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American Journal of Electrical and Electronic Engineering

ISSN (Print): 2328-7365

ISSN (Online): 2328-7357

Website: http://www.sciepub.com/journal/AJEEE

Article

Design of a Novel Sierpinski Fractal Antenna Arrays Based on Circular Shapes with Low Side Lobes for 3G Applications

1Department of ELTCE, Veer Surendra Sai University Of Technology,Burla,Odisha

2Department of ELTCE,BIT,Durg,Chhatisgadh


American Journal of Electrical and Electronic Engineering. 2014, 2(4), 137-140
DOI: 10.12691/ajeee-2-4-3
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Manas Ranjan Jena, B.B. Mangaraj, Rajiv Pathak. Design of a Novel Sierpinski Fractal Antenna Arrays Based on Circular Shapes with Low Side Lobes for 3G Applications. American Journal of Electrical and Electronic Engineering. 2014; 2(4):137-140. doi: 10.12691/ajeee-2-4-3.

Correspondence to: Manas  Ranjan Jena, Department of ELTCE, Veer Surendra Sai University Of Technology,Burla,Odisha. Email: manas.synergy@gmail.com

Abstract

A fractal is a recursively generated object having a fractional dimension. So many objects, including antennas, can be designed using this recursive nature of a fractal. In this paper we have used the fractal geometry arrangements for the design of planar antenna arrays with low side lobes. Iterated Function System (IFS) is used to generate the sierpinski fractal antenna arrays using circular shapes. CST Microwave Studio EM Simulation software is used for design & simulation of these antenna arrays. Two resonant frequencies like. 1936 GHz &. 222 GHz are achieved. Better performance parameters like return loss, VSWR, directivity, gain, bandwidth enhancement with low SLL are estimated.

Keywords

References

[1]  M. F. Bamsley, “Fractals Everywhere”, 2nd ed., New York: Academic Press Professional, 1993.
 
[2]  P. S. Addison, “Fractals and Chaos: An Illustrated Course”, Bristol, U.K.: Institute of Physics Publishing, 1997.
 
[3]  B. B. Mandlebrot, “The Fractal Geometry of Nature, New York: W.H. Freeman, 1983.
 
[4]  C. Puente-Baliarda, J. Romeu, R. Pous, and A. Cardama, “On the Behaviour of the Sierpinski Multiband Fractal Antenna,” IEEE Transaction on Antennas and Propagation, 46, No. 4, pp. 517-524, 1998.
 
[5]  V.M. Onufriyenko “The differ-integral theory of fractal antennas”IEEE, International conference on antenna theory & techniques, 9-12 September, 2003, pp 107-109.
 
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[6]  Balanis, Constantine, “Antenna theory-Analysis and Design”, John Wiley & Sons Ltd, Reprinted 2008.
 
[7]  D.H. Werner, R.L. Haupt, and P.L. Werner, “Fractal Antenna Engineering: the Theory and Design of Fractal Antenna Arrays,” IEEE Antennas and Propagation Magazine, 41, No. 5, pp. 37-58, 1999.
 
[8]  H. E. Dimas, D. L. Jaggard, and A.D. Jaggard, “Spiral Fractal Arrays,” University of Pennsylvania, NSF/SUNFEST Summer Undergraduate Research, 2000.
 
[9]  V.F. Kravchenko and V.M. Masyuk, “Peculiarities of the Design of Spiral Fractal Antenna Arrays,” Fifth International Kharkov Symposium on Physics and Engineering of Microwaves, Millimeter, and Submillimeter Waves, 2, pp. 952-954, 2004.
 
[10]  Y. Kim and D.L. Jaggard, “The Fractal Random Array,” Proceedings of the IEEE, 74, No. 9, pp 1278-1280, 1986.
 
[11]  V.M. Masyuk “Methods for mathematical modeling of fractal antenna arrays” IEEE, International conference on antenna theory & techniques, 9-12 September, 2003, pp 220-223.
 
[12]  F.A. Ghaffar, A. Shamim, K. N. Salama “Design & comparision of LTCC based fractal antennas” Proceedings of the IEEE, 2011.
 
[13]  A. Karmakar, R. Ghatak, R.K. Mishra, and D.R. Poddar, “A Sierpinski Carpet Fractal Based Design of Thinned Rectangular Microstrip Antenna Array,” Applied Electromagnetics Conference, pp 1-3, 2009.
 
[14]  Rashmi jaiswal, Rehan lakhera Antenna and wave propagation comparison of fractal antenna and yagi-uda antenna”, International Journal of Advance Research, IJOAR. org, Volume 1, Issue 3, March 2013.
 
[15]  V. Srinivasa Rao1, V. A. Sankar Ponnapalli Study and Analysis of Fractal Linear Antenna Arrays” IOSR Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering (IOSR-JECE), Volume 5, Issue 2 Mar.-Apr. 2013, PP 23-27.
 
[16]  L. rambabu, B.ramarao & P. V. sridevi “Design and analysis of fractal planar hexagonal array with low side lobes”, International Technology Research Letters, Volume-1 Issue-1 2012.
 
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Article

New Properties of Reactive Elements and the Problem of Propagation of Electrical Signals in Long Lines

1B.I. Verkin Institute for Low Temperature Physics and Engineering NAS, Ukraine, 47 Lenin Ave., Kharkov, Ukraine


American Journal of Electrical and Electronic Engineering. 2014, 2(5), 141-145
DOI: 10.12691/ajeee-2-5-1
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
F.F. Mende. New Properties of Reactive Elements and the Problem of Propagation of Electrical Signals in Long Lines. American Journal of Electrical and Electronic Engineering. 2014; 2(5):141-145. doi: 10.12691/ajeee-2-5-1.

Correspondence to: F.F.  Mende, B.I. Verkin Institute for Low Temperature Physics and Engineering NAS, Ukraine, 47 Lenin Ave., Kharkov, Ukraine. Email: mende_fedor@mail.ru

Abstract

Are examined the laws of the self-induction of capacitance and inductance, which it is customary to assume as reactive elements. It is shown that with the connection to the sources of direct current and voltage they have the effective resistance, which depends on the time. Is examined the parametric self-induction of the elements indicated and it is shown that in the regime of parametric self-induction the capacitance and inductance can not only derive energy from the power sources, but also return it into the external circuits. The velocity of propagation of constant voltages and currents in the long lines is obtained. In this case the laws of parametric self-induction are used. This task cannot be solved, using standard wave equations for the long lines.

Keywords

References

[1]  S. Ramo, J. Uinneri. Fields and wave in contemporary radio engineering. OGIZ, 1948.
 
[2]  I. S. Gonorovskiy. Radio-technical chains and the signal. M,: Soviet radio, 1977.
 
[3]  F. F. Mende. Great errors and the error of the physicists of XIX-XX of centuries. Revolution in contemporary physics. Kharkov, NTMT, 2008.
 

Article

A New Tipe of Contact Potential Difference and Electrification of Superconducting Coils and Tori

1B.I. Verkin Institute for Low Temperature Physics and Engineering NAS, Ukraine


American Journal of Electrical and Electronic Engineering. 2014, 2(5), 146-151
DOI: 10.12691/ajeee-2-5-2
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
F. F. Mende. A New Tipe of Contact Potential Difference and Electrification of Superconducting Coils and Tori. American Journal of Electrical and Electronic Engineering. 2014; 2(5):146-151. doi: 10.12691/ajeee-2-5-2.

Correspondence to: F.  F. Mende, B.I. Verkin Institute for Low Temperature Physics and Engineering NAS, Ukraine. Email: mende_fedor@mail.ru

Abstract

The contact potential difference this is the potential difference, which appears between the located in the electrical contact conductors under the thermodynamic equilibrium conditions. As a result this between the conductors occurs the electron transfer until the Fermi levels in both conductors are made even. The established contact potential difference is equal to difference the work function of conductors, referred to the electron charge. In the article is described the new type of contact potential difference, which appears with the flow of the current through conductors. Contact the potential difference indicated depends on the strength of current, which flows through conductor; therefore it it is possible to name aelektrocurent contact potential difference. The results of investigating the electrification of the superconductive windings and tori during the introduction in them of direct currents are represented. Are proposed the schematics of magnetometers, which make it possible to measure the magnetic fields over a wide range of their values.

Keywords

References

[1]  W. F. Edwards, C.S. Kenyon, D.K. Lemon, Continuing investigation into possible electric arising from steady conduction current, Phys. Rev. D 14, 922,1976.
 
[2]  Roser W.G.V. Second-Order Electric Field due to a Conducting Curent. American Journal of Physics, 1962, v. 30, №7.
 
[3]  Don A. Baker. Second-Order Electric Field due to a Conducting Curent. American Journal of Physics, 1964, v. 32, № 2.
 
[4]  F. F. Mende, On refinement of equations of electromagnetic induction, Kharkov, deposited in VINITI, No 774 - B88 Dep., 1988.
 
[5]  F. F. Mende, On secondary electric fields excited at direct currents flowing through superconductors. - Kharkov, deposited in VINITI 05.11.92. No. 3182 - B92. Dep., 1992.
 
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[6]  F. F. Mende, Experimental corroboration and theoretical interpretation of dependence of charge velocity on DC flow velocity through superconductors. Proceedings International Conference “Physics in Ukraine“, Kiev 22-27 June 1993.
 
[7]  F. F. Mende, Are there errors in modern physics. Kharkov, Constant, 2003.
 
[8]  F. F. Mende, On refinement of certain laws of classical electrodynamics, arXiv.org/abs/physics/0402084.
 
[9]  Mende F. F. Conception of the scalar-vector potential in contemporary electrodynamics, arXiv.org/abs/physics/0506083.
 
[10]  F. F. Mende, New approaches in contemporary classical electrodynamics. Part II, Engineering Physics, №2, 2013.
 
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Article

Transverse Plasma Resonans Mode in an Nonmagnetized Plasma and Its Practical Applications

1B.I. Verkin Institute for Low Temperature Physics and Engineering, NAS Ukraine, 47 Lenin Ave., Kharkov, Ukraiua


American Journal of Electrical and Electronic Engineering. 2014, 2(5), 152-158
DOI: 10.12691/ajeee-2-5-3
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
F. F. Mende. Transverse Plasma Resonans Mode in an Nonmagnetized Plasma and Its Practical Applications. American Journal of Electrical and Electronic Engineering. 2014; 2(5):152-158. doi: 10.12691/ajeee-2-5-3.

Correspondence to: F.  F. Mende, B.I. Verkin Institute for Low Temperature Physics and Engineering, NAS Ukraine, 47 Lenin Ave., Kharkov, Ukraiua. Email: mende_fedor@mail.ru

Abstract

Is shown that in the nonmagnetized plasma, besides longitudinal Langmuir resonance can exist the transverse plasma resonance. The resonance indicated can exist in the confined plasma. It is known that with the nuclear explosions the electromagnetic radiation in the very wide frequency band is observed, up to the radio-frequency range. And if the emission in field of light range can be explained by the emission of separate atoms, then emission in the region of radio-frequency band can be caused only by collective processes, which occur in the confined plasma. The use of transverse resonance makes it possible to create resonators and band-pass filters, and also lasers on the collective plasma oscillations. Transverse plasma resonance can be used also for the warming-up of plasma and its diagnostics. Is introduced the concept of magnetoelectrokinetic waves.

Keywords

References

[1]  V. L. Ginzburg, The propagation of electromagnetic waves in a plasma.-M.: Science. 1967.
 
[2]  A. I. Akhiezer, Plasma Physics Nauka, Moscow, 1974.
 
[3]  A. F. Aleksandrov, L.S. Bogdankevich, A. A. Rukhdze, Oscillations and waves in plasma media, Moscow University Publishers, 1990.
 
[4]  A. A. Artsimovich, R. Z. Sagdeev, Plasma Physics for Physicists. M: Atomizdat, 1979.
 
[5]  F.F. Mende, A.I. Spitsyn, Surface impedance in superconductors, Kiev, Naukova Dumka, 1985.
 
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[6]  F. F. Mende, Role and place of the kinetic inductance of charges in classical electrodynamics, Engineering Physics, № 11, 2012.
 
[7]  F. F. Mende, On refinement of equations of electromagnetic induction, Kharkov, deposited in VINITI, No 774-B88 Dep., 1988.
 
[8]  F. F. Mende, Are there errors in modern physics. Kharkov, Constant, 2003.
 
[9]  F.F. Mende, On refinement of certain laws of classical electrodynamics,arXiv.org/abs/physics/0402084.
 
[10]  F. F. Mende, Consistent electrodynamics, Kharkov NTMT, 2008.
 
[11]  F. F. Mende, Consistent electrodynamics and the threat of nuclear Space terrorism. Kharkov NTMT, 2008.
 
[12]  F. F. Mende, Great misconceptions and errors physicists XIX-XX centuries. Revolution in modern physics, Kharkiv NTMT, 2010.
 
[13]  F. F. Mende New electrodynamics, Revolution in modern physics. Kharkov NTMT, 201.
 
[14]  F. London, Superfluids. Vol.1. Microscopic theory of superconductivity.-Nev York: Dower publ., 1950.
 
[15]  L. D. Landau, E.M. Lifshits, Electrodynamics of continuous media. Moscow 1973.
 
[16]  F. F. Mende, Transversal plasma resonance in a nonmagnetized plasma and possibilities of practical employment of it, arXiv.org/abs/physics/0506081.
 
[17]  A.Yriv, Quantum electrodynamics and nonlinear optics. Sov. Radio: Moscow 1973.
 
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Article

DVCC Based K.H.N. Biquadratic Analog Filter with Digitally Controlled Variations

1Department of Electronics Engineering, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, India


American Journal of Electrical and Electronic Engineering. 2014, 2(6), 159-164
DOI: 10.12691/ajeee-2-6-1
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Bilal Arif, Mohd. Usama Ismail, Ale Imran. DVCC Based K.H.N. Biquadratic Analog Filter with Digitally Controlled Variations. American Journal of Electrical and Electronic Engineering. 2014; 2(6):159-164. doi: 10.12691/ajeee-2-6-1.

Correspondence to: Bilal  Arif, Department of Electronics Engineering, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, India. Email: arifbilal25@gmail.com

Abstract

In this paper, a digitally controlled single input multi output current-mode K.H.N. Biquad Filter is presented. The filter circuit is composed of three DVCCs together with four grounded resistors and two grounded capacitors. The digital control is incorporated using a current-summing network (CSN). Tuning of resonant frequency is carried out by 3–bit digital control word. Block by block replacement has been done to observe the change in the relationship between resonant frequency of the band-pass filter with the control word. The filter circuit showed three different variations when the DVCC blocks were replaced (one by one) with 3-bit DC-DVCC blocks. PSPICE simulations using TSMC 0.25 micron CMOS technology have been performed to validate the theoretical results.

Keywords

References

[1]  H. O. Elwan, A. M. Soliman. “A novel CMOS current conveyor realization with an electronically tunable current mode filter suitable for VLSI. Circuits and Systems II: Analog and Digital Signal Processing, IEEE Transactions, vol. 43, issue. 9, pp. 663-670, Sep. 1996.
 
[2]  C.M. Chang, M.J. Lee. “Voltage-mode multifunction filter with single input and three outputs using two compound current conveyors.” Circuits and Systems I: Fundamental Theory and Applications, IEEE Transactions, vol. 46, issue. 11, pp. 1364-1365, Nov. 1999.
 
[3]  O. Cicekoglu. “Current-mode biquad with a minimum number of passive elements.” Circuits and Systems II: Analog and Digital Signal Processing, IEEE Transactions, vol. 48, issue. 2, pp. 221-222, Feb. 2001.
 
[4]  H. Y. Wang, C. T. Lee. “Versatile insensitive current-mode universal biquad implementation using current conveyors.” Circuits and Systems II: Analog and Digital Signal Processing, IEEE Transactions, vol. 48, issue. 4, pp. 409-413, Apr. 2001.
 
[5]  A.S. Sedra, K.C. Smith. “A second generation current conveyor and its applications”. IEEE Transactions on circuit theory, vol. 17, pp.132-134, Feb. 1970.
 
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[6]  W. Chiu, S. I. Liu, H. W. Tsao, J. J. Chen. “CMOS differential difference current conveyors and their applications. IEE Proceedings-Circuits, Devices and Systems, vol. 143, issue. 2, pp. 91-96, Apr. 1996.
 
[7]  H.O. Elwan, A. M. Soliman. “Novel CMOS differential voltage current conveyor and its applications.” IEE Proceedings-Circuits, Devices and Systems, vol. 144, issue. 3, pp. 195-200, Jun. 1997.
 
[8]  T. Dostal, D. Biolek, K. Vrba. “Adjoint voltage-current mode transformation for circuits based on modern current conveyors.” Devices, Circuits and Systems, Proceedings of the Fourth IEEE International Caracas Conference, 2002, pp. T034-1.
 
[9]  B. Wilson, “Recent developments in current conveyors and current-mode circuits.” Circuits, Devices and Systems, IEE Proceedings G, vol. 137, issue. 2, pp. 63-77, Apr.1990.
 
[10]  H. Hakan Kuntman. “New Advances and Possibilities in Active Circuit Design.” in Proc. 10th International Conference on Development and Application Systems, 2010, pp. 9-18.
 
[11]  H. P. Chen and S. S. Shen. “A versatile universal capacitor-grounded voltage-mode filter using DVCCs.” ETRI journal, vol. 29, issue. 4, pp. 470-476, Aug. 2007.
 
[12]  H. P. Chen. “Tunable versatile current-mode universal filter based on plus-type DVCCs.” AEU-International Journal of Electronics and Communications, vol. 66, issue. 4, pp. 332-339, 2012.
 
[13]  I. A. Khan and A. M. Nahhas. “Reconfigurable Voltage Mode First Order Multifunctional Filter using Single Low Voltage Digitally Controlled CMOS CCII.” International Journal of Computer Applications, vol. 45, issue. 5, pp. 37-40, May. 2012.
 
[14]  M.A. Ibrahim, S. Minaei, H. Kuntman. “A 22.5 MHz current-mode KHN biquad using differential voltage current conveyor and grounded passive elements.” AEU-International Journal of Electronics and Communications, vol. 59, issue. 5, pp. 311-318, 2005.
 
[15]  W. Tangsrirat, O. Chaannumsin. “Voltage -mode multifunctional biquadratic filter using single DVCC and minimum number of passive elements”. Indian Journal of Pure and Applied Physics, vol. 49, pp.703-707, Oct. 2011.
 
[16]  S. A. Mahmoud, M.A. Hashiesh. and A.M. Soliman. “Low-voltage digitally controlled fully differential current conveyor.” Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers, IEEE Transactions, vol. 52, issue. 10, pp. 2055-2064, Oct. 2005.
 
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Article

Physical Substantiation of Huygens Principle and the Reciprocity Theorem

1B.I. Verkin Institute for Low Temperature Physics and Engineering, NAS Ukraine, 47 Lenin Ave., Kharkov, Ukraine


American Journal of Electrical and Electronic Engineering. 2014, 2(6), 165-170
DOI: 10.12691/ajeee-2-6-2
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
F. F. Mende. Physical Substantiation of Huygens Principle and the Reciprocity Theorem. American Journal of Electrical and Electronic Engineering. 2014; 2(6):165-170. doi: 10.12691/ajeee-2-6-2.

Correspondence to: F.  F. Mende, B.I. Verkin Institute for Low Temperature Physics and Engineering, NAS Ukraine, 47 Lenin Ave., Kharkov, Ukraine. Email: mende_fedor@mail.ru

Abstract

The Huygens principle says, that each element of wave front can be examined as the center of the second disturbance, which generates second spherical waves, and the resulting light field at each point of space will be determined by the interference of these waves. This principle is the basic postulate of geometric optics; however, it does not reveal physical nature of this phenomenon. Are examined the laws of the self-induction of such reactive elements as capacity and inductance, which made possible to base the physical bases of Huygens's principle. It is shown that with the connection to the sources of direct current and voltage they have the effective resistance, which depends on the time. Is examined the parametric self-induction of the elements indicated and it is shown that in the regime of parametric self-induction the capacity and inductance can not only derive energy from the power sources, but also return it into the external circuits. The new method of determining the velocity of propagation of constant stresses and currents in the long lines is developed. This task cannot be solved, using standard wave equations for the long lines. The physical special features of the work of the receiving directional Yagi antennas are examined and it is shown that the reciprocity theorem for such antennas is not carried out.

Keywords

References

[1]  I. S. Gonorovsky. Radio Circuits and Signals. M.: Soviet Radio, 1977.
 
[2]  S. Ramo, John. Winner. Fields and Waves inmodernelectronics. OGIZ, 1948.
 
[3]  I. V. Goncharenko, Antennas HF and VHF. Part m5. Directional HF antenna. Shortened, phased, multi-band. Radiosoft, 2010.
 
[4]  F. F. Mende. Great errors and mistakes of physicists XIX-XX centuries. The revolution in modern physics. Kharkiv, NTMT 2010.
 
[5]  F. F. Mende New electrodynamics. Revolution in the modern physics. Kharkov, NTMT, 2012.
 
Show More References
[6]  F. F. Mende, New approaches in contemporary classical electrodynamics. Part I, Engineering Physics, № 1, 2013.
 
[7]  F. F. Mende, New Properties of Reactive Elements and the Problem of Propagation of Electrical Signals in Long Lines, American Journal of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, vol. 2, no. 5 (2014): 141-145.
 
[8]  F. F. Mende. Problems of modern physics and their solutions. Palmarium Academic Publishing, 2010.
 
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Article

Improving Learning in Electronic Engineering through Platform Open Source

1Dpto. Ingeniería Eléctrica y de Sistemas y Automática, Universidad de León. León, España

2Member of GMID-CyTULE (Grupo Multidisciplinar de Innovación Docente de Ciencias y Tecnologías de la Universidad de León)

3Dpto. de Ing. de Arquitectura de computadores, Universidad de León, León, España


American Journal of Electrical and Electronic Engineering. 2014, 2(6), 171-174
DOI: 10.12691/ajeee-2-6-3
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Diez Diez Ángela, Ricardo Gago, Carlos Fernández, Miguel Ferrero, Ramón Angel Fernández. Improving Learning in Electronic Engineering through Platform Open Source. American Journal of Electrical and Electronic Engineering. 2014; 2(6):171-174. doi: 10.12691/ajeee-2-6-3.

Correspondence to: Diez Diez Ángela, Dpto. Ingeniería Eléctrica y de Sistemas y Automática, Universidad de León. León, España. Email: adied@unileon.es

Abstract

In this study, the main objective is to present an initiative on the Grade students of the School of Industrial Engineering and Informatics, University of León. We have applied the methodology of teaching that allows enhance the interest of students for their own learning. The working method has been organizing workshops that employ strategies of project-based learning and group projects. These projects are limited in time and with a high degree of involvement by the student. There has also been an information system which supports communication and work with all of the workshop participants. For the development of this experiment, we used a microcontroller system as open source Arduino (1). This platform allows improving the teaching of electronic and automatic concepts in a simple and easy way to apply.

Keywords

References

[1]  Arduino. Página oficial Arduino. Arduino. [En línea] 2011. [Citado el: 18 de Febrero de 2013.] http://arduino.cc/en/Main/ArduinoBoardUno.
 
[2]  Motivar para aprender en el aula. Las siete claves de la motivación escolar. Gilbert, Ian. Barcelona: Paidós Educator, 2005. 84-493-1676-6.
 
[3]  Barriocanal, Luís. Web de Empresa en Google Sites.Cursos de Aulablog para IniciaFP. Web de Empresa en Google Sites. [En línea] Aulablog para Inicia FP, 2008. [Citado el: 10 de Marzo de 2013.] http://cursos.iniciafp.es/googlesites/presentacion.
 
[4]  Martínez-Salamova Sánchez, E. La motivación para el aprendizaje. La motivación para el aprendizaje. [En línea] Octubre de 2011. [Citado el: 10 de Febrero de 2013.] http://www.uhu.es/cine.educacion/didactica/0083motivacion.htm.
 
[5]  The Raspberry Pi Foundation. Raspberry Pi | An ARM GNU/Linux box for $25. Take a byte! Web oficial Raspberry Pi. [En línea] The Raspberry Pi Foundation. [Citado el: 1 de Octubre de 2012.] http://www.raspberrypi.org/.
 
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[6]  Barrett, Steven F. Arduino Microcontroller Processing for Everyone! s.l.: Morgan & Claypool, 2010.
 
[7]  Margolis, Michael y Weldin, Nicholas. Arduino Cookbook. Sebastopol : O'Reilly Media, Inc., 2011.
 
[8]  Banzi, Massimo. Getting Started with Arduino. Sebastopol: Make: Books. O'Really, 2011.
 
[9]  Google this!: using Google apps for collaboration and productivity. Herrick, Dan R. s.l.: SIGUCCS '09 Proceedings of the 37th annual ACM SIGUCCS fall conference: communication and collaboration, 2009.
 
[10]  A Problem and Project-Based Learning (PBL) approach to motivate group creativity in engineering education. Zhou, C., Kolmos, A. y Nielsen, J. D. 1, 2012, The International Journal of Engineering Education, Vol. 28, págs. 3-16.
 
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Article

New Squaring and Square-rooting Circuits Using Cdba

1Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, Echelon Institute of Technology, Faridabad, India

2Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Technology, Sharda University, Ghaziabad, India

3Division of Electronics and Communication Engineering, Netaji Subhas Institute of Technology, Sector 3, Dwarka, New Delhi, India


American Journal of Electrical and Electronic Engineering. 2014, 2(6), 175-179
DOI: 10.12691/ajeee-2-6-4
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
J. K. Pathak, A. K. Singh, Raj Senani. New Squaring and Square-rooting Circuits Using Cdba. American Journal of Electrical and Electronic Engineering. 2014; 2(6):175-179. doi: 10.12691/ajeee-2-6-4.

Correspondence to: Raj  Senani, Division of Electronics and Communication Engineering, Netaji Subhas Institute of Technology, Sector 3, Dwarka, New Delhi, India. Email: senani@ieee.org

Abstract

One new squaring and two new square-rooting circuits based on CDBAs have been introduced. The new squarer circuit consists of a CDBA, two NMOS transistors and one resistor. On the other hand, the first square-rooting circuit consists of two CDBAs, two NMOS transistors while the second square- rooting circuit consists of only a single CDBA, two NMOS transistors and two PMOS transistors. The proposed circuits exhibit wide input voltage range, very small error and offer low output impedance to facilitate easy cascading without requiring additional buffers. PSPICE simulation results are included which confirm the practical workability of the new circuits.

Keywords

References

[1]  Ismail, M. “Analog VLSI: Signal and Information Processing (International Edition),” McGraw-Hill Inc. 1994.
 
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[3]  Acar, C. and Ozoguz, S., “A new versatile building block: current differencing buffered amplifier suitable for analog signal processing filters,” Microelectronics Journal, 30. 157-160. 1999.
 
[4]  Acar, C. and Sedef, H., “Realization of nth-order current transfer function using current-differencing buffered amplifiers,” International Journal of Electronics, 90. 277-283. 2003
 
[5]  Maheshwari, S. and Khan, I. A., “Current controlled current differencing buffered amplifier: Implementations and Applications,” Active and Passive Electronic Components, 4. 219-227. 2004.
 
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[6]  Pathak, J. K., Singh, A. K. and Senani, R., “Systematic realization of quadrature oscillators using current differencing buffered amplifiers,” IET Circuits, Devices and Systems, 5. 203-211. 2011.
 
[7]  Keskin, A.U., “A Four quadrant analog multiplier employing single CDBA,” Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing, 40. 99-101. 2004.
 
[8]  Siripruchyanun, M., “A Design of Analog Multiplier and Divider Using Current Controlled Current Differencing Buffered Amplifiers,” International Symposium on Integrated Circuits, 568-571. 2007.
 
[9]  Lawanwisut, S. and Siripruchyanun, M., “Temperature Insensitive Electronically Controllable Current-mode Squarer Based on CC-CDBAs,” Proceedings of the 1st International Conference on Technical Education (ICTE2009), 225-228. 2009.
 
[10]  Al-Shahrani, S.M., “CMOS wideband auto-tuning phase shifter circuit,” IET, Electronics Letters, 43. 804-806. 2007.
 
[11]  Senani, R. and Singh, A. K., “A new Universal Current mode biquad filter”, Frequenz, 56. 55-59. 2002.
 
[12]  Liu, S.I., “Square-rooting and vector summation circuits using current conveyors,” IEE Proc. Circuits, Devices and Systems. 142. 223-226. 1995.
 
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Article

Low Cost Microcontroller Based Decay Measurement System for Display Phosphors

1Department of Physics, R.T.M. Nagpur University, Nagpur - 440033 India

2Depatrment of Electronics, R.T.M. Nagpur University Nagpur - 440033 India

3Department of Instrumentation, V.P.M’s. Polytechnic, Thane, India


American Journal of Electrical and Electronic Engineering. 2014, 2(6), 180-184
DOI: 10.12691/ajeee-2-6-5
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
V. V. Rangari, A. P. Bhat, V. A. Joshi, S. J. Dhoble. Low Cost Microcontroller Based Decay Measurement System for Display Phosphors. American Journal of Electrical and Electronic Engineering. 2014; 2(6):180-184. doi: 10.12691/ajeee-2-6-5.

Correspondence to: S.  J. Dhoble, Department of Physics, R.T.M. Nagpur University, Nagpur - 440033 India. Email: anup_b5@yahoo.com

Abstract

An attempt is made to design and develop a low cost, simple but efficient instrument to measure the decay time of luminescence in phosphors used in displays. The approach employed here is generally an embedded system designed around an intelligent microcontroller Atmega-16 of Atmale. The system is using a time domain technique of measurement and is further enhanced by developing necessary software for online-offline analysis.

Keywords

References

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Article

New Very Low Frequency Oscillator Using only a Single CFOA

1Electronics Engineering Department, Institute of Engineering and Technology, Lucknow, 226021 India

2Division of Electronics and Communication Engineering, NetajiSubhas Institute of Technology, Sector 3, Dwarka, New Delhi, 110078, India


American Journal of Electrical and Electronic Engineering. 2015, 3(1), 1-3
DOI: 10.12691/ajeee-3-1-1
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
D. K. Srivastava, V. K. Singh, R. Senani. New Very Low Frequency Oscillator Using only a Single CFOA. American Journal of Electrical and Electronic Engineering. 2015; 3(1):1-3. doi: 10.12691/ajeee-3-1-1.

Correspondence to: V.  K. Singh, Electronics Engineering Department, Institute of Engineering and Technology, Lucknow, 226021 India. Email: vksingh@ietlucknow.edu

Abstract

Some time back, Elwakil presented a systematic method of realizing Very Low frequency (VLF) oscillators using current feedback operational amplifiers (CFOA) and demonstrated that the classical Wienbridge oscillator, employing the concept of composite resistor (containing two positive and one negative resistance) can be tailored to generate VLF oscillations. The circuit proposed by Elwakil, however, required two CFOAs along with six resistors and two capacitors. The object of this paper is to report a new VLF oscillator circuit which, in contrast to Elwakil’s circuit, requires onlya single CFOA. The workability of the new circuit has been demonstrated by experimental results using commercially available AD844type CFOAs.

Keywords

References

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