You are here

American Journal of Medical and Biological Research

ISSN (Print): 2328-4080

ISSN (Online): 2328-4099

Editor-in-Chief: Apply for this position

Website: http://www.sciepub.com/journal/AJMBR

   

Article

Risk Factor of Frequent Relapse in Pediatric Nephrotic Syndrome

1Department of Child Health, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Padjadjaran, Dr. Hasan Sadikin General Hospital, Bandung, Indonesia


American Journal of Medical and Biological Research. 2016, 4(1), 10-12
doi: 10.12691/ajmbr-4-1-3
Copyright © 2016 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Desman Situmorang, Nanan Sekarwana, Eddy Fadlyana. Risk Factor of Frequent Relapse in Pediatric Nephrotic Syndrome. American Journal of Medical and Biological Research. 2016; 4(1):10-12. doi: 10.12691/ajmbr-4-1-3.

Correspondence to: Desman  Situmorang, Department of Child Health, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Padjadjaran, Dr. Hasan Sadikin General Hospital, Bandung, Indonesia. Email: dman2912@gmail.com

Abstract

Background. Nephrotic syndrome (NS) is a kidney disease with high incidence. Although steroids therapy produces a good outcome with remission (80−95%), but the relapse rates are also high (60-90%). Relapsed NS patients experienced a long period treatment and become dependent on steroids, which might cause side effects such as short stature, overweight, osteoporosis, and cardiovascular disease. Some risk factors of relapse are age, late remission, first relapsed ≤6 months after remission, and short initial therapy. Study design. A cross-sectional study with retrospective data collection from medical record of patients with frequent and infrequent relapse nephrotic syndrome from January 2010 to December 2014. There were 90 patients which were divided in two groups, 45 frequent relapse and 45 infrequent relapse. Statistical analysis used bivariate and multivariate risk factor. Result. Boys:girls ratio was 4.6:1, with median age is 5 years and 5 month (65 months). From bivariate analysis, the first diagnosis ≤5 years (p<0.001) and time on remission ≤6 month (p<0.001) were the risk factor of frequent relapse. Multivariate analysis showed time on remission ≤6 month (OR 37.113, CI 95% (7.115−193.595)) more significant than the age at diagnosis ≤5 years (OR 8.0 CI 95% (2.402−26.645)) upon frequent relapse nephrotic syndrome. Conclusion. Time on remission ≤6 month and the age at diagnosis of NS ≤5 years were risk factor of frequent relapse in nephrotic syndrome patients.

Keywords

References

[1]  Bagga A, Mantan M. Nephrotic syndrome in children. Indian J Med Res. 2005; 122(1):13-28.
 
[2]  Roth KS, Amaker BH, Chan JCM. Nephrotic syndrome: Pathogenesis and management. Pediatr Rev. 2002;23(7):237-48.
 
[3]  Konsensus tata laksana sindrom nefrotik idiopatik pada anak. 2nd Edition. Jakarta: UKK Nefrologi IDAI; 2008.
 
[4]  Pais P, Avner ED. Nephrotic syndrome. In: Kliegman RM, Stanton BF, III JWSG, Shor NF, Editor. Nelson textbook of pediatrics. 19th Edition. Philadelphia: Elsevier; 2011. p. 6483-8.
 
[5]  Teeninga N, Holthe JEK-v, Rijswijk Nv, Mos NId, Hop WCJ, Wetzels JFM, et al. Extending prednisolone treatment does not reduce relapses in childhood nephrotic syndrome. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2013;24:149-59.
 
Show More References
[6]  Sarker MN, Islam MMSU, Saad T, Shoma FN, Sharmin LS, Khan HA, et al. Risk factor for relapse in childhood nephrotic syndrome - a hospital based retrospective study. Faridpur Med Coll J. 2012;7(1):18-22.
 
[7]  ISKDC. Early identification of frequent relapsers among children with minimal change nephrotic syndrome. A report of the international study of kidney disease in children. J Pediatr. 1982;101(4):514-8.
 
[8]  Salloum AAA, Muthanna A, Bassrawi R, Shehab AAA, Ibrahim AA, Islam MZ, et al. Long-term outcome of the difficult nephrotic syndrome in children. Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl. 2012;23(5):965-72.
 
[9]  Niaudet P. Long-term outcome of children with steroid-sensitive idiopathic nephrotic syndrome. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2009;4:1547-8.
 
[10]  Liu D, Ahmet A, Ward L, Krishnamoorthy P, Mandelcorn ED, Leigh R, et al. A practical guide to the monitoring and management of the complications of systemic corticosteroid therapy. Allergy, asthma & clinical immunology. 2013;9(30):1-25.
 
[11]  Garniasih D, Djais JTB, Garna H. Hubungan antara kadar albumin dan kalsium serum pada sindrom nefrotik anak. Sari Pediatri. 2008;10(2):100-5.
 
[12]  Niaudet P, Boyer O. Idiopathic nephrotic syndrome in children: Clinical aspects. In: Avner E, Harmon W, Niaudet P, Yoshikawa N, editor. Pediatric nephrology. Edisi ke-6. Berlin: Springer; 2009. hlm. 667-702.
 
[13]  Uwaezuoke SN. Steroid-sensitive nephrotic syndrome in children: Triggers of relapse and evolving hypotheses on pathogenesis. Italian Journ of Ped. 2015;41(19):1-6.
 
[14]  Constantinescu AR, Shah HB, Foote EF, Weiss LS. Predicting first-year relapses in children with nephrotic syndrome. Pediatrics. 2000;105:492-5.
 
[15]  Shin HK, Kim JH, Yoo KH, Hong YS, Lee JW, Kim SK. Risk factor for the first-year relapse in children with nephrotic syndorome. J Korean Pediatr Soc. 2003;46:889-92.
 
[16]  Meyers KEC, Kajubu DA, Kaplan BS. Minimal-change nephrotic syndrome. In: Neilson EG, Couser WG, editor. Immunologic renal disease. Edisi. Philadelphia: Lippincot-Raven; 1997. hlm. 975-92.
 
[17]  Sureshkumar P, Hodson EM, Willis NS, Barzi F, Craig JC. Predictors of remission and relapse in idiopathic nephrotic syndrome: A prospective cohort study. Pediatr Nephrol. 2014;29:1039-46.
 
[18]  Takeda A, Matsutani H, Niimura F, Ohgushi H. Risk factors for relapse in childhood nephrotic syndrome. Pediatr Nephrol. 1996;10:740-1.
 
Show Less References

Article

Characterization of Pollen Specific Proteins SF3 and SF21 from Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) for the Allergenicity Potential

1Department of Science and Laboratory Technology, Dar es Salaam Institute of Technology, P. O. Box 2958, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania


American Journal of Medical and Biological Research. 2016, 4(2), 13-19
doi: 10.12691/ajmbr-4-2-1
Copyright © 2016 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Ezekiel Amri. Characterization of Pollen Specific Proteins SF3 and SF21 from Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) for the Allergenicity Potential. American Journal of Medical and Biological Research. 2016; 4(2):13-19. doi: 10.12691/ajmbr-4-2-1.

Correspondence to: Ezekiel  Amri, Department of Science and Laboratory Technology, Dar es Salaam Institute of Technology, P. O. Box 2958, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Email: ezekielamri@yahoo.com

Abstract

Pollen from different type of plants carry different proteins that are more likely to become allergenic than others. In this study pollen specific proteins SF3 and SF21 from Sunflower (Helianthus annuus) were in-silico characterized for allergenicity potential. Bioinformatics allergen prediction tools were employed for prediction of SF3 and SF21 as candidate allergens. The phylogenetic relationship between the pollen specific proteins and protein allergens of Asteraceae family was also analyzed to unveil their similarity. The results by Bepipred Linear Epitope prediction demonstrated a good number of epitopes in pollen specific protein SF3 and SF21 signifying that both are potential allergens. However, further analysis through ConSurf revealed the presence of allergen-specific patches with remarkably higher proportion of surface-exposed hydrophobic residue in SF3 than SF21. Further prediction by AlgPred and ProAp methods with Support Vector Machines (SVMs) revealed that only SF3 contained IgE epitope thus confirming it as a potential allergen. The phylogenetic analysis revealed a close identity of SF3 with the major allergen of Ambrosia artemisiifolia pollen, Amb a 3. The study has demonstrated high allergenic activity of SF3 protein with shared similarity with the pollen protein allergens of Asteraceae family. This study forms a basis in predicting cross-reactivity of pollen specific proteins, designing of therapeutic procedures and evaluating the allergenic potential of novel proteins.

Keywords

References

[1]  Furmonaviciene, R., Sutton, B. J., Glaser, F., Laughton, C. A., Jones, N., Sewell, H. F., and Shakib, F. (2005). An attempt to define allergen-specific molecular surface features: a bioinformatic approach. Bioinformatics, 21(23): 4201-4204.
 
[2]  Songnuan, W. (2013). Wind-pollination and the roles of pollen allergenic proteins. Asian Pac J Allergy Immunol, 31:261-270.
 
[3]  Radauer, C. and Breiteneder, H. (2006). Pollen allergens are restricted to few protein families and show distinct patterns of species distribution. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 117(1): 141-147.
 
[4]  Skjoth, C.A., Sommer, J., Stach, A., Smith, M., Brandt, J. (2007). The long-range transport of birch (Betula) pollen from Poland and Germany causes significant pre-season concentrations in Denmark. Clin Exp Allergy, 37:1204-1212.
 
[5]  Taketomi, E.A., Sopelete, M.C., Moreira, P.F.D.S. and Vieira, F.D.A.M. (2006). Pollen allergic disease: pollens and its major allergens. Revista Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia, 72(4): 562-567.
 
Show More References
[6]  Bousquet, P.J., Bachert, C., Canonica, G.W., Casale, T.B., Mullol, J., Klossek, J.M., Zuberbier, T., and Bousquet, J. (2010) Uncontrolled allergic rhinitis during treatment and its impact on quality of life: acluster randomized trial. J Allergy Clin Immunol 126(3): 666-668.
 
[7]  Asam, C., Hofer, H., Wolf, M., Aglas, L., and Wallner, M. (2015). Tree pollen allergens—an update from a molecular perspective. Allergy, 70(10): 1201-1211.
 
[8]  Baltz, R., Schmit, A.-C., Kohnen, M., Hentges, F. and Steinmetz, A. (1999). Differential localization of the LIM domain protein PLIM-1 in microspores and mature pollen grains from sunflower, Sex. Plant Reprod., 12: 60-65.
 
[9]  Kräuter-Canham, R., Bronner, R., and Steinmetz, A. (2001). SF21 is a protein which exhibits a dual nuclear and cytoplasmic localization in developing pistils of sunflower and tobacco. Annals of Botany, 87(2): 241-249.
 
[10]  Lundberg, J. (2009). Asteraceae and relationships within Asterales. Systematics, evolution, and biogeography of Compositae, 157-169.
 
[11]  Gasteiger E., Hoogland C., Gattiker A., Duvaud S., Wilkins M.R., Appel R.D., Bairoch A. (2005). Protein Identification and Analysis Tools on the ExPASy Server; (In) John M. Walker (ed): The Proteomics Protocols Handbook, Humana Press. pp. 571-607
 
[12]  Larsen, J.E.P., Lund, O. and Nielsen, M. (2006). Improved method for predicting linear B-cell epitopes. Immunome research, 2(1): 1.
 
[13]  Berezin, C., Glaser, F., Rosenberg, J., Paz, I., Pupko, T., Fariselli, P and Ben-Tal, N. (2004). ConSeq: the identification of functionally and structurally important residues in protein sequences. Bioinformatics, 20(8): 1322-1324.
 
[14]  Saha, S., Raghava ,G.V (2006). AlgPred: prediction of allergenic proteins and mapping of IgE epitopes. Nucleic Acids Research 34(2):W202-W209
 
[15]  Wang, J., Yu, Y., Zhao, Y., Zhang, D., and Li, J. (2013). Evaluation and integration of existing methods for computational prediction of allergens. BMC bioinformatics, 14(Suppl 4), S1.
 
[16]  Singh, S., Taneja, B., Salvi, S. S., and Agrawal, A. (2009). Physical properties of intact proteins may predict allergenicity or lack thereof. PloS one, 4(7): e6273.
 
[17]  Shakushiro, K., Yamasaki, Y., Nishikawa, M. and Takakura, Y. (2004). Efficient scavenger receptor-mediated uptake and cross-presentation of negatively charged soluble antigens by dendritic cells. Immunology 112: 211-218.
 
[18]  Bowyer, P., Fraczek, M., and Denning, D.W. (2006). Comparative genomics of fungal allergens and epitopes shows widespread distribution of closely related allergen and epitope orthologues. BMC genomics, 7(1): 251.
 
[19]  Pomés, A. (2009). Relevant B cell epitopes in allergic disease. International archives of allergy and immunology, 152(1): 1-11
 
[20]  Meno, K. H. (2011). Allergen structures and epitopes. Allergy, 66(95):19-21.
 
[21]  Seong, S.Y. and Matzinger, P. (2004) Hydrophobicity: an ancient damage-associated molecular pattern that initiates innate immune responses. Nat. Rev. Immunol., 4:469-478.
 
[22]  Glaser, A. G., Menz, G., Kirsch, A. I., Zeller, S., Crameri, R., and Rhyner, C. (2008). Auto‐and cross‐reactivity to thioredoxin allergens in allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis. Allergy, 63(12): 1617-1623.
 
[23]  Oezguen, N., Zhou, B., Negi, S.S., Ivanciuc, O., Schein, C.H., Labesse, G., and Braun, W. (2008). Comprehensive 3D-modeling of allergenic proteins and amino acid composition of potential conformational IgE epitopes. Molecular immunology, 45(14): 3740-3747.
 
[24]  Kumar, H.G.A. and Venkatesh, Y.P. (2014). In silico analyses of structural and allergenicity features of sapodilla (Manilkara zapota) acidic thaumatin-like protein in comparison with allergenic plant TLPs. Molecular immunology, 57(2): 119-128.
 
[25]  Sharma, R., Singh, A.K., and Umashankar, V. (2009). Characterization of allergenic epitopes of Ory s1 protein from Oryza sativa and its homologs. Bioinformation, 4(1): 12-18.
 
[26]  Huby, R.D., Dearman, R.J., and Kimber, I. (2000). Why are some proteins allergens?. Toxicol. Sci., 55:235-246.
 
[27]  Umetsu, D. T., Akbari, O., DeKruyff, R.H., Shearer, W.T., Rosenwasser, L. J., and Bochner, B.S. (2003). Regulatory T cells control the development of allergic disease and asthma. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 112(3): 480-487.
 
[28]  Dimitrov, I., Naneva, L., Doytchinova, I., and Bangov, I. (2014). AllergenFP: allergenicity prediction by descriptor fingerprints. Bioinformatics, 30(6): 846-851.
 
[29]  FAO/WHO, (2003): Evaluation of allergenicity of Genetically Modified Foods. Report of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Consultation on Allergenicity of Foods Derived from Biotechnology, Rome.
 
[30]  Pichler, U., Hauser, M., Wolf, M., Bernardi, M. L., Gadermaier, G., Weiss, R. and Rafaiani, C. (2015). Pectate lyase pollen allergens: sensitization profiles and cross-reactivity pattern. PloS one, 10(5): e0120038.
 
[31]  Vieths, S., Scheurer, S., and BALLMER‐WEBER, B.A. (2002). Current understanding of cross‐reactivity of food allergens and pollen. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 964(1): 47-68.
 
[32]  Ribeiro, H., Oliveira, M., Ribeiro, N., Cruz, A., Ferreira, A., Machado, H. and Abreu, I. (2009). Pollen allergenic potential nature of some trees species: A multidisciplinary approach using aerobiological, immunochemical and hospital admissions data. Environmental research, 109(3): 328-333.
 
Show Less References

Article

Plasma Cytokine Profiles as Predictive Biomarkers of HIV and Aids Progression among HIV Patients Attending Nakuru Provincial General Hospital, Kenya

1Department of Biological and Biomedical Sciences, Laikipia, University, Kenya

2Department of Zoological Sciences, Kenyatta University, Kenya

3Department of Biotechnology, Kenya Medical Research Institute, Kenya


American Journal of Medical and Biological Research. 2016, 4(2), 20-25
doi: 10.12691/ajmbr-4-2-2
Copyright © 2016 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Jane Nyambura Mugwe, Michael M. Gicheru, Joseph Mwatha. Plasma Cytokine Profiles as Predictive Biomarkers of HIV and Aids Progression among HIV Patients Attending Nakuru Provincial General Hospital, Kenya. American Journal of Medical and Biological Research. 2016; 4(2):20-25. doi: 10.12691/ajmbr-4-2-2.

Correspondence to: Jane  Nyambura Mugwe, Department of Biological and Biomedical Sciences, Laikipia, University, Kenya. Email: janyamugwe@yahoo.com

Abstract

Introduction: Cytokines are produced by many cell types, mostly cells of the immune system, and act on diverse targets, often the white blood cells. They play a central role in the pathogenesis of many diseases including Acquired Immunodeficiency Disease Syndrome (AIDS). They reflect the local or systemic inflammatory setting, and could serve as predictive biomarkers in Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) disease progression. Objective: The aim of this study was to identify cytokines measureable in blood plasma in recently diagnosed HIV individuals before the commencement of antiretroviral therapy. Study Population: Eighty individuals, both males and females, were recruited for this study that comprised of forty newly diagnosed with HIV-1; twenty HIV negative individuals; and twenty HIV positive individuals currently on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Method: Cytokines were measured using multiplex cytokine immunoassay. Five types of cytokines were detected. Data analyses were performed using Graph Pad Prism 6. Independent sample T tests were used to compare the cytokine means while Spearman Rank tests were used to test for correlations. Statistical analysis were done using SPSS version 17. Results: The study showed significantly (p=<0.001) higher levels of IL-12p70, TNF, IL-10, IL-6 and IL-1β among the newly diagnosed HIV patients compared to those on highly antiretroviral therapy and HIV negative patients. Conclusion: Identification of plasma cytokines could be useful predictive biomarkers of HIV disease progression.

Keywords

References

[1]  Brennan, F.M. and Feldmann, M, (1992). Cytokines in autoimmunity. Current Opinion Immunology, 4:754-9.
 
[2]  Dayer, J.M.and Fenner, H, (1992). The role of cytokines and cytokine inhibitors in arthritis. In: Emery, P.ed. Bailliere’s clinical rheumatology, Bailliere Tindall, London. , 6:485-91.
 
[3]  Dinarello, C.A. (2000). "Proinflammatory cytokines", Chest, 118 (2): 5038.
 
[4]  Duprez, D.A., Neuhaus, J., Kuller, L.H., Tracy, R., Belloso, W.and De Wit, S, (2012). Inflammation,coagulation and cardiovascular disease in HIV-infected individuals. PLoS One, 7:e44454.
 
[5]  Folks, T.M., Justement, J. and Kinter, A, (1987). Cytokine-induced expression of HIV-1 in a chronically infected promonocyte cell line, Science, 238:800-2.
 
Show More References
[6]  Fuster, D., Cheng, D.M., Quinn, E.K., Armah, K.A., Saitz, R.and Freiberg, M.S, (2014). Inflammatory cytokines and mortality in a cohort of HIV-infected adults with alcohol problems, AIDS, 28: 1059-1064.
 
[7]  Granowitz, E.V., Santos, A.A. and Poutsiaka, D.D, (1991). Production of interleukin-1 receptor antagonist during experimental endotoxaemia. Lancet, 338:1423-4.
 
[8]  Haissman Judith, Vestergaard, Lasse S., Sembuche Samuel, Erikstrup Christian, Lemnge Martha, Gerstoft Jan and Ullum Henrik, (2009). Plasma cytokine levels in Tanzanian HIV-infected Adults and the Effect, Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome, 52: (4) 493-497.
 
[9]  Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS). GAP Report; 2013.
 
[10]  Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) (2014). Global Statistics, Fact sheet 2014 page 1-2.
 
[11]  Katsikis P.D., Mueller, Y.M. and Villinger, F. (2011). The Cytokine Network of Acute HIV Infection: A promising Target for Vaccines and Therapy to reduce viral set-point? PloS Pathogens 7(8): e1002055.
 
[12]  Kenya HIV Estimates (2014). Ministry of Health: National AIDS and STI Control Programme. 4-5.
 
[13]  Korn, T., Bettelli, E, Oukka, M. and Kuchroo,V.K. (2009).IL-17 and Th17 cells. Annual Review of Immunology, 27:485-517.
 
[14]  Kuller,L.H., Tracy, R., Belloso, W., De Wit, S., Drummond, F. and Lane, H.C. (2008).Inflammatory and coagulation biomarkers and mortality in patients with HIV infection. PLoS Med, 5:e203.
 
[15]  Lindi, Roberts; Jo-Ann S. Passmore, Carolyn Williamson, Francesca Little, Lisa M. Bebell, Koleka P. Mlisana, Wendy A. Burgers, Francois van Loggerenberg, Gerhard Walzl, Joel F. Djoba Siawaya, Quarraisha Abdool Karim; and Salim Abdool Karim. (2010). Plasma cytokine levels during acute HIV-1 infection predict HIV disease progression. AIDS, 24: 1251
 
[16]  Louie, S., Cai, J. and Law, R. (1995).Effects of interleukin-1 and interleukin-1 receptor antagonist in AIDS-Kaposi’s sarcoma. Journal of AIDS Human Retrovirus, 8:455-60.
 
[17]  Martyn A. French, Alessandro Cozzi-Lepri, Roberto C. Arduino, Margaret Johnson, Amit C. Achira and Alan Landay. (2015). Plasma levels of cytokines and chemokines and the risk of mortality in HIV-infected individuals: a casecontrol analysis nested in a large clinical trial. AIDS, 29:847-851.
 
[18]  Maury, C.P.J. and Labdevirta, J. (1990). Correlation of serum cytokine levels with hematological abnormalities in human immunodeficiency virus infection. Journal Internals of Medicine, 227:253-7.
 
[19]  Mosmann, T.R.and Fong, T.A. (1989). Specific assays for cytokine production by T cells. Journal of Immunological Methods, 116:151-158.
 
[20]  Ohlsson, K., Bjork, P. and Bergenfeldt, M. (1990). Interleukine-1 receptor antagonist reduces mortality from endotoxin shock. Nature, 348:550-2.
 
[21]  Okusawa, S., Gelfiand, J.A. and Ikejima, T. (1988). Interleukin-1 induces a shock-like state in rabbits. Synergism with tumor necrosis factor and the effect of cyclooxygenase inhibition. Journal of Clinical Investigations, 81:1162-7.
 
[22]  Stylianou, E., Aukrust, P, and Kvale, D. (1999). IL-10 in HIV infection: increasing serum IL-10 levels with disease progression-down-regulatory effect of potent anti-retroviral therapy. Clinical Immunology, 116:
 
[23]  Sudman, S. (1976). Applied Sampling. New York. Academic Press.
 
[24]  Tudela,E.V., Singh, M.K., Lagman, M., Ly, J., Venkeraraman, V. et al., (2014). Cytokines Levels in plasma samples of individuals with HIV infection. Austin Journal of Clinical Immunolygy, 1(1):1003.
 
[25]  Weiss, J.M. and Sundar, S.K. (1992). Interlleukin-1: effects in the central nervous system and relevance to AIDS. Clinical Neoropharmacol, 15:661A-2A
 
[26]  World Health Organization (WHO). Global HIV/AIDS response. 2013.
 
[27]  59th WMA General Assembly, Seoul. (2008).World Medical Association Declaration of Helsinki: ethical Principles for Medical Research involving Human subjects. (2008).
 
[28]  Yamane, T. (1967). Statistics: An Introductory Analysis.2nd ED., New York, Harper and Rao. 886.
 
Show Less References