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American Journal of Medical and Biological Research

ISSN (Print): 2328-4080

ISSN (Online): 2328-4099

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Risk Factor of Frequent Relapse in Pediatric Nephrotic Syndrome

1Department of Child Health, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Padjadjaran, Dr. Hasan Sadikin General Hospital, Bandung, Indonesia

American Journal of Medical and Biological Research. 2016, 4(1), 10-12
doi: 10.12691/ajmbr-4-1-3
Copyright © 2016 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Desman Situmorang, Nanan Sekarwana, Eddy Fadlyana. Risk Factor of Frequent Relapse in Pediatric Nephrotic Syndrome. American Journal of Medical and Biological Research. 2016; 4(1):10-12. doi: 10.12691/ajmbr-4-1-3.

Correspondence to: Desman  Situmorang, Department of Child Health, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Padjadjaran, Dr. Hasan Sadikin General Hospital, Bandung, Indonesia. Email:


Background. Nephrotic syndrome (NS) is a kidney disease with high incidence. Although steroids therapy produces a good outcome with remission (80−95%), but the relapse rates are also high (60-90%). Relapsed NS patients experienced a long period treatment and become dependent on steroids, which might cause side effects such as short stature, overweight, osteoporosis, and cardiovascular disease. Some risk factors of relapse are age, late remission, first relapsed ≤6 months after remission, and short initial therapy. Study design. A cross-sectional study with retrospective data collection from medical record of patients with frequent and infrequent relapse nephrotic syndrome from January 2010 to December 2014. There were 90 patients which were divided in two groups, 45 frequent relapse and 45 infrequent relapse. Statistical analysis used bivariate and multivariate risk factor. Result. Boys:girls ratio was 4.6:1, with median age is 5 years and 5 month (65 months). From bivariate analysis, the first diagnosis ≤5 years (p<0.001) and time on remission ≤6 month (p<0.001) were the risk factor of frequent relapse. Multivariate analysis showed time on remission ≤6 month (OR 37.113, CI 95% (7.115−193.595)) more significant than the age at diagnosis ≤5 years (OR 8.0 CI 95% (2.402−26.645)) upon frequent relapse nephrotic syndrome. Conclusion. Time on remission ≤6 month and the age at diagnosis of NS ≤5 years were risk factor of frequent relapse in nephrotic syndrome patients.



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Characterization of Pollen Specific Proteins SF3 and SF21 from Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) for the Allergenicity Potential

1Department of Science and Laboratory Technology, Dar es Salaam Institute of Technology, P. O. Box 2958, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

American Journal of Medical and Biological Research. 2016, 4(2), 13-19
doi: 10.12691/ajmbr-4-2-1
Copyright © 2016 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Ezekiel Amri. Characterization of Pollen Specific Proteins SF3 and SF21 from Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) for the Allergenicity Potential. American Journal of Medical and Biological Research. 2016; 4(2):13-19. doi: 10.12691/ajmbr-4-2-1.

Correspondence to: Ezekiel  Amri, Department of Science and Laboratory Technology, Dar es Salaam Institute of Technology, P. O. Box 2958, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Email:


Pollen from different type of plants carry different proteins that are more likely to become allergenic than others. In this study pollen specific proteins SF3 and SF21 from Sunflower (Helianthus annuus) were in-silico characterized for allergenicity potential. Bioinformatics allergen prediction tools were employed for prediction of SF3 and SF21 as candidate allergens. The phylogenetic relationship between the pollen specific proteins and protein allergens of Asteraceae family was also analyzed to unveil their similarity. The results by Bepipred Linear Epitope prediction demonstrated a good number of epitopes in pollen specific protein SF3 and SF21 signifying that both are potential allergens. However, further analysis through ConSurf revealed the presence of allergen-specific patches with remarkably higher proportion of surface-exposed hydrophobic residue in SF3 than SF21. Further prediction by AlgPred and ProAp methods with Support Vector Machines (SVMs) revealed that only SF3 contained IgE epitope thus confirming it as a potential allergen. The phylogenetic analysis revealed a close identity of SF3 with the major allergen of Ambrosia artemisiifolia pollen, Amb a 3. The study has demonstrated high allergenic activity of SF3 protein with shared similarity with the pollen protein allergens of Asteraceae family. This study forms a basis in predicting cross-reactivity of pollen specific proteins, designing of therapeutic procedures and evaluating the allergenic potential of novel proteins.



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Plasma Cytokine Profiles as Predictive Biomarkers of HIV and Aids Progression among HIV Patients Attending Nakuru Provincial General Hospital, Kenya

1Department of Biological and Biomedical Sciences, Laikipia, University, Kenya

2Department of Zoological Sciences, Kenyatta University, Kenya

3Department of Biotechnology, Kenya Medical Research Institute, Kenya

American Journal of Medical and Biological Research. 2016, 4(2), 20-25
doi: 10.12691/ajmbr-4-2-2
Copyright © 2016 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Jane Nyambura Mugwe, Michael M. Gicheru, Joseph Mwatha. Plasma Cytokine Profiles as Predictive Biomarkers of HIV and Aids Progression among HIV Patients Attending Nakuru Provincial General Hospital, Kenya. American Journal of Medical and Biological Research. 2016; 4(2):20-25. doi: 10.12691/ajmbr-4-2-2.

Correspondence to: Jane  Nyambura Mugwe, Department of Biological and Biomedical Sciences, Laikipia, University, Kenya. Email:


Introduction: Cytokines are produced by many cell types, mostly cells of the immune system, and act on diverse targets, often the white blood cells. They play a central role in the pathogenesis of many diseases including Acquired Immunodeficiency Disease Syndrome (AIDS). They reflect the local or systemic inflammatory setting, and could serve as predictive biomarkers in Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) disease progression. Objective: The aim of this study was to identify cytokines measureable in blood plasma in recently diagnosed HIV individuals before the commencement of antiretroviral therapy. Study Population: Eighty individuals, both males and females, were recruited for this study that comprised of forty newly diagnosed with HIV-1; twenty HIV negative individuals; and twenty HIV positive individuals currently on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Method: Cytokines were measured using multiplex cytokine immunoassay. Five types of cytokines were detected. Data analyses were performed using Graph Pad Prism 6. Independent sample T tests were used to compare the cytokine means while Spearman Rank tests were used to test for correlations. Statistical analysis were done using SPSS version 17. Results: The study showed significantly (p=<0.001) higher levels of IL-12p70, TNF, IL-10, IL-6 and IL-1β among the newly diagnosed HIV patients compared to those on highly antiretroviral therapy and HIV negative patients. Conclusion: Identification of plasma cytokines could be useful predictive biomarkers of HIV disease progression.



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