biosolids. Water Res 44: 4252-4260.
 
[[2]  Claesson M, O’Sullivan O, Wang Q, Nikkila J, Marchesi J, Smidt H et al. (2009). Comparative analysis of pyrosequencing and a phylogenetic microarray for exploring microbial community structures in the human distal intestine. PloS One 4: e6669.
 
[[3]  Claesson M, O’Sullivan O, Wang Q, Nikkila J, Marchesi J, Smidt H et al. (2009). Comparative analysis of pyrosequencing and a phylogenetic microarray for exploring microbial community structures in the human distal intestine. PloS One 4: e6669.
 
[[4]  Cole JR, Wang Q, Cardenas E, Fish J, Chai B, Farris RJ et al. (2009). The Ribosomal Database Project: improved alignments and new tools for rRNA analysis. Nucleic Acids Res 37: D141-D145.
 
[[5]  Dugan PR, Stoner DL, Pickrum HM. (1992). The genus Zoogloea. In: The prokaryotes. Balows A, Tru¨ per HG, Dworkin M, Harder W, Schleifer K-H (eds). Springer-Verlag: New York, NY, pp 3952-3964.
 
Show More References
[6]  Fierer N, Hamady M, Lauber CL, Knight R. (2008). The influence of sex, handedness, and washing on the diversity of hand surface bacteria. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 105: 17994.
 
[7]  Fodor AA, Sanapareddy N, Hamp TJ, Gonzalez LC, Hilger HA, and Clinton SM. 2009. Molecular Diversity of a North Carolina Wastewater Treatment Plant as Revealed by Pyrosequencing. Appl. Environ. Microb. 75: 1688-1696.
 
[8]  Gilbride KA, Lee DY, and Beaudette LA. 2006. Molecular techniques in wastewater: Understanding microbial communities, detecting pathogens, and real-time process control. J. Microbiol. Meth. 66: 1-20.
 
[9]  Haas BJ, Gevers D, Earl AM, Feldgarden M, Ward DV, Giannoukos G et al. (2011). Chimeric 16S Rrna sequence formation and detection in Sanger and 454-pyrosequenced PCR amplicons. Genome Res 21: 494-504.
 
[10]  Hamady M, Lozupone C, Knight R. (2010). Fast UniFrac: facilitating high-throughput phylogenetic analyses of microbial communities including analysis of Pyrosequencing and PhyloChip data. ISME J 4: 17-27.
 
[11]  He Z, Van Nostrand JD, Deng Y, and Zhou J. 2011. Development and applications of functional gene microarrays in the analysis of the functional diversity, composition, and structure of microbial communities. Front. Environ. Sci. Engin. China 5:1-20.
 
[12]  Huse SM, Welch DM, Morrison HG, Sogin ML. (2010). Ironing out the wrinkles in the rare biosphere through improved OTU clustering. Environ Microbiol 12: 1889-1898.
 
[13]  Jesus EC, Susilawati E, Smith S, Wang Q, Chai B, Farris R et al. (2010). Bacterial communities in the rhizosphere of biofuel crops grown on marginal lands as evaluated by 16S rRNA gene pyrosequences. BioEnergy Res 3:20-27.
 
[14]  Lauber CL, Hamady M, Knight R, Fierer N. (2009). Pyrosequencing-based assessment of soil pH as a predictor of soil bacterial community structure at the continental scale. Appl Environ Microbiol 75: 5111.
 
[15]  Lozupone CA, Knight R. (2005). Unifrac: A new phylogenetic method for comparing microbial communities. Appl Envrion Microbiol 71: 8228-8235.
 
[16]  Margulies M, Egholm M, Altman WE, Attiya S, Bader JS, Bemben LA, Berka J, Braverman MS, Chen YJ, Chen ZT, Dewell SB, de Winter A, Drake J, Du L, Fierro JM, Forte R, Gomes XV, Godwin BC, He W, Helgesen S, Ho CH, Hutchison SK, Irzyk GP, Jando SC, Alenquer MLI, Jarvie TP, Jirage KB, Kim JB, Knight JR, Lanza JR, Leamon JH, Lee WL, Lefkowitz SM, Lei M, Li J, Lohman KL, Lu H, Makhijani VB, McDade KE, McKenna MP, Myers EW, Nickerson E, Nobile JR, Plant R, Puc BP, Reifler M, Ronan MT, Roth GT, Sarkis GJ, Simons JF, Simpson JW, Srinivasan M, Tartaro KR, Tomasz A, Vogt KA, Volkmer GA, Wang SH, Wang Y, Weiner MP, Willoughby DA, Yu PG, Begley RF, and Rothberg JM. 2006. Genome sequencing in microfabricated high-density picolitre reactors. Nature 441:120-120.
 
[17]  Maulin P Shah, Patel KA, Nair SS, Darji AM, Shaktisinh Maharaul. Optimization of Environmental Parameters on Decolorization of Remazol Black B Using Mixed Culture. American Journal of Microbiological Research. 2013 (1), 3, 53-56
 
[18]  Maulin P Shah, Patel KA, Nair SS, Darji AM. Microbial Decolorization of Methyl Orange Dye by Pseudomonas spp. ETL-M. International Journal of Environmental Bioremediation and Biodegradation. 2013 (1), 2, 54-59
 
[19]  Maulin P Shah, Patel KA, Nair SS, Darji AM. Microbial Degradation and Decolorization of Reactive Orange Dye by Strain of Pseudomonas Spp. International Journal of Environmental Bioremediation and Biodegradation. 2013 (1), 1, 1-5
 
[20]  Maulin P Shah, Patel KA, Nair SS, Darji AM. An Innovative Approach to Biodegradation of Textile Dye (Remazol Black) by Bacillus spp. International Journal of Environmental Bioremediation and Biodegradation. 2013 (1), 2, 43-48
 
[21]  McLellan S, Huse S, Mueller Spitz S, Andreishcheva E, Sogin M. (2010). Diversity and population structure of sewage derived microorganisms in wastewater treatment plant influent. Environ Microbiol 12: 378-392.
 
[22]  McLellan SL, Huse SM, Mueller-Spitz SR, Andreishcheva EN, and Sogin ML.2010. Diversity and population structure of sewage-derived microorganisms in wastewater treatment plant influent. Environ. Microbiol. 12: 1376-1376.
 
[23]  Murphy E, Cotter P, Healy S, Marques T, O’Sullivan O, Fouhy F et al. (2010). Composition and energy harvesting capacity of the gut microbiota: relationship to diet, obesity and time in mouse models. Gut 59:1635-1642.
 
[24]  Nawrocki EP, Eddy SR. (2007). Query-dependent banding (QDB) for faster RNA similarity searches. PLoS Comput Biol 3: e56.
 
[25]  Palacios L, Arahal D, Reguera B, Marin I. (2006). Hoeflea alexandrii sp. nov., isolated from the toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium minutum AL1V. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 56: 1991.
 
[26]  Park J, Lee TK, Doan TV, Yoo K, Choi S, and Kim C. 2010. Discovery of commonly existing anode biofilm microbes in two different wastewater treatment MFCs using FLX Titanium pyrosequencing. Appl. Microbiol. Biot. 87: 2335-2343.
 
[27]  Peccia J, Bibby K, and Viau E. 2010. Pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene to reveal bacterial pathogen diversity in biosolids. Water Res. 44: 4252-4260.
 
[28]  Qian P, Wang Y, Lee O, Lau S, Yang J, Lafi F et al. (2010). Vertical stratification of microbial communities in the Red Sea revealed by 16S rDNA pyrosequencing. ISME J 5: 507-518.
 
[29]  Qian P, Wang Y, Lee O, Lau S, Yang J, Lafi F et al. (2010). Vertical stratification of microbial communities in the Red Sea revealed by 16S rDNA pyrosequencing. ISME J 5: 507-518.
 
[30]  Qian PY, Wang Y, Lee OO, Lau SCK, Yang JK, Lafi FF, Al-Suwailem A, and \ Wong TYH. 2011. Vertical stratification of microbial communities in the Red Sea revealed by 16S rDNA pyrosequencing. ISME. J. 5: 507-518.
 
[31]  Qin J, Li R, Raes J, ArumugamM,BurgdorfKS, Manichanh C et al. (2010). A human gut microbial gene catalogue established by metagenomic sequencing. Nature 464: 59-65.
 
[32]  Roesch L, Fulthorpe R, Riva A, Casella G, Hadwin A, Kent A et al. (2007). Pyrosequencing enumerates and contrasts soil microbial diversity. ISME J 1: 283-290.
 
[33]  Roeselers G, Mittge EK, Stephens WZ, Parichy DM, Cavanaugh CM, Guillemin K et al. (2011). Evidence for a core gut microbiota in the zebrafish. ISME J 5: 1595-1608.
 
[34]  Rossello-Mora R,Wagner M, Amann R, Schleifer K. (1995). The abundance of Zoogloea ramigera in sewage treatment plants. Appl Environ Microbiol 61: 702.
 
[35]  Shendure J, Ji H. (2008). Next-generation DNA sequencing.Nat Biotechnol 26: 1135-1145.
 
[36]  Snaidr J, Amann R, Huber I, Ludwig W, Schleifer KH. (1997). Phylogenetic analysis and in situ identification of bacteria in activated sludge. Appl Environ Microbiol 63: 2884-2896.
 
[37]  Sogin M, Morrison H, Huber J, Welch D, Huse S, Neal P et al. (2006). Microbial diversity in the deep sea and the underexplored ‘rare biosphere’. Proc Nat Acad Sci 103: 12115.
 
[38]  Sogin ML, Morrison HG, Huber JA, Mark Welch D, Huse SM, Neal PR, Arrieta JM, and Herndl GJ. 2006. Microbial diversity in the deep sea and the underexplored "rare biosphere". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 103: 12115-12120.
 
[39]  Venter JC, Remington K, Heidelberg JF, Halpern AL, Rusch D, Eisen JA et al. (2004). Environmental genome shotgun sequencing of the Sargasso Sea. Science 304: 66-74.
 
[40]  Wang Q, Garrity G, Tiedje J, Cole J. (2007). Naive Bayesian classifier for rapid assignment of rRNA sequences into the new bacterial taxonomy. Appl Environ Microbiol 73: 5261-5267.
 
[41]  Xia S, Duan L, Song Y, Li J, Piceno Y, Andersen G et al. (2010). Bacterial community structure in geographically distributed biological wastewater treatment reactors. Environ Sci Technol 44: 1043-1045.
 
[42]  Xia SQ, Duan LA, Song YH, Li JX, Piceno YM, Andersen GL, Alvarez-Cohen L, Moreno-Andrade I, Huang CL, and Hermanowicz SW. 2010. Bacterial Community Structure in Geographically Distributed Biological Wastewater Treatment Reactors. Environ. Sci. Technol. 44: 7391-7396.
 
[43]  Yoon DN, Park SJ, Kim SJ, Jeon CO, Chae JC, Rhee SK. (2010). Isolation, characterization, and abundance of filamentous members of Caldilineae in activated sludge. J Microbiol 48: 275-283.
 
[44]  Zhang T, Shao MF, and Ye L. 2012. 454 Pyrosequencing reveals bacterial diversity of activated sludge from 14 sewage treatment plants. ISME. J. 6: 1137-1147.
 
Show Less References

Article

Microbial Degradation of Acid Orange and Reactive Black in Presence of Anaerobic Granular Sludge

1Industrial Waste Water Research Laboratory, Division of Applied & Environmental Microbiology, Enviro Technology Limited, Gujarat, India


American Journal of Microbiological Research. 2014, 2(5), 151-156
DOI: 10.12691/ajmr-2-5-5
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
M. Shah. Microbial Degradation of Acid Orange and Reactive Black in Presence of Anaerobic Granular Sludge. American Journal of Microbiological Research. 2014; 2(5):151-156. doi: 10.12691/ajmr-2-5-5.

Correspondence to: M.  Shah, Industrial Waste Water Research Laboratory, Division of Applied & Environmental Microbiology, Enviro Technology Limited, Gujarat, India. Email: shahmp@uniphos.com

Abstract

This study mainly focuses on the biodegradation of two azo dyes, Acid Orange and Reactive Black, was evaluated in batch experiments where anaerobic and aerobic conditions were integrated by exposing anaerobic granular sludge to oxygen. Under these conditions, the azo dyes were reduced, resulting in a temporal accumulation of aromatic amines. Subsequently, aniline was degraded further in the presence of oxygen by the facultative aerobic bacteria present in the anaerobic granular sludge. Acid Orange and Reactive Black were also degraded, if inoculum from aerobic enrichment cultures were added to the batch experiments. Due to rapid autoxidation of Acid Orange, no enrichment culture could be established for this compound. The results of this study indicate that aerobic enrichment cultures developed on aromatic amines combined with oxygen tolerant anaerobic granular sludge can potentially be used to completely biodegrade azo dyes under integrated anaerobic/aerobic conditions.

Keywords

References

[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[
[[1]  Maulin P Shah, Patel KA, Nair SS, Darji AM, Shaktisinh Maharaul. Optimization of Environmental Parameters on Decolorization of Remazol Black B Using Mixed Culture. American Journal of Microbiological Research. 2013 (1), 3, 53-56.
 
[[2]  Maulin P Shah, Patel KA, Nair SS, Darji AM. Microbial Decolorization of Methyl Orange Dye by Pseudomonas spp. ETL-M. International Journal of Environmental Bioremediation and Biodegradation. 2013 (1), 2, 54-59.
 
[[3]  Maulin P Shah, Patel KA, Nair SS, Darji AM. Microbial Degradation and Decolorization of Reactive Orange Dye by Strain of Pseudomonas Spp. International Journal of Environmental Bioremediation and Biodegradation. 2013 (1), 1, 1-5.
 
[[4]  Maulin P Shah, Patel KA, Nair SS, Darji AM. An Innovative Approach to Biodegradation of Textile Dye (Remazol Black) by Bacillus spp. International Journal of Environmental Bioremediation and Biodegradation. 2013 (1), 2, 43-48.
 
[[5]  Maulin P Shah. Microbial Degradation of Textile Dye (Remazol Black B) by Bacillus spp. ETL-2012. Journal of Applied & Environmental Microbiology. 2013 (1), 1, 6-11.
 
Show More References
[6]  Maulin P Shah, Patel KA, Nair SS, Darji AM. Microbial Degradation and Decolorization of Reactive Dyes by Bacillus Spp. ETL-1979. American Journal of Microbiological Research. 2014 (2), 1, 16-23.
 
[7]  Maulin P Shah, Patel KA, Nair SS, Darji AM. Environmental Bioremediation of Dyes by Pseudomonas aeruginosa ETL-1 isolated from Final Effluent Treatment Plant of Ankleshwar. American Journal of Microbiological Research. 20134 (4), 4, 74-83.
 
[8]  Maulin P Shah, Patel KA, Nair SS, Darji AM. Microbial Decolorization of Textile Dyes by Bacillus spp. ETL-79: An Innovative Biotechnological Aspect to Combat Textile Effluents. American Journal of Microbiological Research. 2013 (1), 3, 57-61.
 
[9]  Maulin P Shah, Patel KA, Nair SS, Darji AM. Isolation, Identification and Screening of Dye Decolorizing Bacteria. American Journal of Microbiological Research. 2013 (1), 4, 62-70.
 
[10]  Maulin P Shah, Patel KA, Nair SS, Darji AM, Shaktisinh Maharaul. Microbial Degradation of Azo Dye by Pseudomonas spp. MPS-2 by an Application of Sequential Microaerophilic and Aerobic Process. American Journal of Microbiological Research. 2013 (1), 43, 105-112.
 
[11]  Maulin P Shah. Microbiological Removal of Phenol by an Application of Pseudomonas spp. ETL: An Innovative Biotechnological Approach Providing Answers to the Problems of FETP. Journal of Applied & Environmental Microbiology. 2014 (2), 1, 6-11.
 
[12]  Maulin P Shah, Patel KA, Nair SS, Darji AM. Decolorization of Remazol Black B by Three Bacterial Isolates. International Journal of Environmental Bioremediation and Biodegradation. 2014 (2), 1, 44-49.
 
[13]  Brown D. and Hamburger B. (1987). The degradation of dyestuffs: Part III - Investigations of their ultimate degradability. Chemosphere 16(7): 1539-1553.
 
[14]  Field J.A., Stams A.J.M., Kato M. and Schraa G. (1995). Enhanced biodegradation of aromatic pollutant in coculture of anaerobic and aerobic bacterial consortia. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek 67: 47-77.
 
[15]  Heider J. and Fuchs G. (1997). Anaerobic metabolism of aromatic compounds. European Journal of Biochemistry 243(3): 577-596.
 
[16]  Kuhn E.P. and Suflita J.M. (1989). Anaerobic biodegradation of nitrogen-substituted and sulfonated benzene aquifer contaminants. Hazardous Waste and Hazardous Materials 6(2): 121-134.
 
[17]  Razo-Flores E., Donlon B.A., Field J.A. and Lettinga G. (1996). Biodegradability of Nsubstituted aromatics and alkylphenols under methanogenic conditions using granular sludge. Water Science and Technology 33(3): 47-57.
 
[18]  Brown D. and Laboureur P. (1983a). The aerobic biodegradability of primary aromatic amines. Chemosphere 12(3): 405-414.
 
[19]  Manalney G.W. (1960). Oxidative abilities of aniline acclimated activated sludge. Journal WPCF 32(12): 1300-1311.
 
[20]  Parris G.E. (1980). Environmental and metabolic transformation of primary aromatic amines and related compounds. Residue Reviews 76: 1-30.
 
[21]  Kato M.T., Field J.A. and Lettinga G. (1993a). High tolerance of methanogens in granular sludge to oxygen. Biotechnology and Bioengineering 42(11): 1360-1366.
 
[22]  APHA (1985). Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater, 16th edition. American Public Health Association, Washington DC.
 
[23]  Gheewala S.H. and Annachhatre A.P. (1997). Biodegradation of aniline. Water Science and Technology 36(10): 53-63.
 
[24]  Stolz A., Nortemann B. and Knackmuss H.J. (1992). Bacterial metabolism of 5- aminosalicylic acid: Initial ring cleavage. Biochemical Journal 282(3): 675-680.
 
[25]  Feigel B.J. and Knackmuss H.J. (1993). Syntrophic interactions during degradation of 4-aminobenzenesulfonic acid by a two species bacterial culture. Archives of Microbiology 159(2): 124-130.
 
[26]  Kato M.T., Field J.A. and Lettinga G. (1993b). Methanogenesis in granular sludge exposed to oxygen. FEMS Microbiology Letters 114(3): 317-323.
 
[27]  Jensen J., Cornett C., Olsen C.E., Tjornelund J. and Hansen S.H. (1992). Identification of major degradation products of 5-aminosalicylic acid formed in aqueous solutions and pharmaceuticals. International Journal of Pharmacology 88: 177-187.
 
[28]  Field J.A., Stams A.J.M., Kato M. and Schraa G. (1995). Enhanced biodegradation of aromatic pollutant in coculture of anaerobic and aerobic bacterial consortia. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek 67: 47-77.
 
[29]  FitzGerald S.W. and Bishop P.L. (1995). Two stage anaerobic/aerobic treatment of sulfonated azo dyes. Journal of Environmental Science and Health A30 (6): 1251-1276.
 
[30]  Kudlich M., Bishop P.L., Knackmuss H.J. and Stolz A. (1996). Simultaneous anaerobic and aerobic degradation of the sulfonated azo dye Mordant Yellow 3 by immobilized cells from a naphthalenesulfonate-degrading mixed culture. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology 46(5-6): 597-603.
 
Show Less References

Article

Realization of Influent Waste Water on Microbial Community Structure of Activated Sludge Process

1Industrial Waste Water Research Laboratory, Division of Applied & Environmental Microbiology, Enviro Technology Limited, Ankleshwar-393002 Gujarat, India


American Journal of Microbiological Research. 2014, 2(5), 143-150
DOI: 10.12691/ajmr-2-5-4
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
M. Shah. Realization of Influent Waste Water on Microbial Community Structure of Activated Sludge Process. American Journal of Microbiological Research. 2014; 2(5):143-150. doi: 10.12691/ajmr-2-5-4.

Correspondence to: M.  Shah, Industrial Waste Water Research Laboratory, Division of Applied & Environmental Microbiology, Enviro Technology Limited, Ankleshwar-393002 Gujarat, India. Email: shahmp@uniphos.com

Abstract

The assembling of microbial consortia in wastewater treatment facilities is a significance of environmental conditions. In the present research work, activated sludge from different wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) were exploited at a molecular level to determine the influence of the complexity of the influent composition on the species structure and the diversity of bacterial consortia. The community fingerprints and technological data were subjected to the canonical correspondence and correlation analyses. The number of separated biological processes realized in the treatment line and the presence of industrial wastewater in the influent were the key factors determining the species structure of total and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria in biomass. The N2O-reducers community composition depended significantly on the design of the facility; the highest species richness of denitrifiers was noted in the WWTPs with separated denitrification tanks. The contribution of industrial streams to the inflow affected the diversity of total and denitrifying bacterial consortia and diminished the diversity of ammonia oxidizers. The obtained data are valuable for engineers since they revealed the main factors, including the design of wastewater treatment plant, influencing the microbial groups critical for the stability of purification processes.

Keywords

References

[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[
[[1]  Adouani N, Lendormi T, Limousy L, Sire O (2010) Effect of the carbon source on N2O emissions during biological denitrification. Resour Conserv Recyl 54: 299-302.
 
[[2]  Altschul SF, Madden TL, Schaffer AA, Zhang J, Zhang Z, Miller W, Lipman DJ (1997) Gapped BLAST and PSI-BLAST: a new generation of protein database search programs. Nucleic Acids Res 25: 3389-3402.
 
[[3]  Barnett, T.P., Adam, J.C., and Lettenmaier, D.P. (2005) Potential impacts of a warming climate on water availability in snow-dominated regions. Nature 438: 303-309.
 
[[4]  Benedict, R.G., and Carlson, D.A. (1971) Aerobic heterotrophic bacteria in activated sludge. Water Res 5: 1023-1030.
 
[[5]  Boon, N., De Windt, W., Verstraete, W., and Top, E.M. (2002) Evaluation of nested PCR-DGGE (denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis) with group-specific 16S rRNA primers for the analysis of bacterial communities from different wastewater treatment plants. FEMS Microbiol Ecol 39: 101-112.
 
Show More References
[6]  Cydzik-Kwiatkowska A, Wojnowska-Baryła I (2011) Nitrifying granules cultivation in a sequencing batch reactor at a low organics-to-total nitrogen ratio in wastewater. Folia Microbiol 56(3): 201-208.
 
[7]  Daims, H., Nielsen, J.L., Nielsen, P.H., Schleifer, K.H., and Wagner, M. (2001) In situ characterization of Nitrospira-like nitrite-oxidation bacteria active in wastewater treatment plants. Appl Environ Microbiol 67: 5273-5284.
 
[8]  Dias, F.G., and Bhat, J.V. (1964) Microbial ecology of activated sludge. Appl Environ Microbiol 12: 412-417.
 
[9]  Eichner, C.A., Erb, R.W., Timmis, K.N., and Wagner-Döbler, I. (1999) Thermal gradient gel electrophoresis analysis of bioprotection from pollutant shocks in the activated sludge microbial community. Appl Environ Microbiol 65: 102-109.
 
[10]  Hochstein IL, Betlach M, Kritikos G (1984) The effect of oxygen on denitrification during steady-state growth of Paracoccus halodenitrificans. Arch Microbiol 137:74-78.
 
[11]  Juretschko, S., Timmerman, G., Schmid, M., Schleifer, K.-H., Pommerening-Roser, A., Koops, H., and P., and Wagner, M. (1998) Combined molecular and conventional analyses of nitrifying bacterium diversity in activated sludge: Nitrosococcus mobilis and Nitrospira-like bacteria as dominant populations. Appl Environ Microbiol 64: 3042-3051.
 
[12]  Kaczala F, Marques M, Hogland W (2010) Bio treatability of wastewater generated during machinery washing in a wood based industry: COD, formaldehyde and nitrogen removal. Bioresour Technol 101: 8975-8983.
 
[13]  Kim, T.-S., Kim, H.-S., Kwon, S., and Park, H.-D. (2011) Nitrifying bacterial community structure of a full-scale integrated fixed-film activated sludge process as investigated by pyro sequencing. J Microbiol Biotechnol 21: 293-298.
 
[14]  Kloos K, Mergel A, Ro¨sch C, Bothe H (2001) Denitrification within the genus Azospirillum and other associative bacteria. Aust J Plant Physiol 28:991-998.
 
[15]  Koops H-P, Bo¨ttcher B, Mo¨ller U, Pommerening-Ro¨ser A, Stehr G (1991) Classification of eight new species of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria: Nitrosomonas communis sp. nov., Nitrosomonas ureae sp. nov., Nitrosomonas aestuarii sp. nov., Nitrosomonas marina sp. nov., Nitrosomonas nitrosa sp. nov., Nitrosomonas eutropha sp. nov., Nitrosomonas oligotropha sp. nov. J Gen Microbiol 13:1689-1699.
 
[16]  Kwon, S., Kim, T.-S., Yu, G.H., Jung, J.-H., and Park, H.-D. (2010) Bacterial community composition and diversity of a full-scale integrated fixed-film activated sludge system as investigated by pyrosequencing. J Microbiol Biotechnol 20:1717-1723.
 
[17]  Limpiyakorn T, Shinohara Y, Kurisu F, Yagi O (2005) Communities of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria in activated sludge of various sewage treatment plants in Tokyo. FEMS Microbiol Ecol 54: 205-217.
 
[18]  Limpiyakorn T, Sonthiphand P, Rongsayamanont C, Polprasert C (2011) Abundance of amoA genes of ammonia-oxidizing archaea and bacteria in activated sludge of full-scale wastewater treatment plants. Bioresour Technol 102: 3694-3701.
 
[19]  Lydmark P, Almstrand R, Samuelsson K, Mattsson A, S Whang LM, Chien ICh, Yuan SL, Wu YJ (2009) Nitrifying community structure and nitrification performance of full-scale municipal and swine wastewater treatment plants. Chemosphere 75: 234-242.
 
[20]  Lydmark P, Almstrand R, Samuelsson K, Mattsson A, So¨rensson F, Lindgren PE, Hermansson M (2007) Effects of environmental conditions on the nitrifying population dynamics in a pilot wastewater treatment plant. Environ Microbiol 9(9): 2220-2233.
 
[21]  Maulin P Shah Exploring the Strength of Pseudomonas putida ETL-7 in Microbial Degradation and Decolorization of Remazol Black-B. International Journal of Environmental Bioremediation & Biodegradation (USA), (2014), Vol.2, No.1, 12-17.
 
[22]  Maulin P Shah Microbiological Removal of Phenol by an Application of Pseudomonas spp. ETL. An Innovative Biotechnological Approach Providing Answers to the problems of FETP. Journal of Applied & Environmental Microbiology (USA), (2014), Vol.2, No.1, 6-11.
 
[23]  Maulin P Shah, Kavita A Patel. Microbial Degradation of Reactive Red 195 by Three Bacterial Isolates in Anaerobic-Aerobic Bioprocess. International Journal of Environmental Bioremediation & Biodegradation (USA), (2014), Vol.2, No.1, 5-11.
 
[24]  Muyzer G, de Waal EC, Uitterlinden AG (1993) Profiling of complex microbial populations by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis of polymerase chain reaction-amplified genes coding for 16S rRNA. Appl Environ Microbiol 59(3): 695-700.
 
[25]  Norton JM, Alzerreca JJ, Suwa J, Klotz MG (2002) Diversity of ammonia monooxygenase operon in autotrophic ammoniaoxidizing bacteria. Arch Microbiol 177: 139-149.
 
[26]  Prakasam, T.B.S., and Dondero, N.C. (1967) Aerobic heterotrophic populations of sewage and activated sludge. I. Enumeration. Appl Environ Microbiol 15: 461-467.
 
[27]  Purkhold, U., Pommerening-Röser, A., Juretschko, S., Schmid, M.C., Koops, H.P., and Wagner, M. (2000) Phylogeny of all recognized species of ammonia oxidizers based on comparative 16S rRNA and amoA sequence analysis: implications for molecular diversity surveys. Appl Environ Microbiol 66: 5368-5382.
 
[28]  Rotthauwe JH, Witzel KP, Liesack W (1997) The ammonia monooxygenase structural gene amoA as a functional marker: molecular fine scale analysis of natural ammonia-oxidizing populations. Appl Environ Microbiol 63:4704-4712.
 
[29]  Saikaly, P.E., Stroot, P.G., and Oerther, D.B. (2005) Use of 16S rRNA gene terminal restriction fragment analysis to assess the impact of solids retention time on the bacterial diversity of activated sludge. Appl Environ Microbiol 71:5814-5822.
 
[30]  Sanapareddy, N., Hamp, T.J., González, L.C., Hilger, H.A., Fodor, A.A., and Clinton, S.M. (2009) Molecular diversity of a North Carolina wastewater treatment plant as revealed by pyrosequencing. Appl Environ Microbiol 75: 1688-1696.
 
[31]  Siripong S, Rittman BE (2007) Diversity study of nitrifying bacteria in full-scale municipal wastewater treatment plants. Water Res 41: 1110-1120.
 
[32]  Snaidr, J., Amann, R., Huber, I., Ludwig, W., and Schleifer, K.-H. (1997) Phylogenetic analysis and in situ identification of bacteria in activated sludge. Appl Environ Microbiol 63:2884-2896.
 
[33]  Stanisz A (2000) Podstawy Statystyki dla Prowadza˛cych Badania Naukowe. Odcinek 21: Analiza korelacji. Med Praktyczna 10:176-181 (in Polish).
 
[34]  Stein LY, Arp DJ, Berube PM, Hauser L, Jetten MS, Klotz MG, Larimer FW, Norton JM, Op den Camp HJ, Shin M, Wei X (2007) Whole-genome analysis of the ammonia-oxidizing bacterium, Nitrosomonas eutropha C91: implications for niche adaptation. Environ Microbiol 9(12):2993-3007.
 
[35]  Tamura K, Peterson D, Peterson N, Stecher G, Nei M, Kumar S (2011) MEGA5: molecular evolutionary genetics analysis using maximum likelihood, evolutionary distance, and maximum parsimony methods. Mol Biol Evol 28(10):2731-2739.
 
[36]  ter Braak CJF (1986) Canonical correspondence analysis: a new eigenvector technique for multivariate direct gradient analysis. Ecology 67(5): 1167-1179.
 
[37]  ter Braak CJF, Smilauer P (2002) CANOCO Reference manual and CanoDraw for Windows user’s guide: software for the canonical community ordination (version 4.5). Microcomputer Power. Ithaca, NY, USA, p 500.
 
[38]  Throba¨ck IN, Enwall K, Jarvis A¨, Hallin S (2004) Reassessing PCR primers targeting nirS, nirK and nosZ genes for community surveys of denitrifying bacteria with DGGE. FEMS Microbiol Ecol 49:401–417
 
[39]  Wagner, M., Loy, A., Nogueira, R., Purkhold, U., Lee, N., and Daims, H. (2002) Microbial community composition and function in wastewater treatment plants. Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek 81: 665-680.
 
[40]  Wan CY, Wever HD, Diels L, Thoeye C, Liang JB, Huang LN (2011) Biodiversity and population dynamics of microorganisms in a full-scale membrane bioreactor for municipal wastewater treatment. Water Res 45: 129-1138.
 
[41]  Wang X,WenX,CriddleC,Wells G, Zhang J, ZhaoY(2010) Community analysis of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria in activated sludge of eight wastewater treatment systems. J Environ Sci 22(4): 627-634.
 
[42]  Whang LM, Chien ICh, Yuan SL, Wu YJ (2009) Nitrifying community structure and nitrification performance of full-scale municipal and swine wastewater treatment plants. Chemosphere 75:234–242
 
[43]  Ye, L., Shao, M.-S., Zhang, T., Tong, A.H.Y., and Lok, S. (2011) Analysis of the bacterial community in a laboratory scale nitrification reactor and a wastewater treatment plant by 454-pyrosequencing. Water Res 45: 4390-4398.
 
[44]  Zhang, T., Shao, M.F., and Ye, L. (2011a) 454 pyrosequencing reveals bacterial diversity of activated sludge from 14 sewage treatment plants. ISME J 6: 1137-1147.
 
[45]  Zhang, T., Ye, L., Tong, A.H.Y., Shao, M.-F., and Lok, S. (2011b) Ammonia-oxidizing archaea and ammonia oxidizing bacteria in six full-scale wastewater treatment bioreactors. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 91: 1215-1225.
 
[46]  Zumft WG (1997) Cell biology and molecular basis of denitrification. Microbiol Mol Biol R 61(4):533-616.
 
Show Less References

Article

Proximate Composition, Biochemical and Microbiological Changes Associated with Fermenting African Oil Bean (Pentaclethra macrophylla Benth) Seeds

1Department of Microbiology, College of Natural Sciences, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture Umudike, Abia State, Nigeria


American Journal of Microbiological Research. 2014, 2(5), 138-142
DOI: 10.12691/ajmr-2-5-3
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Eze V.C, Onwuakor C.E, Ukeka E. Proximate Composition, Biochemical and Microbiological Changes Associated with Fermenting African Oil Bean (Pentaclethra macrophylla Benth) Seeds . American Journal of Microbiological Research. 2014; 2(5):138-142. doi: 10.12691/ajmr-2-5-3.

Correspondence to: Eze  V.C, Department of Microbiology, College of Natural Sciences, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture Umudike, Abia State, Nigeria. Email: mekus2020@gmail.com

Abstract

The proximate composition, biochemical changes and microbiology of fermenting Pentaclethra macrophylla (Ugba) seeds were evaluated. Studies were carried out to screen for microorganisms associated with the natural fermentation of the oil bean seeds. Bacterial isolates obtained include species of Bacillus, Streptococcus, Salmonella, Micrococcus, Lactobacillus and Proteus. Fungal isolates include Yeast, species of Penicillium, Aspergillus, Fusarium and Rhizopus. Total aerobic counts (TAC) ranged from 1.5 x 106 to 2.5 x 106 cfu/g, while total coliform counts (TCC) ranged from 1.7 x 103 to 7.2 x 103 cfu/g. More so, total lactic acid bacterial counts ranged from 2.6 x 105 to 4.6 x 105 cfu/g. Among the various bacterial isolates obtained from the fermenting Ugba, Bacillus and lactic acid bacteria were dominant from the beginning to the end of the fermentation the oil bean seeds. The proximate composition of the fermenting seeds showed the presence of protein, fats, fibre, carbohydrates, and ash. Temperature variations in oil bean seed fermentation showed higher temperatures in the purchased Ugba compared to the laboratory Ugba after 72 hours fermentation. There were significant reduction in pH and titratable acidity as the fermentation time progressed, showing that temperature, pH and titratable acidity of fermenting African oil bean seeds were affected by the metabolic activities of resident microorganisms.

Keywords

References

[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[
[[1]  Subramaniyam, R and Vimala, R. Solid state and submerged fermentation for the production of bioactive substances: a comparative study. International journal of Science and Nature, 2012, 3 (3): 480-486.
 
[[2]  Chelule, P.K., Mokoena, M.P., and Gqaleni, N. Advantages of Traditional Lactic Acid Bacteria Fermentation of food in Africa. Current Research, Technology and Education Topics in Applied Microbiology and Microbial Biotechnology A. Mendez–Vilas (Ed). FORMATEX, 2010.
 
[[3]  Aworh, O.C. The Role of Traditional Food Processing Technologies in National Development: the West African Experience. International Union of Food Science & Technology, 2008, 1: 1-18.
 
[[4]  Ogunshe, A.A.O., Ayodele, A.E., and Iheanyi, O.O. Microbial Studies on Aisa: A Potential Indigenous Laboratory Fermented Food Condiment from Albizia saman (Jack). Mull. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition, 2006, 5 (1): 51-58.
 
[[5]  Fraizier, W.C. and Westhoff, D.C. Food Microbiology. Fourth Edition. Tata McGraw Hill Education Private Limited. New Delhi, 2008, pp 8.
 
Show More References