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The Game of Reading: When Saccades and Fixations Play on a Seesaw

1Department of Ophthamology, The Gradenigo Hospital, Turin, Italy

American Journal of Medical and Biological Research. 2014, 2(2), 31-36
DOI: 10.12691/ajmbr-2-2-1
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Carlo Aleci. The Game of Reading: When Saccades and Fixations Play on a Seesaw. American Journal of Medical and Biological Research. 2014; 2(2):31-36. doi: 10.12691/ajmbr-2-2-1.

Correspondence to: Carlo  Aleci, Department of Ophthamology, The Gradenigo Hospital, Turin, Italy. Email:


Although in experimental psychology the fixation/saccadic sequence is a main topic of debate, so far in the clinical ophthalmological field such an argument has raised relatively few interest. Nevertheless, studying the possible alterations of the saccadic rate and of the positioning of fixations when analyzing a visual scene may illuminate on the source of reading difficulty in a variety of patients, like dyslexic children or those affected by hemianopia as well as central visual field impairment. Recently, new light has been shed on the saccadic/fixation dynamics, both in the temporal and spatial domain. In addition, according to recent findings a visuoperceptive distortion could potentially affect the saccades/fixation sequence, making the matter much more complex than expected. The aim of this article is therefore to describe the saccadic/fixation seesaw under the temporal and spatial perspective and to disclose the possible influence of visuoperceptive impairments.



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Testicular Damage in Telfairia Occidentalis Extract Treated Wista Rats

1Department of Physiology, Ambrose Alli University, Ekpoma, Edo State, Nigeria

2Department of Nursing, Ambrose Alli University, Ekpoma, Edo State, Nigeria

3Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, Ambrose Alli University, Ekpoma, Edo State, Nigeria

4Department of Biochemistry, Ambrose Alli University, Ekpoma, Edo State, Nigeria

American Journal of Medical and Biological Research. 2014, 2(2), 37-45
DOI: 10.12691/ajmbr-2-2-2
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Adisa W.A., Okhiai O., Bankole J.K., Iyamu O.A., Aigbe O.. Testicular Damage in Telfairia Occidentalis Extract Treated Wista Rats. American Journal of Medical and Biological Research. 2014; 2(2):37-45. doi: 10.12691/ajmbr-2-2-2.

Correspondence to: Adisa  W.A., Department of Physiology, Ambrose Alli University, Ekpoma, Edo State, Nigeria. Email:


Telfairia occidentalis commonly called Pumpkin or Ugwu in Nigeria is one of such plant with claimed medicinal value. No doubt this acclaimed beneficial value may be popularizing its ingestion amongst male populations on whom paucity of literature is present. Hence this study is aimed at determining the effect of Telfairia occidentalis leave extract on testicular histology archipuncture. The study involves 18 adult male rats of comparable weight. They were grouped into three (A, B, and C) where a served as control and B and C served as the test groups. The test group B and C were administered varying doses of the leave extract of Telfairia occidentallis according to body weight. This experiment lasted for four weeks after acclimatization. At the end of the four weeks of study, blood samples were obtained from the rats for analysis of testosterone value. In addition their testes were obtained and fixed in 10% formalin for histological analysis. The result showed a reducing potential effect on plasma testosterone level in a dose dependent fashion. Statistically the plasma testosterone levels of test group B (1.40±0.45ng/ml) were significant at P < 0.05 compared to that of control (2.70±0.96ng/ml). Furthermore the histological presentation was a dose dependent damage on testicular cells. This damages ranges from basement membrane distortions, cellular degeneration, hemorrhage, interstitial space exudations and cellular necrosis. Conclusively, judging by the result of the study. Telfairia occidentallis leave extract have potential for reducing male sexual function considering the observed effect on plasma testosterone level and may also be testiculotoxic indicated by the histological presentation of the testis.



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Therapeutic Benefits of Al-hijamah: in Light of Modern Medicine and Prophetic Medicine

1Department of Medical Biochemistry, Sohag Faculty of Medicine, Sohag University, Egypt

2Department of Clinical Biochemistry and Molecular Medicine, Taibah Faculty of Medicine, Taibah University, Al-Madinah Al-Munawwarah, Saudi Arabia

3Alternative & Complementary Medicine Administration, Al-Madinah Al-Munawwarah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

4Consultant Pediatrician, Directorate of Health administration and Therapeutic Services, Al-Madinah Al-Munawwarah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

5World Federation of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, Cairo Regional Headquarter, Cairo, Egypt

6Department of Medical Biochemistry, Tanta Faulty of Medicine, Tanta University, Egypt

7Department of Pediatrics, Sohag Teaching Hospital, Sohag, Egypt

8Division of Pediatric cardiology, Department of Pediatrics, Maternity and Children Hospital, King Abdullah Medical City, Al-Madinah Al-Munawwarah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

American Journal of Medical and Biological Research. 2014, 2(2), 46-71
DOI: 10.12691/ajmbr-2-2-3
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Salah Mohamed El Sayed, Abdel-Salam Al-quliti, Hany Salah Mahmoud, Hussam Baghdadi, Reham A. Maria, Manal Mohamed Helmy Nabo, Ahmad Hefny. Therapeutic Benefits of Al-hijamah: in Light of Modern Medicine and Prophetic Medicine. American Journal of Medical and Biological Research. 2014; 2(2):46-71. doi: 10.12691/ajmbr-2-2-3.

Correspondence to: Salah  Mohamed El Sayed, Department of Medical Biochemistry, Sohag Faculty of Medicine, Sohag University, Egypt. Email:;


Excretory treatment modalities that excrete pathological substances outside human body deserve more research attention as this may potentiate the therapeutic effects of pharmacological treatments. Overcoming language barrier through translating the national medical literature to medical English to be introduced to the international medical literature is vital. Wet cupping therapy (WCT) of prophetic medicine (Al-hijamah) is practiced in the Arabic medical literature where it is reported to treat many diseases differing in etiology and pathogenesis. Al-hijamah may be referred to as bloodletting cupping therapy or blood cupping therapy in medical studies and reports from Arabic countries. Both Chinese dry cupping therapy and WCT are partial steps of Al-hijamah. In this article, we review scientific principles, methodology, indications and therapeutic benefits of Al-hijamah in comparison with acupuncture and other types of cupping therapy. Scientific and medical bases of Al-hijamah were recently reported in the evidence-based Taibah mechanism (Taibah theory) where Al-hijamah is the only excretory treatment that clears blood, lymph and intercellular fluids from causative pathological substances (CPS). Al-hijamah benefits from the histological structure of the skin in performing a percutaneous pressure-dependent and size-dependent non-specific blood filtration and excretion of CPS through the fenestrated skin capillaries upon application of negative pressure suction using sucking cups. Al-hijamah benefits also from the production of endogenous nitric oxide (vasodilator, antineoplastic and antimicrobial agent). Al-hijamah exerts many other health benefits e.g. enhancement of immunity and pharmacological potentiation. Al-hijamah was reported to clear blood significantly from serum triglycerides, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, ferritin (circulating iron stores), uric acid, autoantibodies, cytokine receptors and others. Those therapeutic benefits may treat some diseases e.g. hyperlipidemia, hypertension, atherosclerosis, coronary heart diseases, gout, musculoskeletal pain conditions, hepatitis and iron overload conditions e.g. thalassemia. Importance of Al-hijamah may increase more in modern societies due to western diets and western life style. Therapeutic benefits of Al-hijamah are mainly related to the amount of excreted CPS not the amount of letted blood. Al-hijamah may carry some advantages better than acupuncture and other types of cupping therapy in treating a large number of diseases differing in etiology and pathogenesis.



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Seroprevalence of Cytomegalovirus (CMV) among Blood Donors at Bowen University Teaching Hospital Ogbomoso

1Department of Pure and Applied Biology (Microbiology / Virology Unit), Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Ogbomoso, Nigeria

2Haematology Department, College of Health Sciences, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Ogbomoso, Nigeria

3Department of Haematology and Blood Transfusion Services, Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching, Hospital Complex, Ile- Ife, Nigeria

4Department of Laboratory Medicine, Bowen University Teaching Hospital, Ogbomoso, Nigeria

American Journal of Medical and Biological Research. 2014, 2(3), 72-75
DOI: 10.12691/ajmbr-2-3-1
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Oladipo E.K., Akinpelu O.O., Oladipo A.A., Edowhorhu G.. Seroprevalence of Cytomegalovirus (CMV) among Blood Donors at Bowen University Teaching Hospital Ogbomoso. American Journal of Medical and Biological Research. 2014; 2(3):72-75. doi: 10.12691/ajmbr-2-3-1.

Correspondence to: Oladipo  E.K., Department of Pure and Applied Biology (Microbiology / Virology Unit), Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Ogbomoso, Nigeria. Email:


This study was designed to determine the seroprevalence of Cytomegalovirus (CMV) among blood donors at Bowen University Teaching Hospital (BUTH), Ogbomoso, Oyo State, Nigeria. Three hundred (300) consenting potential blood donors were recruited between April and September, 2012 into the study. Each subject was screened for HIV, HBsAg and HCV and structured questionnaire was administered. A total of 93(male = 63; Female = 30) subjects with mean age of 45±2.3 years previously tested negative to HIV, HBsAg and HCV were screened for CMV using Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). Twenty-six (28.0%) were positive for anti-CMV IgM and Twenty-four (25.8%) were positive for anti- CMV IgG. The prevalence of anti- CMV IgM was highest in the age range 18-24 (45.5%), female (43.3%), single (31.4%), student (37.8%), and donors who have not been transfused (27.8%). The prevalence of anti- CMV IgG was highest in the age range 18-24 (39.4%), female (35.1%), single (25.5%), student (35.1%), and donors who have not been transfused (25.6%). The IgG+IgM- has a mean value of 3.0 which is significantly different from that of IgG-IgM+ antibody with a mean value of 5.0 These results provide more and further evidence that cytomegalovirus is present among blood donors at BUTH, and that immunocompromised individual that has been transfused with the infected blood or blood products are at risk of been infected with the virus. This also confirms that the virus spreads through blood transfusion.



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Association of Adipocytokines: Resistin and Retinol Binding Protein-4 with Severity of Preeclampsia and Insulin Resistance

1Biochemistry Department, Faculty of medicine, Umm Al-Qura University (UQU), Makkha, KSA

2Biochemistry Department, Faculty of medicine, Monufia University (MU), Shibeen Al-Koom, Egypt

3Medical Biochemistry Department, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University (ASU), Cairo, Egypt

American Journal of Medical and Biological Research. 2014, 2(3), 76-82
DOI: 10.12691/ajmbr-2-3-2
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Abeer A. EL-Refai, Sameer H. Fatani, Hala F. M. Kamel. Association of Adipocytokines: Resistin and Retinol Binding Protein-4 with Severity of Preeclampsia and Insulin Resistance. American Journal of Medical and Biological Research. 2014; 2(3):76-82. doi: 10.12691/ajmbr-2-3-2.

Correspondence to: Hala  F. M. Kamel, Biochemistry Department, Faculty of medicine, Umm Al-Qura University (UQU), Makkha, KSA. Email:


Dysregulation of maternal circulating adipocytokines has been implicated in several obstetrical syndromes including preeclampsia (PE). It has been suggested that adipocytokines provide a molecular link between metabolic derangements and inflammatory response in complicated pregnancies. We aimed in this study to evaluate the relationship between serum levels of Retinol binding protein-4 (RBP-4) and Resistin with clinical, anthropometric and metabolic parameters of PE. This study included 3 groups: group 1 included 50 pregnant females with PE, group 2 included 50 healthy pregnant females and group 3 included 50 healthy non-pregnant female as a control group. For all groups anthropometric and clinical measurements were performed. Serum RBP-4, resistin, insulin were measured by ELISA and Insulin resistance was calculated by Hemostasis model assessment index (HOMA-IR). Our results showed that serum RBP-4 and resistin concentrations were elevated in PE [39(33.25-40.87) ug/ml] & [61(23.5-91.87) ng/ml] compared to normal pregnancy [18.5(8-27.87) ug/ml] & [25.5(12.7-49.12) ng/ml). Moreover, RBP4 but not resistin levels were elevated in severe cases relative to mild cases of PE. Serum levels of RBP4 showed positive significant correlation with [SBP (r=0.38, p= 0.001) & DBP (r=0.32, p=0.01)] which are markers of severity. Fasting insulin was positively correlated with RBP-4 (p=0.04). By multiple linear regression analysis, serum RBP-4 levels were significantly and positively correlated with SBP (P=0.01), while markers of adiposity were not independently associated with resistin. Conclusion: RBP-4 and resistin were up-regulated in PE, furthermore RBP-4 not resistin levels were independently associated with markers of severity of PE. However no clear relationship were observed between HOMA-IR with both RBP-4 and resistin and the role of Insulin resistance in PE was not clearly proved.



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Histopathological Pattern of Endoscopic Gastric Biopsy in a District Hospital in Nigeria: A Review of 118 Consecutive Cases

1Department of Pathology Kwame Nkrumah University of Science & Technology, Kumasi, Ghana

2Department of Anatomical Pathology, College of Medicine, Benue State University, Markudi, Nigeria

3Department of Surgery, National Hospital, Abuja, Nigeria

4Department of Chemical Pathology, College of Medicine, Ekiti State University, Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria

American Journal of Medical and Biological Research. 2014, 2(3), 83-86
DOI: 10.12691/ajmbr-2-3-3
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
BM Duduyemi, BA Ojo, OO Olaomi, AS Atiba. Histopathological Pattern of Endoscopic Gastric Biopsy in a District Hospital in Nigeria: A Review of 118 Consecutive Cases. American Journal of Medical and Biological Research. 2014; 2(3):83-86. doi: 10.12691/ajmbr-2-3-3.

Correspondence to: BM  Duduyemi, Department of Pathology Kwame Nkrumah University of Science & Technology, Kumasi, Ghana. Email:


Background: The use of endoscopes for visualization of gastric mucosa has improved over times and in taking biopsy for histology. The study sets out to determine the histopathological pattern of gastritis in dyspeptic patients and correlate the histological detection of H. pylori with that of urease breath test (UBT). Method: Prospective study of 118 consecutive patients with chronic dyspepsia who underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopic examination and UBT using heliprobe. Biopsy of gastric antrum were taken at endoscopy and sent for histopathological analysis. Routine H&E and Giemsa stains were used. Results were recorded and analysed on the basis of sex, age, histology and UBT for H. pylori. Result: There were 118 patients who had endoscopy comprising 58 males and 60 females with male to female ratio of 1:1. Histology revealed varying degrees of chronic gastritis with or without H. pylori, activity, metaplasia, ulceration and dysplasia. Sixty eight (61%) of our patients were positive for H. pylori histologically. Of the first consecutive 66 patients, histology showed 38(57.6%) positive and 28(42.6%) negative; UBT, 46(69.6%) were positive for H. pylori and 20(30.4%) negative. There was a strong correlation between the true positive and true negative patients for the first 66 consecutive cases for both histology and UBT based diagnosis for detecting H. pylori. (Correlation coefficient=0.862, p=0.01). Conclusion: The study showed that histology and UBT are both useful for H. pylori detection. Large multi centre studies should be done to adopt the non-invasive UBT in resource poor economies for the eradication of H. pylori.



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The Set Point of Intact Parathyroid Hormone-Ionized Calcium Curve during the Progression of Secondary Hyperparathyroidism among Patients Undergoing Haemodialysis

1Department of Biochemistry, HOD lab in-charge, Apollo Reach Hospital, Karimnagar, Andhra Pradesh

2Department of Biochemistry, Chalmeda Anadrao Institute of Medical Sciences, Karimnagar

3Department of Biochemistry, Prathima Institute of Medical Sciences, Karimnagar

American Journal of Medical and Biological Research. 2014, 2(4), 87-90
DOI: 10.12691/ajmbr-2-4-1
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
T Sudhakar, Sabitha Kandi, B venugopal, K. Bhagwan Reddy, K. V. Ramana. The Set Point of Intact Parathyroid Hormone-Ionized Calcium Curve during the Progression of Secondary Hyperparathyroidism among Patients Undergoing Haemodialysis. American Journal of Medical and Biological Research. 2014; 2(4):87-90. doi: 10.12691/ajmbr-2-4-1.

Correspondence to: K.  V. Ramana, Department of Biochemistry, Prathima Institute of Medical Sciences, Karimnagar. Email:


The parathyroid gland secretes parathyroid hormone (PTH) which is a key element in the regulation of serum calcium. The PTH elevates serum calcium activities by regulating its action on the bones, kidneys and small intestine. The set point of PTH secretion defines the sensitivity of the parathyroid glands to calcium concentration. Secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) is a common complication of end stage renal disease (ESRD). Ionized calcium is physiologically active form of calcium status of the body and is used for accurately monitoring calcium status in renal diseases. The present study states that the ionized calcium is the set point of secondary hyperparathyroidism undergoing haemodialysis and the range of set point lies between 2.3 – 4.8 mg/dl (0.57 – 1.2 mmol/L). The status of iPTH, set point are frequently monitored in subtotal hyperparathyroidectomy where imaging studies are not beneficial (anatomically situated on postero-lateral surface of thyroid gland) to know the appearance of parathyroid gland.



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Some Viral Sero-Markers of Patients with Abnormally Raised Total Bile Acid Receiving Treatments in Herbal/Traditional Homes of Some Rural Communities in Nigeria

1Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Achievers University Owo -Nigeria

American Journal of Medical and Biological Research. 2014, 2(4), 91-96
DOI: 10.12691/ajmbr-2-4-2
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Mathew Folaranmi OLANIYAN. Some Viral Sero-Markers of Patients with Abnormally Raised Total Bile Acid Receiving Treatments in Herbal/Traditional Homes of Some Rural Communities in Nigeria. American Journal of Medical and Biological Research. 2014; 2(4):91-96. doi: 10.12691/ajmbr-2-4-2.

Correspondence to: Mathew  Folaranmi OLANIYAN, Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Achievers University Owo -Nigeria. Email:


Background to the Study: Blind therapeutic management is a common feature of the traditional management of clinical cases that may obscure immunochemical and biochemical abnormalities such as viral infections and abnormally raised total bile acid () which may make treatments unsuccessful. Aim and Objective: This work was designed to determine some viral markers of patients with abnormally raised Total Bile Acid receiving treatments in herbal/traditional homes of some rural communities in Nigeria. Materials and Method: Fifty one (51(25.1%)) of 203 patients aged 21-52 years in Saki-East, Saki-West and ATISBO with abnormally raised total bile acid under going treatment in 15 herbal homes of Saki-East, Saki-West and ATISBO Local Government areas at the Northern part of Oyo state – Nigeria between January and June, 2014 were studied. Thirty two (32(21.3%)) out one hundred and fifty (150) age-matched patients with abnormally raised visiting five (5) orthodox hospitals were also studied within the same period. 139(92.7%) with normal out of 150 apparently healthy individuals aged 20-55 years initially selected were studied as normal control subjects. Immuno assays were carried out on the subjects by Immunoblotting and ELIZA while fasting plasma was estimated in the subjects biochemically. Results: There was a lower incidence of positive 6.3%(2)ant-HIV, 15.6%(5) anti-HCV antibodies and 25%(8) HBsAg in patients receiving treatment in orthodox hospitals with a mean plasma of 16±2.0 µmol/L than patients receiving treatment in Herbal homes 7.8%(4) positive anti-HIV, 17.6%(9) anti-HCV and 31.4%(16) HBsAg obtained in with a mean plasma of 18±3.2 µmol/L. There was also a lower prevalence of positive 3.6%(5) anti-HIV, 4.3%(6) anti-HCV and 7.2%(10) HBsAg with a plasma of 6.5±0.3 µmol/L in the normal control subjects than the results obtained from the patients receiving treatments from both orthodox and traditional/herbal homes.. The immunochemical status of the subjects also revealed evidence of viral co-infections as 2%(1) anti-HIV + anti-HCV in patients receiving treatments in herbal homes, 3.1%(1) anti-HIV + HBsAg in patients receiving treatments in orthodox hospitals with a mean plasma of 16±2.0 µmol/L and 5.9%(3) anti-HIV + HBsAg in patients receiving treatments in herbal homes with a mean plasma of 18±3.2 µmol/L. There was a significantly higher difference in the mean plasma value of TBA and the prevalence of the viral markers including coinfections in the patients receiving treatment in orthodox hospitals and in the patients receiving treatments in herbal homes than the results obtained from the normal control with p< 0.05. There was also a significantly higher prevalence of the viral markers including coinfections in the patients of herbal homes than the resulusts obtained in the patients of orthodox hospitals and the normal control subjects (p<0.05).The frequency of the abnormally raised TBA, of the patients visiting herbal homes, orthodox hospitals and that of the apparently healthy individuals was 51(25.1%)), 32(21.3%) and 11(7.3%) respectively. Conclusion: The incidence of positive HBsAg, anti-HIV, anti-HCV antibodies increases with increase in Total Bile Acids considering the mean concentration of the parameter and the pattern of the viral markers in the subjects and are more prevalent in patients receiving treatments from herbal homes than those attending orthodox hospitals and the control subjects. Evaluation of Viral markers of patients with abnormally raised Total Bile Acid is recommended for effective management of this biochemical abnormality in herbal homes.



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Presepsin: A Novel and Potential Diagnostic Biomarker for Sepsis

1Department of Microbiology, Prathima Institute of Medical sciences, Karimnagar, India

2Department of Biochemistry, Vydehi Institute of Medical sciences and Research center, Bengaluru, India

3Department of Biochemistry, Chalmeda Anandarao Institute of Medical sciences, Karimnagar, India

4Department of General Medicine, Vydehi Institute of Medical sciences and Research center, Bengaluru, India

5Department of Dermatology, Vydehi Institute of Medical sciences and Research center, Bengaluru, India

American Journal of Medical and Biological Research. 2014, 2(4), 97-100
DOI: 10.12691/ajmbr-2-4-3
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
K V Ramana, Venkata BharatKumar Pinnelli, Sabitha Kandi, Asha G, Jayashankar CA, Bhanuprakash, Raghavendra DS, Sanjeev D rao. Presepsin: A Novel and Potential Diagnostic Biomarker for Sepsis. American Journal of Medical and Biological Research. 2014; 2(4):97-100. doi: 10.12691/ajmbr-2-4-3.

Correspondence to: K  V Ramana, Department of Microbiology, Prathima Institute of Medical sciences, Karimnagar, India. Email:


Sepsis is a potential clinical condition which is a consequence of infectious disease or a severe inflammatory reaction secondary to infection or injury. Sepsis in Greek means putrefaction or decay, correlating well with the multiple organ failure and severe shock resulting in death of the patient suffering from severe sepsis. Clinical management of sepsis requires prompt laboratory diagnosis and formulation of effective patient management strategies that may include antimicrobial chemotherapy in case of sepsis induced by infectious microbe. Although many laboratory biomarkers are available for the diagnosis of sepsis, only few markers have proven to be beneficial in differentiating infectious disease sepsis and sepsis of non-infectious origin. Of the available markers only few have prognostic value. We in this review discuss the utility of a novel and emerging sepsis marker, the presepsin which has a better diagnostic and prognostic value, and has been effective in predicting the survival of the sepsis patients.



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Floral and Leaf Anatomy of Hibiscus Species

1Department of Botany and Ecological Studies University of Uyo, P. M. B. 1017, Uyo. Akwa Ibom State-Nigeria

American Journal of Medical and Biological Research. 2014, 2(5), 101-117
DOI: 10.12691/ajmbr-2-5-1
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
U. A. Essiett, E. S. Iwok. Floral and Leaf Anatomy of Hibiscus Species. American Journal of Medical and Biological Research. 2014; 2(5):101-117. doi: 10.12691/ajmbr-2-5-1.

Correspondence to: U.  A. Essiett, Department of Botany and Ecological Studies University of Uyo, P. M. B. 1017, Uyo. Akwa Ibom State-Nigeria. Email:


Comparative anatomical studies of the leaves and flowers of H. arnottianus, H. surattensis, H. acetosella and H. rosa-sinensis are described. The anisocytic stomata was the commonest followed by brachyparacytic, anomocytic, staurocytic stomata and laterocytic stomatas respectively. H. acetosella are distinguished on other species by having laterocytic stomata on both surfaces of leaves and parallel contiguous stomata are found on abaxial surface while in H. rosa-sinensis laterocytic is found only on adaxial surface. There are five different types of abnormal stomata, unopened stomatal pore, two stomata sharing one subsidiary cell, parallel contiguous stomata and aborted guard cell found in all the surfaces of the leaves and flowers. In addition parallel contiguous stomata are found on adaxial surface of H. rosa-sinensis and abaxial surface of H. arnottianus flower. H. rosa-sinensis had five-armed trichome on the abaxial surface that helps in distinguishing it from other species studied. Crystal druses are only present on both adaxial surface of H. arnottianus and H. rosa-sinensis leaf and on the abaxial surface of H. acetosella flower. The shape of epidermal cells, anticlinal cell walls, guard cell areas, stomatal index and trichomes varied. The results obtained could be used as diagnostic tool for plant identification and preparation of monograph on the species.



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