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American Journal of Cancer Prevention

ISSN (Print): 2328-7322

ISSN (Online): 2328-7314


Current Issue» Volume 3, Number 2 (2015)


Anti-proliferative, Cytotoxicity and Anti-oxidant Activity of Juglans regia Extract

1Department of Research, Jawaharlal Nehru Cancer Hospital and Research Centre, Bhopal, India

2Department of Botany, Benazeer College of science, Bhopal, India

3Department of Zoology, Benazeer College of Science and Commerce Bhopal, India

American Journal of Cancer Prevention. 2015, 3(2), 45-50
DOI: 10.12691/ajcp-3-2-4
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Tajamul Islam Shah, Ekta Sharma, Gowhar Ahmad Shah. Anti-proliferative, Cytotoxicity and Anti-oxidant Activity of Juglans regia Extract. American Journal of Cancer Prevention. 2015; 3(2):45-50. doi: 10.12691/ajcp-3-2-4.

Correspondence to: Tajamul  Islam Shah, Department of Research, Jawaharlal Nehru Cancer Hospital and Research Centre, Bhopal, India. Email:


Objective: Juglans regia (walnuts), the royal species from Junglandaceae family, well-known for its valuable medicinal uses, their regular consumption may have beneficial effects against oxidative stress mediated diseases including cancer. The present study was aimed to explore the total phenolic content, anti-proliferative and anti-oxidant activity of Juglans regia leaves. Methods: The leaf powder was extracted using different solvents and subjected for phytochemical investigation. The total phenolic contents were determined by the Folin–Ciocalteu method. The extracts comprising a good amount of secondary metabolites especially polyphenols were used to evaluate their antioxidant activity using Fenton’s reagent reaction and DPPH scavenging assay, while cytotoxic and anti-proliferative activity against B16F10 mice melanoma and A375 human melanoma cell were screened using MTT Assay. Observation: Methanolic extract presented the highest total phenolic content (94.39 ± 5.63 mg of GAE/g of extract) as compared to aqueous extract (27.92 ± 1.40 mg of GAE/g of extract). Similarly, methanolic extract presented the highest antioxidant activity (EC50 of 0.250mg/ml) followed by water extract (EC50 of 0.325mg/ml) in Fenton’s reaction and 0.199 ± 0.023 and 2.991 ± 0.740, respectively in DPPH assay. The extracts showed concentration dependent growth inhibition activity (IC50 0.234 and 0.304mg/ml) against B16F10 mice melanoma and A375 human melanoma cell line (IC50 0.298 and 0.350mg/ml) respectively. The extracts proved least toxic when treated with normal lymphocytes. The results indicate that walnut leaves are an excellent source of antioxidant and anti-cancerous agents and may prove fruitful herbal remedy in near future. However, the extracts proved effective against mice melanoma and human melanoma cells. Despite, more study is required before coming to any conclusion.



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Quality of Life of Patients Undergoing Cancer Treatment in B.P. Koirala Memorial Cancer Hospital, Bharatpur, Chitwan, Nepal

1Nursing Department, Kathmandu University School of Medical Sciences, Dhulikhel Hospital Kathmandu University Hospital, Dhulikhel, Nepal

2Chitwan Medical College, Bharatpur, Chitwan, Nepal

American Journal of Cancer Prevention. 2015, 3(2), 35-44
DOI: 10.12691/ajcp-3-2-3
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Radha Acharya Pandey, Govinda Prasad Dhungana, Jyotsana Twi Twi, Sudeepa Byanju, Barsha Khawas. Quality of Life of Patients Undergoing Cancer Treatment in B.P. Koirala Memorial Cancer Hospital, Bharatpur, Chitwan, Nepal. American Journal of Cancer Prevention. 2015; 3(2):35-44. doi: 10.12691/ajcp-3-2-3.

Correspondence to: Radha  Acharya Pandey, Nursing Department, Kathmandu University School of Medical Sciences, Dhulikhel Hospital Kathmandu University Hospital, Dhulikhel, Nepal. Email:


This research entitled “Quality of Life of Patients Undergoing Cancer Treatment in B.P. Koirala Memorial Cancer Hospital, Bharatpur, Chitwan” was conducted to assess the quality of life of cancer patients. It was carried out among patients attending B. P. Koirala Memorial Cancer Hospital, Bharatpur, Chitwan. Background: In patients with different type of cancers and the quality of life (QoL) improvement is the main goal, since survival can be prolonged marginally. A diagnosis is very stressful for people, affecting all aspects of their being and quality of life. Up to date, knowledge on QoL impairments throughout the entire treatment process, often including several treatment modalities is scarce. One objective of this study was to assess the quality of life of cancer patient undergoing cancer treatment. Methods: A quantitative, cross-sectional, descriptive, design was adapted. A total of 245 cancer patients above 20 years old, were enrolled in the studies during August-September, 2013. Inclusion criteria were patients who had already received at least one type of cancer treatment and had attended the hospital for receiving the same or next type of treatment again. Exclusion criteria were any other chronic co-morbidity condition that could be influenced their QoL. The most commonly listed medical co-morbidities were: diabetes mellitus, hypertension, coronary artery disease. Cancer patients who have Eastern Co-operative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status of 4 (i.e. fully bed-ridden) were excluded from the study. The data was collected by interview, using modified, structured scale of European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of life Questionnaire (EORTC QLQ- C30), prepared by the EORTC group. Information about the patient’s disease condition and treatment were obtained from the patient’s medical records. The collected data was analyzed by using SPSS version 16. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to describe the respondent’s quality of life (QoL) scores and to identify the factors affecting it respectively. Results: The study findings revealed the quality of life of cancer patients to be influenced by many factors such as: site of cancer, stage of cancer, time elapsed since diagnosis and Eastern Co-operative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status. The average QoL scores (out of 100) for different scales were 85.54 (global health/QoL), 77.03 (functional), and 16.14 (symptom). Loss of appetite was the most frequent complaint (mean = 20.27) and was present in almost all the patients. As the overall QoL of the patients was significantly correlated with different QoL scales as-, cognitive, emotional, physical, social, role functioning, pain, fatigue, dyspnoea, loss of appetite and nausea/vomiting and financial problem. Conclusion: Hence, in average, the quality of life of cancer patients was found to be relatively better, although there were higher ratings for some (as: cognitive, physical, role and emotional functioning) and lower for others (like social functioning). Additional research should be done in this area for improving the quality of life of specific type of cancer patients in Nepal, though the findings of this study are expected to provide the baseline knowledge regarding it.



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Detection of BCL2 Polymorphism in Patient with Hepatocellular Carcinoma

1Microbiology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Miniauniversity

2Medical Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University

3Biochemistry Department, Faculty of Pharmacy (Girls), Al-Azhar University

4Andcentral Administration for Pharmaceutical Affairs, Ministry Of Health

American Journal of Cancer Prevention. 2015, 3(2), 27-34
DOI: 10.12691/ajcp-3-2-2
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Mohamed Abdel-Hamid, Olfat Gamil Shaker, Doha El-Sayed Ellakwa, Eman Fathy Abdel-Maksoud. Detection of BCL2 Polymorphism in Patient with Hepatocellular Carcinoma. American Journal of Cancer Prevention. 2015; 3(2):27-34. doi: 10.12691/ajcp-3-2-2.

Correspondence to: Doha  El-Sayed Ellakwa, Biochemistry Department, Faculty of Pharmacy (Girls), Al-Azhar University. Email:


Introduction: Despite advances in the knowledge of the molecular virology of hepatitis C virus (HCV), the mechanisms of hepatocellular injury in HCV infection are not completely understood. Hepatitis C viral infection (HCV) influences the susceptibility to apoptosis. This could lead to insufficient antiviral immune response and persistent viral infection. Aim of this study: Is to examine whether BCL-2 gene polymorphism at codon 43 (+127G/A or Ala43Thr) has an impact on development of hepatocellular carcinoma caused by chronic hepatitis C infection among Egyptian patients. Subjects and Methods: The study included three groups; group 1: composed of 30 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), group 2 composed of 30 patients with chronic hepatitis C infection (CHC) and group 3 composed of 30 healthy subjects matching the same age and socioeconomic status were taken as a control group. Gene polymorphism of BCL2 (Ala43Thr) was evaluated by Restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) techniqueand measured for all patients and controls. Results: The summed 43Thr genotype was more frequent and statistically significant in HCC patients as compared to control group. This genotype of BCL2 gene may inhibit the programmed cell death which leads to disturbance in tissue and cells homeostasis and reduction in immune regulation. This result leads to viral replication and HCV persistence. Moreover, virus produces variety of mechanisms to block genes participated in apoptosis. This mechanism proves that CHC patients who have 43Thr genotype are more susceptible to HCC. Correlation coefficients between AFP versus ALT and AST were statistically significant. Conclusion: The data investigated for the first time that BCL2 polymorphism is associated with the susceptibility to in Egyptian populations and might be used as molecular markers for evaluating risk. This study clearly demonstrated that CHCexhibit a deregulation of apoptosis with the disease progression. This provides an insight into the pathogenesis of chronic hepatitis C infection, and may contribute to the therapy.



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A Five Year Review of Cervical Cytology in Abakaliki, Nigeria

1Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology,Federal Teaching Hospital, Abakaliki

2Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology,University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu

3Department of Microbiology, Ebonyi State University, Abakaliki

American Journal of Cancer Prevention. 2015, 3(2), 23-26
DOI: 10.12691/ajcp-3-2-1
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Leonard Ogbonna Ajah, Paul Olisaemeka Ezeonu, Nelson Chukwudi Ozonu, Chukwuemeka Anthony Iyoke, Peter Onubiwe Nkwo, Monique Iheoma Ajah. A Five Year Review of Cervical Cytology in Abakaliki, Nigeria. American Journal of Cancer Prevention. 2015; 3(2):23-26. doi: 10.12691/ajcp-3-2-1.

Correspondence to: Leonard  Ogbonna Ajah, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology,Federal Teaching Hospital, Abakaliki. Email:


Background: Cervical cancer is the commonest gynecological cancer in Nigeria. The risk factors to cervical cancer are common in our environment. Objective: To determine the prevalence of cervical squamous cell abnormalities and the risk factors associated with the disease in Abakaliki, Nigeria. Methods: A 5 year retrospective study of cervical cytology at the Federal Teaching Hospital, Abakaliki from 1st January 2008 to 31st December 2012, was undertaken. Results: The prevalence of cervical squamous cell abnormalities in this study was 11.2%. These cervical squamous cell abnormalities comprised ASC-US (0.6%), LSIL (3.9%) and HSIL (6.7%). Cervical squamous cell abnormalities were significantly commoner among clients who were smokers, live in rural areas, had high parity and history of vaginal discharge/itching. However, age at coitarche, educational qualification and use of hormonal contraceptives did not have any effect on cervical squamous cell abnormality in this study. Conclusion: There is high prevalence of cervical squamous cell abnormality in Abakaliki. So there is need for public sensitization about this problem and the various ways of stemming the tide.



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