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American Journal of Medical and Biological Research

ISSN (Print): 2328-4080

ISSN (Online): 2328-4099

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Plasma Cytokine Profiles as Predictive Biomarkers of HIV and Aids Progression among HIV Patients Attending Nakuru Provincial General Hospital, Kenya

1Department of Biological and Biomedical Sciences, Laikipia, University, Kenya

2Department of Zoological Sciences, Kenyatta University, Kenya

3Department of Biotechnology, Kenya Medical Research Institute, Kenya

American Journal of Medical and Biological Research. 2016, 4(2), 20-25
doi: 10.12691/ajmbr-4-2-2
Copyright © 2016 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Jane Nyambura Mugwe, Michael M. Gicheru, Joseph Mwatha. Plasma Cytokine Profiles as Predictive Biomarkers of HIV and Aids Progression among HIV Patients Attending Nakuru Provincial General Hospital, Kenya. American Journal of Medical and Biological Research. 2016; 4(2):20-25. doi: 10.12691/ajmbr-4-2-2.

Correspondence to: Jane  Nyambura Mugwe, Department of Biological and Biomedical Sciences, Laikipia, University, Kenya. Email:


Introduction: Cytokines are produced by many cell types, mostly cells of the immune system, and act on diverse targets, often the white blood cells. They play a central role in the pathogenesis of many diseases including Acquired Immunodeficiency Disease Syndrome (AIDS). They reflect the local or systemic inflammatory setting, and could serve as predictive biomarkers in Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) disease progression. Objective: The aim of this study was to identify cytokines measureable in blood plasma in recently diagnosed HIV individuals before the commencement of antiretroviral therapy. Study Population: Eighty individuals, both males and females, were recruited for this study that comprised of forty newly diagnosed with HIV-1; twenty HIV negative individuals; and twenty HIV positive individuals currently on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Method: Cytokines were measured using multiplex cytokine immunoassay. Five types of cytokines were detected. Data analyses were performed using Graph Pad Prism 6. Independent sample T tests were used to compare the cytokine means while Spearman Rank tests were used to test for correlations. Statistical analysis were done using SPSS version 17. Results: The study showed significantly (p=<0.001) higher levels of IL-12p70, TNF, IL-10, IL-6 and IL-1β among the newly diagnosed HIV patients compared to those on highly antiretroviral therapy and HIV negative patients. Conclusion: Identification of plasma cytokines could be useful predictive biomarkers of HIV disease progression.



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HIV/AIDS and Coronary Heart Disease on a Collision Course? Review of Zimbabwe

1Institute of Clinical Medicine, University in Oslo, Oslo University Hospital, P.O. Box 1171, Blindern, 0318 Oslo, Norway

2University of Zimbabwe, College of Health Sciences, Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, P. O. Box AV 178, Avondale, Harare, Zimbabwe

3Department of Infectious Diseases, Oslo University Hospital, P.O. Box 4950, Nydalen, 0424, Oslo, Norway

4Chinhoyi University of Technology, PO Box 7724, Chinhoyi, Zimbabwe

American Journal of Medical and Biological Research. 2016, 4(2), 26-32
doi: 10.12691/ajmbr-4-2-3
Copyright © 2016 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Danai Tavonga Zhou, Olav Oktedalen, Tawanda Chisango, Babill Stray-Pedersen. HIV/AIDS and Coronary Heart Disease on a Collision Course? Review of Zimbabwe. American Journal of Medical and Biological Research. 2016; 4(2):26-32. doi: 10.12691/ajmbr-4-2-3.

Correspondence to: Danai  Tavonga Zhou, Institute of Clinical Medicine, University in Oslo, Oslo University Hospital, P.O. Box 1171, Blindern, 0318 Oslo, Norway. Email:


There are very few published manuscripts on coronary heart disease (CHD) from Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) and Zimbabwe. In fact the few published papers on the subject suggest that CHD is rare in SSA and in Zimbabwean individuals both before HIV and in the era of HIV/AIDS and antiretroviral therapy (ART). However a look at recent literature and data from publications by both the World Health Organization (WHO) and Zimbabwe Ministry of Health and Child Care point towards an epidemiological transition, as CHD is now one of the top causes of death in Zimbabwe. This may be due to the fact that CHD is a complex inflammatory disease involving smoking, obesity, diabetes, atherogenic lipid levels, cytokines and other inflammatory markers such as C reactive protein (CRP) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) and many of these factors have consistently been linked to changing lifestyle as populations move into urban settings. On the other hand, atherogenic lipids and elevated inflammatory markers are more common in HIV infected individuals due to the virus and ART. Hence it is likely that the burden of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) and CHD will increase over time as a result of both urbanization in the general population and a high HIV disease burden in Zimbabwe, pointing towards a collision of HIV and CHD in future.



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Farmer: Agrochemical Use and Associated Risk Factors in Fadan Daji District of Kaura LGA, Kaduna State, Nigeria

1Department of Community Medicine, College Medicine and Health Sciences, Bingham University, Jos, Nigeria

2Department of Medical Microbiology, College Medicine and Health Sciences, Bingham University, Jos, Nigeria

3Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, College Medicine and Health Sciences, Bingham University, Jos, Nigeria

4Department of Biology and Center for Cancer Research, Tuskegee University, Tuskegee, Alabama, USA

5Department of Haematology, College Medicine and Health Sciences, Bingham University, Jos, Nigeria

6Department of Chemical Pathology, College Medicine and Health Sciences, Bingham University, Jos, Nigeria

7Department of Medicine and Surgery, College Medicine and Health Sciences, Bingham University, Jos, Nigeria

8Department of Community Medicine, College Medicine, University of Abuja, Nigeria

American Journal of Medical and Biological Research. 2016, 4(3), 33-41
doi: 10.12691/ajmbr-4-3-1
Copyright © 2016 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Bassi AP, Ramyil MCS, Ogundeko TO, Abisoye-Ogunniyan A, Builders M, Thliza SMA, Adeniyi GO, Akande Tunji, Ike RO, Ologun DO, Damai C, Pfongkazah D, Adinoyi OA, Dibigbo-Ibeagi Ndudi Mary, Nwankwo B. Farmer: Agrochemical Use and Associated Risk Factors in Fadan Daji District of Kaura LGA, Kaduna State, Nigeria. American Journal of Medical and Biological Research. 2016; 4(3):33-41. doi: 10.12691/ajmbr-4-3-1.

Correspondence to: Ogundeko  TO, Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, College Medicine and Health Sciences, Bingham University, Jos, Nigeria. Email:


Background: Occupational poisoning via the use of agrochemicals is common in developing countries. This is because grass-root farmers, who are the majority, are poor, illiterate and are undertrained on ethics surrounding its use. This is a cross sectional descriptive study carried out in Fadan-Daji (FD) district of Kagoro Chiefdom, Kaura LGA, Kaduna state, Nigeria. Methods: Three villages - Kodwak, Uzha-Tuyit and Zankam were randomly selected in the district. A sample size of 250 farmers was obtained using a p-value of 82%, while the selected farmers completed structured questionnaires. Results: Physical, chemical, biological, mechanical and psychosocial events occurred at the same time in the FD Farming community. Thus, clients present with multiple finding or symptoms. In this study most farmers experienced chest pain/tightness, cough, dizziness, reddening of the eyes; sneezing and rheum more often following the use on their farms. This study further revealed that farmers in the studied communities (31.6%) resorted to self-medication ranging from analgesics, to over the counter antihistamines, whilst 23.6% reported that they ingest milk as antidote. 32.4% did nothing about it while only 12.4% of the respondents visited a health facility. 54.4% of FD farmers used no form of personal protective devices (PPDs). Conclusion: Our findings revealed that the root problem faced with the FD like the average farmer of the developing world is lack of relevant education in terms of ethical use and disposal of agrochemicals which has made a significant number of FD farmers more susceptible to the agrochemical side effects resulting from its use. Such a community located in the heart of Nigeria also being a food basket needs prompt attention in terms of improved western/farmer education and health facilities.



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