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Recovery Rate of E.faecalis After Er,Cr:YSGG Laser Disinfection of Root Canals: an Ex- Vivo Study

1Department of Conservative Dentistry, College of Dentistry, Mosul University, Iraq

American Journal of Medical and Biological Research. 2014, 2(1), 12-17
DOI: 10.12691/ajmbr-2-1-3
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Njwan F. Shehab. Recovery Rate of E.faecalis After Er,Cr:YSGG Laser Disinfection of Root Canals: an Ex- Vivo Study. American Journal of Medical and Biological Research. 2014; 2(1):12-17. doi: 10.12691/ajmbr-2-1-3.

Correspondence to: Njwan  F. Shehab, Department of Conservative Dentistry, College of Dentistry, Mosul University, Iraq. Email:


Aim: This study was carried out to assess the recovery rate of Enterococcus faecalis count after disinfection of the root canals with Er,Cr:YSGG laser. Methodology: Freshly extracted 40 human teeth of single straight root canals were prepared to a size 50; these specimens were sterilized and then inoculated with E.faecalis suspension and incubated for 48 hrs. They were randomly allocated to three treatments and one control negative group. The infected root canals underwent laser treatment. Then samples were collected immediately (after irradiation of root canal) and after 7 days of irradiation, after that surviving of bacteria were checked by counting the colony-forming units (CFU). Results: The results indicated that the Er,Cr:YSGG laser was capable of significant reduction of E.faecalis in the infected root canal at all selected output powers 0.75W, 1W and 1.5W as well as there was significant antibacterial differences among these powers. In addition the results showed increased in the number of bacterial colonies in the second microbiological sampling compared with the first microbiological sampling, The bacterial recovery decreased when laser irradiation power increased. The best result for the laser that showing less number of E.faecalis after 7 days of irradiation at 1.5W. Conclusions: This study recognized the disinfection ability of Er,Cr:YSGG laser against the most resistant bacteria that is associated with endodontic infection.



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Preliminary Results of Influence of Nonionizing Electromagnetic Radiation on Tumor and Healthy DNA and Role of Water

1Microwave Radiophysics and Telecommunication, Yerevan State University, Yerevan, Armenia

2Medical Physics, Yerevan State Medical University, Yerevan, Armenia

3Fine Organic Chemistry Institute of National Academy Sciences of Armenia, Yerevan, Armenia

American Journal of Medical and Biological Research. 2014, 2(1), 18-25
DOI: 10.12691/ajmbr-2-1-4
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Vitali Kalantaryan, Radik Martirosyan, Yuri Babayan, Lusine Nersesyan, Hrachya Stepanyan. Preliminary Results of Influence of Nonionizing Electromagnetic Radiation on Tumor and Healthy DNA and Role of Water. American Journal of Medical and Biological Research. 2014; 2(1):18-25. doi: 10.12691/ajmbr-2-1-4.

Correspondence to: Vitali  Kalantaryan, Microwave Radiophysics and Telecommunication, Yerevan State University, Yerevan, Armenia. Email:,


Unlike now widely used traditional methods of treatment of tumors by means of ionizing radiation and the chemotherapy, the method of the use of low intensity electromagnetic fields (EMF) is non-ionizing and non-invasive and hence is completely deprived of any harmful side effects. The present study was undertaken to investigate whether low-intensity EMFs can suppress tumoral cells growth in vivo without cytostatic agents. The course of influence of EMFs started 3 days before transplantation in order to raise activity of the animals’ immune system. On the fourth day animals were injected by sarcoma-37 and daily exposure was continued during 15 days. For study of the effect of irradiation on the secondary structure of DNA, in the experiments DNA isolated from the liver of healthy mice (hDNA) as well as from the tumor sarcoma 37 (tDNA) was used. After 15 sessions of exposure without cytostatic drugs, at animals of the irradiated 0,5 hour was observed an inhibition of tumor growth by 33.5% compared with a control group and a sharp suppression of the level of DNA-methylation in 2.1 times. The tDNA has the high level of methylation (4.7 mol%), which after 0.5 hour daily exposure becomes (2.2 mol%) close to the corresponding value for hDNA (1.9 mol%). Differential melting curves (DMC) of tDNA are shifted relatively DMC of the hDNA to lower temperatures, and in the DMC of tDNA the additional peaks in the 52-60ºC range are appeared, which are absent for DMC of liver hDNA. The obtained results are correlated with the spectrophotometric data. Under the influence of EMFs the values of temperature and interval of melting of tDNA are changed and approach to the corresponding values of hDNA. Presented preliminary results have demonstrated the potential clinical application of low power EMFs for clinical oncology in the treatment of malignancies. The changes of physical-chemical properties of tumoral and healthy DNA under amplitude modulated radiation at 64.5 GHz and possible mechanisms of these changes have been investigated and discussed.



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Antimicrobial Finishing of Denim Fabrics with Herbal Extracts

1Department of Costume Design and Fashion, PSG College of Arts and Science, Coimbatore

2Department of Textiles and Clothing, Avinashilingam Institute for Home Science and Higher Education for Women, Coimbatore

American Journal of Medical and Biological Research. 2014, 2(1), 26-30
DOI: 10.12691/ajmbr-2-1-5
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
sumithra M, Vasugi Raaja N. Antimicrobial Finishing of Denim Fabrics with Herbal Extracts. American Journal of Medical and Biological Research. 2014; 2(1):26-30. doi: 10.12691/ajmbr-2-1-5.

Correspondence to: sumithra  M, Department of Costume Design and Fashion, PSG College of Arts and Science, Coimbatore. Email:


Aim: Herbs play a significant role in pharmaceutical industries as life saving drugs. This calls for the discovery of new antimicrobial compounds with diverse chemical structures and novel mechanisms of action. The present study focuses on imparting antimicrobial finish to the denim fabric using natural herbal extracts. Methodology: Three herbs, Ricinus communis, Senna auriculata and Euphorbia hirta were screened for their antimicrobial efficiency by finishing the methanolic extracts of these herbs on the denim fabric by qualitative test method EN ISO 20645. The combinatorial antimicrobial efficiency (1:3:2) of these extracts were studied and confirmed quantitatively by performing AATCC 100 test method. The antifungal activity was tested according to AATCC 30 test method. Results: The combinatorial ratio (1:3:2) showed 98% bacterial reduction against Escherichia coli and 99% against Staphylococcus aureus. Same ratio also showed 100% mycelial reduction against Aspergillus niger. Conclusion: The combinatorial antibacterial activities of the selected three herbs showed excellent results compared to the individual finishing.



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[5]  Shetty, S., Udupa, S and Udupa, L, “Evaluation of antioxidant and wound healing effects of alcoholic and aqueous extract of Ocimum sanctum linn in rats”, ECAM, Vol. 5, 2008. pp. 95-101.
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The Game of Reading: When Saccades and Fixations Play on a Seesaw

1Department of Ophthamology, The Gradenigo Hospital, Turin, Italy

American Journal of Medical and Biological Research. 2014, 2(2), 31-36
DOI: 10.12691/ajmbr-2-2-1
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Carlo Aleci. The Game of Reading: When Saccades and Fixations Play on a Seesaw. American Journal of Medical and Biological Research. 2014; 2(2):31-36. doi: 10.12691/ajmbr-2-2-1.

Correspondence to: Carlo  Aleci, Department of Ophthamology, The Gradenigo Hospital, Turin, Italy. Email:


Although in experimental psychology the fixation/saccadic sequence is a main topic of debate, so far in the clinical ophthalmological field such an argument has raised relatively few interest. Nevertheless, studying the possible alterations of the saccadic rate and of the positioning of fixations when analyzing a visual scene may illuminate on the source of reading difficulty in a variety of patients, like dyslexic children or those affected by hemianopia as well as central visual field impairment. Recently, new light has been shed on the saccadic/fixation dynamics, both in the temporal and spatial domain. In addition, according to recent findings a visuoperceptive distortion could potentially affect the saccades/fixation sequence, making the matter much more complex than expected. The aim of this article is therefore to describe the saccadic/fixation seesaw under the temporal and spatial perspective and to disclose the possible influence of visuoperceptive impairments.



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Testicular Damage in Telfairia Occidentalis Extract Treated Wista Rats

1Department of Physiology, Ambrose Alli University, Ekpoma, Edo State, Nigeria

2Department of Nursing, Ambrose Alli University, Ekpoma, Edo State, Nigeria

3Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, Ambrose Alli University, Ekpoma, Edo State, Nigeria

4Department of Biochemistry, Ambrose Alli University, Ekpoma, Edo State, Nigeria

American Journal of Medical and Biological Research. 2014, 2(2), 37-45
DOI: 10.12691/ajmbr-2-2-2
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Adisa W.A., Okhiai O., Bankole J.K., Iyamu O.A., Aigbe O.. Testicular Damage in Telfairia Occidentalis Extract Treated Wista Rats. American Journal of Medical and Biological Research. 2014; 2(2):37-45. doi: 10.12691/ajmbr-2-2-2.

Correspondence to: Adisa  W.A., Department of Physiology, Ambrose Alli University, Ekpoma, Edo State, Nigeria. Email:


Telfairia occidentalis commonly called Pumpkin or Ugwu in Nigeria is one of such plant with claimed medicinal value. No doubt this acclaimed beneficial value may be popularizing its ingestion amongst male populations on whom paucity of literature is present. Hence this study is aimed at determining the effect of Telfairia occidentalis leave extract on testicular histology archipuncture. The study involves 18 adult male rats of comparable weight. They were grouped into three (A, B, and C) where a served as control and B and C served as the test groups. The test group B and C were administered varying doses of the leave extract of Telfairia occidentallis according to body weight. This experiment lasted for four weeks after acclimatization. At the end of the four weeks of study, blood samples were obtained from the rats for analysis of testosterone value. In addition their testes were obtained and fixed in 10% formalin for histological analysis. The result showed a reducing potential effect on plasma testosterone level in a dose dependent fashion. Statistically the plasma testosterone levels of test group B (1.40±0.45ng/ml) were significant at P < 0.05 compared to that of control (2.70±0.96ng/ml). Furthermore the histological presentation was a dose dependent damage on testicular cells. This damages ranges from basement membrane distortions, cellular degeneration, hemorrhage, interstitial space exudations and cellular necrosis. Conclusively, judging by the result of the study. Telfairia occidentallis leave extract have potential for reducing male sexual function considering the observed effect on plasma testosterone level and may also be testiculotoxic indicated by the histological presentation of the testis.



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Therapeutic Benefits of Al-hijamah: in Light of Modern Medicine and Prophetic Medicine

1Department of Medical Biochemistry, Sohag Faculty of Medicine, Sohag University, Egypt

2Department of Clinical Biochemistry and Molecular Medicine, Taibah Faculty of Medicine, Taibah University, Al-Madinah Al-Munawwarah, Saudi Arabia

3Alternative & Complementary Medicine Administration, Al-Madinah Al-Munawwarah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

4Consultant Pediatrician, Directorate of Health administration and Therapeutic Services, Al-Madinah Al-Munawwarah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

5World Federation of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, Cairo Regional Headquarter, Cairo, Egypt

6Department of Medical Biochemistry, Tanta Faulty of Medicine, Tanta University, Egypt

7Department of Pediatrics, Sohag Teaching Hospital, Sohag, Egypt

8Division of Pediatric cardiology, Department of Pediatrics, Maternity and Children Hospital, King Abdullah Medical City, Al-Madinah Al-Munawwarah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

American Journal of Medical and Biological Research. 2014, 2(2), 46-71
DOI: 10.12691/ajmbr-2-2-3
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Salah Mohamed El Sayed, Abdel-Salam Al-quliti, Hany Salah Mahmoud, Hussam Baghdadi, Reham A. Maria, Manal Mohamed Helmy Nabo, Ahmad Hefny. Therapeutic Benefits of Al-hijamah: in Light of Modern Medicine and Prophetic Medicine. American Journal of Medical and Biological Research. 2014; 2(2):46-71. doi: 10.12691/ajmbr-2-2-3.

Correspondence to: Salah  Mohamed El Sayed, Department of Medical Biochemistry, Sohag Faculty of Medicine, Sohag University, Egypt. Email:;


Excretory treatment modalities that excrete pathological substances outside human body deserve more research attention as this may potentiate the therapeutic effects of pharmacological treatments. Overcoming language barrier through translating the national medical literature to medical English to be introduced to the international medical literature is vital. Wet cupping therapy (WCT) of prophetic medicine (Al-hijamah) is practiced in the Arabic medical literature where it is reported to treat many diseases differing in etiology and pathogenesis. Al-hijamah may be referred to as bloodletting cupping therapy or blood cupping therapy in medical studies and reports from Arabic countries. Both Chinese dry cupping therapy and WCT are partial steps of Al-hijamah. In this article, we review scientific principles, methodology, indications and therapeutic benefits of Al-hijamah in comparison with acupuncture and other types of cupping therapy. Scientific and medical bases of Al-hijamah were recently reported in the evidence-based Taibah mechanism (Taibah theory) where Al-hijamah is the only excretory treatment that clears blood, lymph and intercellular fluids from causative pathological substances (CPS). Al-hijamah benefits from the histological structure of the skin in performing a percutaneous pressure-dependent and size-dependent non-specific blood filtration and excretion of CPS through the fenestrated skin capillaries upon application of negative pressure suction using sucking cups. Al-hijamah benefits also from the production of endogenous nitric oxide (vasodilator, antineoplastic and antimicrobial agent). Al-hijamah exerts many other health benefits e.g. enhancement of immunity and pharmacological potentiation. Al-hijamah was reported to clear blood significantly from serum triglycerides, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, ferritin (circulating iron stores), uric acid, autoantibodies, cytokine receptors and others. Those therapeutic benefits may treat some diseases e.g. hyperlipidemia, hypertension, atherosclerosis, coronary heart diseases, gout, musculoskeletal pain conditions, hepatitis and iron overload conditions e.g. thalassemia. Importance of Al-hijamah may increase more in modern societies due to western diets and western life style. Therapeutic benefits of Al-hijamah are mainly related to the amount of excreted CPS not the amount of letted blood. Al-hijamah may carry some advantages better than acupuncture and other types of cupping therapy in treating a large number of diseases differing in etiology and pathogenesis.



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Seroprevalence of Cytomegalovirus (CMV) among Blood Donors at Bowen University Teaching Hospital Ogbomoso

1Department of Pure and Applied Biology (Microbiology / Virology Unit), Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Ogbomoso, Nigeria

2Haematology Department, College of Health Sciences, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Ogbomoso, Nigeria

3Department of Haematology and Blood Transfusion Services, Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching, Hospital Complex, Ile- Ife, Nigeria

4Department of Laboratory Medicine, Bowen University Teaching Hospital, Ogbomoso, Nigeria

American Journal of Medical and Biological Research. 2014, 2(3), 72-75
DOI: 10.12691/ajmbr-2-3-1
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Oladipo E.K., Akinpelu O.O., Oladipo A.A., Edowhorhu G.. Seroprevalence of Cytomegalovirus (CMV) among Blood Donors at Bowen University Teaching Hospital Ogbomoso. American Journal of Medical and Biological Research. 2014; 2(3):72-75. doi: 10.12691/ajmbr-2-3-1.

Correspondence to: Oladipo  E.K., Department of Pure and Applied Biology (Microbiology / Virology Unit), Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Ogbomoso, Nigeria. Email:


This study was designed to determine the seroprevalence of Cytomegalovirus (CMV) among blood donors at Bowen University Teaching Hospital (BUTH), Ogbomoso, Oyo State, Nigeria. Three hundred (300) consenting potential blood donors were recruited between April and September, 2012 into the study. Each subject was screened for HIV, HBsAg and HCV and structured questionnaire was administered. A total of 93(male = 63; Female = 30) subjects with mean age of 45±2.3 years previously tested negative to HIV, HBsAg and HCV were screened for CMV using Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). Twenty-six (28.0%) were positive for anti-CMV IgM and Twenty-four (25.8%) were positive for anti- CMV IgG. The prevalence of anti- CMV IgM was highest in the age range 18-24 (45.5%), female (43.3%), single (31.4%), student (37.8%), and donors who have not been transfused (27.8%). The prevalence of anti- CMV IgG was highest in the age range 18-24 (39.4%), female (35.1%), single (25.5%), student (35.1%), and donors who have not been transfused (25.6%). The IgG+IgM- has a mean value of 3.0 which is significantly different from that of IgG-IgM+ antibody with a mean value of 5.0 These results provide more and further evidence that cytomegalovirus is present among blood donors at BUTH, and that immunocompromised individual that has been transfused with the infected blood or blood products are at risk of been infected with the virus. This also confirms that the virus spreads through blood transfusion.



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Association of Adipocytokines: Resistin and Retinol Binding Protein-4 with Severity of Preeclampsia and Insulin Resistance

1Biochemistry Department, Faculty of medicine, Umm Al-Qura University (UQU), Makkha, KSA

2Biochemistry Department, Faculty of medicine, Monufia University (MU), Shibeen Al-Koom, Egypt

3Medical Biochemistry Department, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University (ASU), Cairo, Egypt

American Journal of Medical and Biological Research. 2014, 2(3), 76-82
DOI: 10.12691/ajmbr-2-3-2
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Abeer A. EL-Refai, Sameer H. Fatani, Hala F. M. Kamel. Association of Adipocytokines: Resistin and Retinol Binding Protein-4 with Severity of Preeclampsia and Insulin Resistance. American Journal of Medical and Biological Research. 2014; 2(3):76-82. doi: 10.12691/ajmbr-2-3-2.

Correspondence to: Hala  F. M. Kamel, Biochemistry Department, Faculty of medicine, Umm Al-Qura University (UQU), Makkha, KSA. Email:


Dysregulation of maternal circulating adipocytokines has been implicated in several obstetrical syndromes including preeclampsia (PE). It has been suggested that adipocytokines provide a molecular link between metabolic derangements and inflammatory response in complicated pregnancies. We aimed in this study to evaluate the relationship between serum levels of Retinol binding protein-4 (RBP-4) and Resistin with clinical, anthropometric and metabolic parameters of PE. This study included 3 groups: group 1 included 50 pregnant females with PE, group 2 included 50 healthy pregnant females and group 3 included 50 healthy non-pregnant female as a control group. For all groups anthropometric and clinical measurements were performed. Serum RBP-4, resistin, insulin were measured by ELISA and Insulin resistance was calculated by Hemostasis model assessment index (HOMA-IR). Our results showed that serum RBP-4 and resistin concentrations were elevated in PE [39(33.25-40.87) ug/ml] & [61(23.5-91.87) ng/ml] compared to normal pregnancy [18.5(8-27.87) ug/ml] & [25.5(12.7-49.12) ng/ml). Moreover, RBP4 but not resistin levels were elevated in severe cases relative to mild cases of PE. Serum levels of RBP4 showed positive significant correlation with [SBP (r=0.38, p= 0.001) & DBP (r=0.32, p=0.01)] which are markers of severity. Fasting insulin was positively correlated with RBP-4 (p=0.04). By multiple linear regression analysis, serum RBP-4 levels were significantly and positively correlated with SBP (P=0.01), while markers of adiposity were not independently associated with resistin. Conclusion: RBP-4 and resistin were up-regulated in PE, furthermore RBP-4 not resistin levels were independently associated with markers of severity of PE. However no clear relationship were observed between HOMA-IR with both RBP-4 and resistin and the role of Insulin resistance in PE was not clearly proved.



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Histopathological Pattern of Endoscopic Gastric Biopsy in a District Hospital in Nigeria: A Review of 118 Consecutive Cases

1Department of Pathology Kwame Nkrumah University of Science & Technology, Kumasi, Ghana

2Department of Anatomical Pathology, College of Medicine, Benue State University, Markudi, Nigeria

3Department of Surgery, National Hospital, Abuja, Nigeria

4Department of Chemical Pathology, College of Medicine, Ekiti State University, Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria

American Journal of Medical and Biological Research. 2014, 2(3), 83-86
DOI: 10.12691/ajmbr-2-3-3
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
BM Duduyemi, BA Ojo, OO Olaomi, AS Atiba. Histopathological Pattern of Endoscopic Gastric Biopsy in a District Hospital in Nigeria: A Review of 118 Consecutive Cases. American Journal of Medical and Biological Research. 2014; 2(3):83-86. doi: 10.12691/ajmbr-2-3-3.

Correspondence to: BM  Duduyemi, Department of Pathology Kwame Nkrumah University of Science & Technology, Kumasi, Ghana. Email:


Background: The use of endoscopes for visualization of gastric mucosa has improved over times and in taking biopsy for histology. The study sets out to determine the histopathological pattern of gastritis in dyspeptic patients and correlate the histological detection of H. pylori with that of urease breath test (UBT). Method: Prospective study of 118 consecutive patients with chronic dyspepsia who underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopic examination and UBT using heliprobe. Biopsy of gastric antrum were taken at endoscopy and sent for histopathological analysis. Routine H&E and Giemsa stains were used. Results were recorded and analysed on the basis of sex, age, histology and UBT for H. pylori. Result: There were 118 patients who had endoscopy comprising 58 males and 60 females with male to female ratio of 1:1. Histology revealed varying degrees of chronic gastritis with or without H. pylori, activity, metaplasia, ulceration and dysplasia. Sixty eight (61%) of our patients were positive for H. pylori histologically. Of the first consecutive 66 patients, histology showed 38(57.6%) positive and 28(42.6%) negative; UBT, 46(69.6%) were positive for H. pylori and 20(30.4%) negative. There was a strong correlation between the true positive and true negative patients for the first 66 consecutive cases for both histology and UBT based diagnosis for detecting H. pylori. (Correlation coefficient=0.862, p=0.01). Conclusion: The study showed that histology and UBT are both useful for H. pylori detection. Large multi centre studies should be done to adopt the non-invasive UBT in resource poor economies for the eradication of H. pylori.



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The Set Point of Intact Parathyroid Hormone-Ionized Calcium Curve during the Progression of Secondary Hyperparathyroidism among Patients Undergoing Haemodialysis

1Department of Biochemistry, HOD lab in-charge, Apollo Reach Hospital, Karimnagar, Andhra Pradesh

2Department of Biochemistry, Chalmeda Anadrao Institute of Medical Sciences, Karimnagar

3Department of Biochemistry, Prathima Institute of Medical Sciences, Karimnagar

American Journal of Medical and Biological Research. 2014, 2(4), 87-90
DOI: 10.12691/ajmbr-2-4-1
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
T Sudhakar, Sabitha Kandi, B venugopal, K. Bhagwan Reddy, K. V. Ramana. The Set Point of Intact Parathyroid Hormone-Ionized Calcium Curve during the Progression of Secondary Hyperparathyroidism among Patients Undergoing Haemodialysis. American Journal of Medical and Biological Research. 2014; 2(4):87-90. doi: 10.12691/ajmbr-2-4-1.

Correspondence to: K.  V. Ramana, Department of Biochemistry, Prathima Institute of Medical Sciences, Karimnagar. Email:


The parathyroid gland secretes parathyroid hormone (PTH) which is a key element in the regulation of serum calcium. The PTH elevates serum calcium activities by regulating its action on the bones, kidneys and small intestine. The set point of PTH secretion defines the sensitivity of the parathyroid glands to calcium concentration. Secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) is a common complication of end stage renal disease (ESRD). Ionized calcium is physiologically active form of calcium status of the body and is used for accurately monitoring calcium status in renal diseases. The present study states that the ionized calcium is the set point of secondary hyperparathyroidism undergoing haemodialysis and the range of set point lies between 2.3 – 4.8 mg/dl (0.57 – 1.2 mmol/L). The status of iPTH, set point are frequently monitored in subtotal hyperparathyroidectomy where imaging studies are not beneficial (anatomically situated on postero-lateral surface of thyroid gland) to know the appearance of parathyroid gland.



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