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American Journal of Medical and Biological Research

ISSN (Print): 2328-4080

ISSN (Online): 2328-4099

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Interaction of Anticancer drug Doxorubicin with Tumor DNA Irradiated by Nonionizing Millimeter Electromagnetic Waves

1Microwave Radiophysics and Telecommunication, Yerevan State University, Yerevan, Armenia

2Machine Science, Yerevan State Engineering University, Yerevan, Armenia

3Molecular Physics, Yerevan State University, Yerevan, Armenia

American Journal of Medical and Biological Research. 2016, 4(4), 73-77
doi: 10.12691/ajmbr-4-4-2
Copyright © 2016 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
V. Kalantaryan, S. Hakobyan, R. Ghazaryan, R. Martirosyan. Interaction of Anticancer drug Doxorubicin with Tumor DNA Irradiated by Nonionizing Millimeter Electromagnetic Waves. American Journal of Medical and Biological Research. 2016; 4(4):73-77. doi: 10.12691/ajmbr-4-4-2.

Correspondence to: V.  Kalantaryan, Microwave Radiophysics and Telecommunication, Yerevan State University, Yerevan, Armenia. Email:


Convenience of usage of non-thermal coherent millimeter electromagnetic waves has been studied in tumor chemotherapy. DNA released from sarcoma 45 tumor (tDNA) and healthy rats in water-saline solution was irradiated during 90 min by frequencies of both resonant for oscillations of water molecular structures (50.3 GHz and 64.5 GHz) and non-resonant (48.3 GHz). Experiments showed that at the irradiation by resonant frequencies DNA thermostability increases: tDNA thermostability enhances more than hDNA thermostability. Non-irradiated and irradiated tDNA and hDNA binding thermodynamics with anti-tumorous drug doxorubicin (DX) was studied as well. By spectroscopic method absorption spectra of non-irradiated and irradiated complexes of DNA with doxorubicin were obtained. From the absorption spectra, binding constants at 290, 300 and 310 K temperatures have been determined. According to our calculations doxorubicin with irradiated DNA forms a more stable complex and much stronger with tDNA irradiated with resonant frequencies. Summarizing the thermodynamic binding parameters (binding constant and enthalpy) we can affirm that doxorubicin forms more stable complex with irradiated tDNA by resonant frequencies for oscillations of water molecular structures: in vitro experiments it was observed doxorubicin binding selectivity to irradiated tDNA. The obtained data make it possible to assume that the treatment by millimeter therapy of complex with anti-tumorous preparations is perspective for clinical oncology at curing of malignant neoplasms.



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Factors Affecting CD4 Count Response in HIV Patients within 12 Months of Treatment: A Case Study of Tamale Teaching Hospital

1Sexual Transmitted Infections Clinic, Tamale Teaching Hospital, Tamale, Ghana,

2Department of Mathematics, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana

3National AIDS Control Programme, Ghana Health Service, Tamale, Ghana

American Journal of Medical and Biological Research. 2016, 4(4), 78-83
doi: 10.12691/ajmbr-4-4-3
Copyright © 2016 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Toyibu Yakubu, Vincent K Dedu, Patrick Owiredu Bampoh. Factors Affecting CD4 Count Response in HIV Patients within 12 Months of Treatment: A Case Study of Tamale Teaching Hospital. American Journal of Medical and Biological Research. 2016; 4(4):78-83. doi: 10.12691/ajmbr-4-4-3.

Correspondence to: Toyibu  Yakubu, Sexual Transmitted Infections Clinic, Tamale Teaching Hospital, Tamale, Ghana,. Email:


The effectiveness of HIV treatment can be assessed by monitoring the Cluster of Differentiation 4 (CD4) cell counts of HIV positive patients. Changes in CD4 cell counts over time in patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART) could explain how HIV patients respond to treatment (ART). We seek to identify factors that affect Cluster of Differentiation 4 (CD4) cell count response in patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART) within 12 months of treatment at the Tamale Teaching Hospital (TTH) of Ghana. The data was based on the records of patients in the database of the hospital from 2009 to 2013. Factors identified include social (smoking habits, religious affiliation and alcohol consumption) and demographic factors (age, sex and employment status); antiretroviral therapy (ART regimen) and immunological CD4 cell count at the initiation of treatment). However, only two of the variables (Age and Gender) were found to be significant and were therefore included in the model. The rest of the variables did not affect CD4 cell count response to antiretroviral therapy (ART). The results also showed that the model provided a reasonable statistical fit (chi-square value of 10.058 with corresponding probability value of 0.261 which is greater than the level of significance (0.05)). Since age affected (increase) in the CD4 cell counts in response to ART, detection of HIV infections at young age is paramount for early treatment when there the likelihood of significant CD4 cell count increase. This will translate into increased immunity and prolong the lives of HIV patients.



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Serotype Independent Vaccine Design against Streptococcus pneumoniae Based on B-cell Epitopes of Autolysin, Zinc Binding Lipoprotein and Plasmid Stabilization Protein

1Division of Genomics and Genetic Engineering, Department of Biotechnology and Central Laboratory, Razi Vaccine and Serum Research Institute, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Karaj 31975/148, Iran

American Journal of Medical and Biological Research. 2016, 4(5), 84-89
doi: 10.12691/ajmbr-4-5-1
Copyright © 2016 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Shirin Tarahomjoo. Serotype Independent Vaccine Design against Streptococcus pneumoniae Based on B-cell Epitopes of Autolysin, Zinc Binding Lipoprotein and Plasmid Stabilization Protein. American Journal of Medical and Biological Research. 2016; 4(5):84-89. doi: 10.12691/ajmbr-4-5-1.

Correspondence to: Shirin  Tarahomjoo, Division of Genomics and Genetic Engineering, Department of Biotechnology and Central Laboratory, Razi Vaccine and Serum Research Institute, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Karaj 31975/148, Iran. Email:


Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) were constructed through chemical conjugation of pneumococcal capsules to immunogenic carrier proteins. The PCVs implementation in developing countries was prevented by their high manufacturing costs. This issue can be overcome by development of protein based vaccines against pneumococci. Antibody responses are necessary for protection against S. pneumoniae. Autolysin, zinc binding lipoprotein (ZBL), and plasmid stabilization protein (PSP) were already identified as pneumococcal surface proteins able to elicit protection against S. pneumoniae serotype 19F and their most probable immunoprotective B-cell epitope regions (MIBRs) were determined. MIBRs were fully conserved in the most common pneumococcal serotypes causing invasive pneumococcal disease in children. Whole antigens are not as potent as epitope based vaccines and every epitope in a multi epitope based vaccine can individually induce a protective immune response against the pathogen. Thus better immunoprotection can be achieved by multi epitope based vaccines. In the present study, therefore, we aim to design a chimerical vaccine against pneumococci based on the identified MIBRs using immunoinformatic tools. These regions were joined together using the (EAAAK) 4 linker. The MIBRs orders affected the immunoprotective ability of the fusion protein as estimated by VaxiJen tool. The fusion protein consisting of MIBRs of autolysin, PSP and ZBL respectively (APZ) showed the highest probability for eliciting immunoprotection and was used for further study. The codon optimization was done for APZ using OPTIMIZER. Analysis of the mRNA secondary structure using Mfold tool revealed no stable hairpin at the 5' end and thus the antigen can be expressed appropriately. The 3D model of the antigen resulted from I-TASSER indicated the presence of alpha helix, turn, and coil as the protein structural elements. Analyzing physicochemical properties of the chimerical antigen using ProtParam showed that the fusion protein was stable and its half life in Escherichia coli was more than 10 h. Considering the GRAVY score, the chimerical antigen possessed a hydrophilic nature and it can be expressed in the soluble form in E. coli at 92.2% probability. These results demonstrated that the chimerical antigen composed of conserved MIBRs is a suitable vaccine candidate, which can elicit protection against common pneumococcal serotypes.



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