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American Journal of Electrical and Electronic Engineering

ISSN (Print): 2328-7365

ISSN (Online): 2328-7357

Website: http://www.sciepub.com/journal/AJEEE

Article

New Very Low Frequency Oscillator Using only a Single CFOA

1Electronics Engineering Department, Institute of Engineering and Technology, Lucknow, 226021 India

2Division of Electronics and Communication Engineering, NetajiSubhas Institute of Technology, Sector 3, Dwarka, New Delhi, 110078, India


American Journal of Electrical and Electronic Engineering. 2015, 3(1), 1-3
DOI: 10.12691/ajeee-3-1-1
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
D. K. Srivastava, V. K. Singh, R. Senani. New Very Low Frequency Oscillator Using only a Single CFOA. American Journal of Electrical and Electronic Engineering. 2015; 3(1):1-3. doi: 10.12691/ajeee-3-1-1.

Correspondence to: V.  K. Singh, Electronics Engineering Department, Institute of Engineering and Technology, Lucknow, 226021 India. Email: vksingh@ietlucknow.edu

Abstract

Some time back, Elwakil presented a systematic method of realizing Very Low frequency (VLF) oscillators using current feedback operational amplifiers (CFOA) and demonstrated that the classical Wienbridge oscillator, employing the concept of composite resistor (containing two positive and one negative resistance) can be tailored to generate VLF oscillations. The circuit proposed by Elwakil, however, required two CFOAs along with six resistors and two capacitors. The object of this paper is to report a new VLF oscillator circuit which, in contrast to Elwakil’s circuit, requires onlya single CFOA. The workability of the new circuit has been demonstrated by experimental results using commercially available AD844type CFOAs.

Keywords

References

[1]  C.Toumazou and F.J.Lidgey, “Current feedback op-amps: a blessing indisguise?,” IEEECircuits Devices Mag., vol. 10, no.1, pp. 34-37, 1994.
 
[2]  F.J.Lidgeyand K.Hayatleh, “Current feedback operational amplifiers and applications, Electron. Commun. Eng, vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 176-182, 1997.
 
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[5]  R. Senani and D. R. Bhaskar, “Single op-amp sinusoidal oscillators suitable for generation of very low frequencies,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas., vol. 40, no. 4, pp. 777-779, 1991.
 
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[6]  D.R. Bhaskar and R. Senani, “New CFOA-based Single-Element-Controlled Sinusoidal Oscillators,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. vol. 55, no. 6, pp. 2014-2021, 2006.
 
[7]  M. T.Abuelma’atti, “Identification of a class of two CFOA-based sinusoidal RC oscillators,” Analog Integrated Circuits Signal Process., vol. 65, pp. 419-428, 2010.
 
[8]  A. S. Elwakil, “Systematic realization of low-frequency oscillators using composite passive-Active resistors”, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas., vol. 47, no. 2, pp. 584-586, 1998.
 
[9]  A. S. Sedra and K.C. Smith, “A Second generation Current Conveyor and its applications”, IEEE Transaction on Circuit Theory, vol. CT-17, pp. 132-134, February 1970.
 
[10]  A. Toker, O. Cicekoglu and H.Kuntman, “On the oscillator implementation using a single current feedback op-amp”, Computers and Electrical Engg., vol. 22, pp. 375-389, 2002.
 
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Article

Combined Effect of Block interleaving and FEC on BER Performance of OFDM based WiMAX (IEEE 802.16d) System

1Department of ECE, Institute of Technical Education & Research, Siksha ‘O’ Anusandhan University, Khandagiri Square, Bhubaneswar-751030, Odisha, India

2Ph.D Scholar, Department of Information Technology, AMET University, Tamil Nadu, Chennai, India

3Department of Electronics and Telecommunication Engineering, Vidyalankar Institute of Technology, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India


American Journal of Electrical and Electronic Engineering. 2015, 3(1), 4-12
DOI: 10.12691/ajeee-3-1-2
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Arun Agarwal, Saurabh N. Mehta. Combined Effect of Block interleaving and FEC on BER Performance of OFDM based WiMAX (IEEE 802.16d) System. American Journal of Electrical and Electronic Engineering. 2015; 3(1):4-12. doi: 10.12691/ajeee-3-1-2.

Correspondence to: Arun  Agarwal, Department of ECE, Institute of Technical Education & Research, Siksha ‘O’ Anusandhan University, Khandagiri Square, Bhubaneswar-751030, Odisha, India. Email: arunagrawal@soauniversity.ac.in

Abstract

In this World of Digital era the demand of mobile Internet and wireless multimedia applications are growing faster than ever. To satisfy the user requirements and to overcome the limitations of existing wireless technologies, have led the researchers to come up with more advanced and efficient technology. Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) based WiMAX (Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access ) is the outcome in this direction which promises to solve the last mile access technology to provide high speed internet access in the residential as well as small and medium sized enterprise sectors. In this paper we have analyzed the effect of Block Interleaving on the Bit Error Rate (BER) performance of the WiMAX Physical layer baseband system conforming to the parameters established by IEEE 802.16 standards for different digital modulation schemes. From the analysis it was observed that addition of interleaving with forward error correction (FEC) improves the system performance by reducing the burst errors during transmission.

Keywords

References

[1]  Mobile WiMAX – Part I: A Technical Overview and Performance Evaluation, http://www.wimaxforum.org/technology/downloads/Mobile_WiMAX_Part1_Overview_and_Performance.pdf.
 
[2]  WiMAX Forum: “Mobile WiMAX. Part I: A Technical Overview and Performance Evaluation,” August 2006. http://www.intel.com/netcomms/technologies/wimax
 
[3]  IEEE 802.16-2004, “IEEE Standard for Local and Metropolitan Area Networks -Part 16: Air Interface for Fixed Broadband Wireless Access Systems”, 1 October, 2004.
 
[4]  IEEE Std 802.16-2001,” IEEE Std. 802.16-2001 IEEE Standard for Local and Metropolitan area networks Part 16: Air Interface for Fixed Broadband Wireless Access Systems”, December 2001.
 
[5]  Arun Agarwal, S.K. Patra, “Performance prediction of Eureka-147 DAB system Using Interleaving and different Coding rates”, in IEEE International Conference on MEMS, Nano & Smart Systems, Proceedings, ICMENS, 2011, vol 403-408, pp. 4119-4125,.
 
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[6]  Ghosh, A.; Wolter, D.R.; Andrews, J.G.; Chen, R., “Broadband wireless access with WiMax/802.16: current performance benchmarks and future potential”, IEEE Communications Magazine, Feb. 2005, Vol. 43, Iss. 2, Pages: 129-136.
 
[7]  Arun Agarwal, Kabita Agarwal, “Design and Simulation of COFDM for high speed wireless communication and Performance analysis”, in IJCA-International Journal of Computer Applications, Oct-2011, Vol-2., pp 22-28, ISBN: 978-93-80865-49-3.
 
[8]  Hasan, Mohammad Azizul,” Performance Evaluation of WiMAX/IEEE 802.16 OFDM Physical Layer”, Master’s Thesis at Helsinki University of Technology, Espoo, June 2007.
 
[9]  Tariq, Umar, Umer Naeem Jilani and Tauseef Ahmad Siddiqui, “Analysis on Fixed and Mobile WiMAX”, Master’s Thesis at Blekinge Institute of Technology, 2007.
 
[10]  Roca, Amalia, “Implementation of a WiMAX simulator in Simulink”, Diploma Thesis, Vienna, February 2007.
 
[11]  John. G. Proakis, “Digital Communications”, 3rd edition, McGraw-Hill, 1995.
 
[12]  Walter Tuttlebee, “Software Defined Radio”, 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
 
[13]  H. Harada & Ramjee Prasad, Simulation and Software Radio for mobile communications.: Artech House, 2003.
 
[14]  Ohrtman, Frank,”WiMAX Hand Book Building 802-16 Wireless Network”. McGraw Hill Publishers, 2005.
 
[15]  The Matlab help: “Communications Blockset,” http://www.mathworks.com
 
[16]  http://www.en.wikipedia.org/wiki/WiMAX
 
[17]  http://www.wimax.com/general/what-is-wimax
 
[18]  Arun Agarwal, Chinmayee Behera, Kabita Agarwal, “Effect of Guard Time on BER Performance of OFDM based WiMAX (IEEE 802.16d) System”, in International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering. 2013, Volume 6, Number 1, pp. 41-55.
 
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Article

An Approach for Fast BCD Addition

1Department of Electrical Engineering, Texas A&M University-Texarkana, Texarkana, USA


American Journal of Electrical and Electronic Engineering. 2015, 3(1), 13-16
DOI: 10.12691/ajeee-3-1-3
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Parag K. Lala. An Approach for Fast BCD Addition. American Journal of Electrical and Electronic Engineering. 2015; 3(1):13-16. doi: 10.12691/ajeee-3-1-3.

Correspondence to: Parag  K. Lala, Department of Electrical Engineering, Texas A&M University-Texarkana, Texarkana, USA. Email: plala@tamut.edu

Abstract

This paper presents a technique for fast addition of multi-digit BCD numbers. The addition of all columns can be performed simultaneously, and the carry values are utilized only in the final stage of the addition. Thus the traditional carry propagation process is drastically reduced, hence speeding up the addition process. The addition technique is used in the summation of partial products generated during a new multiplication approach proposed in the paper resulting in a faster multiplication.

Keywords

References

[1]  P. K. Lala, Principles of Modern Digital Design, John Wiley & Sons, 2007.
 
[2]  M.F. Cowlishaw, “Decimal floating-point: algorism for computers”,. Proc. 16th IEEE Symposium on Computer Arithmetic, pp. 104-111, June 2003.
 
[3]  W.Buchholz., “Fingers or Fists? (The Choice of Decimal or Binary Representation)”, Communications of the ACM, 2 (12), pp. 3-11, December 1959.
 
[4]  T.B. Juang, H.H. Peng, H.L. Kuo, “Parallel and digit-serial implementations of area-efficient 3-operand decimal adders”, International Journal of Soft Computing and Engineering (IJSCE), vol. 3, issue 5, pp. 177-182, November 2013.
 
[5]  C.Sundaresan, C.V.S. Chaitanya, P.R. Venkateswaran, S.Bhatt and J. Mohan Kumar, “High speed BCD adder”, Proc. 2011 2nd International Congress on Computer Applications and Computer Science, Advances in Intelligent and Soft Computing. Vol. 145, pp. 113-116, 2012.
 
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[6]  A. Bayrakci and A. Akkas, “Reduced delay BCD adder”, Proc.. IEEE 18th Int. Conf. on Application-specific Systems, Architectures and Processors, (ASAP), pp. 266-271, July 2007.
 
[7]  A. Vazquez and E. Antelo, "A high-performance significant BCD adder with IEEE 754-2008 decimal rounding," Proc. 19th IEEE Symposium on Computer Arithmetic (ARITH-19), pp. 135-144, 2009.
 
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Article

AFLISR Algorithm Distribution Reliability Fault

1Editorial Board Member, AJEEE

2Arya Engineering College, Jaipur, India


American Journal of Electrical and Electronic Engineering. 2015, 3(1), 17-21
DOI: 10.12691/ajeee-3-1-4
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Amit Sachan, Ashish Ranjan. AFLISR Algorithm Distribution Reliability Fault. American Journal of Electrical and Electronic Engineering. 2015; 3(1):17-21. doi: 10.12691/ajeee-3-1-4.

Correspondence to: Amit  Sachan, Editorial Board Member, AJEEE. Email: amitsachan55@gmail.com

Abstract

Advanced Fault Location Isolation and Supply Restoration (AFLISR) is describing as the smart brain at the control center, using remotely controllable devices to execute the smart decisions. AFLISR application can improve reliability intensely deprived of compromising safety and asset protection. AFLISR systems that automatically detect faults, isolate the impaired portion of the feeder, and restore as plentiful facility as conceivable within seconds as part of their strategy to accomplish a “self-healing” grid. One problem with these systems is that service restoration is often blocked due to heavy loading on backup feeders. The next generation of automatic restoration systems will yield improvement of further advanced control services that are existence installed as part of the smart grid. After encountering a load transfer limit, the automatic restoration system may initiate schedules to free up capacity on the pretentious feeders so enabling the load transfer to continue. Capacity issue strategies can embrace instigation of petition response schedules, initiation of CVR, and impermanent reduction of fast charging actions for electric vehicles.

Keywords

References

[1]  Zhu Min-jie, Li Ming, (2012), The study of distribution grid distributed self-healing under dynamic operating modes, Electricity Distribution (CICED), 2012 China International Conference, pp. 1-4.
 
[2]  Tsai. M and Pan. Y, (2011), “Application of BDI-based intelligent multi-agent systems for distribution system service restoration planning,” Euro. Trans. Electr. Power, pp. 1783-1801.
 
[3]  Z. Chen. W, (Feb. 2010) “Quantitative decision-making model for distribution system restoration,” IEEE Trans. Power Syst., vol. 25, no. 1, pp. 313-321.
 
[4]  Song. B, Li. P, Wang. T and Wang. W, (2010), “Multi-agent approach for service restoration of microgrid,” in Proc. 5th IEEE Conf. Indust. Electron. Appl., Taichung, Taiwan, pp. 962-966.
 

Article

The 5th Generation Mobile Wireless Networks- Key Concepts, Network Architecture and Challenges

1Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, Institute of Technical Education & Research, Siksha ‘O’ Anusandhan University, Khandagiri Square, Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India

2Department of Electronics and Telecommunication Engineering, CV Raman College of Engineering, Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India


American Journal of Electrical and Electronic Engineering. 2015, 3(2), 22-28
DOI: 10.12691/ajeee-3-2-1
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Arun Agarwal, Gourav Misra, Kabita Agarwal. The 5th Generation Mobile Wireless Networks- Key Concepts, Network Architecture and Challenges. American Journal of Electrical and Electronic Engineering. 2015; 3(2):22-28. doi: 10.12691/ajeee-3-2-1.

Correspondence to: Arun  Agarwal, Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, Institute of Technical Education & Research, Siksha ‘O’ Anusandhan University, Khandagiri Square, Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India. Email: arunagrawal@soauniversity.ac.in

Abstract

The process of learning, our way of working, thinking and interaction has all changed due to the internet supported by world wide mobile revolution. Currently the 4G’s concept is marching towards the standardization phase. So time has come to introduce a new technology in which we can connect to multiple wireless technologies, networks, terminals and applications, all simultaneously and can also switch between them. This latest technology is named as 5G. 5G (5th generation mobile networks or 5th generation wireless systems) is a term used in some research papers and projects to denote the next major phase of mobile telecommunications standards beyond the current 4G/IMT- Advanced standards. 5G is considered as beyond 2020 mobile communications technologies. This upcoming technology will support IPv6 and flat IP. This paper addresses an overall description of the 5G systems and its architecture, standard, benefits, challenges in deployment, Security issues and scope of 5G technologies. This paper will also focus the researches being made on worldwide wireless web (WWWW), Dynamic Adhoc Wireless Network (DAWN) and real wireless world.

Keywords

References

[1]  Theodore S. Rappaport, “Wireless communications principles and practice”, second edition, Pearson, pp 26-39.
 
[2]  Wayne Tomasi, “Advanced Electronic Communication Systems”, sixth edition, PHI Learning, pp. 466-488.
 
[3]  Arun Agarwal, Kabita Agarwal, “The Next Generation Mobile Wireless Cellular Networks – 4G and Beyond”, American Journal of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, © Science and Education Publishing, Vol. 2, No. 3, pp. 92-97, April 2014.
 
[4]  Cheng Xiang Wang, Fourat Haider et.al., “Cellular Architecture and Key Technologies for 5G wireless Communication Networks”, IEEE commun. Mag., February 2014, pp. 122-129.
 
[5]  Erik Dahlman, Gunnar Mildh et.al., “5G Wireless Access: Requirements and Realization”, IEEE Commun. Mag.— Communications Standards Supplement, December 2014, pp. 42-47.
 
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[20]  ITU-R Recommendation ITU-R M.2012. “Detailed Specifications of the Terrestrial Radio Interfaces of International Mobile TelecommunicationsAdvanced (IMT-Advanced),” Jan. 2012.
 
[21]  ITU-R WP5D, Working Document Towards A Preliminary Draft New Report ITU-R M. [IMT.FUTURE TECHNOLOGY TRENDS], “Future Technology Trends of Terrestrial IMT Systems,” Document 5D/615 Attachment 5.2.
 
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[27]  Khushboo Kumari, Arun Agarwal, Jayvrat, and Kabita Agarwal, “Review of Leakage Power Reduction in CMOS Circuits.” American Journal of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, vol. 2, no. 4, August 2014: pp 133-136.
 
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Article

Simple Mathematical Model for Ferromagnetic Core Inductance and Experimental Validation

1Department of Physics, Higher Teacher Training College, University of Bamenda, PO Box 39 Bamenda, Cameroon

2Laboratory of Electronics and Signal Processing, Faculty of Science, University of Dschang, PO Box 67 Dschang Cameroon

3Laboratory of Modelling and Simulation in Engineering, Biomimetics and Prototypes, Faculty of Science, University of Yaounde I, PO Box 812 Yaounde, Cameroon


American Journal of Electrical and Electronic Engineering. 2015, 3(2), 29-36
DOI: 10.12691/ajeee-3-2-2
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
B. Nana, S. B. Yamgoué, R. Tchitnga, P. Woafo. Simple Mathematical Model for Ferromagnetic Core Inductance and Experimental Validation. American Journal of Electrical and Electronic Engineering. 2015; 3(2):29-36. doi: 10.12691/ajeee-3-2-2.

Correspondence to: B.  Nana, Department of Physics, Higher Teacher Training College, University of Bamenda, PO Box 39 Bamenda, Cameroon. Email: na1bo@yahoo.fr, url: http//www.lamsebp.org

Abstract

In determining the properties and inductance of ferromagnetic core inductor, hysteresis modeling is of high importance. Many models are available to investigate those characteristics but they tend to be complex and difficult to implement. In this paper, we report a new mathematical model based on the experimental data of hysteresis for ferromagnetic core inductor. The proposed model can restore the hysteresis curve with a little RMS error. We used the model to determine analytically the expression of the current in a RL series circuit forced by an alternating source. A good agreement is found between our theoretical and experimental results.

Keywords

References

[1]  Visintin, A. Differential Models of Hysteresis, Applied Mathematical Science, Springer-Verlag, New York, 1994.
 
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[3]  Górecki, K, “SPICE-aided Modelling of Coils with the Ferrite Core with Selfheating Taken into Account,” Kwartalnik Elektroniki i Telekomunikacji, 3(5). 389-404. 2003.
 
[4]  Chiesa, N. and Hoidalen, H.K, “Modeling of nonlinear and hysteretic iron-core inductors in ATP,” in EEUGMeeting 2007, European EMTP-ATP Conference, Leon, Spania, Sep. 2007.
 
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[7]  Carnevale, D., Nicosia, S. and Zaccarian, L, “Generalized Constructive Model of Hysteresis,” IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, 42(12). 3809-3817. Dec. 2006.
 
[8]  Chua, L.O. and Bass, S.C, “A Generalized Hysteresis Model,” IEEE Transactions on Circuit Theory, 19(1). 36-48. Jan. 1972.
 
[9]  Chiesa, N., Avendano, A.H., Hoidalen, K., Mork, B.A., D. Ishchenko, D. and Kunze, A.P, “On the ringdown transient of transformers,” in IPST’07 - International Conference on Power System Transients, Lion, France, (229). 4-7. Jun. 2007.
 
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[11]  Fiorillo F. and Dupré L.R, “Comprehensive Model of Magnetization Curve, Hysteresis Loops, and Losses in Any Direction in Grain-Oriented Fe-Si,” IEEE Transactions on Magn, 38(3). 1467-1476. Jun. 2002.
 
[12]  Carnevale D., Nicosia S. and Zaccarian L, “Generalized Constructive Model of Hysteresis,” IEEE Transactions on Magn, 42(12). 3809-3817. Dec. 2006.
 
[13]  Brachtendorf H.G., Eck C. and Laur R, “Macromodeling of Hysteresis Phenomena with SPICE,” IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems – II: Analog and Digital Signal Processing, 44(5). 378-388. May. 1997.
 
[14]  Chan J.H., Vladimirescu A., Gao X.C., Liebmann P. and Valainis J, “Nonlinear Transformer Model for Circuit Simulation,” IEEE Transactions on Computer-Aided Design, 10(4) 476-482. Apr. 1991.
 
[15]  Germay, N., Maestero, S. and Vroman, J, “Review of Ferroresonance Phenomena in High Voltage Power Systems and Presentation of a Voltage Transformer Model for Predetermining Them”, CIGRE, 33-18.1972.
 
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Article

Synchronization of Diffusively Coupled Oscillators: Theory and Experiment

1Department of Physics, Higher Teacher Training College, University of Bamenda, PO Box 39 Bamenda, Cameroon

22Laboratory of Modelling and Simulation in Engineering, Biomimetics and Prototypes, Faculty of Science, University of Yaounde I, PO Box 812 Yaounde, Cameroon


American Journal of Electrical and Electronic Engineering. 2015, 3(2), 37-43
DOI: 10.12691/ajeee-3-2-3
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
B. Nana, P. Woafo. Synchronization of Diffusively Coupled Oscillators: Theory and Experiment. American Journal of Electrical and Electronic Engineering. 2015; 3(2):37-43. doi: 10.12691/ajeee-3-2-3.

Correspondence to: B.  Nana, Department of Physics, Higher Teacher Training College, University of Bamenda, PO Box 39 Bamenda, Cameroon. Email: na1bo@yahoo.fr

Abstract

In this paper complete synchronization of diffusively coupled oscillators is considered. We present the results of both, theoretical and experimental investigations of synchronization between two, three and four almost identical oscillators. The method of linear difference signal has been applied. The corresponding differential equations have been integrated analytically and the synchronization threshold has been found. Hardware experiments have been performed and the measured synchronization error of less than 1% has been determined. Good agreement is found between theoretical and experimental results.

Keywords

References

[1]  Ling, L. and Le, M, “Parameter identification and synchronization of spatiotemporal chaos in uncertain complex network,” Nonlinear Dynamics 66 (4). 489-495. Dec. 2011.
 
[2]  Carroll, T.L. and Pecora, L.M, “Synchronizing chaotic circuits,” IEEE Trans Circ Syst 38 (2). 453-456. Apr. 1991.
 
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[5]  Nijmeijer H, “Control of chaos and synchronization,” Systems and Control Letters 31 (5). 259-262. Oct. 1997.
 
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[8]  Tanmoy B., Debabrata B. and Sarkar B.C, “Complete and generalized synchronization of chaos and hyperchaos in a coupled first-order time-delayed system,” Nonlinear Dynamics. 71 (1). 279-290. Jan. 2013.
 
[9]  Buric N. and Vasovic N, “Global stability of synchronization between delay-differential systems with generalized diffusive,” Chaos Solitons and Fractals. 31 (2). 336-342. 2007.
 
[10]  Fotsin H. and Bowong S, “Adaptive control and synchronization of chaotic systems consisting of Van der Pol oscillators coupled to linear oscillators,” Chaos Solitons and Fractals. 27 3). 822-835. Apr. 2006.
 
[11]  Carroll T.L. and Pecora L.M, “Nonlinear Dynamics in Circuits,” World Scientific Publishing, Singapore. 1995.
 
[12]  Juan C., Jun-an L. and Xiaoqun W, “Bidirectionally coupled synchronization of the generalized Lorenz systems,” Journal of Systems Science and Complexity 24 (3). 433-448. Jun. 2011.
 
[13]  Pecora L.M. and Carroll T.L, “Driving systems with chaotic signals,” Physl Rev A. 44 (4). 2374-2383. Aug. 1991.
 
[14]  Cuomo K.M. and Oppenheim A.V, “Circuit implementation of synchronized chaoswith application to communications,” Phys Rev Lett. 71 (1). 65-68. Jul. 1993.
 
[15]  Nana B. and Woafo P, “Synchronization in a ring of four mutually coupled Van der pol oscillator: Theory and experiment,” Phys Rev E 74, 1-8. 2006.
 
[16]  Yu Y.H., Kwak K., Lim T.K, “Synchronization via small continuous feedback,” Phys Lett A. 191 (3). 233-237. 1994.
 
[17]  Li-feng Z., Xin-lei A. and Jian-gang Z, “A new chaos synchronization scheme and its application to secure communications,” Nonlinear Dynamics. 73 (2). 705-722. Jan. 2013.
 
[18]  Woafo P. and Kraenkel R.K, “Synchronization stability and duration time,” Phys Rev E. 66. 25-31. 2002.
 
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Article

Security Constrained Economic Environmental Dispatch through Fuzzy Based Gravitational Search Algorithm

1Department of Electrical Engineering Depart, Veer Surendra Sai University of Technology (VSSUT), Burla, India

2Department of Electrical Engineering, ITER, SOA University, Bhubaneswar, India


American Journal of Electrical and Electronic Engineering. 2015, 3(2), 44-50
DOI: 10.12691/ajeee-3-2-4
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
P. K. Hota, N. C. Sahu. Security Constrained Economic Environmental Dispatch through Fuzzy Based Gravitational Search Algorithm. American Journal of Electrical and Electronic Engineering. 2015; 3(2):44-50. doi: 10.12691/ajeee-3-2-4.

Correspondence to: P.  K. Hota, Department of Electrical Engineering Depart, Veer Surendra Sai University of Technology (VSSUT), Burla, India. Email: p_hota@rediffmail.com

Abstract

A robust and reliable algorithm called as fuzzy based gravitational search algorithm has been developed for solution of the security constrained economic and environmental load dispatch (EED) problems. A fuzzy maximizing decision approach using gravitational search algorithm (GSA) is applied to a six-unit thermal power test system to obtain the best compromising solution. The usefulness and quality of the proposed algorithm is demonstrated through its application to the test system in terms of convergence speed, solution time and minimum operating cost. The obtained results from the proposed algorithm confirm the effectiveness and potential of the promising proposed algorithm compared to conventional method, real coded genetic algorithm (GA), hybrid GA and PSO methods, performed in different central load dispatch centers to solve multi-objective generation dispatch problems.

Keywords

References

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[7]  Sudhakaran M, Slochanal S M R, Sreeran R, Sekhar N C, “Application of refined genetic algorithm to combined economic and emission dispatch”, Journal of the Institution of Engineers (India), pt. EL, September, 2004, Vol. 85, pp. 115-119.
 
[8]  Sudhakaran M, Sivakumar G, Vengatachalapathy P, Latchumi K, “Particle swarm optimization for economic and emission dispatch problems”, Journal of the Institution of Engineers (India), pt. EL, 2007, Vol. 88, pp. 39-45.
 
[9]  Zimmermann H J, “Fuzzy Set Theory and Its Applications”, Kluwer-Nijhoff Publishing, 1985.
 
[10]  Hota P K, Chakrabarti R, Chattopadhyay P K, “A fuzzy-set based optimization technique for economic emission load dispatch”, Journal of the Institution of Engineers (India), pt. EL, November, 1999, Vol. 80, pp. 99-103.
 
[11]  Hota P K, Chakrabarti R, Chattopadhyay P K, “Economic emission load dispatch through an interactive fuzzy satisfying method”, Electric Power Systems Research, 2000, Vol. 54, No.3, pp. 151-157.
 
[12]  Rashedi E, Nezamabadi-pour H, Saryazdi S, “GSA: A Gravitational Search Algorithm”, Information Science, 2009, Vol. 179, pp. 2232-2248.
 
[13]  Swain R K, Sahu N C, Hota P K, “Gravitational Search Algorithm for Optimal Economic Dispatch”, Procedia Technology, Science Direct, Elsevier, ICCCS-2012, pp. 1-9.
 
[14]  Dugman S, Guvenc U, Yorukeren N, “Gravitational Search Algorithm for Economic Dispatch with Valve Point Effects”, International Review of Electrical Engineering, 2010, Vol. 5, No. 6, pp. 2890-2895.
 
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Article

Design Proposed Features Extraction Recognition System of Latin Handwritten Text Based on 3D-Discrete Multiwavelet Transform

1Electrical Engineering Department, Babylon University, Babil, Iraq


American Journal of Electrical and Electronic Engineering. 2015, 3(2), 51-63
DOI: 10.12691/ajeee-3-2-5
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Laith Ali Abdul-Rahaim. Design Proposed Features Extraction Recognition System of Latin Handwritten Text Based on 3D-Discrete Multiwavelet Transform. American Journal of Electrical and Electronic Engineering. 2015; 3(2):51-63. doi: 10.12691/ajeee-3-2-5.

Correspondence to: Laith  Ali Abdul-Rahaim, Electrical Engineering Department, Babylon University, Babil, Iraq. Email: drlaithanzy@yahoo.com

Abstract

On-line handwriting recognition is the task of determining what letters or words are present in handwritten text. It is of significant benefit to man-machine communication and can assist in the automatic processing of handwritten documents. It is a subtask of the Optical Character Recognition (OCR), whose domain can be machine-print only.The introduced system is a character-based recognition and it is a writer independent system. The recognition responsibility of the proposed system is for 52 character classes [uppercases (A-Z) and the lowercases (a-z)]. The suggested system includes the essential stages needed for most of the pattern recognition systems. These stages are the preprocessing stage, the features extraction stage, the pattern matching and classification stage and the postprocessing stage. The proposed method employs the 3 Dimensional Multiwavelet transform 3D-DMWTCS using multiresolution image decomposition techniques working together with multiple classification methods as a powerful classifier. The classification stage is designed by using a minimum distance classifier depending on Euclidean Distance which has a high speed performance. The system design also includes a modest postprocessing stage that makes a consistency between the recognized characters within the same word in relation to their upper and lower cases.The overall classification accuracy of proposed systems can be obtained are 95.305 percent with 3D-DMWTCS based on the Rimes database.

Keywords

References

[1]  Cun-Zhao Shi; Chun-Heng Wang; Bai-Hua Xiao; Song Gao; Jin-Long Hu, “Scene Text Recognition Using Structure-Guided Character Detection and Linguistic Knowledge,” Circuits and Systems for Video Technology, IEEE Transactions on , vol.24, no.7, pp.1235,1250, July 2014
 
[2]  A.-L. Bianne, C. Kermorvant, and L. Likforman-Sulem, “Context- Dependent HMM Modeling Using Tree-Based Clustering for the Recognition of Handwritten Words,” Proc. SPIE Document Recognition and Retrieval, 2010.
 
[3]  Assabie Y. and Bigun J” Writer-independent offline recognition of handwritten Ethiopic characters”, In: Proc. 11th ICFHR, August 19-21, Montreal, 2008.
 
[4]  Ballesteros J., Travieso C.M., Alonso J.B. and Ferrer M.A, “ Slant estimation of handwritten characters by means of Zernike moments”, IEE electronics letters vol.41 no.20, 29th September,2005
 
[5]  Bruce K., “Multiwavelets for Quantitative Pattern Matching” Proceedings of the 42nd Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, pp 1- 10,2009.
 
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[7]  Gao X., Fen X., and Bodong L., “Construction of Arbitrary Dimensional Biorthogonal Multiwavelet Using Lifting Scheme” IEEE Transactions On Image Processing, VOL. 18, NO. 5, MAY, pp 942-955,2009.
 
[8]  Deselaers, T.; Keysers, D.; Hosang, J.; Rowley, H.A., “GyroPen: Gyroscopes for Pen-Input With Mobile Phones,” Human-Machine Systems, IEEE Transactions on , vol.45, no.2, pp.263,271, April 2015.
 
[9]  Shahriarpour, E.; Sadri, J., “Recognition of legal amount words on Persian bank checks using Hidden Markov Model,” Intelligent Systems (ICIS), 2014 Iranian Conference on , vol., no., pp.1,5, 4-6 Feb. 2014
 
[10]  Breuel, T.M.; Ul-Hasan, A.; Al-Azawi, M.A.; Shafait, F., “High-Performance OCR for Printed English and Fraktur Using LSTM Networks,” Document Analysis and Recognition (ICDAR), 2013 12th International Conference on , vol., no., pp.683,687, 25-28 Aug. 2013
 
[11]  El-Anzy L., “Design and Simulation of STBC-(OFDM and CDMA) Transceivers based on Hybrid Transforms “, Ph.D. Thesis, Univ. of Technology, Electrical and electronic engineering, Dep., Oct.2006.
 
[12]  Rodolfo P., Gabriela S., Tsang I. and George D “Text Line Segmentation Based on Morphology and Histogram Projection” 10th International Conference on Document Analysis and Recognition, pp 651-655., 2009.
 
[13]  Suriya K. , Kitti A., Thanatchai K. “Recognition of power quality events by using Multiwavelet-based neural networks” Elsevier Ltd., Electrical Power and Energy Systems Vol 30 ,pp 254–260, 2008.
 
[14]  K. Ubul, A. Adler and M. Yasin, “Multi-Stage Based Feature Extraction Methods forUyghur Handwriting Based Writer Identification,” In Genetic Algorithms in Applications, InTech , 2012.
 
[15]  Shanker A., Tajagopalan A. “Off-line signature verification using DTW”, Pattern Recognition Lett. 28, pp1407–1414, 2007.
 
[16]  Xiangqian Wu; Youbao Tang; Wei Bu, “Offline Text-Independent Writer Identification Based on Scale Invariant Feature Transform,” Information Forensics and Security, IEEE Transactions on , vol.9, no.3, pp.526,536, March 2014
 
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[20]  AbuzaraidaM. A., A. M. Zeki and A. M. Zeki, “Segmentation Techniques for Online Arabic Handwriting Recognition: Asurvey,” in 3rd International Conference on Information and Communication Technology for the Moslem World, Jakarta,Indonesia, , pp. D37-D40,2010.
 
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[24]  Dreuw, P., Rybach, D., Heigold, G., and Ney, H., Guide to OCR for Arabic Scripts Chp. Part II: RWTH OCR: A Large Vocabulary Optical Character Recognition System for Arabic Scripts, Springer, London, UK, pp. 215-254,July, 2012.
 
[25]  Abuzaraida, M.A.; Zeki, A.M.; Zeki, A.M., “Feature extraction techniques of online handwriting arabic text recognition,” Information and Communication Technology for the Muslim World (ICT4M), 2013 5th International Conference on , vol., no., pp.1,7, 26-27 March 2013
 
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Article

A Bibliography of the Work Done on Externally-Linear-Internally-Nonlinear Circuits during 1979-2014

1Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, Institute of Engineering and Technology, Lucknow, India

2Division of Electronics and Communication Engineering, Netaji Subhas Institute of Technology, Sector 4, Dwarka, New Delhi, India


American Journal of Electrical and Electronic Engineering. 2015, 3(3), 64-70
DOI: 10.12691/ajeee-3-3-1
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Manoj Kumar Jain, V. K. Singh, Raj Senani. A Bibliography of the Work Done on Externally-Linear-Internally-Nonlinear Circuits during 1979-2014. American Journal of Electrical and Electronic Engineering. 2015; 3(3):64-70. doi: 10.12691/ajeee-3-3-1.

Correspondence to: Raj  Senani, Division of Electronics and Communication Engineering, Netaji Subhas Institute of Technology, Sector 4, Dwarka, New Delhi, India. Email: senani@ieee.org

Abstract

There is a continued demand of analog circuits which are capable of operating at low supply voltages and have low-power consumption and large dynamic range. There are several techniques of designing circuits satisfying such requirements a majority of which fall into the general category of externally-linear-internally-nonlinear (ELIN) circuits. In this paper, we present a bibliography of ELIN circuits which covers log-domain, exponential state-space domain, square root domain and other related circuits, based upon the work done during 1979 to 2014. It is hoped that this compilation (with a brief overview) should be useful to research scholars, educators, students, practicing engineers and anybody who is interested in knowing about the current state-of-the- art of log domain, translinear and square root domain circuits.

Keywords

References

[1]  Adams, R.W., “Filtering in the Log-domain”, Preprint #1470 presented at the 63rd AES conference, New York, NY, 1979.
 
[2]  Gilbert, B., “Translinear circuits: A proposed classification”, Electronics Letters, 11 (1), 14-16, 1975.
 
[3]  Tsividis, Y.P., Gopinathan, V. and Tόth, L., “Companding in signal processing”, Electronics Letters, 26 (17), 1331-1332, 1990.
 
[4]  Seevinck, E., “Companding current-mode integrator: A new circuit principle for continuous-time monolithic filters”, Electronics Letters, 26 (24), 2046-2047, 1990.
 
[5]  Frey, D.R., “Log-domain filtering: An approach to current-mode filtering”, IEE Proceedings G Circuits, Devices and Systems, 140 (6), 406-416, 1993.
 
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[6]  Frey, D.R., “A general class of current mode filters”, IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems (ISCAS’93), 2, 1435-1438, 1993.
 
[7]  Toumazou, C., Ngarmnil, J. and Lande, T.S., “Micropower log-domain filter for electronic cochlea”, Electronics Letters, 30 (22), 1839-1841, Oct. 1994.
 
[8]  Frey, D., “Current-mode class AB second order filter”, Electronics Letters, 30 (3), 205-206, 1994.
 
[9]  Frey, D., “A 3.3 volt electronically tunable active filter usable to beyond 1 GHz”, International Symposium on Circuits and Systems (ISCAS’94), 5, 493-496, 1994.
 
[10]  Pookaiyaudom, S. and Mahattanakul, J., “A 3.3 volt high-frequency capacitor-less electronically-tunable log-domain oscillator”, International Symposium on Circuits and Systems (ISCAS’95), 2, 829-832, 1995.
 
[11]  Ngarmnil, J., Toumazou, C. and Lande, T.S., “A fully tuneable micropower log-domain filter”, Twenty-first European Solid-State Circuit Conference (ESSCIRC’95), Lille, France, 86-89, 19-21 Sep., 1995.
 
[12]  Perry, D. and Roberts, G.W., “Log-domain filters based on LC ladder synthesis”, Proceeding of the IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems (ISCAS '95), Scattle, WA, 1, 311-314, 30 Apr.-3May, 1995.
 
[13]  Thanachayanont, A., Pookaiyaudom, S. and Toumazou C., “State-space synthesis of log-domain oscillators”, IET Electronics Letters, 31 (21), 1797-1799, 1995.
 
[14]  Tsividis, Y., “General approach to signal processors employing companding”, Electronics Letters, 31 (18), 1549-1550, 1995.
 
[15]  Tsividis, Y., “On linear integrators and differentiators using instantaneous companding”, IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Analog and Digital Signal Processing, 42 (8), 561-564, 1995.
 
[16]  Punzenberger, M. and Enz, C., “A new 1.2 V BiCMOS log-domain integrator for companding current-mode filters”, IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems (ISCAS '96) Connecting the World, Atlanta, GA, 1, 125-128, 12-15 May, 1996.
 
[17]  Fried, R., Python, D. and Enz, C.C., “Compact log-domain current mode integrator with high transconductance-to-bias current ratio”, Electronics Letters, 32 (11), 952-953, 1996.
 
[18]  Frey, D.R., “Explicit log domain root-mean-square detector”, United States Patent, 1996.
 
[19]  Frey, D.R., “Log domain filtering for RF applications”, IEEE Journal Solid-State Circuits, 31 (10), 1468-1475, 1996.
 
[20]  Ngarmnil, J. and Toumazou, C., “Micro power log-domain active inductor”, Electronics Letters, 32 (11), 953-955, 1996.
 
[21]  Liu, S.I. and Liao, Y.H., “Table-based log-domain linear transformation filter”, Electronics Letters, 32 (19), 1771-1772, 1996.
 
[22]  Perry, D. and Roberts, G.W., “The design of log-domain filters based on the operational simulation of LC ladders”, IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Analog and Digital Signal Processing, 43 (11), 763-774, 1996.
 
[23]  Frey, D., “Exponential state space filters: A generic current mode design strategy”, IEEE Transaction on Circuits and Systems I: Fundamental Theory and Applications, 43 (1), 34-42, 1996.
 
[24]  Mulder, J., van der Woerd, A.C., Serdijn, W.A. and van Roermund, A.H.M., “An RMS-DC converter based on the dynamic translinear principle”, Proceeding of the 22nd European Solid-State Circuits Conference (ESSCIRC`96), Neuchatel, Switzerland, 17-19 Sept., 1996.
 
[25]  Mulder, J., van der Woerd, A.C., Serdijn, W.A. and van Roermund, A.H.M., “Current-mode companding √x-domain integrator”, Electronics Letters, 32 (3), 198-199, 1996.
 
[26]  Mahattanakul, J., Toumazou, C. and Pookaiyaudom, S., “Low-distortion current-mode companding integrator operating at fT of BJT”, Electronics Letters, 32 (21), 2019-2021, 1996.
 
[27]  van der Woerd, A.C., Mulder, J., Serdijn, W.A. and van Roermund, A.H.M., “Recent trends in translinear circuits”, in Proc. Electronics-ET’96, Sozopol, Bulgaria, 1, 14-21, 1996.
 
[28]  Frey, D.R. and Steigerwald, L., “An adaptive analog notch filter using log filtering”, IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems (ISCAS’96) Connecting the World, Atlanta, GA, 1, 297-300, 12-15 May, 1996.
 
[29]  Frey, D.R., “Log-filtering using gyrators”, Electronics Letters, 30 (1), 26-28, 1996.
 
[30]  Mulder, J., Serdijn, W.A., van der Woerd, A.C., and van Roermund, A.H.M., “Dynamic translinear RMS-DC converter”, Electronics Letters, 32 (22), 2067-2068, 1996.
 
[31]  Punzenberger, M. and Enz, C.C., “A 1.2-V low-power BiCMOS class AB log-domain filter”, IEEE Journal Solid-State Circuits, 32 (12), 1968-1978, 1997.
 
[32]  Thanachayanont, A., Payne, A. and Pookaiyaudom, S., “A current-mode phase-locked loop using a log-domain oscillator”, Proceedings of the IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems (ISCAS '97), 1, 277-280, 9-12 Jun., 1997.
 
[33]  Drakakis, E.M., Payne, A.J. and Toumazou, C., “Bernoulli operator: a low-level approach to log-domain processing”, Electronics Letters, 33 (12), 1008-1009, 1997.
 
[34]  Leung, V.W., El-Gamal M. and Roberts, G.W., “Effects of transistor non-idealities on log-domain filters”, Proceedings of IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems (ISCAS '97), 1, 109-112, 9-12 Jun., 1997.
 
[35]  Mahattanakul, J. and Toumazou, C., “Modular log-domain filters”, Electronics Letters, 33 (13), 1130-1131, 1997.
 
[36]  Frey, D.R. and Tsividis, Y.P., “Syllabically companding log domain filter using dynamic biasing”, Electronics Letters, 33 (18), 1506-1507, 1997.
 
[37]  Mulder, J., van der Woerd, A.C., Serdijn, W.A. and van Roermund, A. H. M., “General current-mode analysis method for translinear filters”, IEEE Transaction on Circuits and Systems I: Fundamental Theory and Applications, 44 (3), 193-197, 1997.
 
[38]  Serdijn, W.A., Broest, M., Mulder, J., van der Woerd, A.C. and van Roermund, A.H.M., “A low-voltage ultra-low-power translinear integrator for audio filter applications”, IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits, 32 (4), 577-581, 1997.
 
[39]  Payne, A. and Thanachayanont, A., “Translinear circuit for phase detection”, Electronics Letters, 33 (18), 1507-1509, 1997.
 
[40]  Tsividis, Y., “Externally linear, time-invariant systems and their application to companding signal processors”, IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Analog and Digital Signal Processing, 44 (2), 65-85, 1997.
 
[41]  Mulder, J., van der Woerd, A.C., Serdijn, W.A. and van Roermund, A.H.M., “An RMS-DC converter based on the dynamic translinear principle”, IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits, 32 (7), 1146-1150, 1997.
 
[42]  Mulder, J., Serdijn, W.A., van der Woerd, A.C. and van Roermund, A. H. M., “A syllabic companding translinear filter”, Proceeding of IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems (ISCAS’97), 1, 101-104, 9-12 Jun., 1997.
 
[43]  Mahattanakul, J. and Toumazou, C., “Instantaneous companding and expressing: A dual approach to linear integrator synthesis”, Electronics Letters, 33 (1), 4-5, 1997.
 
[44]  Ruymbeke, G. van, Enz, C., Krummenacher, F. and Declerq, M., “A BiCMOS programmable continuous-time filter using image-parameter method synthesis and voltage-companding technique”, IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits, 32 (3), 377-387, 1997.
 
[45]  Mulder, J., Kouwenhoven, M.H.L. and van Roermund, A.H.M., “Signal x noise intermodulation in translinear filters”, Electronics Letters, 33 (14), 1205-1207, 1997.
 
[46]  Punzenberger, M. and Enz, C.C., “A compact low-power BiCMOS log-domain filter”, IEEE Journal Solid-State Circuits, 33 (7), 1123-1129, 1998.
 
[47]  Germanovix, W., O'Neill, G., Toumazou, C., Drakakis, E.M., Kitney, R.I. and Lande, T.S., “Analogue micro powered log-domain tone controller for auditory prostheses”, Electronics Letters, 34 (11), 1051 - 1052, 1998.
 
[48]  Fox, R.M., “Design-oriented analysis of log-domain circuits”, IEEE Transactions Circuits and Systems II: Analog and Digital Signal Processing, 45 (7), 918-921, 1998.
 
[49]  Punzenberger, M. and Enz, C., “Log-domain filters for low-voltage low-power applications”, IEEE International Conference on Electronics, Circuits and Systems, Lisboa, 1, 41-44, 1998.
 
[50]  Frey, D.R., “State-space synthesis and analysis of log-domain filters”, IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Analog and Digital Signal Processing, 45 (9), 1205-1211, 1998.
 
[51]  Frey, D.R., “Synthesis of distortion compensated log-domain filters using state space techniques”, Proceedings of the IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems (ISCAS '98), Monterey, CA, 1, 321-324, 31 May-3 Jun.,1998.
 
[52]  El-Gamal, M. and Roberts, G.W., “Very high-frequency log-domain band pass filters”, IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Analog and Digital Signal Processing, 45 (9), 1188-1198, 1998.
 
[53]  Wu, J. and El-Masry, E.I., “Log-domain synthesis of an nth-order filter”, International Journal of Electronics, 84 (4), 359-369, 1998.
 
[54]  Brandtner, T., Papathanasiou, K. and Hamilton, A., “Palmo cell using sampled data log-domain integrators”, Electronics Letters, 34 (8), 733-735, 1998.
 
[55]  Mulder, J., Kouwenhoven, M.H.L., Serdijn, W.A., van der Woerd, A.C. and van Roermund, A.H.M., “Noise considerations for translinear filters”, IEEE Transaction on Circuits and Systems II: Analog and Digital Signal Processing, 45 (9), 1199-1204, 1998.
 
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[62]  Surakampontorn, W. and Kumwachara, K., “A dual translinear based true RMS to DC convertor”, IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement, 47 (2), 459-464, 1998.
 
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[64]  Drakakis, E.M., Payne, A.J. and Toumazou, C., ““Log-domain state-space”: a systematic transistor-level approach for log-domain filtering”, IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Analog and Digital Signal Processing, 46 (3), 290-305, 1999.
 
[65]  El-Masry, E.I. and Wu, J., “CMOS micropower universal log-domain biquad”, IEEE Transactions Circuits and Systems I: Fundamental Theory and Applications, 46 (3), 389-392, 1999.
 
[66]  Frey, D., “Distortion compensation in log-domain filters using state-space techniques”, IEEE Transactions Circuits and Systems II: Analog and Digital Signal Processing, 46 (7), 860-869, 1999.
 
[67]  Ferrer, E. and Fox, R.M., “Limit-cycle oscillations in a log-domain-based filter”, IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Analog and Digital Signal Processing, 46 (6), 832-836, 1999.
 
[68]  Drakakis, E.M., Payne, A.J. and Toumazou, C., “Log-domain filtering and the Bernoulli cell”, IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Fundamental Theory and Applications, 46 (5), 559-571, 1999.
 
[69]  Enz, C., Punzenberger, M. and Python, D., “Low-voltage log-domain signal processing in CMOS and BiCMOS”, IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Analog and Digital Signal Processing, 46 (3), 279-289, 1999.
 
[70]  Mahattanakul, J. and Toumazou, C., “Modular log-domain filters based upon linear Gm-C filter synthesis”, IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Fundamental Theory and Applications, 46 (12), 1421-1430, 1999.
 
[71]  Fox, R.M. and Nagarajan, M., “Multiple operating points in a CMOS log-domain filter”, IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Analog and Digital Signal Processing, 46 (6), 705-710, 1999.
 
[72]  Poort, P.J., Serdijn, W.A., Mulder, J., van der Woerd, A.C. and van Roermund, A.H.M., “A 1-V Class-AB Translinear Integrator for Filter Applications”, Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing, 21 (1), 79-90, 1999.
 
[73]  Abuelmáatti, M.T. and Abed, S.M., “A translinear circuit for analogue function synthesis based on a Taylor series”, International Journal Electronics, 86 (11), 1341-1348, 1999.
 
[74]  Serdijn, W.A., Kouwenhoven, M.H.L., Mulder, J. and van Roermund, A.H.M., “Design of high dynamic range fully integratable translinear filters”, Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing, 19 (3), 223-239, 1999.
 
[75]  Mulder, J., Kouwenhoven, M.H.L., Serdijn, W.A. and van der Woerd, A.C., “Nonlinear analysis of noise in static and dynamic translinear circuits”, IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Analog and Digital Signal Processing, 46 (3), 266-278, 1999.
 
[76]  Seevinck, E., Vittoz, E.A., du Plessi, M. and Joubert, T.H., “CMOS translinear circuits for minimum supply voltage”, IEEE Transactions on Circuits and systems II: Analog and Digital Signal Processing, 47 (12), 1560-1564, 1999.
 
[77]  Frey, D.R. and Tola, A.T., “A state-space formulation for externally linear class AB dynamical circuits,” IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Analog and Digital Signal Processing, 46 (3), 306-314, 1999.
 
[78]  Leung, V.W. and Roberts, G.W., “Analysis and Compensation of Log-Domain Biquadratic Filter Response Deviations due to Transistor Non-idealities”, Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing, 22 (2-3), 147-162, 2000.
 
[79]  Drakakis, E.M. and Payne, A.J., “A Bernoulli Cell-Based Investigation of the Non-Linear Dynamics in Log-Domain Structures”, Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing, 22 (2-3), 127-146, 2000.
 
[80]  Fragnie`re, E., Vittoz, E. and van Schaik, A., “A Log-Domain CMOS Transcapacitor: Design, Analysis and Applications”, Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing, 22 (2-3), 195-208, 2000.
 
[81]  Tola, A.T. and Frey, D.R., “A Study of Different Class AB Log Domain First Order Filters”, Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing, 22 (2-3), 163-176, 2000.
 
[82]  Germanovix, W. and Toumazou, C., “Design of a micropower current-mode log-domain analog cochlear implant”, IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Analog and Digital Signal Processing, 47 (10), 1023-1046, 2000.
 
[83]  Leung, V.W. and Roberts, G.W., “Effects of transistor nonidealities on high-order log-domain ladder filter frequency responses”, IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Analog and Digital Signal Processing, 47 (5), 373-387, 2000.
 
[84]  El-Masry, E.I. and Wu, J., “Fully Differential Class-AB Log-Domain Integrator”, Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing, 25 (1), 35-46, 2000.
 
[85]  Frey, D., “Future implications of the log domain paradigm”, IEE Proceedings - Circuits, Devices and Systems, 147 (1), 65-72, 2000.
 
[86]  El-Masry, E.I. and Wu, J., “Low Voltage Micropower Log-Domain Filters”, Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing, 22 (2-3), 209-220, 2000.
 
[87]  Krishnapura, N., Tsividis, Y. and Frey, D.R., “Simplified technique for syllabic companding in log-domain filters”, Electronics Letters, 36 (15), 1257-1259, 2000.
 
[88]  Edwards R.T. and Cauwenberghs, G., “Synthesis of Log-Domain Filters from First-Order Building Blocks”, Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing, 22 (2-3), 177-186, 2000.
 
[89]  Masmoudi, D., Serdijn, W.A., Mulder, J., van der Woerd, A.C., Tomas, J. and Dom, J.P., “A new current-mode synthesis method for dynamic translinear filters and its applications in hearing instruments”, Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing, 22, 221-229, 2000.
 
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[91]  El-Gamal, N.M., Baki, R.A. and Bar-Dor, A., “30-100-MHz NPN-only variable-gain class-AB instantaneous comapanding filters for 1.2-V applications”, IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits, 35 (12), 1853-1864, 2000.
 
[92]  Mahattanakul, J. and Toumazou, C., “Instantaneous companding current-mode oscillator based on class-AB transconductor”, Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing, 23 (1), 57-64, 2000.
 
[93]  Tόth, L., Efthivoulidis, G. and Tsividis, Y.P., “Noise analysis of externally linear systems”, IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Analog and Digital Signal Processing, 47 (12), 1365-1377, 2000.
 
[94]  Python, D. and Enz, C.C., “A micropower class-AB CMOS log-domain filter for DECT applications”, IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits, 36 (7), 1067-1075, 2001.
 
[95]  Krishnapura, N. and Tsividis, Y., “A micropower log-domain filter using enhanced lateral PNPs in a 0.25 μm CMOS process”, IEEE Symposium on VLSI Circuits, Digest of Technical Papers, Kyoto, Japan, 179-182, 14-15 Jun., 2001.
 
[96]  Ng, A.E.J., Sewell, J.I., Drakakis, E.M., Payne and A.J., Toumazou, C., “A unified matrix method for systematic synthesis of log-domain ladder filters”, Proceedings of the IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems (ISCAS 2000)Sydney, NSW, 1, 149-152, 6-9 May, 2001.
 
[97]  Li S., Wang Y. and Wu, J., “Design of low-voltage and low-power fully integrated filter based on log-domain current-mode integrator”, Journal of Electronics (China), 18 (4), 346-350, 2001.
 
[98]  Fox, R.M., Ko, H.J. and Eisenstadt, W.R., “Dynamic Current Requirements in Single-Ended Log-Domain Filters”, Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing, 28 (1), 73-81, 2001.
 
[99]  Minch, B.A., “Multiple-input translinear element log-domain filters”, IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Analog and Digital Signal Processing, 48 (1), 29-36, 2001.
 
[100]  Mahon, A. and Feely, O., “Nonlinear dynamics of log-domain circuit”, Electronics Letters, 37 (15), 929-930, 2001.
 
[101]  Özoğuz, S., “Simple log-domain chaotic oscillator”, Electronics Letters, 37 (23), 1378-1379, 2001.
 
[102]  Frey, D., Tsividis, Y.P., Efthivoulidis, G. and Krishnapura, N., “Syllabic-companding log domain filters”, IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Analog and Digital Signal Processing, 48 (4), 329-339, 2001.
 
[103]  Mulder, J., Serdijn, W.A., van der Woerd, A.C. and van Roermund, A.H.M., “A generalized class of dynamic translinear circuits”, IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Analog and Digital Signal Processing, 48 (5), 501-504, 2001.
 
[104]  Diepstraten, F.M., Kuijstermans, F.C.M., Serdijn, W.A., van der Kloet P., van Staveren, A., Neerhoff, F.L., Verhoeven, C.J.M. and van Roermund, A.H.M., “Dynamic Behavior of Dynamic Translinear Circuits: the Linear Time-Varying Approximation”, IEEE Transaction on Circuits and Systems I: Fundamental Theory and Applications, 48 (11), 1333-1337, 2001.
 
[105]  Lόpez-Martin, A.J. and Carlosena, A., “Systematic Design of Companding Systems by Component Substitution”, Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing, 28 (1), 91-106, 2001.
 
[106]  Efthivoulidis, G., Tόth, L. and Tsividis, Y., “Noise in externally linear filters”, Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing, 28 (1), 63-72, 2001.
 
[107]  El-Gamal, M.N. and Roberts, G.W., “A 1.2-V n-p-n-only integrator for log-domain filtering”, IEEE Transactions Circuits and Systems II: Analog and Digital Signal Processing, 49 (4), 257-265, 2002.
 
[108]  Vlassis S. and Psychalinos. C., “A Novel Log-Domain Differentiator”, Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing, 32 (3), 285-287, 2002.
 
[109]  Ng, A.E.J. and Sewell, J.I., “Direct noise analysis of log-domain filters”, IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Analog and Digital Signal Processing, 49 (2), 101-109, 2002.
 
[110]  Psychalinos, C. and Vlassis, S., “On the exact realization of LOG-domain elliptic filters using the signal flow graph approach”, IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Analog and Digital Signal Processing, 49 (12), 770-774, 2002.
 
[111]  McDonald, E.J. and Minch, B.A., “Synthesis of a translinear analog adaptive filter”, Proceeding of the IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems (ISCAS 2002), Phoenix-Scottsdale, AZ, 3, III-321-III-324, 26-29 May, 2002.
 
[112]  Lόpez-Martin, A.J. and Carlosena, A., “1.5 V CMOS companding filter”, Electronics Letters, 38 (22), 1346-1348, 2002.
 
[113]  Haddad, S.A.P., Houben, R. and Serdijn, W.A., “First derivative Gaussian wavelet function employing dynamic translinear circuits for cardiac signal characterization”, Proceedings of the ProRISC Workshop on Circuits, Systems and Signal Processing, Veldhoven, the Netherlands, 288-291, 28-29 Nov., 2002.
 
[114]  Serra-Graells, F. and Huertas, J.L., “1 V CMOS Subthreshold Log Domain PDM”, Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing, 34 (3), 183-187, 2003.
 
[115]  Baki, R.A. and El-Gamal, M.N., “A low-power 5-70-MHz seventh-order log-domain filter with programmable boost, group delay, and gain for hard disk drive applications”, IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits, 38 (2), 205-215, 2003.
 
[116]  Baki, R.A., Beainy, C. and El-Gamal, M.N., “Distortion analysis of high-frequency log-domain filters using Volterra series”, IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Analog and Digital Signal Processing, 50 (1), 1-11, 2003.
 
[117]  Serrano-Gotarredona, T. and Linares-Barranco, B., “Log-domain implementation of complex dynamics reaction-diffusion neural networks”, IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks, 14 (5), 1337-1355, 2003.
 
[118]  Grech, I., Micallef, J. and Vladimirova, T., “Low-Power Log-Domain CMOS Filter Bank for 2-D Sound Source Localization”, Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing, 36 (1-2), 99-117, 2003.
 
[119]  Özoğuz, S. and Sengör, N.S., “On the realization of NPN-only log-domain chaotic oscillators”, IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Fundamental Theory and Applications, 50 (2), 291-294, 2003.
 
[120]  Drakakis, E.M. and Burdett, A.J., “Operational DC constraints for a class-A, third-order, observer canonical-form log-domain filter”, IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Fundamental Theory and Applications, 50 (10), 1337-1342, 2003.
 
[121]  Drakakis, E.M. and Burdett, A.J., “Spectral impact of the modulation index upon internal log-domain currents”, IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Fundamental Theory and Applications, 50 (10), 1343-1347, 2003.
 
[122]  Serra-Graells, F., “1 V all-MOS ΣΔ A/D converters in the log-domain”, Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing, 35, 47-57, 2003.
 
[123]  Minch, B.A., “Construction and transformation of multiple-input translinear element networks”, IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Fundamental Theory and Applications, 50 (12), 1530-1537, 2003.
 
[124]  De La Cruz-Blas, C.A., Lopez-Martin, A. and Carlosena, A., “1.5-V MOS translinear loops with improved dynamic range and their applications to current-mode signal processing”, IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Analog and Digital Signal Processing, 50 (12), 918-927, 2003.
 
[125]  López-Martín, A.J., Fernández, R., de la Cruz Blas, C.A. and Carlosena, A. “A 1 V Micropower FGMOS Class AB Log-Domain Filter”, Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing, 41 (2-3), 137-145, 2004.
 
[126]  Rodriguez-Villegas, E., Yufera, A. and Rueda, A., “A 1-V micropower log-domain integrator based on FGMOS transistors operating in weak inversion”, IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits, 39 (1), 256-259, 2004.
 
[127]  Gerosa, A., Maniero, A. and Neviani, A., “A fully integrated dual-channel log-domain programmable preamplifier and filter for an implantable cardiac pacemaker”, IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers, 51 (10), 1916-1925, 2004.
 
[128]  Serra-Graells, F., Gόmez, L. and Huertas, J.L., “A true-1-V 300-μW CMOS-subthreshold log-domain hearing-aid-on-chip”, IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits, 39 (8), 1271-1281, 2004.
 
[129]  Abshire, P.A., Wong, E.L., Yiming, Z. and Cohen, M.H., “Adaptive log domain filters using floating gate transistors”, Proceedings of the IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems (ISCAS '04), 1, I-29 - I-32, 23-26 May, 2004.
 
[130]  Fox, R.M., Ko, H.J. and Eisenstadt, W.R., “Differential log-domain filters with high-gain common-mode feedback”, IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers, 51 (2), 254-263, 2004.
 
[131]  Psychalinos, C., Fragoulis, N. and Haritantis, I., “Log-domain wave filters”, IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Express Briefs, 51 (6), 299-306, 2004.
 
[132]  Fragoulis, N., Psychalinos, C. and Haritantis, I., “Modular log-domain filters realized using wave port terminators”, IEEE Transactions Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers, 55 (11), 2235-2244, 2004.
 
[133]  Ng, A.E.J., Teplechuk, M.A. and Sewell, J.I., “Unified matrix method for systematic synthesis of log-domain ladder filters”, IEE Proceedings - Circuits, Devices and Systems, 151 (4), 285-293, 2004.
 
[134]  De La Cruz-Blas, C.A., Lopez-Martin, A.J. and Carlosena, A., “Low-voltage CMOS nonlinear transconductors and their application to companding current-mode filters”, Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing, 38 (2-3), 137-147, 2004.
 
[135]  Minch, B.A., “Synthesis of static and dynamic multiple-input translinear element networks”, IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Paper, 51 (2), 409-421, 2004.
 
[136]  Serra-Graells, F., Rueda, A. and Huertas, J.L., “Low-voltage CMOS log-companding techniques for audio applications”, Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing, 38 (2-3), 121-135, 2004.
 
[137]  Lόpez-Martín, A.J., De La Cruz-Blas, C.A. and Carlosena, A., “1.2-V 5-μW class-AB CMOS log-domain integrator with multidecade tuning”, IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Express Briefs, 52 (10), 665-668, 2005.
 
[138]  Halvorsrød, T., Luzi, W. and Lande, T.S., “A log-domain μbeamformer for medical ultrasound imaging systems”, IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers, 52 (12), 2563-2575, 2005.
 
[139]  Shoemaker, P., “A Methodology for Long Time Constant Log-Domain Filters in CMOS”, Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing, 42 (2), 161-178, 2005.
 
[140]  Zaghloul, K.A. and Boahen, K.A., “An ON-OFF log domain circuit that recreates adaptive filtering in the retina”, IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers, 52 (1), 99-107, 2005.
 
[141]  Tola, A.T., Arslanalp, R. and Yilmaz, S.S., “Design of current mode, low voltage and electronically tunable class AB differential type KHN filter in the log domain”, Proceedings of the IEEE 13th Signal Processing and Communications Applications Conference, 131-134, 16-18 May, 2005.
 
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[143]  Haddad, S.A.P., Bagga, S. and Serdijn, W.A., “Log-domain wavelet bases”, IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers, 52 (10), 2023-2032, 2005.
 
[144]  Serra-Graells, F. and Huertas, J.L., “Low-Voltage CMOS subthreshold log-domain filtering”, IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers, 52 (10), 2090-2100, 2005.
 
[145]  Ascoli, A., Mahon, A. and Feely, O., “Nonlinear dynamics of first- and second-order log-domain circuits”, IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers, 52 (7), 1372-1381, 2005.
 
[146]  Tola, A.T., Arslanalp, R. and Yilmaz, S.S., “A design of differantial type class AB Tow-Thomas filter in the log domain”, International conference on electrical and electronics engineering, Bursa, Turkey, 105-109, 7-11 Dec., 2005.
 
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[148]  Kircay, A. and Cam, U., “A novel first-order log-domain allpass filter”, AEU - International Journal of Electronics and Communications, 60 (6), 471-474, 2006.
 
[149]  Hamilton, T.J., Jin, C. and van Schaik, A., “An analysis of matching in the Tau cell log-domain filter”, Proceedings of the IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems (ISCAS 2006), Island of Kos, 421-424, 21-24 May, 2006.
 
[150]  Teplechuk, M.A. and Sewell, J.I., “Approximation of arbitrary complex filter responses and their realisation in log domain”, IEE Proceedings Circuits, Devices and Systems, 153 (6), 583-590, 2006.
 
[151]  Arslanalp, R. and Tola, A.T., “By Using Darlington Topology Improvement of In-Band Gain for the Log Domain Filters,” IEEE 14th Signal Processing and Communications Applications, Antalya, 1-4, 17-19 Apr., 2006.
 
[152]  Psychalinos, C., “Improved building blocks for log-domain linear transformation filters”, Proceedings of the IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems (ISCAS 2006), Island of Kos, 1535-1538, 21-24 May, 2006.
 
[153]  Kircay, A., Cam U. and Tola, A.T., “Novel first-order differential class-AB log-domain allpass filters”, AEU - International Journal of Electronics and Communications, 60 (10), 705-712, 2006.
 
[154]  Ascoli, A., Feely O. and Curran, P., “On the Chaotic Behavior of a Third-Order Log-Domain Filter”, Nonlinear Dynamics, 44 (1-4), 45-54, 2006.
 
[155]  Teplechuk, M.A. and Sewell, J.I., “Realisation of asymmetrical complex filters in log-domain”, Proceedings of the IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems (ISCAS 2006), Island of Kos, 4, 21-24 May, 2006.
 
[156]  Kircay, A. and Cam, U., “State-Space Synthesis of Current-Mode First-Order Log-Domain Filters”, Turk J Elec Engin, 14 (3), 399-416, 2006.
 
[157]  Drakakis, E.M., “Systematic derivation of explicit design formulae for log-domain: A 3rd-order lowpass example”, Microelectronics Journal, 37 (7), 646-656, 2006.
 
[158]  Psychalinos, C., “On the transposition of Gm–C filters to DC stabilized log-domain filters”, International Journal of Circuits Theory and Applications, 34, 217-236, 2006.
 
[159]  Psychalinos, C., “Realization of log-domain high-order transfer functions using first-order building blocks and complementary operators”, International Journal of Circuits Theory and Applications, 35, 17-32, 2006.
 
[160]  Kircay, A. and Cam, U., “A Novel Log-Domain First-Order Multifunction Filter”, Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute (ETRI) Journal, 28 (3), 401-404, 2006.
 
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[165]  Zhai, Y. and Abshire, P.A., “Adaptive log domain filters for system identification using floating gate transistors”, Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing, 56 (1-2), 23-36, 2007.
 
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[170]  Hongmin, L., Yigang, H. and Sun, Y., “Detection of Cardiac Signal Characteristic Point Using Log-Domain Wavelet Transform Circuits”, Circuits, Systems, and Signal Processing, 27 (5), 683-698, 2008.
 
[171]  Kircay, A. and Cam, U., “Differential Type Class-AB Second-Order Log-Domain Notch Filter”, IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers, 55 (5), 1203-1212, 2008.
 
[172]  Groza, R., Festila, L., Hintea, S. and Cirlugea, M., “Log-Domain Binary SVM Image Classifier”, Knowledge-Based Intelligent Information and Engineering Systems (Lecture Notes in Computer Science), 5179, 368-375, 2008.
 
[173]  Psychalinos, C., “Low-Voltage Log-Domain Complex Filters”, IEEE Transactions Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers, 55 (11), 3404-3412, 2008.
 
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[175]  Psychalinos, C., “Log-domain linear transformation filters revised: Improved building blocks and comparison results”, International Journal of Circuit Theory and Applications, 36 (2), 119-133, 2008.
 
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