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American Journal of Medical and Biological Research

ISSN (Print): 2328-4080

ISSN (Online): 2328-4099

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HIV/AIDS and Coronary Heart Disease on a Collision Course? Review of Zimbabwe

1Institute of Clinical Medicine, University in Oslo, Oslo University Hospital, P.O. Box 1171, Blindern, 0318 Oslo, Norway

2University of Zimbabwe, College of Health Sciences, Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, P. O. Box AV 178, Avondale, Harare, Zimbabwe

3Department of Infectious Diseases, Oslo University Hospital, P.O. Box 4950, Nydalen, 0424, Oslo, Norway

4Chinhoyi University of Technology, PO Box 7724, Chinhoyi, Zimbabwe

American Journal of Medical and Biological Research. 2016, 4(2), 26-32
doi: 10.12691/ajmbr-4-2-3
Copyright © 2016 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Danai Tavonga Zhou, Olav Oktedalen, Tawanda Chisango, Babill Stray-Pedersen. HIV/AIDS and Coronary Heart Disease on a Collision Course? Review of Zimbabwe. American Journal of Medical and Biological Research. 2016; 4(2):26-32. doi: 10.12691/ajmbr-4-2-3.

Correspondence to: Danai  Tavonga Zhou, Institute of Clinical Medicine, University in Oslo, Oslo University Hospital, P.O. Box 1171, Blindern, 0318 Oslo, Norway. Email:


There are very few published manuscripts on coronary heart disease (CHD) from Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) and Zimbabwe. In fact the few published papers on the subject suggest that CHD is rare in SSA and in Zimbabwean individuals both before HIV and in the era of HIV/AIDS and antiretroviral therapy (ART). However a look at recent literature and data from publications by both the World Health Organization (WHO) and Zimbabwe Ministry of Health and Child Care point towards an epidemiological transition, as CHD is now one of the top causes of death in Zimbabwe. This may be due to the fact that CHD is a complex inflammatory disease involving smoking, obesity, diabetes, atherogenic lipid levels, cytokines and other inflammatory markers such as C reactive protein (CRP) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) and many of these factors have consistently been linked to changing lifestyle as populations move into urban settings. On the other hand, atherogenic lipids and elevated inflammatory markers are more common in HIV infected individuals due to the virus and ART. Hence it is likely that the burden of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) and CHD will increase over time as a result of both urbanization in the general population and a high HIV disease burden in Zimbabwe, pointing towards a collision of HIV and CHD in future.



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Farmer: Agrochemical Use and Associated Risk Factors in Fadan Daji District of Kaura LGA, Kaduna State, Nigeria

1Department of Community Medicine, College Medicine and Health Sciences, Bingham University, Jos, Nigeria

2Department of Medical Microbiology, College Medicine and Health Sciences, Bingham University, Jos, Nigeria

3Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, College Medicine and Health Sciences, Bingham University, Jos, Nigeria

4Department of Biology and Center for Cancer Research, Tuskegee University, Tuskegee, Alabama, USA

5Department of Haematology, College Medicine and Health Sciences, Bingham University, Jos, Nigeria

6Department of Chemical Pathology, College Medicine and Health Sciences, Bingham University, Jos, Nigeria

7Department of Medicine and Surgery, College Medicine and Health Sciences, Bingham University, Jos, Nigeria

8Department of Community Medicine, College Medicine, University of Abuja, Nigeria

American Journal of Medical and Biological Research. 2016, 4(3), 33-41
doi: 10.12691/ajmbr-4-3-1
Copyright © 2016 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Bassi AP, Ramyil MCS, Ogundeko TO, Abisoye-Ogunniyan A, Builders M, Thliza SMA, Adeniyi GO, Akande Tunji, Ike RO, Ologun DO, Damai C, Pfongkazah D, Adinoyi OA, Dibigbo-Ibeagi Ndudi Mary, Nwankwo B. Farmer: Agrochemical Use and Associated Risk Factors in Fadan Daji District of Kaura LGA, Kaduna State, Nigeria. American Journal of Medical and Biological Research. 2016; 4(3):33-41. doi: 10.12691/ajmbr-4-3-1.

Correspondence to: Ogundeko  TO, Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, College Medicine and Health Sciences, Bingham University, Jos, Nigeria. Email:


Background: Occupational poisoning via the use of agrochemicals is common in developing countries. This is because grass-root farmers, who are the majority, are poor, illiterate and are undertrained on ethics surrounding its use. This is a cross sectional descriptive study carried out in Fadan-Daji (FD) district of Kagoro Chiefdom, Kaura LGA, Kaduna state, Nigeria. Methods: Three villages - Kodwak, Uzha-Tuyit and Zankam were randomly selected in the district. A sample size of 250 farmers was obtained using a p-value of 82%, while the selected farmers completed structured questionnaires. Results: Physical, chemical, biological, mechanical and psychosocial events occurred at the same time in the FD Farming community. Thus, clients present with multiple finding or symptoms. In this study most farmers experienced chest pain/tightness, cough, dizziness, reddening of the eyes; sneezing and rheum more often following the use on their farms. This study further revealed that farmers in the studied communities (31.6%) resorted to self-medication ranging from analgesics, to over the counter antihistamines, whilst 23.6% reported that they ingest milk as antidote. 32.4% did nothing about it while only 12.4% of the respondents visited a health facility. 54.4% of FD farmers used no form of personal protective devices (PPDs). Conclusion: Our findings revealed that the root problem faced with the FD like the average farmer of the developing world is lack of relevant education in terms of ethical use and disposal of agrochemicals which has made a significant number of FD farmers more susceptible to the agrochemical side effects resulting from its use. Such a community located in the heart of Nigeria also being a food basket needs prompt attention in terms of improved western/farmer education and health facilities.



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Role of Some Metal Ions on Steady–state Kinetics of Engineered Wild–type and Manganese (II) Binding Site Mutants of Recombinant Phlebia radiata Manganese Peroxidase 3 (rPr-MnP3)

1Department of Biological Sciences, Akwa Ibom State University, P.M.B. 1167, Uyo, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria

2Department of Chemistry, Akwa Ibom State University, P.M.B. 1167, Uyo, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria

3Research and Development Unit, Akwa Ibom State University, P.M.B. 1167, Uyo, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria

4Department of Biochemistry, University of Uyo, P. M. B. 1017, Uyo, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria

American Journal of Medical and Biological Research. 2016, 4(3), 42-52
doi: 10.12691/ajmbr-4-3-2
Copyright © 2016 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Usenobong F. Ufot, Aniefiok E. Ite, Idorenyin H. Usoh, Monday I. Akpanabiatu. Role of Some Metal Ions on Steady–state Kinetics of Engineered Wild–type and Manganese (II) Binding Site Mutants of Recombinant Phlebia radiata Manganese Peroxidase 3 (rPr-MnP3). American Journal of Medical and Biological Research. 2016; 4(3):42-52. doi: 10.12691/ajmbr-4-3-2.

Correspondence to: Usenobong  F. Ufot, Department of Biological Sciences, Akwa Ibom State University, P.M.B. 1167, Uyo, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. Email:


This study investigated the steady-state kinetics of engineered wild-type and manganese (II) binding site mutants of recombinant Phlebia radiata manganese peroxidase 3(rPr-MnP3). The effect (activation or inhibition) of some metal ions (Co2+, Zn2+ Cu2+ and Na+) on the activity of rPr-MnP3 enzymes was also studied. The results obtained showed that the rPr-MnP3 mutants in which the metal binding functionality has been largely lost have been created. Na+ (mono-valent ion) and Co2+showed similar characteristics by exhibiting stimulatory effects on the activity of wild-type rPr-MnP3. However, Cu2+ and Zn2+ had mixed inhibitory effects on wild-type and mutants (E40H, E44H, E40H/E44H). It was observed that Cu2+ was by far the strongest inhibitor of engineered rPr-MnP3 enzymes while Co2+ exhibited a non-competitive inhibitory effect on the double mutant (E40H/E44H) and D186H activities. In addition, Zn2+ and Cu2+also had non-competitive inhibitory effect on D186H mutant enzyme activity. The results obtained further showed that the competitive inhibitory effect of Cu2+observed in other rPr-MnP3 enzymes is largely removed in D186H mutant enzyme. Generally, histidine substitution retained a strong selectivity for Cu2+ as competitive inhibitor. Zn2+ being generally non-competitive suggest involvement of sites other than the Mn (II) binding site. This study showed that rPr-MnP3 enzymes function with alternate ligands in the Mn2+ binding site and does not have absolute obligate requirement for all carboxylate ligand set.



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