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American Journal of Medical and Biological Research

ISSN (Print): 2328-4080

ISSN (Online): 2328-4099

Website: http://www.sciepub.com/journal/AJMBR

Article

Association of Adipocytokines: Resistin and Retinol Binding Protein-4 with Severity of Preeclampsia and Insulin Resistance

1Biochemistry Department, Faculty of medicine, Umm Al-Qura University (UQU), Makkha, KSA

2Biochemistry Department, Faculty of medicine, Monufia University (MU), Shibeen Al-Koom, Egypt

3Medical Biochemistry Department, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University (ASU), Cairo, Egypt


American Journal of Medical and Biological Research. 2014, 2(3), 76-82
DOI: 10.12691/ajmbr-2-3-2
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Abeer A. EL-Refai, Sameer H. Fatani, Hala F. M. Kamel. Association of Adipocytokines: Resistin and Retinol Binding Protein-4 with Severity of Preeclampsia and Insulin Resistance. American Journal of Medical and Biological Research. 2014; 2(3):76-82. doi: 10.12691/ajmbr-2-3-2.

Correspondence to: Hala  F. M. Kamel, Biochemistry Department, Faculty of medicine, Umm Al-Qura University (UQU), Makkha, KSA. Email: kamelhala@msn.com

Abstract

Dysregulation of maternal circulating adipocytokines has been implicated in several obstetrical syndromes including preeclampsia (PE). It has been suggested that adipocytokines provide a molecular link between metabolic derangements and inflammatory response in complicated pregnancies. We aimed in this study to evaluate the relationship between serum levels of Retinol binding protein-4 (RBP-4) and Resistin with clinical, anthropometric and metabolic parameters of PE. This study included 3 groups: group 1 included 50 pregnant females with PE, group 2 included 50 healthy pregnant females and group 3 included 50 healthy non-pregnant female as a control group. For all groups anthropometric and clinical measurements were performed. Serum RBP-4, resistin, insulin were measured by ELISA and Insulin resistance was calculated by Hemostasis model assessment index (HOMA-IR). Our results showed that serum RBP-4 and resistin concentrations were elevated in PE [39(33.25-40.87) ug/ml] & [61(23.5-91.87) ng/ml] compared to normal pregnancy [18.5(8-27.87) ug/ml] & [25.5(12.7-49.12) ng/ml). Moreover, RBP4 but not resistin levels were elevated in severe cases relative to mild cases of PE. Serum levels of RBP4 showed positive significant correlation with [SBP (r=0.38, p= 0.001) & DBP (r=0.32, p=0.01)] which are markers of severity. Fasting insulin was positively correlated with RBP-4 (p=0.04). By multiple linear regression analysis, serum RBP-4 levels were significantly and positively correlated with SBP (P=0.01), while markers of adiposity were not independently associated with resistin. Conclusion: RBP-4 and resistin were up-regulated in PE, furthermore RBP-4 not resistin levels were independently associated with markers of severity of PE. However no clear relationship were observed between HOMA-IR with both RBP-4 and resistin and the role of Insulin resistance in PE was not clearly proved.

Keywords

References

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Article

Histopathological Pattern of Endoscopic Gastric Biopsy in a District Hospital in Nigeria: A Review of 118 Consecutive Cases

1Department of Pathology Kwame Nkrumah University of Science & Technology, Kumasi, Ghana

2Department of Anatomical Pathology, College of Medicine, Benue State University, Markudi, Nigeria

3Department of Surgery, National Hospital, Abuja, Nigeria

4Department of Chemical Pathology, College of Medicine, Ekiti State University, Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria


American Journal of Medical and Biological Research. 2014, 2(3), 83-86
DOI: 10.12691/ajmbr-2-3-3
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
BM Duduyemi, BA Ojo, OO Olaomi, AS Atiba. Histopathological Pattern of Endoscopic Gastric Biopsy in a District Hospital in Nigeria: A Review of 118 Consecutive Cases. American Journal of Medical and Biological Research. 2014; 2(3):83-86. doi: 10.12691/ajmbr-2-3-3.

Correspondence to: BM  Duduyemi, Department of Pathology Kwame Nkrumah University of Science & Technology, Kumasi, Ghana. Email: babsdudu@yahoo.com

Abstract

Background: The use of endoscopes for visualization of gastric mucosa has improved over times and in taking biopsy for histology. The study sets out to determine the histopathological pattern of gastritis in dyspeptic patients and correlate the histological detection of H. pylori with that of urease breath test (UBT). Method: Prospective study of 118 consecutive patients with chronic dyspepsia who underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopic examination and UBT using heliprobe. Biopsy of gastric antrum were taken at endoscopy and sent for histopathological analysis. Routine H&E and Giemsa stains were used. Results were recorded and analysed on the basis of sex, age, histology and UBT for H. pylori. Result: There were 118 patients who had endoscopy comprising 58 males and 60 females with male to female ratio of 1:1. Histology revealed varying degrees of chronic gastritis with or without H. pylori, activity, metaplasia, ulceration and dysplasia. Sixty eight (61%) of our patients were positive for H. pylori histologically. Of the first consecutive 66 patients, histology showed 38(57.6%) positive and 28(42.6%) negative; UBT, 46(69.6%) were positive for H. pylori and 20(30.4%) negative. There was a strong correlation between the true positive and true negative patients for the first 66 consecutive cases for both histology and UBT based diagnosis for detecting H. pylori. (Correlation coefficient=0.862, p=0.01). Conclusion: The study showed that histology and UBT are both useful for H. pylori detection. Large multi centre studies should be done to adopt the non-invasive UBT in resource poor economies for the eradication of H. pylori.

Keywords

References

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Article

The Set Point of Intact Parathyroid Hormone-Ionized Calcium Curve during the Progression of Secondary Hyperparathyroidism among Patients Undergoing Haemodialysis

1Department of Biochemistry, HOD lab in-charge, Apollo Reach Hospital, Karimnagar, Andhra Pradesh

2Department of Biochemistry, Chalmeda Anadrao Institute of Medical Sciences, Karimnagar

3Department of Biochemistry, Prathima Institute of Medical Sciences, Karimnagar


American Journal of Medical and Biological Research. 2014, 2(4), 87-90
DOI: 10.12691/ajmbr-2-4-1
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
T Sudhakar, Sabitha Kandi, B venugopal, K. Bhagwan Reddy, K. V. Ramana. The Set Point of Intact Parathyroid Hormone-Ionized Calcium Curve during the Progression of Secondary Hyperparathyroidism among Patients Undergoing Haemodialysis. American Journal of Medical and Biological Research. 2014; 2(4):87-90. doi: 10.12691/ajmbr-2-4-1.

Correspondence to: K.  V. Ramana, Department of Biochemistry, Prathima Institute of Medical Sciences, Karimnagar. Email: ramana_20021@rediffmail.com

Abstract

The parathyroid gland secretes parathyroid hormone (PTH) which is a key element in the regulation of serum calcium. The PTH elevates serum calcium activities by regulating its action on the bones, kidneys and small intestine. The set point of PTH secretion defines the sensitivity of the parathyroid glands to calcium concentration. Secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) is a common complication of end stage renal disease (ESRD). Ionized calcium is physiologically active form of calcium status of the body and is used for accurately monitoring calcium status in renal diseases. The present study states that the ionized calcium is the set point of secondary hyperparathyroidism undergoing haemodialysis and the range of set point lies between 2.3 – 4.8 mg/dl (0.57 – 1.2 mmol/L). The status of iPTH, set point are frequently monitored in subtotal hyperparathyroidectomy where imaging studies are not beneficial (anatomically situated on postero-lateral surface of thyroid gland) to know the appearance of parathyroid gland.

Keywords

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Article

Some Viral Sero-Markers of Patients with Abnormally Raised Total Bile Acid Receiving Treatments in Herbal/Traditional Homes of Some Rural Communities in Nigeria

1Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Achievers University Owo -Nigeria


American Journal of Medical and Biological Research. 2014, 2(4), 91-96
DOI: 10.12691/ajmbr-2-4-2
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Mathew Folaranmi OLANIYAN. Some Viral Sero-Markers of Patients with Abnormally Raised Total Bile Acid Receiving Treatments in Herbal/Traditional Homes of Some Rural Communities in Nigeria. American Journal of Medical and Biological Research. 2014; 2(4):91-96. doi: 10.12691/ajmbr-2-4-2.

Correspondence to: Mathew  Folaranmi OLANIYAN, Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Achievers University Owo -Nigeria. Email: olaniyanmat@yahoo.com

Abstract

Background to the Study: Blind therapeutic management is a common feature of the traditional management of clinical cases that may obscure immunochemical and biochemical abnormalities such as viral infections and abnormally raised total bile acid () which may make treatments unsuccessful. Aim and Objective: This work was designed to determine some viral markers of patients with abnormally raised Total Bile Acid receiving treatments in herbal/traditional homes of some rural communities in Nigeria. Materials and Method: Fifty one (51(25.1%)) of 203 patients aged 21-52 years in Saki-East, Saki-West and ATISBO with abnormally raised total bile acid under going treatment in 15 herbal homes of Saki-East, Saki-West and ATISBO Local Government areas at the Northern part of Oyo state – Nigeria between January and June, 2014 were studied. Thirty two (32(21.3%)) out one hundred and fifty (150) age-matched patients with abnormally raised visiting five (5) orthodox hospitals were also studied within the same period. 139(92.7%) with normal out of 150 apparently healthy individuals aged 20-55 years initially selected were studied as normal control subjects. Immuno assays were carried out on the subjects by Immunoblotting and ELIZA while fasting plasma was estimated in the subjects biochemically. Results: There was a lower incidence of positive 6.3%(2)ant-HIV, 15.6%(5) anti-HCV antibodies and 25%(8) HBsAg in patients receiving treatment in orthodox hospitals with a mean plasma of 16±2.0 µmol/L than patients receiving treatment in Herbal homes 7.8%(4) positive anti-HIV, 17.6%(9) anti-HCV and 31.4%(16) HBsAg obtained in with a mean plasma of 18±3.2 µmol/L. There was also a lower prevalence of positive 3.6%(5) anti-HIV, 4.3%(6) anti-HCV and 7.2%(10) HBsAg with a plasma of 6.5±0.3 µmol/L in the normal control subjects than the results obtained from the patients receiving treatments from both orthodox and traditional/herbal homes.. The immunochemical status of the subjects also revealed evidence of viral co-infections as 2%(1) anti-HIV + anti-HCV in patients receiving treatments in herbal homes, 3.1%(1) anti-HIV + HBsAg in patients receiving treatments in orthodox hospitals with a mean plasma of 16±2.0 µmol/L and 5.9%(3) anti-HIV + HBsAg in patients receiving treatments in herbal homes with a mean plasma of 18±3.2 µmol/L. There was a significantly higher difference in the mean plasma value of TBA and the prevalence of the viral markers including coinfections in the patients receiving treatment in orthodox hospitals and in the patients receiving treatments in herbal homes than the results obtained from the normal control with p< 0.05. There was also a significantly higher prevalence of the viral markers including coinfections in the patients of herbal homes than the resulusts obtained in the patients of orthodox hospitals and the normal control subjects (p<0.05).The frequency of the abnormally raised TBA, of the patients visiting herbal homes, orthodox hospitals and that of the apparently healthy individuals was 51(25.1%)), 32(21.3%) and 11(7.3%) respectively. Conclusion: The incidence of positive HBsAg, anti-HIV, anti-HCV antibodies increases with increase in Total Bile Acids considering the mean concentration of the parameter and the pattern of the viral markers in the subjects and are more prevalent in patients receiving treatments from herbal homes than those attending orthodox hospitals and the control subjects. Evaluation of Viral markers of patients with abnormally raised Total Bile Acid is recommended for effective management of this biochemical abnormality in herbal homes.

Keywords

References

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Article

Presepsin: A Novel and Potential Diagnostic Biomarker for Sepsis

1Department of Microbiology, Prathima Institute of Medical sciences, Karimnagar, India

2Department of Biochemistry, Vydehi Institute of Medical sciences and Research center, Bengaluru, India

3Department of Biochemistry, Chalmeda Anandarao Institute of Medical sciences, Karimnagar, India

4Department of General Medicine, Vydehi Institute of Medical sciences and Research center, Bengaluru, India

5Department of Dermatology, Vydehi Institute of Medical sciences and Research center, Bengaluru, India


American Journal of Medical and Biological Research. 2014, 2(4), 97-100
DOI: 10.12691/ajmbr-2-4-3
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
K V Ramana, Venkata BharatKumar Pinnelli, Sabitha Kandi, Asha G, Jayashankar CA, Bhanuprakash, Raghavendra DS, Sanjeev D rao. Presepsin: A Novel and Potential Diagnostic Biomarker for Sepsis. American Journal of Medical and Biological Research. 2014; 2(4):97-100. doi: 10.12691/ajmbr-2-4-3.

Correspondence to: K  V Ramana, Department of Microbiology, Prathima Institute of Medical sciences, Karimnagar, India. Email: ramana_20021@rediffmail.com

Abstract

Sepsis is a potential clinical condition which is a consequence of infectious disease or a severe inflammatory reaction secondary to infection or injury. Sepsis in Greek means putrefaction or decay, correlating well with the multiple organ failure and severe shock resulting in death of the patient suffering from severe sepsis. Clinical management of sepsis requires prompt laboratory diagnosis and formulation of effective patient management strategies that may include antimicrobial chemotherapy in case of sepsis induced by infectious microbe. Although many laboratory biomarkers are available for the diagnosis of sepsis, only few markers have proven to be beneficial in differentiating infectious disease sepsis and sepsis of non-infectious origin. Of the available markers only few have prognostic value. We in this review discuss the utility of a novel and emerging sepsis marker, the presepsin which has a better diagnostic and prognostic value, and has been effective in predicting the survival of the sepsis patients.

Keywords

References

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Article

Floral and Leaf Anatomy of Hibiscus Species

1Department of Botany and Ecological Studies University of Uyo, P. M. B. 1017, Uyo. Akwa Ibom State-Nigeria


American Journal of Medical and Biological Research. 2014, 2(5), 101-117
DOI: 10.12691/ajmbr-2-5-1
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
U. A. Essiett, E. S. Iwok. Floral and Leaf Anatomy of Hibiscus Species. American Journal of Medical and Biological Research. 2014; 2(5):101-117. doi: 10.12691/ajmbr-2-5-1.

Correspondence to: U.  A. Essiett, Department of Botany and Ecological Studies University of Uyo, P. M. B. 1017, Uyo. Akwa Ibom State-Nigeria. Email: u.essiett@yahoo.com

Abstract

Comparative anatomical studies of the leaves and flowers of H. arnottianus, H. surattensis, H. acetosella and H. rosa-sinensis are described. The anisocytic stomata was the commonest followed by brachyparacytic, anomocytic, staurocytic stomata and laterocytic stomatas respectively. H. acetosella are distinguished on other species by having laterocytic stomata on both surfaces of leaves and parallel contiguous stomata are found on abaxial surface while in H. rosa-sinensis laterocytic is found only on adaxial surface. There are five different types of abnormal stomata, unopened stomatal pore, two stomata sharing one subsidiary cell, parallel contiguous stomata and aborted guard cell found in all the surfaces of the leaves and flowers. In addition parallel contiguous stomata are found on adaxial surface of H. rosa-sinensis and abaxial surface of H. arnottianus flower. H. rosa-sinensis had five-armed trichome on the abaxial surface that helps in distinguishing it from other species studied. Crystal druses are only present on both adaxial surface of H. arnottianus and H. rosa-sinensis leaf and on the abaxial surface of H. acetosella flower. The shape of epidermal cells, anticlinal cell walls, guard cell areas, stomatal index and trichomes varied. The results obtained could be used as diagnostic tool for plant identification and preparation of monograph on the species.

Keywords

References

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Article

Klienfelter Syndrome Presenting as a Lifelong Anejaculation - A Case Report and Literature Review

1Department of Urology, Alexandria Faculty of Medicine, Alexandria, Egypt


American Journal of Medical and Biological Research. 2014, 2(5), 118-120
DOI: 10.12691/ajmbr-2-5-2
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Nader Salama. Klienfelter Syndrome Presenting as a Lifelong Anejaculation - A Case Report and Literature Review. American Journal of Medical and Biological Research. 2014; 2(5):118-120. doi: 10.12691/ajmbr-2-5-2.

Correspondence to: Nader  Salama, Department of Urology, Alexandria Faculty of Medicine, Alexandria, Egypt. Email: nadersalama58@yahoo.com

Abstract

Introduction: Klinefelter syndrome (KS) is the most common sex chromosomal anomaly with hypogonadism being a common feature in this syndrome. The ejaculate volume is about normal to low in men with this syndrome. In the present report, we describe the successful treatment of a lifelong anejaculation in a man with KS. This represents the first report of successful treatment of anejaculation in KS. Case presentation: A 24-year-old Caucasian man presented with a lifelong history of failure of ejaculation. A diagnostic work-up revealed the existence of KS and administration of human chorionic gonadotrophin restored the ejaculation. Conclusion: This case report confirms further the increased prevalence of ejaculatory disorders among men with KS in whom associated hypogonadism should be considered a cause of anejaculation. Diagnosis of KS is often delayed. Early diagnosis of the syndrome before puberty is highly recommended and desirable to maintain quality of life.

Keywords

References

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[7]  Miyagawa, Y., Tsujimura, A., Matsumiya, K., Takao, T., Tohda, A., Koga, M., Takeyama, M., Fujioka, H., Takada, S., Koide, T. and Okuyama, A, “Outcome of gonadotropin therapy for male hypogonadotropic hypogonadism at university affiliated male infertility centers: a 30-year retrospective study”, J Urol, 173, 2072-2075, 2005.
 
[8]  Corona, G., Jannini, E.A., Mannucci, E., Fisher, A.D., Lotti, F., Petrone, L., Balercia, G., Bandini, E., Chiarini, V., Forti, G. and Maggi, M, “Different testosterone levels are associated with ejaculatory dysfunction”, J Sex Med, 5, 1991-1998, 2008.
 
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Article

Pre Eclampsia and Iron Status: A Review

1Department of Biochemistry, Chalmeda AnandRao Institute of Medical Sciences, Bommakal, Karimnagar, Andhra Pradesh

2Department of Obsterics and Gynaecology, Chalmeda AnandRao Institute of Medical Sciences, Bommakal, Karimnagar, Andhra Pradesh

3Department of Microbiology, Prathima institute of Medical Sciences, Nagnur, Karimnagar, Andhra Pradesh


American Journal of Medical and Biological Research. 2014, 2(6), 121-123
DOI: 10.12691/ajmbr-2-6-1
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Sabitha Kandi, Sudhakar T, C Ramadevi, B Venugopal, Rajkumar, Md Rafi, K V Ramana. Pre Eclampsia and Iron Status: A Review. American Journal of Medical and Biological Research. 2014; 2(6):121-123. doi: 10.12691/ajmbr-2-6-1.

Correspondence to: K  V Ramana, Department of Microbiology, Prathima institute of Medical Sciences, Nagnur, Karimnagar, Andhra Pradesh. Email: tejaswani19@gmail.com

Abstract

Preeclampsia is an idiopathic multisystem disorder specific to pregnancy and development of hypertension and proteinuria, increased vascular resistance and endothelial dysfunction in the mother , altered placental perfusion and restricted fetal growth. The vasospasm leads to destruction of RBCs release iron thus, there is elevated serum iron levels in preeclamptic women. The excess iron released from destruction of RBCs can react with free radicals produced from cell membrane (as it is rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids) and circulating lipoproteins initiates lipid peroxidation both in placenta and vasculature. This is one of the significant etiologic factors in the endothelial cell damage of preeclampsia. the raised serum iron levels in turn alters the iron related parameters like total iron binding capacity(TIBC), serum ferritin, transferrin, percent saturation.

Keywords

References

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Article

Hepatoprotective Activity of Ethanol Extract of Conyza bonariensis against Paracetamol Induced Hepatotoxicity in Swiss Albino Mice

1College of Pharmacy, GC University, Faisalabad, Pakistan

2Department of Biochemistry, Hazara University, Mansehra, KPK, Pakistan

3Department of Pharmacology, Independent University Hospital, Faisalabad, Pakistan


American Journal of Medical and Biological Research. 2014, 2(6), 124-127
DOI: 10.12691/ajmbr-2-6-2
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Faiza Naseer, Sohail Ahmad, Attiya Nazish, Fiza Raza Bukhari, Atta Ur Rehman, Imran Mahmood Khan, Samra Sadiq, Fatima Javed. Hepatoprotective Activity of Ethanol Extract of Conyza bonariensis against Paracetamol Induced Hepatotoxicity in Swiss Albino Mice. American Journal of Medical and Biological Research. 2014; 2(6):124-127. doi: 10.12691/ajmbr-2-6-2.

Correspondence to: Faiza  Naseer, College of Pharmacy, GC University, Faisalabad, Pakistan. Email: faiza.naseer@ymail.com

Abstract

The hepatoprotective activity of Conyza bonariensis ethanol extract was studied against paracetamol induced hepatotoxicity in mice. The results showed that an extract of C.B (250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg) produced (p<0.05) decline in paracetamol induced liver marker enzymes and total bilirubin, but its 750 mg/kg showed remarkable decline in ALT, AST, ALP and TB levels, compared to the reference levels of silymarin and results were supported by histopathology of liver section. So, it is concluded that 750 mg/kg is highly potent dose of ethanol extract of Conyza bonariensis and this potential may be due to the presence of the active constituent: qurecetin and chromatogram by HPLC confirmed its presence.

Keywords

References

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Article

The Immunomodulatory, Antimicrobial and Bactericidal Efficacy of Commonly Used Commercial Household Disinfectants, Sterilizers and Antiseptics in Vitro: Laboratory Assessment of Anti-Inflammatory Infection Control Mechanisms and Comparative Biochemical Analysis of the Microbial Growth of Gram-Negative Bacteria

1Cellular and Molecular Physiology and Immunology Signaling Research Group, Biomedical Laboratory and Clinical Sciences Division, Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, Beirut Arab University, Beirut, Lebanon


American Journal of Medical and Biological Research. 2015, 3(1), 1-32
DOI: 10.12691/ajmbr-3-1-1
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Niveen M. Masri, Lama B. Hanbali, John J. Haddad. The Immunomodulatory, Antimicrobial and Bactericidal Efficacy of Commonly Used Commercial Household Disinfectants, Sterilizers and Antiseptics in Vitro: Laboratory Assessment of Anti-Inflammatory Infection Control Mechanisms and Comparative Biochemical Analysis of the Microbial Growth of Gram-Negative Bacteria. American Journal of Medical and Biological Research. 2015; 3(1):1-32. doi: 10.12691/ajmbr-3-1-1.

Correspondence to: John  J. Haddad, Cellular and Molecular Physiology and Immunology Signaling Research Group, Biomedical Laboratory and Clinical Sciences Division, Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, Beirut Arab University, Beirut, Lebanon. Email: john.haddad@yahoo.co.uk

Abstract

Background: Immunomodulatory/anti-inflammatory and microbial infection control strategies characterize the spiral evolution of public awareness of health safety issues. This is substantiated with burgeoning number of cases of microbial contamination and/or infection in myriad healthcare settings, at the hospital, and even at home. Previously, we have investigated and identified laboratory parameters in the assessment of the antimicrobial effects of a myriad of commercial disinfectants on the growth of pathogenic and saprophytic gram-positive bacteria. The present sequel study investigates the antimicrobial/bactericidal effects of commercially available disinfectants, sterilizers, antiseptics, and chlorhexidine-containing detergents on the growth of saprophytic and pathogenic gram-negative bacteria in vitro. It is an unprecedented wide canopy enveloping standardized comparative assessments of the antimicrobial efficiency of consumer-targeted household detergents, curbing and containing microbial infection, inflammation and contamination propensity. Methods: Given the medical significance and impact of public infection control, we have meticulously examined at least 22 different detergents categorized into four classes (each category comprises a variety of commercially available products commonly used by the public): i) Class A – Daily Mouthwash; ii) Class B – Toilet Bowl Cleaners/Bleaches/Sanitizers; iii) Class C – Surface and Floor Mopping Cleaners/Detergents; and iv) Class D – Hand and Body Wash Gels. Whilst the canonical menu of active ingredients varies among those aforementioned classes, antimicrobial components are well established. Results: Regarding Class A, the most effective against Citrobacter koseri is ‘Colgate Plax Mouthwash’; Enterobacter cloacae is ‘Colgate Plax Mouthwash’; Escherichia coli is ‘Colgate Plax Mouthwash’; Escherichia coli ESBL is ‘Colgate Plax Mouthwash’; Klebsiella pneumoniae is ‘Colgate Plax Mouthwash’; Proteus vulgaris is ‘Colgate Plax Mouthwash’; Pseudomonas aeruginosa is ‘Perio.Kin Chlorhexidina 0.20 %’; Salmonella typhimurium is ‘Colgate Plax Mouthwash’; and Shigella sonnei is ‘Colgate Plax Mouthwash’. Regarding Class B, the most effective against C. koseri is ‘Harpic Power Plus Disinfectant’; E. cloacae is ‘WC Net Bleach Gel’; E. coli is ‘WC Net Bleach Gel’; E. coli ESBL is ‘WC Net Bleach Gel’; K. pneumoniae are ‘WC Net Bleach Gel’ and ‘Harpic Power Plus Disinfectant’; P. vulgaris is ‘Spartan Max WC Lavender’; P. aeruginosa is ‘WC Net Bleach Gel’; S. typhimurium is ‘Clorox Bleach Rain Clean’; and S. sonnei is ‘Harpic Power Plus Disinfectant’. Regarding Class C, the most effective against C. koseri is ‘Dettol Antiseptic/Disinfectant’; E. cloacae is ‘Dettol Antiseptic/Disinfectant’; E. coli is ‘Vim Cream Multipurpose Fast Rinsing’; E. coli ESBL is ‘Dettol Antiseptic/Disinfectant’; K. pneumoniae is ‘Dettol Antiseptic/Disinfectant’; P. vulgaris is ‘Dettol Antiseptic/Disinfectant’; P. aeruginosa is ‘Dettol Antiseptic/Disinfectant’; S. typhimurium is ‘Dettol Antiseptic/Disinfectant’; and S. sonnei is ‘Dettol Antiseptic/Disinfectant’. Regarding Class D, the most effective against C. koseri, E. cloacae, E. coli, E. coli ESBL, K. pneumoniae, P. vulgaris, P. aeruginosa, S. typhimurium, and S. sonnei is unprecedentedly the ‘HiGeen Hand and Body Wash Gel’.

Keywords

References

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