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Article

Using the Effect of Mechanical Stress on Doped Silicon as an Angular Movement Sensor for MOEMS/MEMS Micro Mirrors

1Dept of Physical Electronics, P.O. Box 39040, Tel Aviv 69978, Israel


American Journal of Electrical and Electronic Engineering. 2014, 2(3), 88-91
DOI: 10.12691/ajeee-2-3-5
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
D. Berko, Y.S. Diamand. Using the Effect of Mechanical Stress on Doped Silicon as an Angular Movement Sensor for MOEMS/MEMS Micro Mirrors. American Journal of Electrical and Electronic Engineering. 2014; 2(3):88-91. doi: 10.12691/ajeee-2-3-5.

Correspondence to: D.  Berko, Dept of Physical Electronics, P.O. Box 39040, Tel Aviv 69978, Israel. Email: danberko5@yahoo.com

Abstract

The effect of elastic strain of moderate magnitude using high doped silicon substrate can change the conductivity of the substrate. The commonly used metal (strain) gage has a magnitude factor of between 2 ÷ 4 while high doped silicon (strain) gage factor magnitude is between 150 ÷ 200, thus improving the substrate sensitivity considerably. Using those physical attributes allow us to create a MOEMS sensor resolving accuracy issues and saving space in any future MOEMS device design. Those devices will be able to measure any mechanical movement connected to the high doped silicon substrate by converting the physical strain created from the movement stress to current/voltage change in the substrate device. The simplicity of the device is that the device could measure movement without any need to implement an outer sensor to it. By measuring the device's strain change it would "feel" the movement and convert it to an analog value, thus creating a strain gage built in the MOEMS device surface.

Keywords

References

[1]  Stephen A. Campbell, “The Science and Engineering of Microelectronic Fabrication”, 2nd edition, Oxford, pp. 258-286.
 
[2]  http://www.debiotech.com/debiotech.html
 
[3]  Mohamed Gad-el-Hak, University of Notre Dame, “The MEMS Handbook”, chapters 15-21.
 
[4]  Danny Banks, “Microengineering, MEMS, and Interfacing: A Practical Guide (Mechanical Engineering), chapters 1-6. http://www.dbanks.demon.co.uk/ueng/index.html
 
[5]  R. B. Darling / EE-527, EE-527: Micro Fabrication Photolithography, pp 1-31.
 
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[6]  Dr. A. Amin, “Piezoresistivity Theory and Application”, Presentation for the IEEE-Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics & Frequency Control Society, pp 1-62 http://www.ieeeuffc.org/education/Piezoresistivity_files/frame.htm#slide0207.htm
 
[7]  Adrian Watt, “Wheatstone Bridges Tutorial”, Absorb Physics for A – Level.
 
[8]  Walt Kester, “Analog Devices Seminar Sensor Signal Conditioning”, Section 4: Strain, Force, Pressure, and Flow, pp 4.1-4.14. http://search.analog.com/search/default.aspx?query=Walt+Kester&local=en
 
[9]  Dan Haronian, “Direct Integration (DI) of Solid State Stress Sensors with Integrated Displacement Sensing” Department of Interdisciplinary Studies, Faculty of Engineering, Tel-Aviv University, 0-7803-5194-0/99, 1999 IEEE, pp 88-93.
 
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[11]  A. Eisinberg, A. Menciassi, S. Micera, D. Campolo, M.C. Carrozza, P. Dario, “PI Force Control of a Microgripper for Assembling Biomedical Micro devices”.
 
[12]  Maria Chiara Carrozza, Anna Eisinberg, Arianna Menciassi, Domenico Campolo, Silvestro Micera and Paolo Dario, “Towards a Force-Controlled Microgripper For Assembling Biomedical Micro devices”, J. Micromech. Microeng. 10 (2000) 271- 276.
 
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[14]  Ingo Behrens, Lutz Doering and Erwin Peiner, “Piezoresistive cantilever as portable micro force calibration standard”, Institut f¨ur Halbleitertechnik, Technische Universit at Carolo-Wilhelmina zu Braunschweig, Germany, Journal of Micromechanics and Micro engineering, J. Micromech. Microeng. 13 (2003) pp S 171-S 177.
 
[15]  Romain Roduit, Pierre-Andr´e Besse, Member, IEEE, and Jean-Paul Micallef “Flexible Angular Sensor”, IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement, VOL. 47, NO. 4, AUGUST 1998, pp 1020-1022.
 
[16]  K.-U. Kirstein, Y. Li, M. Zimmermann, C. Vancura, T. Volden, W.H. Song, J. Lichtenberg, and A. Hierlemannn, “Cantilever-Based Biosensors in CMOS Technology”, Physical Electronics Laboratory, ETH Zurich, Switzerlan, Proceedings of the Design, Automation and Test in Europe Conference and Exhibition (DATE’ 05) 1530-1591/05, IEEE.
 
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[18]  Ralph Steiner, Christoph Maier, Michael Mayer, Sandra Bellekom, and Henry Baltes, “Influence of Mechanical Stress on the Offset Voltage of Hall Devices Operated with.
 
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Article

The Next Generation Mobile Wireless Cellular Networks – 4G and Beyond

1Department of Electronics & Communication Engineering, Institute of Technical Education and Research, Siksha ‘O’ Anusandhan University, Khandagiri Square, Bhubaneswar, India

2Department Electronics & Telecommunication Engineering, CV Raman College of Engineering, Bhubaneswar, India


American Journal of Electrical and Electronic Engineering. 2014, 2(3), 92-97
DOI: 10.12691/ajeee-2-3-6
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Arun Agarwal, Kabita Agarwal. The Next Generation Mobile Wireless Cellular Networks – 4G and Beyond. American Journal of Electrical and Electronic Engineering. 2014; 2(3):92-97. doi: 10.12691/ajeee-2-3-6.

Correspondence to: Arun  Agarwal, Department of Electronics & Communication Engineering, Institute of Technical Education and Research, Siksha ‘O’ Anusandhan University, Khandagiri Square, Bhubaneswar, India. Email: arunagrawal@soauniversity.ac.in

Abstract

The demand of mobile user is ever increasing in this world of digital systems. Consumers demand more from their technology. Whether it is a television, cellular phone, Washing machine or refrigerator, the latest technology purchase must have new features. With the advent of the Internet, the most-wanted feature is better, faster access to information. The time not far away when access to all necessary information and the power of a personal computer, sits in the palm of one’s hand. To support such a powerful system, we need pervasive, high-speed wireless connectivity. The drawbacks of the current mobile communication technology have led the researchers to come up with more advanced and efficient technologies. 4G mobile technology is the outcome in this direction. 4G is the next generation of wireless networks that will totally replace existing 3G networks. It is supposed to provide its customers with better speed and all IP based multimedia services. In the present scenario existing technologies are capable of performing functions like broadband data access, supporting voice traffic using voice over IP (VoIP), in mobile environment etc., but there is a great requirement of integrating all such technologies into a single combined system. 4G promises a solution to this problem by seamlessly integrating the terminals, networks and applications. This paper presents an overall study of the 4G systems, architecture, standard, benefits, challenges in implementation, design for the LTE and WiMAX technologies, Security issues and future scope of 4G technologies.

Keywords

References

[1]  Afaq H. Khan, Mohammad A Qadeer, Juned A Ansari, and Saria Waheed, “4G as a Next Generation Wireless Network,” International Conference On Future Computer And Communication, pp. 334-338, March, 2009.
 
[2]  N. Seddigh, B. Nandy, R. Makkar and J.F. Beaumont, “Security Advances and Challenges in 4G Wireless Networks,” 2010 Eighth Annual International Conference on Privacy, Security and Trust, pp. 62-71, June, 2010.
 
[3]  Jawwad Ahmad, Ben Garrison, Jim Gruen, Chris Kelly, and Hunter Pankey, “4G Wireless Systems,” Next-Generation Wireless Working Group, May, 2003.
 
[4]  Manu. R, “4G Wireless Systems,” Technical Seminar report, Kalpataru Institute of Technology, Belgaum, Karnataka, 2009-2010.
 
[5]  H. Harada & Ramjee Prasad, Simulation and Software Radio for mobile communications: Artech House, 2003.
 
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[6]  John. G. Proakis, “Digital Communications”, 3rd edition, McGraw-Hill, 1995.
 
[7]  Walter Tuttlebee, “Software Defined Radio”, 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
 
[8]  “UMTS LTE Network Architecture”, Technical specification TS 23.002, version 8.4.0 (Release 8), 3GPP.
 
[9]  ITU-R M. 1645: Framework and overall objectives of the future development of IMT-2000 and systems beyond IMT-2000.
 
[10]  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/4G.
 
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Article

New Multiplier/Divider Using a Single Cdba

1Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, Echelon Institute of Technology, Faridabad, India

2Departments of Electronics and Communication Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Technology, HRCT Group of Institutions, Morta, Ghaziabad, India

3Division of Electronics and Communication Engineering, Netaji Subhas Institute of Technology, Sector 3, Dwarka, New Delhi, India


American Journal of Electrical and Electronic Engineering. 2014, 2(3), 98-102
DOI: 10.12691/ajeee-2-3-7
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
J. K. Pathak, A. K. Singh, Raj Senani. New Multiplier/Divider Using a Single Cdba. American Journal of Electrical and Electronic Engineering. 2014; 2(3):98-102. doi: 10.12691/ajeee-2-3-7.

Correspondence to: Raj  Senani, Division of Electronics and Communication Engineering, Netaji Subhas Institute of Technology, Sector 3, Dwarka, New Delhi, India. Email: senani@ieee.org

Abstract

A new multiplier-divider circuit using a single Current Differencing Buffered Amplifier (CDBA) and only six MOSFETs has been presented. The proposed circuit has the advantage of simultaneously realizing a multiplier and divider without changing the circuit topology. The basic functions of the proposed circuit have been verified through PSPICE simulations using a CMOS CDBA and NMOS transistors with process parameters of 0.35 µm CMOS technology and some application results of the proposed cell in various modes of operation have been included.

Keywords

References

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[4]  D. Biolek, D., Bajer, J., Biolkova, V., Kolka, Z. and Kubrick, M, “Z-copy-controlled Gain-current differencing buffered amplifier and its applications,” International Journal of Circuit Theory and Applications, 39.257-274. 2010.
 
[5]  Abuelma’atti, M.T. and Al- Qahtani, M.A, “A current- mode current-controlled current-conveyor based analogue multiplier/ divider,” International Journal of Electronics, 85(1). 71-77. 1998.
 
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[7]  Yuce, E, “Design of simple current-mode multiplier topology using a single CCCII+,” IEEE Transaction on Instrumentation and Measurement, 57(3). 631-637. 2008.
 
[8]  Kaewdang, K., Fongsamut, C. and Surakampontorn, W, “A wide band current-mode OTA based. Analog multiplier-divider,” Proceedings of the 2003 International Symposium on Circuits and Systems, 1.349-352. 2003.
 
[9]  Tangsrirat, W., Pukkalanun, T., Mongkolwai, P. and Surakampontorn, W, “Simple current-mode analog multiplier, divider, square-rooter and squarer based on CDTAs,” International Journal of Electronics, 65 (3). 198-203. 2011.
 
[10]  Khachab, N. I. and Ismail, M, “MOS multiplier/divider cell for analogue VLSI,” Electronics Letters, 25(23), 1550-1551. 1989.
 
[11]  Khachab, N. I, “A nonlinear CMOS analog cell for VLSI signal and information processing,” IEEE Journal of Solid State Circuits, 26(11). 1689-1699. 1991.
 
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Article

Analysis and Implementation of an Optimal PV Solar Generator in Tropical Zone

1Electric Energy Laboratory (LEE), Montreal, Canada

2Ecole Polytechnique de Montreal, Succursale Centre Ville, Montreal, Quebec, Canada;Electromagnetic Laboratory & Process Engineering Laboratory, The University of Ngaoundere, Ngaoundere, Cameroon

3Electromagnetic Laboratory & Process Engineering Laboratory, The University of Ngaoundere, Ngaoundere, Cameroon


American Journal of Electrical and Electronic Engineering. 2014, 2(3), 103-116
DOI: 10.12691/ajeee-2-3-8
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Andre YOUMSSI, Emmanuel Patrick FEUDJIO. Analysis and Implementation of an Optimal PV Solar Generator in Tropical Zone. American Journal of Electrical and Electronic Engineering. 2014; 2(3):103-116. doi: 10.12691/ajeee-2-3-8.

Correspondence to: Andre  YOUMSSI, Electric Energy Laboratory (LEE), Montreal, Canada. Email: andre.youmssi@yahoo.com

Abstract

Many small size enterprises, other organisms and rural people mostly in underdeveloped countries do not have an easy access to the grid, and are then in the need of a decentralised electric sources which appear as crucial in some cases specially when feeding rural hospitals, or serve for pumping drinkable or irrigation water. Electric Solar Generators Technologies could then efficiently come to rescue. This article focuses on the analysis of keys factors for a design, and an implementation of such a PV Solar Generator. We have in that aim proceeded to a study of the state of art in that domain of Solar Electric Generators, which offered keys parameters of each component of a safe easy maintainable feeding solar system, and lead us to the design notably owing to the software PVSyst, to the implementation of and the experiments of a domestic flat PV solar generator. Results are constituted by the designed schematics, tables and curves of simulated and experiments electric quantities like the maximum delivered powers, and the efficiencies. The article reported an example of a complete PV system installed, and instrumented for data logging. That system included a battery and an inverter to power real loads. The system design parameters comprised the size of the PV array, the battery size, and the power rating of the inverter, as well as the power delivered to the loads. The data logged have been used to evaluate the designed system and to make assessments on how the system design could be improved so that systems of this type could serve the local needs most economically.

Keywords

References

[1]  Bhattacharjee S & Bhakta S. “Analysis of system performance indices of PV generator in a cloudburst precinct”, Sustainable Energy Technologies and Assessments, vol 4, pp. 62-71, Dec 2013.
 
[2]  K.A kim et al. “Photovoltaic Converter Module Configurations for maximum power point operation”. Proc IEEE Power Energy Conference, pp. 77-82, 2010.
 
[3]  Jih-Sheng Jason Lai et al. “Design of a Photovoltaic simulator with a novel reference signal generator and two Stage LC Output Filter”, IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, Vol 25, N°5, pp. 1331-1338, May 2010.
 
[4]  Teuvo Suntio et al. “Photovoltaic Generators as an input source for Power electronic Converters”. IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, Vol 28, N°6, pp. 3028-3038, June 2013.
 
[5]  M-F Almi et al. “Protection of hybrid (Wind/Photovoltaic) Generator connected to Mono- phase Electrical Network Supply”. Proc the Second International Conference on Informatics Engineering & Information Science - pp 74-82, 2013.
 
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[8]  Yang Chen et al. “A cost-effective single-stage inverter with maximum power point tracking”, IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, vol 19, Issue 5, pp. 1289-1294, 2004.
 
[9]  Tina, G.M et al. “Probabilistic energy performance comparison among flat and tracking PV systems”, Power Electronics Electrical Drives Automation and Motion (SPEEDAM), 2010 International Symposium on, pp. 169-174, 2010.
 
[10]  Vitorino, M.A. et al. “Using the model of the solar cell Using the model of the solar cell for determining the Maximum power point of photovoltaic systems”, 2007 European Conference on Power Electronics and Applications, pp. 1-10, 2010.
 
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[14]  Myers D.R. “Solar Radiation Resource Assessment for Renewable Energy Conversion”, Comprehensive Renewable Energy, Volume 1: Photovoltaic Solar Energy, vol 1, pp. 213-237, 2012
 
[15]  Yeong-Chan Kuo et al. “A high-efficiency single-phase three-wire photovoltaic energy conversion system”. IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, vol 50, Issue 1, pp. 116-122, 2003.
 
[16]  MacAlpine, S.M. et al. “Characterization of Power Optimizer Potential to Increase Energy Capture in Photovoltaic Systems Operating under No uniform Conditions”. IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, vol 28, Issue 6, pp. 2936-2945, 2013.
 
[17]  Bialasiewicz, J.T. “Renewable Energy Systems With Photovoltaic Power Generators: Operation and Modeling” IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, vol 55, Issue 7, pp. 2752-2758, 2008.
 
[18]  Velasco-Quesada, G et al. “Electrical PV Array Reconfiguration Strategy for Energy Extraction Improvement in Grid-Connected PV Systems”, IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, vol 56, Issue 11, pp. 4319-4331, 2009.
 
[19]  Suntio, T et al. “Issues on Solar-Generator Interfacing With Current-Fed MPP –Tracking Converters”, IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, vol 25, Issue 9, pp. 2409-2419, 2010.
 
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Article

Further Investigations into the Effects of Temperature on a 975 nm Tapered Laser Bar Using Convolution to Ascertain the Dominant Effect of Temperature on a Laser Bar

1University of Mines and Technology, Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Tarkwa, Ghana

2Photonic and Radio Frequency Engineering Group (PRFEG), Electrical Systems and Optics Research Division, Faculty of Engineering, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, NG7 2RD, United Kingdom


American Journal of Electrical and Electronic Engineering. 2014, 2(3), 117-120
DOI: 10.12691/ajeee-2-3-9
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Christian Kwaku Amuzuvi, Kofi Asante. Further Investigations into the Effects of Temperature on a 975 nm Tapered Laser Bar Using Convolution to Ascertain the Dominant Effect of Temperature on a Laser Bar. American Journal of Electrical and Electronic Engineering. 2014; 2(3):117-120. doi: 10.12691/ajeee-2-3-9.

Correspondence to: Christian  Kwaku Amuzuvi, University of Mines and Technology, Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Tarkwa, Ghana. Email: ckamuzuvi2000@yahoo.com; ckamuzuvi@umat.edu.gh

Abstract

Temperature continues to be an issue in the reliability of high power laser diodes. Any effort, therefore, made to understand the dynamics of temperature on the performance of laser diodes is important. This is because it serves as a catalyst for the generation of nonradiative recombination centers, which ultimately kills laser diodes. In this paper, the convolution of simulation results was done to compare it with experimental results, which revealed more details that hitherto, could not have been captured by experiments alone. The inability of experiments to capture these details is due to the limited spatial resolution of the charged-coupled device (CCD) camera, which is approximately 30 μm much larger than the thickness of the quantum well active region used in the experiment. The convolution results showed a further smile-shaped profile within the four groups of array emitters, which in the experimental results, were considered as one emitter due to the limited spatial resolution of the CCD camera. The use of convolution to determine more details was investigated, due to the dominant effect of temperature found across the output power distribution of high power semiconductor laser diode bars.

Keywords

References

[1]  Overton, G., S. G. Anderson, D. A. Belforte, and T. Hausken, Laser Focus World, 47, 40 (2011).
 
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[5]  Tomm, J. W., A. Gerhardt, T. Elsaesser, D. Lorenzen, and P. Hennig, Appl. Phys. Lett., 81, 3269 (2002).
 
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[8]  Amuzuvi, C. K., 2013. Emulation and By-Emitter Degradation Analysis of High Power Lasers: Lap Lambert Academic Publishing, Saarbrücken, Germany.
 
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Article

Design and Implementation of Controlled Zeta Converter Power Supply

1Department of Electrical, Eng. College, University of mosul, Mosul, Iraq

2Technical Eng.College of Mosul, Mosul, Iraq


American Journal of Electrical and Electronic Engineering. 2014, 2(3), 121-128
DOI: 10.12691/ajeee-2-3-10
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Ali H. Ahmad, Nashwan Saleh Sultan. Design and Implementation of Controlled Zeta Converter Power Supply. American Journal of Electrical and Electronic Engineering. 2014; 2(3):121-128. doi: 10.12691/ajeee-2-3-10.

Correspondence to: Nashwan  Saleh Sultan, Technical Eng.College of Mosul, Mosul, Iraq. Email: nashwansaleh86@yahoo.com

Abstract

This work includes Zeta voltage converter controller design and implementation. The mathematical model of the zeta converter circuit operating in the continuous conduction mode in state-space form is presented. Fuzzy Logic controller and hybrid Fuzzy Logic controller/ particle swarm optimization techniques are used to designed controller. Analysis and comparison between simulation and practical responses of open loop, close loop fuzzy logic controller and hybrid fuzzy logic/particle swarm optimization controller results are performed for different, working conditions such as sudden changes in the load resistance and reference voltages. The results show that there are significant improvement in the results for the proposed hybrid FLC/PSO control technique.

Keywords

References

[1]  J. Falin, “Designing DC/DC converters based on ZETA topology”, Analog Applications Journal, Texas Instruments Incorporated, pp, 16-20, 2010.
 
[2]  D. C. Martins, “Zeta Converter with High Power Factor Operating in Continuous Conduction Mode”, Federal University of Catarina, Industrial Electronics, Control, and Instrumentation, IEEE pp. 1802-1807, 1996.
 
[3]  A.H. Ahmed, M.K. Alkhatat, A.A. Abdullah, “Hinf/Muo - SYNTHESIS for CUK CONVERTOR CIRCUIT CONTROLLER”, AL RAFIDAIN Engineering Joyrnal, vol. 14, no. 4, 2006.
 
[4]  O.A.Taha “Cuk Converter Circuit Controller Design and Implemementation” M.Sc Thesis Mosul University, Mosul Iraq, 2007.
 
[5]  S.S.Sabri “Optimal Fuzzy Controller Design For Cuk Converter Circuit Using Genetic Algorithm”, M.Sc Thesis Mosul University, Mosul Iraq, 2008.
 
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[6]  E. Vuthchhay and C. Bunlaksanusorn, “Modeling and Control of a Zeta Converter”, International Power Elecronics Conference, AUNSEED-NET project, JICA.IEEE, pp. 612-619. 2010.
 
[7]  K.E. Khoshmardan, M.R. Dastranj, M.O. Taleghani, A. Hajipoor “Design a Fuzzy Logic Based Speed Controller for DC Motor with Particle Swarm Optimization “PSO” Algorithm”, Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences. Azad University, Sabzevar, Iran, pp. 1283-1290, 2011.
 
[8]  E. Vuthchhay, C. Bunlaksananusorn, and H. Hirata “Dynamic Modeling and Control of a Zeta Converter”, International Symposium on Communications and Information Technologies, Oct. 2008.
 
[9]  H. T. Hassan, R. Zafar, S. A. Mohsin, “Fully Informed Particle Swarm Optimization Technique for Electrical Power System”, Canadian Journal on Electrical and Electronics Engineering Vol. 3, No. 3, pp. 121-127., March 2012.
 
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Article

Analysis of a MIMO-OFDM Wireless Communication System Using a Binary Power Control Scheme with Radio Channel Uncertainties

1P. G. Department, MBES College of Engineering, Ambajogai, India


American Journal of Electrical and Electronic Engineering. 2014, 2(4), 129-132
DOI: 10.12691/ajeee-2-4-1
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Santosh M.Tondare, Veeresh G. Kasabegoudar. Analysis of a MIMO-OFDM Wireless Communication System Using a Binary Power Control Scheme with Radio Channel Uncertainties. American Journal of Electrical and Electronic Engineering. 2014; 2(4):129-132. doi: 10.12691/ajeee-2-4-1.

Correspondence to: Santosh  M.Tondare, P. G. Department, MBES College of Engineering, Ambajogai, India. Email: santoshtondare12@gmail.com

Abstract

Here a novel binary power control scheme is presented with radio channel uncertainty which includes path loss, Rayleigh fading, shadowing coefficient, and interference from other users to analyse the performance of MIMO-OFDM wireless communication system. From bit error rate (BER) point of view a two tier system with adjacent interference is taken into account to guarantee QoS. The main objective of this system is to optimize energy efficiency with QoS. Taking both energy efficiency and quality of service (QoS) an energy efficient binary power control with BER constraint algorithm is presented. The performance of this system is analyzed and results of the same are presented to show the effectiveness of the system presented.

Keywords

References

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Article

Review of Leakage Power Reduction in CMOS Circuits

1B.Tech Student, Department of Electronics & Communication Engineering, Institute of Technical Education and Research, Siksha ‘O’ Anusandhan University, Khandagiri Square, Bhubaneswar, India

2Department of Electronics & Communication Engineering, Institute of Technical Education and Research, Siksha ‘O’ Anusandhan University, Khandagiri Square, Bhubaneswar, India

3Department Electronics & Telecommunication Engineering, CV Raman College of Engineering, Bhubaneswar, India


American Journal of Electrical and Electronic Engineering. 2014, 2(4), 133-136
DOI: 10.12691/ajeee-2-4-2
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Khushboo Kumari, Arun Agarwal, Jayvrat, Kabita Agarwal. Review of Leakage Power Reduction in CMOS Circuits. American Journal of Electrical and Electronic Engineering. 2014; 2(4):133-136. doi: 10.12691/ajeee-2-4-2.

Correspondence to: Arun  Agarwal, Department of Electronics & Communication Engineering, Institute of Technical Education and Research, Siksha ‘O’ Anusandhan University, Khandagiri Square, Bhubaneswar, India. Email: arunagrawal@soauniversity.ac.in

Abstract

Recent Technological advances in Wireless Communication has shown the convergence of terminals and networks that support multimedia and real-time applications. This obviously puts an immense pressure on battery of any mobile device. The CMOS has been the leading technology in today’s world of mobile communication due to its low power consumption. Reduction of leakage power in CMOS has been the research interest for the last couple of years. In CMOS integrated circuit design there is an important trade-off between technology scaling and static power consumption. In today’s CMOS technology the leakage power consumption plays a significant role. As we approaching to nano-scale design the total chip power consumption becomes dependent on leakage power. Increasing the battery life in mobile wireless communication and mobile computing and similar other applications is the topic of research now-a days... Further, since the leakage of battery exists even when devices are in idle state makes leakage power loss most critical in CMOS VLSI circuits. Many techniques have been evolved to tackle the problem and its still in progress. This paper mainly focuses on the review of various works done in this field till today’s date. Further a review of recent work done on a new technique LSSR (Lector Stack State Retention Technique) is discussed in the paper.

Keywords

References

[1]  Praveen Kumar, Pradeep SR, Pratibha SR, “LSSR: LECTOR Stacked State Retention Technique a novel leakage reduction and state retention technique in low power VLSI design,” IJERT, vol. 2, pp. 1-4, October 2013.
 
[2]  Velicheti Swetha, S.Rjeshwari, ”Design and Power Optimization of MT-CMOS circuits using power gating techniques,” IJAREEIE, vol. 2, August 2013.
 
[3]  Vinay Kumar Madasu, B Kedharnath, “Leakage power reducing by using sleep method,” IJECS, vol.2, pp. 2842-2847, September 2013.
 
[4]  Hina malviya, Sudha Nayar, “A new approach for Leakage Power Reduction Techniques in Deep Submicron Technologies in cmos circuit for vlsi applications .” International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Science and Software Engineering, Volume 3, Issue 5, May 2013.
 
[5]  B.Dilip, P.Surya Prasad and R.S.G. Bhavani, “Leakage power reduction in CMOS circuits using leakage control transistor technique in nanosacle technology,” IJESS, vol. 2, 2012.
 
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Article

Design of a Novel Sierpinski Fractal Antenna Arrays Based on Circular Shapes with Low Side Lobes for 3G Applications

1Department of ELTCE, Veer Surendra Sai University Of Technology,Burla,Odisha

2Department of ELTCE,BIT,Durg,Chhatisgadh


American Journal of Electrical and Electronic Engineering. 2014, 2(4), 137-140
DOI: 10.12691/ajeee-2-4-3
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Manas Ranjan Jena, B.B. Mangaraj, Rajiv Pathak. Design of a Novel Sierpinski Fractal Antenna Arrays Based on Circular Shapes with Low Side Lobes for 3G Applications. American Journal of Electrical and Electronic Engineering. 2014; 2(4):137-140. doi: 10.12691/ajeee-2-4-3.

Correspondence to: Manas  Ranjan Jena, Department of ELTCE, Veer Surendra Sai University Of Technology,Burla,Odisha. Email: manas.synergy@gmail.com

Abstract

A fractal is a recursively generated object having a fractional dimension. So many objects, including antennas, can be designed using this recursive nature of a fractal. In this paper we have used the fractal geometry arrangements for the design of planar antenna arrays with low side lobes. Iterated Function System (IFS) is used to generate the sierpinski fractal antenna arrays using circular shapes. CST Microwave Studio EM Simulation software is used for design & simulation of these antenna arrays. Two resonant frequencies like. 1936 GHz &. 222 GHz are achieved. Better performance parameters like return loss, VSWR, directivity, gain, bandwidth enhancement with low SLL are estimated.

Keywords

References

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[15]  V. Srinivasa Rao1, V. A. Sankar Ponnapalli Study and Analysis of Fractal Linear Antenna Arrays” IOSR Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering (IOSR-JECE), Volume 5, Issue 2 Mar.-Apr. 2013, PP 23-27.
 
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Article

New Properties of Reactive Elements and the Problem of Propagation of Electrical Signals in Long Lines

1B.I. Verkin Institute for Low Temperature Physics and Engineering NAS, Ukraine, 47 Lenin Ave., Kharkov, Ukraine


American Journal of Electrical and Electronic Engineering. 2014, 2(5), 141-145
DOI: 10.12691/ajeee-2-5-1
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
F.F. Mende. New Properties of Reactive Elements and the Problem of Propagation of Electrical Signals in Long Lines. American Journal of Electrical and Electronic Engineering. 2014; 2(5):141-145. doi: 10.12691/ajeee-2-5-1.

Correspondence to: F.F.  Mende, B.I. Verkin Institute for Low Temperature Physics and Engineering NAS, Ukraine, 47 Lenin Ave., Kharkov, Ukraine. Email: mende_fedor@mail.ru

Abstract

Are examined the laws of the self-induction of capacitance and inductance, which it is customary to assume as reactive elements. It is shown that with the connection to the sources of direct current and voltage they have the effective resistance, which depends on the time. Is examined the parametric self-induction of the elements indicated and it is shown that in the regime of parametric self-induction the capacitance and inductance can not only derive energy from the power sources, but also return it into the external circuits. The velocity of propagation of constant voltages and currents in the long lines is obtained. In this case the laws of parametric self-induction are used. This task cannot be solved, using standard wave equations for the long lines.

Keywords

References

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[3]  F. F. Mende. Great errors and the error of the physicists of XIX-XX of centuries. Revolution in contemporary physics. Kharkov, NTMT, 2008.