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Article

Applying Lean Six Sigma for Waste Reduction in a Manufacturing Environment

1The University of Akron Research Foundation, Akron, OH, USA


American Journal of Industrial Engineering. 2013, 1(2), 28-35
DOI: 10.12691/ajie-1-2-4
Copyright © 2013 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Mohamed K. Hassan. Applying Lean Six Sigma for Waste Reduction in a Manufacturing Environment. American Journal of Industrial Engineering. 2013; 1(2):28-35. doi: 10.12691/ajie-1-2-4.

Correspondence to: Mohamed  K. Hassan, The University of Akron Research Foundation, Akron, OH, USA. Email: mkh7@uakron.edu

Abstract

This study was applied in a welding wire manufacturing plant to improve the quality of the manufactured welding wires, reducethe manufacturing waste and increase the yield of the manufacturing process, by applying the Lean Six Sigma (LSS) methodology and waste management. LLS is considered one of the successful approaches in the field of quality improvement and cost reduction. The case study plant working environment was analyzed to isolate the root causes for the waste generation. Remedies and countermeasures were suggested and some were implemented. The study compares the performance of the plant before and after implementation of the proposed solutions for waste reduction. Improvements in yield, waste, Defects Per Million Opportunities (DPMO), and sigma levels were achieved.The LSS methodology was linked to the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) to prioritize the causes of waste. The objective was to use an analytical method in judging the influence of the waste causes on the amount of waste to enrich the methodology effectiveness and facilitate some ease of use in the practical field.

Keywords

References

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[6]  Raisinghani, M. S., Six Sigma: concepts, tools, and applications, Industrial Management & Data Systems, 105 (4): 491-505, 2005.
 
[7]  Kaushik, P., Khanduja, D., "DM make up water reduction in thermal power plants using Six Sigma DMAIC methodology", Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research, Vol. 67 No.1, pp.36-42, 2008.
 
[8]  Thomas, A., Barton, R. and Byard, P., Methodology and Theory Developing a Six Sigma maintenance model, Journal of Quality in Maintenance Engineering, 14 (3): 262-271, 2008.
 
[9]  Kumar, S. and Sosnoski, M., Reflective Practice Using DMAIC Six Sigma to systematically improve shop floor production quality and costs, International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management, 58 (3): 254-273, 2009.
 
[10]  Chakravorty, S., Six Sigma programs: An implementation model, Int. J. Production Economics, 119: 1-16, 2009.
 
[11]  Arthur, J., Lean Six Sigma Demystified. McGraw-Hill, United States, 2007.
 
[12]  Behara, R.S., Fontenot, G.F. and Gresham, A., Customer satisfaction measurement and analysis using Six Sigma, International Journal of Quality & Reliability Management, 12 (3): 9-18, 1995.
 
[13]  Pyzdek, T., The Six Sigma Handbook Revised and Expanded. McGraw-Hill, United States, 2003.
 
[14]  Black, k. and Revere, l., Six Sigma arises from the ashes of TQM with a twist, International Journal of Health Care Quality Assurance, 19 (3): 259-266, 2006.
 
[15]  Kreisler.K., Buch, and Tolentino A., Employee expectancies for Six Sigma success, Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 27 (1): 28-37, 2006.
 
[16]  Andersson, R., Eriksson, H. and Torstensson, H., Similarities and differences between TQM, Six Sigma and Lean, The TQM Magazine, 18 (3): 282-296, 2006.
 
[17]  Cornado, R.B. and Antony, J., Critical success factors for the successful implementation of Six Sigma project in organization, The TQM Magazine, 14 (2): 92-99, 2002.
 
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Article

Tracking of Pallets in Manufacturing Environment Using RFID System

1Department of Robotics and Automation, Faculty of Manufacturing Engineering, Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka, Melaka, Malaysia


American Journal of Industrial Engineering. 2013, 1(2), 36-40
DOI: 10.12691/ajie-1-2-5
Copyright © 2013 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Nurizati Syakirin Rosli, Ahmad Yusairi Bani Hashim, Zamberi Jamaludin. Tracking of Pallets in Manufacturing Environment Using RFID System. American Journal of Industrial Engineering. 2013; 1(2):36-40. doi: 10.12691/ajie-1-2-5.

Correspondence to: Nurizati  Syakirin Rosli, Department of Robotics and Automation, Faculty of Manufacturing Engineering, Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka, Melaka, Malaysia. Email: izatisyakirin@gmail.com

Abstract

Pallets are the common form of material transport equipment together with forklift conveyer or transport vehicles in a factory. In supply chain, the importance of pallet usage is significant, allowing efficient handling of items. The movements of palettes on a factory floor, however, are manually tracked. Thus, they are difficult to be closely monitored. This results in loss of time, energy, and efficiency. To improve the efficiency and accuracy of palette movements and to eliminate the loss of time and energy of parts movement in or out of the factory, this work introduced the application of a radio frequency identification (RFID) based automatic tracking system. In this paper, we demonstrate the technique of using the RFID technology as a platform to improve the efficiency in the pallet movements.

Keywords

References

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[2]  Jadhav, G. N., & Hamedi-hagh, S. (2011). UHF Class-4 Active Two-Way RFID Tag For a Hybrid RFID-Based System, (December), 337-342.
 
[3]  James, C.C., Chen-Huan, C., PoTsang B. H., Kung-Jen W., Chien-Jung H., Ti-Chen T. (2013). Warehouse management with lean and RFID application: a case study. 531-532.
 
[4]  Jo, M., Youn, H. Y., Member, S., & Cha, S. (2009). Mobile RFID Tag Detection Influence Factors and Prediction of Tag Detectability, 9(2), 112-119.
 
[5]  Pathak, R., & Joshi, S. (2009). Recent Trends in RFID and a Java based Software.
 
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[6]  Pihir, I., Pihir, V., & Vidaþiü, S. (2011). Improvement of Warehouse Operations through Implementation of Mobile Barcode Systems Aimed at Advancing Sales Process, 433-438.
 
[7]  Spong, M. W., Hutchinson, S., & Vidyasagar, M. (2005). Robot Modeling and Control (p. 496). Wiley.
 
[8]  Vue, D., Wu, X., & Bai, J. (2013). RFID Application Framework for Pharmaceutical Supply Chain, 1125-1130.
 
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Article

Investigation into Train Flow System on Ukraine’s Railways with Methods of Complex Network Analysis

1Ukrainian State Academy of Railway Transport, Operational Work Management Department, Kharkov, Ukraine


American Journal of Industrial Engineering. 2013, 1(3), 41-45
DOI: 10.12691/ajie-1-3-1
Copyright © 2013 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Tatyana But’ko, Andrii Prokhorchenko. Investigation into Train Flow System on Ukraine’s Railways with Methods of Complex Network Analysis. American Journal of Industrial Engineering. 2013; 1(3):41-45. doi: 10.12691/ajie-1-3-1.

Correspondence to: Andrii  Prokhorchenko, Ukrainian State Academy of Railway Transport, Operational Work Management Department, Kharkov, Ukraine. Email: railwayhub@yandex.ua

Abstract

The article deals with an improved analysis of the train flow system in Ukraine’s railway network. The main objective of the investigation is to reveal the peculiarities of the car flow destination system and to apply up-to-date knowledge for higher efficiency of railway transport. To solve the scientific problem the methods of complex network analysis have been used, thereby determining the basic statistic factors of the network topology. It has been proved that the destination network of ’s train formation plan is characterized by scale invariance. The revealed peculiarities of assortative mixing have made the understanding of the system’s processes simpler. The results obtained can be applied in analysis of the transportation system survivability of ’s railway network.

Keywords

References

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[19]  Newman, M.E.J., “Assortative mixing in networks,” Physical Review Letters, 89(20), 208701, May 2002.
 
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Article

Total Quality Management and Organizational Performance

1Department of management, Zanjan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Zanjan, Iran

2Ph.D. Student of Industrial management, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

3Department of management, Qeshm Branch, Islamic Azad University, Qeshm, Iran


American Journal of Industrial Engineering. 2013, 1(3), 46-50
DOI: 10.12691/ajie-1-3-2
Copyright © 2013 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Davood Gharakhani, Hossein Rahmati, Mohammad Reza Farrokhi, Arshad Farahmandian. Total Quality Management and Organizational Performance. American Journal of Industrial Engineering. 2013; 1(3):46-50. doi: 10.12691/ajie-1-3-2.

Correspondence to: Davood  Gharakhani, Department of management, Zanjan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Zanjan, Iran. Email: davoodgharakhany@yahoo.com

Abstract

Total quality management (TQM) is considered a very important factor for the long-term success of an organization. TQM implementation has been an important aspect for improving organisational efficiency. The links between TQM and performance have been investigated by numerous scholars. While examining the relationship between TQM and performance scholars have used different performance types such as financial, innovative, operational and quality performance. Recent research on total quality management has examined the relationships between the Total quality management and organizational performance. TQM focuses on continuous process improvement within organizations to provide superior customer value and meet customer needs. TQM a popular guideline for organizational management is adopted for developing strategic infomaps and infocharts for an information organization.

Keywords

References

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Article

Shliomis Model Based Ferrofluid Lubrication of Squeeze Film in Rotating Rough Curved Circular Disks with Assorted Porous Structures

1Department of Mathematics, Sardar Patel University, Vallabh Vidyanagar, Anand, Gujarat, India


American Journal of Industrial Engineering. 2013, 1(3), 51-61
DOI: 10.12691/ajie-1-3-3
Copyright © 2013 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Jimit R. Patel, Gunamani Deheri. Shliomis Model Based Ferrofluid Lubrication of Squeeze Film in Rotating Rough Curved Circular Disks with Assorted Porous Structures. American Journal of Industrial Engineering. 2013; 1(3):51-61. doi: 10.12691/ajie-1-3-3.

Correspondence to: Jimit  R. Patel, Department of Mathematics, Sardar Patel University, Vallabh Vidyanagar, Anand, Gujarat, India. Email: patel.jimitphdmarch2013@gmail.com

Abstract

An endeavour has been made to analyze the effect of various porous structures on the performance of a Shliomis model based ferrofluid lubrication of a squeeze film in rotating rough porous curved circular plates. Employing the method of Christensen and Tonder’s stochastic model, the roughness has been characterized by a stochastic random variable. Kozeny- Carman’s model and Irmay’s model for porous structures are adopted. The associated stochastically averaged Reynolds type equation has been numerically solved to obtain the pressure distribution and thus, paving the way for the calculation of load carrying capacity. The results indicate that Shliomis model based ferrofluid lubrication turns in a relatively enhanced performance as compared to Neuringer- Rosensweig model at least in the case of Kozeny- Carman’s model. This investigation underlines that for the improvement in bearing performance the Kozeny- Carman’s model needs to be preferred from design point of view. By suitably choosing curvature parameters and rotational inertia, the adverse effect of transverse roughness can be overcome by the positive effect of ferrofluid lubrication in the case of negatively skewed roughness when Kozeny- Carman’s model is deployed.

Keywords

References

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[7]  Prajapati, B.L., “Squeeze film behaviour between rotating porous circular plates with a concentric circular pocket: Surface roughness and elastic deformation effects”, Wear, 152(2). 301-307. 1992.
 
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[11]  Deheri, G. M., Patel, H. C. and Patel, R. M., “Behaviour of magnetic fluid based squeeze film between porous circular plates with porous matrix of variable thickness”, International Journal of Fluid mechanics, 34(6). 506-514. 2007.
 
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Article

Customer’s Attributes and Organizational Performance

1Department of management, Zanjan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Zanjan, Iran

2Department of management, Qeshm Branch, Islamic Azad University, Qeshm, Iran

3Department of management, khouzestan Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, khouzestan, Iran


American Journal of Industrial Engineering. 2014, 2(1), 1-4
DOI: 10.12691/ajie-2-1-1
Copyright © 2013 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Davood Gharakhani, Mohammad Reza Farrokhi, Hamed khajevand, Arshad Farahmandian. Customer’s Attributes and Organizational Performance. American Journal of Industrial Engineering. 2014; 2(1):1-4. doi: 10.12691/ajie-2-1-1.

Correspondence to: Davood  Gharakhani, Department of management, Zanjan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Zanjan, Iran. Email: davoodgharakhany@yahoo.com

Abstract

This study explored how Product-related attributes of customers financial performance. Despite ongoing debate regarding the specific dimensions of the customer relationship orientation construct, the link with organizational performance is almost universally recognized. The findings suggest that financial service managers could consider treating consumers as partners in their provision of existing services or their quest to develop successful new services. Reciprocal behavior will foster a positive atmosphere, remove barriers arising from risk, and enable relationships to progress, ultimately improving financial performance. Marketing research has shown that firms are more successful when they focus on their customers’ needs. Although some empirical studies have investigated the relationship between Product-related attributes of customers and financial performance, they have failed to show the mechanism by which Product-related attributes of customers promotes financial performance.

Keywords

References

[1]  Van Riel, A.C.R., Lemmick, J., Streukens, S. and Liljander, V. (2004), ‘‘Boost customer loyalty with online support: the case of mobile telecoms providers’’, International Journal of Internet Marketing and Advertising, Vol. 1 No. 1, pp. 4-23.
 
[2]  Egger, N.F. (2000), ‘‘towards a model of trust for e-commerce system design’’, available at: www.zurich.ibm.com/~mrs/chi2000/contributions/egger.html (accessed March 20, 2007).
 
[3]  Semejin, J., Van Riel, A.C.R., Van Birgelen, M.J.H. and Streukens, S. (2005), ‘‘E-services and offline fulfillment: how e-loyalty is created’’, Managing Service Quality, Vol. 15 No. 2, pp. 182-95.
 
[4]  Fornell, C. (1992), ‘‘National customer satisfaction barometer: the Swedish experience’’, Journal of Marketing, Vol. 56 (January), pp. 6-21.
 
[5]  Zeithaml, V. A. (1988). Consumer perceptions of price, quality, and value: A means-end model and synthesis of evidence. Journal of Marketing, 52, 2-22.
 
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[7]  Abruzzini, P. (1967), “Measuring Language Difficulty in Advertising Copy,” Journal of Marketing, 31, 22-26.
 
[8]  Stiff, R. and I. Khera (1977). Industrial Product Positioning: Pragmatic Uses. Industrial Marketing Management, 6, 119-123.
 
[9]  Berry, L.L. (1983), “Relationship marketing”, in Berry, L.L., Shostack, G.L. and Upah, G.D. (Eds),Emerging Perspectives of Services Marketing, American Marketing Association, Chicago,IL, pp. 25-8.
 
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[11]  Bitner, M.J. (1990), ‘‘Evaluating service encounters; the effects of physical surroundings and employee responses’’, Journal of Marketing, Vol. 54 (April), pp. 69-82.
 
[12]  Weiner, B. (1980), Human Motivation, Holt, Rinehart & Winston, New York, NY.
 
[13]  Keller K. L. (1998). Building, Measuring, and Managing Brand Equity. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
 
[14]  Lambert, D.M. (Ed.) (2008a), Supply Chain Management: Processes, Partnerships, Performance, 3rd ed., Supply Chain Management Institute, Sarasota, FL.
 
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Article

Comparative Analysis of Product Development Process Management Models

1Departamento de Ingeniería Industrial, Facultad de Ingeniería Química, Universidad Nacional del Litoral. Santa Fe, Argentina


American Journal of Industrial Engineering. 2014, 2(1), 5-9
DOI: 10.12691/ajie-2-1-2
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Germán Rossetti, Facundo Giraudo, Pablo Murer, Leticia Arcusin. Comparative Analysis of Product Development Process Management Models. American Journal of Industrial Engineering. 2014; 2(1):5-9. doi: 10.12691/ajie-2-1-2.

Correspondence to: Leticia  Arcusin, Departamento de Ingeniería Industrial, Facultad de Ingeniería Química, Universidad Nacional del Litoral. Santa Fe, Argentina. Email: larcusin@fiq.unl.edu.ar

Abstract

Due to the increase of the products offered in the market and the reduction of the time of their life, Product Development Process (PDP) is considered a business process that become increasingly important for the competitiveness of companies. Products must be managed in order to quickly enter the market, better meet customer needs, are easier to manufacture, are attractive in the market and ensure a profit for the company. Since the beginning of the twentieth century, the main incentives for the development of new products in the food industry are related to the development and incorporation of technological innovation. Nowadays, PDP evolution is mainly due to concerns of industries to improve their economic performance, and at the same time increasing the quality of their products and meets the requirements of consumers. Although there are studies that seek to standardize the development of food products, implementation of PDP models is very new. This paper aims to analyze methods developed by different authors about the PDP oriented to food industry and make a comparison with the general model proposed by Rozenfeld et al. . Among current models are the following: Fuller , Rudolph , Earle , Polignano and Drumond and Penso . These authors state sequences of structured phases that facilitate the understanding and implementation of a new product development in food industry.

Keywords

References

[1]  Clark K. B. and Fujimoto T., Product Development Performance: Strategy, Organization, and Management in the World Auto Industry, Ed. HBS Press, Boston, 1991.
 
[2]  Ulrich, K. and Eppinger, S. Product Design and Development. McGraw Hill, New York, 2000.
 
[3]  Arcusin L. and Rossetti G., “Management System for Product Development Process for Small and Medium Enterprises which Produces Drugs”, International Journal of Research & Reviews in Applied Sciences, Vol. 13 (n 2), pp. 452-460, nov., 2012.
 
[4]  Earle M. D., “Changes in the Food Product Development Process”, Trends in Food Science & Technology, Vol. 8, pp. 19-24, 1997.
 
[5]  Fuller G. W., New Food Product Development: from Concept to Marketplace, Ed. CRC Press LLC, Florida, 1994.
 
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[6]  Rudolph M., “The Food Product Development Process”, British Food Journal, Vol. 97 (n. 3), pp. 03-11, 1995.
 
[7]  Polignano L.A. C.e Drumond F. B., “O Papel da Pesquisa de Mercado Durante o Desenvolvimento de Novos Produtos”, Anais do 3 Congresso Brasileiro de Gestão de Desenvolvimento de Produto 2001, Florianópolis, 2001, pp. 121-130.
 
[8]  Penso C.C., “Modelo de Referência parao Processo de Desenvolvimento de Produtos na Indústria de Alimentos” (Dissertação de Mestrado), Ed. UFSC, Florianópolis, 2003.
 
[9]  Rozenfeld H., Forcellini F.A., Amaral D.C., Toledo J.C., Silva S. L., Alliprandini D.H. e Scalice R. K., Gestão de Desenvolvimento de Produtos: uma Referência para a Melhoria de Processo, Ed. Saraiva, São Paulo, 2006.
 
[10]  Roozemburg N. and Eekels J., Product Design. Fundamentals and Methods, Ed. John Wily & Sons, New York, 1995.
 
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Article

The Use of Artificial Intelligence Methods of Technological Preparation of Engine-Building Production

1Department of Aviation Technological Systems, Ufa State Aviation Technical University, Ufa, Russia


American Journal of Industrial Engineering. 2014, 2(1), 10-14
DOI: 10.12691/ajie-2-1-3
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
S.G. Selivanov, S.N. Poezjalova, O.A. Gavrilova. The Use of Artificial Intelligence Methods of Technological Preparation of Engine-Building Production. American Journal of Industrial Engineering. 2014; 2(1):10-14. doi: 10.12691/ajie-2-1-3.

Correspondence to: S.N.  Poezjalova, Department of Aviation Technological Systems, Ufa State Aviation Technical University, Ufa, Russia. Email: poezjalova@mail.ru

Abstract

The ways of application of artificial intelligence methods for optimization of design, perspective and directive technological processes of engine-building production in this publication are shown. The different choices of optimization of technological processes of engine-building production for providing the competitiveness of new products by means of the Elman and Jordan neural networks with elements of fuzzy logic and genetic algorithm are developed.

Keywords

References

[1]  Nikitin V. V., Selivanov S.G. Logic-genetic method of optimization of ASTPP of engine-building in the conditions of management of projects of "economical" production // The messenger of USATU. Volume 16. No 2 (48). 2012, pp. 52-58.
 
[2]  Rutkovsky, Pilinsky M, Rutkovsky L. Neural networks, genetic algorithms and indistinct systems. M: The hot line – the Telecom, 2004. 452 p.
 
[3]  Shipachev V. S. The higher mathematics: studies for higher education institutions. M: The higher school, 1998. 479 p.
 
[4]  Kossov V. V., Livshits V. N., Shakhnazarov A. G. The methodical recommendations about an assessment of efficiency of investment projects. M: Economy, 2001. 421 p.
 

Article

A Scheduling Model of Coal Supply Chain Based on Supply Chain Management (SCM)

1School of Economics and Management, Shanxi University, P.R. China


American Journal of Industrial Engineering. 2014, 2(1), 15-20
DOI: 10.12691/ajie-2-1-4
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Jiguang WANG, Jinjing ZHANG, Jingfeng LI. A Scheduling Model of Coal Supply Chain Based on Supply Chain Management (SCM). American Journal of Industrial Engineering. 2014; 2(1):15-20. doi: 10.12691/ajie-2-1-4.

Correspondence to: Jiguang  WANG, School of Economics and Management, Shanxi University, P.R. China. Email: wangjg@sxu.edu.cn

Abstract

In this paper, we develop a scheduling model based on SCM to deal with the contradiction between scale production and customized demand on coal industry. When analyzing the coal logistics from coal mine to end-customers, we draw an operating flow chart, from which we can find out the relationship among the departments in coal supply chain. According to the flow chart we can describe the input/output (I/O) constraints by algebraic expression. The objective function minimizes the operating costs of every department in coal supply chain, and an optimal solution can be obtained through the use of Mixed-integer linear programming (MILP). In that way we can get a specific task timetable to guild their work and the activities.

Keywords

References

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[12]  Wang X, Cheng T C E. Production scheduling with supply and delivery considerations to minimize the makespan[J]. European Journal of Operational Research, 2009, 194(3): 743-752.
 
[13]  Xu J, Li X. Using system dynamics for simulation and optimization of one coal industry system under fuzzy environment[J]. Expert Systems with Applications, 2011, 38(9): 11552-11559.
 
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Article

Reliability Level of Smelting Gross Energy Requirement (SGER) Dependence on Direct Fuel Input and Process Free Energy Change

1Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, NnamdiAzikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria

2Department of Industrial Physics, Ebonyi State University, Abakiliki, Nigeria

3Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Enugu State University of Science & Technology, Enugu, Nigeria

4Metallurgical Training Institute, Onitsha, Nigeria


American Journal of Industrial Engineering. 2014, 2(2), 21-28
DOI: 10.12691/ajie-2-2-1
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
C. I. Nwoye, M. O. Nwankwo, E. M. Ameh, N. E. Idenyi, L. C. Oshionwu, S. A. Abella. Reliability Level of Smelting Gross Energy Requirement (SGER) Dependence on Direct Fuel Input and Process Free Energy Change. American Journal of Industrial Engineering. 2014; 2(2):21-28. doi: 10.12691/ajie-2-2-1.

Correspondence to: C.  I. Nwoye, Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, NnamdiAzikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria. Email: nwoyennike@gmail.com

Abstract

This paper presents an assessment of the reliability level of Smelting Gross Energy Requirement (SGER) dependence on the direct fuel input and free energy change during industrial processing of engineering materials and minerals. A two-factorial polynomial-logarithmic model was derived and validated for empirical analysis of the dependent-independent variable relationship, which invariably aided reliability level evaluation. The validity of the model; ζ = - 0.071 ϑ 3 + 1.9885 ϑ 2 + 9.3181 ϑ - 0.0035 ɤ + 0.006 ln ɤ + 15.586 was rooted on the core model expression ζ - 15.586 = - 0.071ϑ 3 + 1.9885ϑ2 + 9.3181ϑ - 0.0035 ɤ + 0.006 ln ɤ where both sides of the expression were correspondingly nearly equal. The derived model was used to generate results of SGER, and its trend of distribution was compared with that from experimental results as a means of verifying its validity. The results of this verification translated into very close alignment of curves and significantly similar trend of data point’s distribution for experimental and derived model-predicted results. Evaluations from generated results indicated that SGER per unit direct fuel input & free energy change as obtained from experiment and derived model were 8.9260 and 9.0471 & 15.7474 and 15.9609 respectively. The evaluated measure of variability in experimental and model-predicted data sets relative to direct fuel input and free energy change were 121.6667 and 119.7662 as well as 123.1929 and 120.6838 respectively. Deviational analysis indicated that the maximum deviation of model-predicted SGER from the experimental results was less than 9.6%. This translated into over 90% operational confidence and reliability level for the derived model as well as 0.9 reliability coefficient for the SGER dependence on direct fuel input and free energy change accompanying the smelting process.

Keywords

References

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