American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture»Articles

Article

The Investigation of Effective Parameters on the Stability of Concrete Gravity Dams with Case Study on Folsom, Blue Stone, and Pine Flat Dams

1Department of Civil Engineering, Master of civil Engineering, young researchers and elite club, roudehen branch, islamic azad university, roudehen, Iran

2Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Civil Engineering, The University of Roudehen Branch, Tehran, Iran

3Doctor of civil engineering structures, an associate professor and head of University of Science and Technology


American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture. 2014, 2(5), 167-173
DOI: 10.12691/ajcea-2-5-3
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Elyas behradimehr, afshin mansouri, babak aminnejad, mohammad ali barkhordari bafghi. The Investigation of Effective Parameters on the Stability of Concrete Gravity Dams with Case Study on Folsom, Blue Stone, and Pine Flat Dams. American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture. 2014; 2(5):167-173. doi: 10.12691/ajcea-2-5-3.

Correspondence to: Elyas  behradimehr, Department of Civil Engineering, Master of civil Engineering, young researchers and elite club, roudehen branch, islamic azad university, roudehen, Iran. Email: bakhsat_engineer@yahoo.com

Abstract

In this research, the effective parameters in stability of concrete gravity dams in the form of case study on three important dams: Blue stone; Folsom; and Pine Flat, are investigated. Typically, cognition and understanding of effective parameters in stability and knowing the role of each them, in designing new dams, could be very helpful. Concrete gravity dams (which are surveyed in this research) have their strength and stability because of their weight. The shape of their section are triangle and commonly, The base of the triangle is greater than the dam is stable, the more stable dam is. Also, in this investigation we are going to study the horizontal displacement called sliding of dam’s bottom, in contact with foundation by ABAQUS software. The sliding displacement has no considerable change in each of the three nodes on heel and toe, and also in middle part of dam, and eventually is equal in each three and all parts of the dam’s bottom and foundation. With choosing three nodes on the dam’s bottom and similar nodes on the foundation, and with differentiating horizontal displacements of these nodes with each other, the relative displacements of dam are obtained. With using these displacements acquired from ABAQUS software in RS-DAM software, we show them as time series graph and relative displacement. Whenever this graph has a jump with the increase of earthquake PGAs (end of the graph moves away from the starting point of it), dams is considered as unstable.

Keywords

References

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[[2]  Chavez, J. W. and Fenves G. L. “Earthquake Response of Concrete Gravity Dams Including Base Sliding”, Journal of Structural Engineering, ASCE, Vol. 121, No. 5, 865-875, 1995.
 
[[3]  Horyna, T. “Reliability Analysis of Base Sliding of Concrete Gravity Dam Subjected to Earthquake”, University of British Columbia, 1999.
 
[[4]  Ruggeri, G. “Working Group on Sliding Safety of Existing Dam”, Final Report, ICOLD European Club, 2004.
 
[[5]  Ftima, M. B. and Leger, P. “Seismic Stability of Cracked Concrete Dams Using Rigid Block Models”, 2006.
 
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[6]  11- Fishman, Y. A. "Stability of Concrete Retaining Structures and Their Interface with Rock Foundations", 2009.
 
[7]  Fishman, Y. A. "Stability of Concrete Retaining Structures and Their Interface with1 Rock Foundations", 2009.
 
[8]  US Ar my Corps of Engineers (USACE), "Roller-Compacted Concrete, EM 1110-2-2006, 2000.
 
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Article

The Effect of sieved Coal Bottom Ash as a Sand Substitute on the Properties of Concrete with Percentage Variation in Cement

1Department Civil Engineering, NDMVPS’s KBT College of Engineering, Nashik, India

2Department of Applied Mechanics, SVNIT, Surat, India


American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture. 2014, 2(5), 160-166
DOI: 10.12691/ajcea-2-5-2
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
M. P. Kadam, Y. D. Patil. The Effect of sieved Coal Bottom Ash as a Sand Substitute on the Properties of Concrete with Percentage Variation in Cement. American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture. 2014; 2(5):160-166. doi: 10.12691/ajcea-2-5-2.

Correspondence to: M.  P. Kadam, Department Civil Engineering, NDMVPS’s KBT College of Engineering, Nashik, India. Email: kadammadhav@yahoo.co.in

Abstract

This paper presents the results of an experimental investigation on the effect of sieved coal bottom ash as a substitute for natural sand on the properties of concrete, when an extra 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 25% and 30% weight of cement was added. First, M-35 grade concrete was casted and tested; using a fixed percentage of 70% sieved coal bottom ash and 30% natural sand. The water cement ratio was maintained at 0.45. Then various tests including compressive strength, split tensile strength, flexural strength, density and water permeability were performed on the sieved coal bottom ash concrete. The results were compared with the control concrete and the percentage variations in strength were studied at 7, 28, 56 and 112 days. The results indicate a considerable increase in strength when 20% extra cement was added with the weight of cement.

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References

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[[5]  H.K. Kim, H.K. Lee, Use of power plant bottom ash as fine and coarse aggregates in high-strength concrete, Construction and Building Materials, 2011, Vol. 25, pp. 1115-1122.
 
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Article

A Comparison of AHP and PROMETHEE Family Decision Making Methods for Selection of Building Structural System

1Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, USA

2School of Civil Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

3Department of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran


American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture. 2014, 2(5), 149-159
DOI: 10.12691/ajcea-2-5-1
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Vahid Balali, Banafsheh Zahraie, Abbas Roozbahani. A Comparison of AHP and PROMETHEE Family Decision Making Methods for Selection of Building Structural System. American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture. 2014; 2(5):149-159. doi: 10.12691/ajcea-2-5-1.

Correspondence to: Vahid  Balali, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, USA. Email: balali2@illinois.edu

Abstract

Introduction of new structural systems into construction industry has created a competitive environment wherein selecting the most appropriate structural system has become increasingly difficult. Some structural systems have priority over others due to their unique features,as well as the special requirements of various construction projects. The structural system’s selection process is intended to show the trade-off among different alternatives when evaluated by technical and nontechnical professionals and maximize the agreement between all interested parties. This paper addresses how the best system can be selected using AHP and PROMETHEE family of multiple criteria decision-making techniques. These techniques have been utilized in this study for selecting the appropriate structural system among 3D Panel with light walls in building frames, LSF, ICF, Tunnel Formwork system, and Tronco in a low rise multi-housing project in Iran. A questionnaire has been designed to collect engineering judgments and experts’ opinions on various parameters such as weight of different criteria. The team of experts who has cooperated in this research includes engineers and managers of consultants, contractors, and owners who are involved in different low rise multi-housing projects in Iran. A comparison between the two techniques has been carried out based on the consistency of the results, the required amount of interactions with the decision-makers, and ease of understanding. For the case study of this research, 3D Panel with light walls in building frames has been selected as the most appropriate structural system. The PROMETHEE II has been selected as the preferred method for the appropriate structural system selection process since its results are consistent, easy to understand, and require less information from decision-makers compared to AHP.

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References

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[[1]  V. Balali, B. Zahraie, A. Hosseini, A. Roozbahani, Selecting appropriate structural system: Application of PROMETHEE decision making method, 2nd International Conference on Engineering Systems Management and Its Applications (ICESMA), Sharjah, UAE., 2010, pp. 1-6.
 
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[[3]  V. Balali, B. Zahraie, A. Roozbahani, Integration of ELECTRE III and PROMETHEEII Decision Making Methods with Interval Approach: Application in Selection of Appropriate Structural Systems, Journal of Computing in Civil Engineering 28 (2) (2014) 297-314.
 
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[[5]  M.A.B. Tabarak, D.S. William, Artificial neural network for the selection of buildable structural systems, Journal of Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management 10 (4) (2003) 263-271.
 
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[17]  J. San Cristobal, Critical Path Definition Using Multicriteria Decision Making: PROMETHEE Method, Journal of Management in Engineering 29 (2) (2013) 158-163.
 
[18]  V. Balali, A. Mottaghi, O.R. Shoghli, M. Golabchi, Selection of Appropriate Material, Construction Technique, and Structural System of Bridges by Use of Multi-Criteria Decision-Making Method, Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board (TRR) (2431) (2014) 79-87.
 
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Article

Finite Element Analysis for the Modelling of Building Structures in Three Dimensional Schemes

1Facultyof Civil and Environmental Engineering, Bialystok University of Technology, Bialystok, Poland

2PopeJohn II State School ofHigher Education, BialaPodlaska, Poland


American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture. 2014, 2(4), 143-148
DOI: 10.12691/ajcea-2-4-4
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Czeslaw Miedzialowski, Joanna Kretowska. Finite Element Analysis for the Modelling of Building Structures in Three Dimensional Schemes. American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture. 2014; 2(4):143-148. doi: 10.12691/ajcea-2-4-4.

Correspondence to: Joanna  Kretowska, PopeJohn II State School ofHigher Education, BialaPodlaska, Poland. Email: j.kretowska@kmb.pb.edu.pl

Abstract

Three-dimensional analysis of building structure is a very complex problem and solution of this problem is often obtained via finite element method.The paper presents a set of finite elements used for the modelling of building structures taking into account soil-structures interaction. Finite elements of the structure are derived by using beam schemes including Timoshenko type beam. The finite elements descriptions are completed by plate state. The way of elements connections and the global system of equations are also defined. The finite elements of wall panels, floor slabs, joints ant contact type subsoilproposed in this study significantly reduce the number of unknowns. Two computational examples proved the efficiency and the computing possibilities of the presented model.

Keywords

References

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[[5]  MiedziałowskiCz, “Three dimensional modelling wall structures for buildings,” Archives of Civil Engineering, XLI (2), 195-212. 1995.
 
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[6]  MiedzialowskiCz. “Modelling of subsoil flexibility in computations of complex three-dimensional structural schemes of buildings,” Archives of Civil Engineering, XLII, (1), 83-102.1996.
 
[7]  Steckiewicz R., Basewicz E., Romanczuk E., Monitoring in the stage of realization of large-panel building OWT, Design and Research Works Department, Miastoprojekt, Bialystok, 1980 (in polish).
 
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Article

The Impact of Deep Foundations of Building Structures on the Neighbouring Buildings – a Static Analysis

1Institute of Civil Engineering, Bialystok Technical University, Białystok, Poland


American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture. 2014, 2(4), 136-142
DOI: 10.12691/ajcea-2-4-3
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Czesław Miedziałowski, Damian Siwik. The Impact of Deep Foundations of Building Structures on the Neighbouring Buildings – a Static Analysis. American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture. 2014; 2(4):136-142. doi: 10.12691/ajcea-2-4-3.

Correspondence to: Damian  Siwik, Institute of Civil Engineering, Bialystok Technical University, Białystok, Poland. Email: d.siwik@o2.pl

Abstract

Deep foundations of buildings and their impact on neighbouring buildings is one of the most important issues when planning a new facility. Whereas, the analyses of the threats often come down only to a simplified evaluation of the building subsidence and to comparing them with the limit values. The paper presents the methodologies for using the subsidence surface of the land behind the housing wall of the excavation to assess the impact of additional displacements on the technical condition of facilities, through the determination of the distribution and the values of stresses in the estimated structure.

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References

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Article

Determination of Subsurface Geotechnical Properties for Foundation Design and Construction in Akenfa Community, Bayelsa State, Nigeria

1Department of Geology, University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria

2Department of Geology, Federal University of Technology, Minna, Nigeria

3Department of Geosciences, Akwa Ibom University, Ikot Akpaden, Nigeria

4Geostrat International Services Limited, No. 14 Mannila Pepple Street, Port Harcourt, Nigeria


American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture. 2014, 2(4), 130-135
DOI: 10.12691/ajcea-2-4-2
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Nwankwoala H.O., Amadi A.N., Ushie F.A., Warmate T.. Determination of Subsurface Geotechnical Properties for Foundation Design and Construction in Akenfa Community, Bayelsa State, Nigeria. American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture. 2014; 2(4):130-135. doi: 10.12691/ajcea-2-4-2.

Correspondence to: Amadi  A.N., Department of Geology, Federal University of Technology, Minna, Nigeria. Email: geoama76@gmail.com

Abstract

This study aims at establishing the sub-soil types and profile to ascertain the geotechnical characteristics of the underlying soils in Akenfa in Yenagoa, Yenagoa Local Government Area of Bayelsa State, Nigeria and recommend appropriate foundation design and construction of projects in the area. Three (3) geotechnical boreholes were drilled at the site to obtain baseline data on geotechnical properties of the soil and water level monitoring, the boreholes were advanced with the use of a cable percussion boring rig and were terminated to a maximum depth of 30m. The particle size distributions of a number of representative samples of the cohesionless soils were determined by sieve analysis. The results show that the samples are low to medium plasticity silty clay. The lithology revealed intercalations of clay and sand in thin layers to a depth of 2.0 m below the existing ground level. Underlying this clay is a stratum of loose to medium dense sand and dense sand. The sand is well sorted grading from fine to medium as the borehole advances. The laboratory analysis showed that the silty clay has undrained shear strength of 48 kPa. The loose sand has a maximum SPT (N) value of 12 while the medium dense sand has maximum SPT (N) value of 28. Considering the nature of the civil structures to be sited in the area, it is anticipated the load and the moderate compressibility of this near surface silty clay and the underlying loose silty sand be supported by means of raft foundation founded within the clay layer. It is recommended that studies on the geotechnical characteristics of the area be carried out as it provides valuable data that can be used for foundation design and other forms of construction for civil engineering structures in order to minimize adverse effects and prevention of post construction problems.

Keywords

References

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[[1]  Amadi, A.N; Eze, C.J; Igwe, C.O; Okunlola, I.A. and Okoye, N.O (2012). Architect’s and geologist’s view on the causes of building failures in Nigeria. Modern Applied Science, Vol. 6 (6): 31-38.
 
[[2]  Amadi, A. N; Olasehinde, P. I; Okunlola, I. A; Okoye, N. O. and Waziri, S (2010). A multidisciplinary approach to subsurface characterization in Northwest of Minna, Niger State, Nigeria. Bayero Journal of Physics and Mathematical Sciences, 3 (1), 74-83.
 
[[3]  ASTM (1979). Annual Book of America Society for Testing and Materials Standards, 1289, Philadelphia, ASTM Tech. Publ. 630pp.
 
[[4]  British Standard Methods of Test for soils for Civil Engineering Purposes. B.S 1377: Part 2, 1990. Published by the British Standards Institution, pp 8-200.
 
[[5]  Etu-Efeotor, J.O and Akpokodje, E.G (1990). Aquifer systems of the Niger Delta. Journal of Mining Geology, 26 (2): 279-284.
 
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[6]  Haddou, M.B; Essahlaoui, A; Boujlal, M; Elouali, A; and Hmaidi, A (2013). Study of the geotechnical parameters of the different soils by correlation analysis and statistics in the Kenitra Region of Morocco. Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, 3 (2): 51-60.
 
[7]  Merki, J.P. (1970). Structural Geology of the Cenozoic Niger Delta. African Geology. University of Ibadan Press. pp 251-268.
 
[8]  Murat, R.C (1970). Stratigraphy and Paleogeography of the Cretaceous and Lower Tertiary in Southern Nigeria. In: Dessauvagie, T.T J and Whiteman, A.J (eds.). African Geology, University of Ibadan Press, Ibadan, Nigeria. Pp 251-266.
 
[9]  Ngah, S.A and Nwankwoala, H.O (2013). Evaluation of Geotechnical Properties of the Sub-soil for Shallow Foundation Design in Onne, Rivers State, Nigeria. The Journal of Engineering and Science, Vol. 2 (11): 08-16.
 
[10]  Nwankwoala, H.O and Warmate, T (2014). Geotechnical Assessment of Foundation Conditions of a Site in Ubima, Ikwerre Local Government Area, Rivers State, Nigeria. International Journal of Engineering Research and Development (IJERD) 9 (8): 50-63.
 
[11]  Oke, S. A and Amadi, A. N (2008). An Assessment of the Geotechnical Properties of the Subsoil of parts of Federal University of Technology, Minna, Gidan Kwano Campus, for Foundation Design and Construction. Journal of Science, Education and Technology, 1 (2), 87-102.
 
[12]  Oghenero, A.E; Akpokodje, E.G and Tse, A.C (2014). Geotechnical Properties of Subsurface Soils in Warri, Western Niger Delta, Nigeria. Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, 4 (1): 89-102.
 
[13]  Reyment, R.A (1965). Aspects of the Geology of Nigeria, University of Ibadan Press, p 133
 
[14]  Short, K. C. and Stauble, A. J. (1967). Outline of Geology of the Niger Delta. American Association of Geologists, Vol. 51, No. 5, pp. 761-779.
 
[15]  Youdeowei, P.O and Nwankwoala, H.O (2010). Assessment of some geo-environmental problems associated with road construction in the Eastern Niger Delta. Afr. J. Environ. Pollut. Health, Vol. 8 (1): 1-7.
 
[16]  Youdeowei, P.O and Nwankwoala, H.O (2013). Suitability of soils as bearing media at a freshwater swamp terrain in the Niger Delta. Journal of Geology and Mining Research, Vol. 5 (3): k58-64.
 
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Article

Influence of the Density of Water on the Dynamic Behavior of Square Tension Leg Platform

1Civil Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering at Benha, Benha University, Egypt


American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture. 2014, 2(4), 122-129
DOI: 10.12691/ajcea-2-4-1
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Hala M. Refat, Amr R. El-gamal. Influence of the Density of Water on the Dynamic Behavior of Square Tension Leg Platform. American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture. 2014; 2(4):122-129. doi: 10.12691/ajcea-2-4-1.

Correspondence to: Hala  M. Refat, Civil Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering at Benha, Benha University, Egypt. Email: hala.abusafa@bhit.bu.edu.eg

Abstract

tension-leg platform (TLP) or extended tension leg platform (ETLP) is a vertically normally used for the offshore production of or , and is particularly suited for water depths greater than 300 meters and less than 1500 meters. The platform is permanently moored by means of tethers or tendons grouped at each of the structure's corners. A group of tethers is called a tension leg. A feature of the design of the tethers is that they have relatively high (low ), such that virtually all vertical motion of the platform is eliminated. This allows the platform to have the production on deck (connected directly to the subsea wells by rigid risers), instead of on the . This allows a simpler and gives better control over the production from the or , and easier access for down whole intervention operations. In this paper a numerical study for a square TLP using modified Morison equation was carried out in the time domain with water particle kinematics using Airy’s linear wave theory to investigate the effect of changing water density on the mass matrix of TLP's and the dynamic behavior of TLP's. The effect was investigated for different parameters of the hydrodynamic forces such as wave periods, and wave heights. The numerical study takes into consideration the effect of coupling between various degrees of freedom. The stiffness of the TLP was derived from a combination of hydrostatic restoring forces and restoring forces due to cables. Nonlinear equation was solved using Newmark’s beta integration method. Only uni-directional waves in the surge direction was considered in the analysis.

Keywords

References

[[[[[[
[[1]  Abou-Rayan, A.M., Seleemah, A., and El-gamal, A.R., "Response of Square Tension Leg Platforms to Hydrodynamic Forces", Ocean Systems Engineering, Vol. 2 (2), 2012, pp. 115-135.
 
[[2]  Ahmed, S., Bhaskar sengupta, A. Ali, "Nonlinear Dynamic Response of Tension Lrg Platform Tether under Offshore Environmental Conditions", Ocean Engineering, Vol.30, 1990, pp. 232-241.
 
[[3]  Chan K. Yang, M. H. Kim, 2010, "Transient Effects of Tendon Disconnection of a TLP by Hull-Tendon –Riser Coupled Dynamic Analysis", Ocean Engineering, Vol. 37, 2010, pp. 667-677.
 
[[4]  Jain, A. K., "Nonlinear Coupled Response of Offshore Tension Leg Platforms to Regular Wave Forces", Ocean Engineering, Vol. 24, 1997, pp. 577-592.
 
[[5]  Pauling, J. R, Horton, E.E., "Analysis of the Tension Leg Stable Platform", In: Proceedings of the Offshore Technology Conference, OTC NO. 1263, 1970, pp. 379-390.
 
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[6]  Kurian, V.J., Gasim, M.A., Narayanan, S.P., Kalaikumar, V., "Parametric Study of TLPs Subjected to Random Waves", ICCBT-C-19, pp. 213-222, 2008.
 
[7]  Low, Y. M., "Frequency domain analysis of a tension leg platform with statistical linearization of the tendon restoring forces", Marine Structures, Vol. 22, 2009, 480-503.
 
[8]  Xiaohui Zeng, Yang Liu, Xiaopeng Shen, Yingxiang Wu, "Nonlinear Dynamic Response of Tension Leg Platform", In: proceeding of the Sixteenth International Offshore and Polar Engineering Conference San Francisco, California, USA, May 28-June 2, 2006, pp.94-100.
 
[9]  R.A. Khan, N.A. Siddiquia, S.Q.A. Naqvi, S. Ahmad," Reliability analysis of TLP tethers under impulsive loading", Reliability Engineering & System Safety, Volume 91, Issue 1, January 2006, Pages 73-83.
 
[10]  Amir Hossein Razaghian, Mohammad Saeid Seif, Mohammad Reza Tabeshpour, "Investigation of tendons and TLP behavior in damaged condition ", International journal of maritime technology, Volume 9, Number 18 (5-2014). 23-34.
 
[11]  Rahim Shoghi, Mohammad Reza Tabeshpour," An approximate method for the surge response of the tension leg platform", Journal of Marine Science and Application, March 2014, Volume 13, Issue 1, pp 99-104.
 
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Article

Development and Impact of the Egyptian Climatic Conditions on Flexible Pavement Performance

1Graduate Student, Public Works Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt


American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture. 2014, 2(3), 115-121
DOI: 10.12691/ajcea-2-3-4
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Maha A. Elshaeb, Sherif M. El-Badawy, El-Sayed A. Shawaly. Development and Impact of the Egyptian Climatic Conditions on Flexible Pavement Performance. American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture. 2014; 2(3):115-121. doi: 10.12691/ajcea-2-3-4.

Correspondence to: Sherif  M. El-Badawy, Graduate Student, Public Works Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt. Email: sbadawy@mans.edu.eg

Abstract

Pavements are subject to environmental conditions, which affect the performance of both flexible and rigid pavements. The current flexible pavement design system in Egypt relies primarily on the 1993 American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO) Design Guide. The method has many limitations. One of the serious limitations is the empirical drainage layer coefficients. These coefficients in addition to the seasonal variation of the roadbed resilient modulus are the only environmental consideration in the method. The newly AASHTO released production version of the Mechanistic-Empirical Pavement Design Guide (MEPDG) which is called AASHTOWare Pavement ME Design was developed to overcome the limitations inherent in the AASHTO 1993 method. Unlike the AASHTO 1993 method, Pavement ME Design method considers the variation in moisture and temperature on the mechanical properties of the pavement layers. Thus, the main objective of this study was to develop the climatic data to facilitate the implementation of Pavement ME Design in Egypt and study its influence on the pavement performance. Pavement ME required climatic data which are the hourly air temperature, precipitation, wind speed, sunshine and relative humidity were collected for 16 climatic locations distributed all over Egypt for four years. The quality of the data was checked and verified and the data was transformed to the format required by the software. A typical flexible pavement section was simulated using the ME design at the 16 different climatic locations and the performance predicted using the ME Design was analyzed. The performance indicators predicted by Pavement ME are rutting, alligator fatigue cracking, longitudinal cracking, thermal cracking, and International Roughness Index (IRI). Results showed that the pavement performance is significantly affected by the change in the climatic data. As expected, for Egypt, the most significant influence was on the predicted rutting of the Asphalt layer.

Keywords

References

[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[
[[1]  Li, Q., Mills, L., McNeil, S., and Attoh-Okine, N., (2012) “Exploring the Impact of Climate Change On Pavement Performance And Design,” Presented at the Transportation Research Board 91st Annual Meeting.
 
[[2]  Huang, Y. H. (2004), Pavement Analysis and Design, Gourshetty Raju, 2004, Second Edition, Pearson Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
 
[[3]  ARA, Inc., ERES Consultants Division. (2004). “Guide for Mechanistic-Empirical Design of New and Rehabilitated Pavement Structures, NCHRP 1-37A Final Report,” ERES Consultants Division, Transportation research Board, National Research Council, Washington, D.C.
 
[[4]  American Association of State Highways and Transportation Officials, (2008). Mechanistic-Empirical Pavement Design Guide: A Manual of Practice. Interim Edition, Washington, D.C. American Association of Highways and Transportation Officials.
 
[[5]  Bayomy, F., El-Badawy, S., and Awed, A., May. 2012. “Implementation of the MEPDG for Flexible Pavements in Idaho,” (Report No. FHWA-ID-12-193). ITD Project RP 193, NIATT Project KLK557. National Institute for Advanced Transportation Technology, University of Idaho, Moscow, Idaho: U.S.
 
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[6]  Saha, J., Nassiri S., Bayat, A., and Soleymani, H., “Evaluation of the Effects of Canadian Climate Conditions on the MEPDG Predictions for Flexible Pavement Performance,” International Journal of Pavement Engineering, 15 (5). 392-401. May. 2014
 
[7]  Meagher, W., Daniel, J. S., Jacobs, J., and Linder E., “ Method for Evaluating Implications of Climate Change for Design and Performance of Flexible Pavements,” Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, 2 (2305). 111-120. 2012
 
[8]  Byram, D., Xiao, D. X., Wang, K., C. P., and Hall, Kevin, (2012). “Sensitivity Analysis of Climatic Influence on MEPDG Flexible Pavement Performance Predictions,” Transportation Research Board 91st Annual Meeting Compendium of Papers DVD, TRB, The National Academies, Washington, DC.
 
[9]  Zaghloul, S., Ayed, A., AbdEl Halim, A., Vitillo N., and Sauber R. “Investigations of Environmental and Traffic Impacts on Mechanistic-Empirical Pavement Design Guide Predictions,” Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, (1967). 148-159. 2006.
 
[10]  Darter, M., L. Titus-Glover, and H., Von Quintus. Implementation of the Mechanistic-Empirical Pavement Design Guide in Utah: Validation, Calibration, and Development of the UDOT MEPDG User’s Guide. Report No. UT-09.11, Applied Research Associates, Inc., 2009.
 
[11]  Von Quintus, H. and J. Moulthrop. Mechanistic-Empirical Pavement Design Guide Flexible Pavement Performance Prediction Models for Montana: Volume I Executive Research Summary. FHWA/MT-07-008/8158-1 Final Report, 2007.
 
[12]  Souliman, M. Calibration of the AASHTO MEPDG for Flexible Pavements for Arizona Conditions. Tempe, AZ: Arizona State University, Master’s Thesis, 2009.
 
[13]  Li, J., L. Pierce, and J. Uhlmeryer. “Calibration of Flexible Pavement in Mechanistic-Empirical Pavement Design Guide for Washington State.” Transportation Research Record, Journal of the Transportation Research Board, No. 2095 (2009): 73-83.
 
[14]  Ley Y., Kadam, S., Frazier, R., Robertson, B., and Riding, K. “Development and Implementation of a Mechanistic and Empirical Pavement Design Guide (MEPDG) for Rigid Pavements,” Annual Report for FY 2009, ODOT SPR Item Number 2208, 2009.
 
[15]  Delgadillo, R., Wahr, C., Garcia, G., Osorio, L., and Salfate, O. (2014) “Generating Hourly Climatic Data from Available Weather Information for Pavement Design,” Presented at the Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board.
 
[16]  Dezotepe, G., and Ksaibati, K., “The Effect of Environmental Factors on the Implementation of the Mechanistic-Empirical Pavement Design Guide,” Wyoming Technology Transfer Center, 2011.
 
[17]  Breakah, T., Williams, R., Herzmann, D., and Takle, E., “Effects of Using Accurate Climatic Conditions for Mechanistic-Empirical Pavement Design,” J. Transp. Eng., 137 (1), 2011, pp. 84-90.
 
[18]  Heitzman, M., Timm, D., Herzmann, D., Takle, G., and Traux, D. (2011). “Developing MEPDG Climate Data Input Files for Mississippi,” FHWA/MS—RD- DOT-11-232 Final Report, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, MS 38762-9546.
 
[19]  Egyptian Meteorological Authority: http://ema.gov.eg, Accessed September 2013.
 
[20]  World Weather Online: http://www.worldweatheronline.com, Accessed January 2014.
 
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Article

Effect of Tethers Tension Force on the Behavior of Triangular Tension Leg Platform

1Civil Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering at Benha, Benha University, Egypt

2structures and steel construction Department, National Building Research Center, Egypt


American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture. 2014, 2(3), 107-114
DOI: 10.12691/ajcea-2-3-3
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Amr R. El-gamal, Ashraf Essa, Ayman Ismail. Effect of Tethers Tension Force on the Behavior of Triangular Tension Leg Platform. American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture. 2014; 2(3):107-114. doi: 10.12691/ajcea-2-3-3.

Correspondence to: Amr  R. El-gamal, Civil Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering at Benha, Benha University, Egypt. Email: engamrramadan@yahoo.com

Abstract

Compliant structures like triangular tension leg platforms (TLPs) are proven to be highly cost effective in deep waters. The estimation of hydraulic forces due to waves on structural member of TLP is vital for its economic and safe design. In the current study, a numerical study for a triangular TLP using modified Morison equation was carried out in the time domain with water particle kinematics using Airy’s linear wave theory to investigate the effect of changing the tether tension force on the stiffness matrix of TLP's, the dynamic behavior of TLP's; and on the fatigue stresses in the cables. The effect was investigated for different parameters of the hydrodynamic forces such as wave periods, and wave heights. The numerical study takes into consideration the effect of coupling between various degrees of freedom. The stiffness of the TLP was derived from a combination of hydrostatic restoring forces and restoring forces due to cables. Nonlinear equation was solved using Newmark’s beta integration method. Only uni-directional waves in the surge direction was considered in the analysis.

Keywords

References

[[[[[[[
[[1]  Abou-Rayan, A.M.,and El-gamal, A.R., “Wave induced motion of a triangular tension leg platforms in deep waters “, Ocean Systems Engineering, Vol. 3 (2), 2013, pp. 149-165.
 
[[2]  Amir Hossein Razaghian, Mohammad Saeid Seif, Mohammad Reza Tabeshpour, “Investigation of tendons and TLP behavior in damaged condition”, International journal of maritime technology Volume 9, Number 18, 2014, pp. .
 
[[3]  Chandrasekaran, S., Jain, A. K., “Dynamic behavior of square and triangular offshore tension leg platforms under regular wave loads”, Ocean Engineering, 29(3): 279-313, 2002a.
 
[[4]  Chandrasekaran, S., Jain, A. K., “Triangular configuration tension leg platform behavior under random sea wave loads”, Ocean Engineering, 29(15): 1895-1928, 2002b.
 
[[5]  Chandrasekaran, S., A. K. Jain, A. Gupta, A. Srivastava, “Response behaviour of triangular tension leg platforms under impact loading”, Ocean Engineering 34, 2007, pp. 45-3.
 
Show More References
[6]  Chandrasekaran, S., A. K. Jain, Anupam Gupta, “Influence of wave approach angle on TLP’s response”, Ocean Engineering 34, 2007, pp.1322-1327.
 
[7]  Chan K. Yang, M. H. Kim, “Transient Effects of Tendon Disconnection of a TLP by Hull-Tendon –Riser Coupled Dynamic Analysis”, Ocean Engineering, Vol. 37, 2010, pp. 667-677.
 
[8]  Natvig, B. J., Vogel, H., “TLP design philosophy—past, present, future”, In: Proceedings of ISOPE, The Hague, 1995, pp. 64-69.
 
[9]  Gasim, M. A., Kurian, V. J., Narayanan, S. P., Kalaikumar, V., “Responses of Square and Triangular TLPs Subjected to Random Waves”, In: proceeding of ICCBT, Malaysia, 2008, pp. 133-140.
 
[10]  Joseph, A., Lalu Mangal and Precy Sara George, 2009, “Coupled Dynamic Response of a Three-Columns Mini TLP.”, Ocean Engineering 33, 2009, pp. 620-634.
 
[11]  Low, Y. M., “Frequency domain analysis of a tension leg platform with statistical linearization of the tendon restoring forces”, Marine Structures, Vol. 22, 2009, pp.480-503.
 
[12]  Low, Y. M., “Influence of the setdown of a tension leg platform on the extreme airgap Response”, Applied Ocean Research 32, 2010, pp. 11-19.
 
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Article

Use of Ceramic Waste as Filler in Semi-Dense Bituminous Concrete

1Junior Research Scholar, Civil Engineering Department, S.V. National Institute of Technology Surat-395007, Gujarat, India

2Post graduate student, TEP Civil Engineering Department, S.V. National Institute of Technology Surat-395007, Gujarat, India

3B. Tech (Civil) Student, Civil Engineering Department, S.V. National Institute of Technology Surat-395007, Gujarat, India

4Associate Professor, Civil Engineering Department, S.V. National Institute of Technology Surat-395007, Gujarat, India


American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture. 2014, 2(3), 102-106
DOI: 10.12691/ajcea-2-3-2
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Electricwala Fatima, Sadanand Sahu, Ankit Jhamb, Rakesh Kumar. Use of Ceramic Waste as Filler in Semi-Dense Bituminous Concrete. American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture. 2014; 2(3):102-106. doi: 10.12691/ajcea-2-3-2.

Correspondence to: Rakesh  Kumar, Associate Professor, Civil Engineering Department, S.V. National Institute of Technology Surat-395007, Gujarat, India. Email: krakesh@ced.svnit.ac.in

Abstract

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the suitability of ceramic waste as a filler material in Semi-Dense Bituminous Concrete. A bituminous concrete mixes with ceramic dust and hydrated lime were prepared in different proportions (3% and 5%) as filler. The amount of optimum binder content was determined by Marshall Stability test for samples. The mechanical performance was determined for Marshall Stability, deformation behavior or flow, as well as for density and void characteristics base on prevailing Indian standards specifications. Results show that the stability values and other parameters of samples containing ceramic wastes are improved in comparison to conventional mineral filler. The benefits of using ceramic waste in bituminous concrete mixture as mineral filler (3-5%) are therefore recommended. The replacement of conventional filler like lime and other mineral in bituminous concrete by ceramic wastes will have major environmental benefits.

Keywords

References

[[[[[[[[[[[
[[1]  Electricwala Fatima, Ankit Jhamb, Rakesh Kumar (2013) ‘Ceramic Dust as Construction Material in Rigid Pavement’, American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture 1 (5), 112-116.
 
[[2]  Hanifi Binici, (2007) ‘Effect of crushed ceramic and basaltic pumice as fine aggregates on concrete mortars properties’, Construction and Building Materials 21, 1191-1197.
 
[[3]  F. Pacheco-Torgal, S. Jalali “Reusing ceramic wastes in concrete (2010) ‘Construction and Building Materials’, 24: 832-838.
 
[[4]  C. Medina, M.I. Sanchez de Rojas, M. Frias (2012) ‘Reuse of sanitary ceramic wastes as coarse aggregate in eco-efficient concrete’, Cement & Concrete Composites 34, 48-54.
 
[[5]  Diana Movilla-Quesada, Ángel Vega-Zamanillo, Miguel Ángel Calzada-Pérez, Daniel Castro-Fresno (2012) ‘’, Construction and Building Materials, 29, 339-347.
 
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[6]  Baoshan Huang, Qiao Dong, Edwin G. Burdette (2009) ‘Laboratory evaluation of incorporating waste ceramic materials into portland cement and asphaltic concret’, Construction Building Materials 23, 3451-3456.
 
[7]  Nuran Ay, Mevlut Unal (2000) ‘The use of waste ceramic tile in cement production’, Cement and Concrete Research 30, 497-499.
 
[8]  Mehmet Gesoğlu, Erhan Güneyisi, Mustafa E. Kocabağ, Veysel Bayram, Kasım Mermerdaş (2012) ‘Fresh and hardened characteristics of self compacting concretes made with combined use of marble powder, limestone filler, and fly ash’, Construction and Building Materials, 37, 160-170.
 
[9]  Hüseyin Akbulut, Cahit Gürer, Sedat Çetin, Ayfer Elmacı (2012) ‘Investigation of using granite sludge as filler in bituminous hot mixtures’, Construction and Building Materials, 36, 430-436.
 
[10]  Om prakash Yadav, Manjunath K.R. (2012) ‘Cold Mix Design of Semi-Dense Bituminous Concrete’, IOSR Journal of Mechanical and Civil Engineering, 1 (6), 09-16.
 
[11]  N K S Pundhir, C Kamaraj, P K Nanda (2005) ‘Use of Copper Slag as Construction Material in Bituminous Pavements’, Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research, 64, 997-1002.
 
[12]  Moncef Nehdi (2000) ‘Why some carbonate fillers cause rapid increases of viscosity in dispersed cement-based materials’, Cement and Concrete Research, 30 (10), 1663-1669.
 
[13]  İsmail Uzun, Serdal Terzi (2012) ‘’, Construction and Building Materials, 31, 284-288.
 
[14]  IS: 2386, (2007) ‘Indian Standard Method of Test for Aggregates for Concrete’, BIS, New Delhi.
 
[15]  BIS 12269: (1987) ‘Specification for 53 grade ordinary Portland cement’, 5th Revision, BIS, New Delhi.
 
[16]  MORT&H (2013) ‘Ministry of Road Transportation and Highway (Fifth Revision)’.
 
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Article

Collaborative Learning in Building Sciences Enabled by Augmented Reality

1Department of Architecture, Florida International University, Miami, Florida, US

2Department of Civil, Environmental University of Central Florida, Orlando, Florida, US

3Department of Construction Management, Florida International University, Miami, Florida, US

4School of Computing and Information Sciences, Florida International University, Miami, Florida, US


American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture. 2014, 2(2), 83-88
DOI: 10.12691/ajcea-2-2-5
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Shahin Vassigh, Winifred E Newman, Amir Behzadan, Yimin Zhu, Shu-Ching Chen, Scott Graham. Collaborative Learning in Building Sciences Enabled by Augmented Reality. American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture. 2014; 2(2):83-88. doi: 10.12691/ajcea-2-2-5.

Correspondence to: Shahin  Vassigh, Department of Architecture, Florida International University, Miami, Florida, US. Email: svassigh@fiu.edu

Abstract

This paper presents a comprehensive literature review, a novel pedagogical approach, and plans for developing and testing a collaborative learning environment built upon the capacity of new simulation technologies and augmented reality (AR) for improving sustainable and resilient building design. The project aims at integrating collaborative learning strategies with new simulation technologies and AR to provide a learning environment for interdisciplinary education of architecture, engineering, and construction (AEC).

Keywords

References

[[[[[[[[[[[
[[1]  UNEP, Pekka Huovila. “Building and Climate Change.” Status Challenges and opportunities, United Nations, Environment Program, Sustainable Consumption and Reduction Branch, illustrated edition, 2007.
 
[[2]  National Institute of Building Sciences Annual Report, 2012 [Online]. Available: nibs_2012_annualreport_sm.pdf. [Accessed March. 10, 2014].
 
[[3]  American Institute of Architects (AIA) “Architecture 2030 will Change the Way You Look at Buildings”. [Online]. Available: http://architecture2030.org/the_problem/buildings_problem_why. [Accessed March. 10, 2014].
 
[[4]  Billinghurst, Mark, “Augmented Reality in Education”, December 2002.[Online]. Available: http://www.solomonalexis.com/downloads/ar_edu.pdf.[Accessed March. 10, 2014].
 
[[5]  Behzadan A.H., Dong S., Kamat V.R. (2012), Mobile and Pervasive Construction Visualization Using Outdoor Augmented Reality, In Mobile and Pervasive Computing in Construction, Eds. Chimay J. Anumba and Xiangyu Wang, John Wiley & Sons, United Kingdom, 2012, 54-85.
 
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[6]  Azuma R., A Survey of Augmented Reality, Tele-operators and Virtual Environments, Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments 6,4, August 1997, 355-385.
 
[7]  Billinghurst, M. and Kato, H. Collaborative Augmented Reality. IEEE Communications of the ACM, 45 (7), 2002, 64-70.
 
[8]  Yuen, S., G. Yaoyuneyong, and E & Johnson. “Augmented reality.” An overview and five directions for AR in education. Journal of Educational Technology Development and Exchange, 2011: 4(1), 119-140.
 
[9]  Shirazi A., Behzadan A.H. “Assessing the Pedagogical Value of Augmented Reality-Based Learning in Construction Engineering”, In Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Construction Applications of Virtual Reality (CONVR), London, UK. 2013.
 
[10]  National Research Council (NRC), Informing Decisions in a Changing Climate. The National Academies Press, Washington DC., 2009. [Online]: Available: http://www.nap.edu/catalog.php?record_id=12626.[Accessed March. 10, 2014].
 
[11]  Brooks, F.P., Jr. (1999) “What’s real about virtual reality?” IEEE National Research Council of the National Academies, “Learning Science Through Computer Games an Simulations”, The National Academies Press, Washington DC, 2011.
 
[12]  Hmelo-Silver, Cindy E., Problem-Based Learning: What and How Do Students Learn?, 2004, 235-261.
 
[13]  Smith, B., Macgregor, J. What is Collaborative Learning? Washington Center for Improving the Quality of Undergraduate Education, 2013 [Online]: Available: https://umdrive.memphis.edu/ggholson/public/collab.pdf, P.2. [Accessed March 10, 2014].
 
[14]  Doise, W. & Mugny, W., “The Social Development of the Intellect”. Oxford: Pergamon Press. [1984].
 
[15]  Dillenbourg, P., Baker, M., Blaye, A. & O’Malley, C. “The evolution of research on collaborative learning.” [1996].
 
[16]  Wells, G., Dialogic Inquiry in Education: Building on the Legacy of Vygotsky, 1999. [Online]. Available: https://www.csun.edu/~SB4310/601%20files/dialogicinquiry.pdf.
 
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Article

Project Control Factors at Front End: Indian Perspective

1Associate Professor, CEPT University, India

2Sardar Vallabhbhai National Institute of Technology, Surat


American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture. 2014, 2(2), 77-82
DOI: 10.12691/ajcea-2-2-4
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Devanshu Pandit, S.M. Yadav. Project Control Factors at Front End: Indian Perspective. American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture. 2014; 2(2):77-82. doi: 10.12691/ajcea-2-2-4.

Correspondence to: Devanshu  Pandit, Associate Professor, CEPT University, India. Email: devanshu@cept.ac.in

Abstract

The role of project control is to create a system, procedures and tools to monitor and control project delivery. The performance measurement is carried out on continuous basis and action is taken to ensure that project performance objectives are achieved. Although considerable amount of planning and organizing is required at front end, actual monitoring takes place during implementation. Poor definition of control parameters in the front end leads to poor project control brief to the other project participants namely client, consultants and contractors It is required that project control planning should start from beginning to improve the project management efficiency. The research identifies the important project control factors in the project development stage. Two brainstorming sessions resulted in identification of 18 factors that are classified into five project control areas. Analytical hierarchy process as a group decision making tool was used to make a pair-wise comparison to assign weightage to each project control group and factor. The study of weight indicates that quality (32.71%) and safety (23.64%) controls are preferred over schedule (14.74%) and cost (12.48%). Weightage derived is used to create Project Control Index (PCI). Value of PCI helps to understand the level of project controls established in the project during project development on ongoing basis. Weights and PCI guides project manager in setting and achieving project objectives.

Keywords

References

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Article

Transformation of Slum and Squatter Settlements: A Way of Sustainable Living in Context of 21st Century Cities

1Department of Architecture, American International University-Bangladesh, Dhaka, Bangladesh


American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture. 2014, 2(2), 70-76
DOI: 10.12691/ajcea-2-2-3
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Mania Tahsina Taher, Arefeen Ibrahim. Transformation of Slum and Squatter Settlements: A Way of Sustainable Living in Context of 21st Century Cities. American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture. 2014; 2(2):70-76. doi: 10.12691/ajcea-2-2-3.

Correspondence to: Arefeen  Ibrahim, Department of Architecture, American International University-Bangladesh, Dhaka, Bangladesh. Email: arefeen@aiub.edu; maniataher@aiub.edu

Abstract

The Squatter settlements in many of 21st century urban cities are inevitable phenomena. Living condition in these settlements suffer from overcrowding, inadequate accommodation, limited access to clean water and sanitation, lack of proper waste disposal system and deteriorating air quality. Squatter settlements are increasingly seen by public decision-makers as ‘slums of hope’ rather than ‘slums of despair’. There is abundant evidence of innovative solutions developed by the poor to improve their own living environments. This paper will assess the question if ideas of contemporary architecture can be implemented in providing ecological living for squatter settlements, along with a discussion on probable suggestions in relation to their daily living pattern. The paper also presents several case studies of sustainable living in high-density urban areas and slum settlements in different context, finally concludes providing some strategies and policies that might be helpful to the policy makers in providing sustainable settlement for urban squatter dwellers.

Keywords

References

[[[[[[[
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[6]  Written and published by Architecture for Humanity, ‘Design like You Give a Damn’, 2007.
 
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[9]  Smith, David, ‘Best Practices in Slum Improvement: The case of Sao Paulo, Brazil’: Development Innovations Group (DIG).
 
[10]  Jencks, Charles, ‘Modern Movements in Architecture: New Edition, Including a Postscript on Late- and Post- Modern Architecture’, Penguin, 1995.
 
[11]  Baker, Laurie, “What can we do with a slum?” Source: THE HINDU Vol. 14: No. 16: Aug. 9-22, 1997.
 
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Article

Influence of Fibers and Fly Ash on Mechanical Properties of Concrete

1Civil Engineering Department, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, P.O. Box, India

2Civil Engineering Department, Fahad Bin Sultan University, Tabuk Saudi Arabia P.O. Box, K.S.A.

3Specialty units for safety and Preservation of Structures, Civil Engineering Department, King Saud University, Saudi Arabia P.O. Box, K.S.A.


American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture. 2014, 2(2), 64-69
DOI: 10.12691/ajcea-2-2-2
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
J.N. Akhtar, T. Ahmad, M.N. Akhtar, H. Abbas. Influence of Fibers and Fly Ash on Mechanical Properties of Concrete. American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture. 2014; 2(2):64-69. doi: 10.12691/ajcea-2-2-2.

Correspondence to: J.N.  Akhtar, Civil Engineering Department, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, P.O. Box, India. Email: jannisar_akhtar@rediffmail.com

Abstract

The Present study was carried out to evaluate the influence of addition of Fibres and Class ‘C’ Flyash on the mechanical properties of concrete. Fibre Reinforced Concrete (FRC) is very useful in extreme climate where shrinkage of concrete causes cracks. The Fibre Reinforced Flyash concrete (FRFAC) has been successfully used to minimize cavitations / damages in hydraulics structures. The FRC with and without Fly ash was tested with the fraction of volume of the steel Fibre in concrete which varied from 0.0 to 1.0%. For determining, the compressive strength & permeability cubes of 150 mm size were prepared. Nine cubes of each series were prepared; out of nine, three were used for determining the strength & permeability of cracked & un-cracked concrete. The formation of additional calcium silicate hydrates in the hydrated cement matrix because of the addition of fly ash in FRFAC results in its improved characteristics. The initial tangent modulus of FRC and FRFAC is found to be independent of the quantity of Fibers. The experimental investigation shows that the increase in the Fibre content increases the compressive strength, crushing strain and Poisson’s Ratio of FRC and FRFAC. While increasing the Fibre content, the permeability of concrete reduced. The mode of cracking has been discussed.

Keywords

References

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[[1]  Topçu IB and Canbaz (2007) M. Effect of different fibers on the mechanical properties of concrete containing fly ash. Construction and Building Materials; 21: 1486-1491.
 
[[2]  Sahmaran M and Yaman IO (2007) Hybrid fiber reinforced self-compacting concrete with a high-volume coarse fly ash. Construction and Building Materials 2007; 21: 150-156.
 
[[3]  Sukumar B. et al. (2007) Evaluation of strength at early ages of self- compacting concrete with high volume fly ash. Construction and Building Materials 2007: In press.
 
[[4]  Khunthongkeaw J. et al. (2006) A study on carbonation depth prediction for fly ash concrete. Construction and Building Materials; 20: 744-753.
 
[[5]  Chindaprasirt P. et al. (2007) Strength and water permeability of concrete containing palm oil fuel ash and rice husk–bark ash. Construction and Building Materials; 21: 1492-1499.
 
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[6]  Guneyisi E. et al. (2007) Effect of initial curing on chloride ingress and corrosion resistance characteristics of concretes made with plain and blended Cements. Building and Environment; 42: 2676-2685.
 
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[8]  Pappu A, et al. (2007). Solid Wastes Generation in India and their Recycling Potential in Building Materials. Building and Environment, 42: 2311-2320.
 
[9]  Mun KJ, et al. (2007). Basic Properties of Non-Sintering Cement Using Phosphogypsum and Waste Lime as Activator. Construction and Building Materials, 21: 1342-1350.
 
[10]  Park SB, et al. (2004). Studies on Mechanical Properties of Concrete Containing Waste Glass Aggregate. Cement and Concrete Research, 34: 2181-2189.
 
[11]  T. K Dhar (2004), “Coal Ash Management in Power Sector, Challenges in the New Millennium”, Published in the Proceedings of Workshop on Fly ash and its Applications, held at kalinga Institute of Industrial Technology, Deemed University, Bhubaneshvar pp. 24-34.
 
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[16]  Shetty, M.S. (2003 Edition) Concrete Technology: Theory and Practice, S. Chand & Company Ltd, India.
 
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[18]  Aictin, P.C., High Performance Concrete, E & FN Spon, London, 1998
 
[19]  Galloway, J. E. Jr., “Grading, Shape, and Surface Properties,” ASTM Special Technical Publication No. 169 C, Philadelphia, 1994, pp. 401-410.
 
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[24]  ASTM C 127, Standard Test Method for Specific Gravity and Absorption of Coarse Aggregate, Philadelphia, PA: American Society for Testing and Materials, 2001.
 
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Article

Effect of End Sill in the Performance of Stilling Basin Models

1Department of Civil Engg Maulana Azad National Institute of Technology, Bhopal, India

2Department of Civil Engg National Institute of Technology, Kurukshetra, India


American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture. 2014, 2(2), 60-63
DOI: 10.12691/ajcea-2-2-1
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
H.L. Tiwari, Arun Goel. Effect of End Sill in the Performance of Stilling Basin Models. American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture. 2014; 2(2):60-63. doi: 10.12691/ajcea-2-2-1.

Correspondence to: H.L.  Tiwari, Department of Civil Engg Maulana Azad National Institute of Technology, Bhopal, India. Email: hltiwari@rediffmail.com

Abstract

An experimental investigation on effect of end sill on the performance of stilling basin models for a non circular pipe outlet has been presented in this research paper. New physical models for non circular pipe outlet stilling basin have been developed in the laboratory. These newly models were tested in the laboratory for three Froude numbers namely Fr = 1.85, 2.85 and 3.85. The new models are developed by changing the geometry of end sill of same height while keeping the other configuration of stilling basin geometry same. Total twenty one test runs of one hour duration each were performed. The performance of the models was compared by performance number (PN) to evaluate the performance. The study indicated that, for the given Froude number range, the triangular end sill of height 1d with width 1d (slope 1V:1H), is performing better in comparison to other shapes of the end sill for the given flow conditions. The study also confirmed that there is a significant effect of the shape of the end sill geometry on the performance of the stilling basin models.

Keywords

References

[[[[[[[[[[
[[1]  Alikhani A, Behrozi, R., Fathi, M., “Hydraulic Jump in Stilling Basin with Vertical End Sill,” International Journal of Physical Sciences, 5 (1), 25-29, 2010.
 
[[2]  Bradley, J.N., Peterka, A. J., “Hydraulic Design of Stilling Basins,” Journal of A.S.C.E., Hydraulic Engg, 83 (5), 1401-1406, 1957.
 
[[3]  Fiala, J. R. , Maurice, L. A., “Manifold Stilling Basins,” Journal of A.S.C.E., Hydraulic Div, 87 (4), 55-81, 1961
 
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[[5]  Flammer, G.H, Skogerboe, G.V., Wei, C.Y., Rasheed, H., “Closed Conduit to Open Channel Stilling Basin,” Journal of A.S.C.E., Irrigation and Drainage Div, 96 (1), 1-11, 1970.
 
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[8]  Verma, D.V.S, Goel, A., “Stilling Basins for Outlets Using Wedge Shaped Splitter Blocks,” ASCE Journal of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering, 126 (3), 179-184, 2000.
 
[9]  Tiwari, H.L., Goel, A. and Gahlot, V.K., “Experimental Study of Sill Controlled Stilling Basins for Pipe Outlet,” International Journal of Civil Engg. Research, 2 (2), 107-117, 2011.
 
[10]  Elevatorski, Edward, A., “Hydraulic Energy Dissipators,” McGraw Hill Book Co. Inc., New York. 1959.
 
[11]  Verma, D.V.S., Goel, A., “Development of Efficient stilling basins for pipe outlets,” ASCE Journal of Irrigation and Drainage Eng. 129 (3), 194-200, 2003.
 
[12]  Noshi, H.M., “Energy Dissipation near the Bed Downstream End sill,” IHAR Proceeding, 1-8, 1999,
 
[13]  Mohammed, T.A., Noor, M.J.M.M., Huat, B.K., Ghazali A.H., Yunis, T.S., “Effect of Curvature and End Sill Angle on Scouring at Downstream of a Spillway,” International Journal of Engg and Technology, 1 (1), 96-101, 2004.
 
[14]  Gogus, M., Cambazoglu, M. K., Yazicioglu, M., “Effect of Stilling Basin End sills on the River Bottom Erosion,” Advances in Hydro Science and Engineering, VI, 2006.
 
[15]  H. L. Tiwari, V. K. Gahlot and Seema Tiwari, “Reduction of Scour depth downstream of pipe outlet stilling basin using end sills”, International Journal of Engineering Sciences. 2 (7), 20-25, July 2013.
 
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Article

Social Sustainability of High-rise Buildings

1Assistant Professor, Faculty of Art and Architecture, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran

2Master of Architecture, Kish International Campus, Tehran University, Shiraz, Iran

3Master of Architecture, Faculty of Art and Architecture, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran


American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture. 2014, 2(1), 34-41
DOI: 10.12691/ajcea-2-1-4
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Mohammadjavad Mahdavinejad, Ali Sadraie, Golrokh Sadraie. Social Sustainability of High-rise Buildings. American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture. 2014; 2(1):34-41. doi: 10.12691/ajcea-2-1-4.

Correspondence to: Ali  Sadraie, Master of Architecture, Kish International Campus, Tehran University, Shiraz, Iran. Email: ali.sadraie@gmail.com

Abstract

Nowadays, high-rise buildings have been proposed as a dominant form in world's major cities which its rapid growth has caused social and cultural concerns of the residents of these buildings. Social capital is remembered as a basis for economic development of any society. Its importance can be seen in the economic development of developing countries. Social capital is the invisible wealth of a country that encompasses institutions, relationships and norms that shape social interactions. In this paper, we try to achieve points in the social issues of these buildings with architectural principles and standards. For this purpose, we has been examined the relationship between the three elements of social capital, networks, confidence, partnership and architectural elements such as natural light, security, natural ventilation, visibility, space variability, physical identity, exterior solemnity, quality of entrance and lobby, quantity and quality of roadway and pedestrian access, beautiful landscaping and transfer of the annoying sounds in a number of samples. In this study we have chosen 9 high-rise building in Shiraz (one of the major cities of Iran) and to evaluate them in terms of social capital and architecture in two ways of observation and navigation (questioning residents by questionnaire and sampling) which finally substantially points were achieved in the design of high-rise buildings.

Keywords

References

[[[[[[[[[[[[[[
[[1]  Aregger, H., & Glaus, O., High-rise building and urban design, FA Praeger, 1967.
 
[[2]  Bemanian, MR, High-rise buildings and the city's. First edition, Nashr Shahr institute in Tehran, 2011.
 
[[3]  Coleman James S, Foundations of social theory, 1994.
 
[[4]  Conway,Donald J, Human response to tall building. Hutchinston and Ross Inc, 1977.
 
[[5]  Fukuyama, F, The end of order. London: Social Market Foundation, 1997.
 
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[6]  Kohn, E, The tall Building. In Proceedings of 4th World Congress on Tall Buildings: Tall Buildings, translated by Farzaneh Taheri, Quoted from the book: on the fundamental issues of Tall building, 2000, 17-36.
 
[7]  Khavari, Zahra, The effect of social capital indicators on economic conditions of Neighborhood Case study: Tollab Neighborhood, Municipal management letter especial edition, 2011: 277-298.
 
[8]  Lang, J. T, Creating architectural theory: The role of the behavioral sciences in environmental design, New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1987.
 
[9]  Mousavi, Mir Taher, Community involvement: a component of social capital, Journal of Social Welfare, No. 23, 2006, 67-92.
 
[10]  Onyx, J., & Bullen, P, Measuring social capital in five communities in NSW: An analysis. University of Technology, Sydney, Centre for Australian Community Organisations and Management (CACOM), 1997.
 
[11]  Spellerberg, A, Framework for the measurement of social capital in New Zealand. Wellington: Statistics New Zealand, 2001.
 
[12]  Tavassoli, Gh, The concept of capital in classical theories, social sciences letters, No. 26, 2005, 1-32.
 
[13]  Mahdavinejad, M., Abedi, M. Community-Oriented Landscape Design for Sustainability in Architecture and Planning, Procedia Engineering, 2011, 21: 337-344.
 
[14]  Mahdavinejad, M., Bemanian, M., Hajian, M., Pilechiha, P. Usage of Indigenous Architectural Patterns for Manufacturing Industrial Housing, Case: Renovation Project of Odlajan of Tehran, Iran, Advanced Materials Research, 2012, 548: 875-879.
 
[15]  Mahdavinejad, M., Moradchelleh, A. Family-Led Method in Art Education and Learning, Case: Tehran, Iran, Middle-East Journal of Scientific Research, 2011, 9 (4): 554-560.
 
[16]  Mahdavinejad, M. Rezaei Ashtiani, S., Ebrahimi, M., Shamshirband, M. Proposing a Flexible Approach to Architectural Design as a Tool for Achievement Eco-Friendly Multi-Purpose Buildings, Advanced Materials Research, 2012, 622-623: 1856-1859.
 
[17]  Mahdavinejad, M., Mashayekhi, M., Ghaedi, A. Designing Communal Spaces in Residential Complexes, Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 2012, 51: 533-539.
 
[18]  Chiesura A. The role of urban parks for sustainable city, Landscape and Urban Planning, 2004: 129-138.
 
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Article

Correlation between Engineering Stress-Strain and True Stress-Strain Curve

1Faculty of Civil Engineering, Universiti Teknologi, Malaysia, Skudai, Johor. Malaysia

2Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi, Malaysia, Skudai, Johor. Malaysia


American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture. 2014, 2(1), 53-59
DOI: 10.12691/ajcea-2-1-6
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Iman Faridmehr, Mohd Hanim Osman, Azlan Bin Adnan, Ali Farokhi Nejad, Reza Hodjati, Mohammadamin Azimi. Correlation between Engineering Stress-Strain and True Stress-Strain Curve. American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture. 2014; 2(1):53-59. doi: 10.12691/ajcea-2-1-6.

Correspondence to: Mohd  Hanim Osman, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Universiti Teknologi, Malaysia, Skudai, Johor. Malaysia. Email: mhaim@utm.my

Abstract

The most commonly accepted method in evaluation of the mechanical properties of metals would be the tension test. Its main objective would be to determine the properties relevant to the elastic design of machines and structures. Investigation of the engineering and true Stress-strain relationships of three specimens in conformance with ASTM E 8 – 04 is the aim of this paper. For the purpose of achieving this aim, evaluation of values such as ultimate tensile strength, yield strength, percentage of elongation and area reduction, fracture strain and Young's Modulus was done once the specimens were subjected to uniaxial tensile loading. The results indicate that the properties of steel materials are independent from their thickness and they generally yield and fail at the same stress and strain values. Also, it is concluded that the maximum true stress values are almost 15% higher than that of the maximum engineering stress values while the maximum true strain failure values are 1.5% smaller than the maximum engineering strain failure values.

Keywords

References

[
[[1]  Standard Test Methods for Tension Testing of Metallic Materials, D.o. Defense., Editor August 2013, American Society of Testing and Materials (ASTM)
 
[[2]  Metallic materials - Tensile testing, July 2001, BRITISH STANDARD.
 
[[3]  Japanese Industrial Standards (JIS), J.S.A. (JSA), Editor 2005.
 
[[4]  Standard Test Methods for Mechanical Testing of Steel Products-Metric ASTM A 1058b, 2012, DIN Deutsches Institut für Normung e. V.
 
[[5]  Standard Test Methods for Tension Testing Wrought and Cast Aluminum- and Magnesium-Alloy Products, A.S.f.T.a. Materials, Editor 2010, DIN Deutsches Institut für Normung e. V.
 
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[6]  Roylance, D., Stress-strain curves. Massachusetts Institute of Technology study, Cambridge, 2001.
 
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Article

Energy Absorption Capacity of Reinforced Concrete Beam-Column Connections, with Ductility Classes Low

1Department of Structure & Material, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM), Skudai, Johor Bahru, Malaysia


American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture. 2014, 2(1), 42-52
DOI: 10.12691/ajcea-2-1-5
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Mohammadamin Azimi, Azlan Bin Adnan, Mohd Hanim Osman, Abdul Rahman Bin Mohd Sam, Iman Faridmehr, Reza Hodjati. Energy Absorption Capacity of Reinforced Concrete Beam-Column Connections, with Ductility Classes Low. American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture. 2014; 2(1):42-52. doi: 10.12691/ajcea-2-1-5.

Correspondence to: Mohd  Hanim Osman, Department of Structure & Material, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM), Skudai, Johor Bahru, Malaysia. Email: mhaim@utm.my

Abstract

Once the behaviour of reinforced concrete moment resisting frame structures is investigated, it is concluded that the performance of beam column connections is not satisfactory. In order to understand the complex mechanisms and satisfactory behaviour of beam column connections, lots of investigations have been done. The most critical zone in reinforced concrete moment resisting frames would be the beam column connection. The behaviour of beam column connection once it is subjected to large forces during earthquakes has a great impact on the response of the structure. The shear failure has a brittle nature which is not a desirable structural performance during earthquakes. Two new types of shear reinforcements design are introduced in this study for the purpose of reaching a higher performance and material capacity for the connection and hence, the structure. These two shear reinforcement designs working simultaneously with other reinforcement systems and concrete have a better performance compared to that of conventional methods. The first specimen is made according to conventional method of design as control specimens in conformance with Euro code EC2 & EC8. The second specimen introduces a continued shear resistance system against discontinued conventional shear resistance system (stirrups) which is called “Single Square Spring Shear Resistance System” (SSSSRS). The third specimen possesses two continued square spring systems twisting together and making a parallel system called “Double Square Spring Shear Resistance System” (DSSSRS). A comparison was made between the performances of the improved shear reinforcement systems of beam-column connections against the control specimens. It was concluded that a lower deflection along with higher energy absorption was achieved for “Single Square Spring Shear Resistance System” (SSSSRS) and “Double Square Spring Shear Resistance System” (DSSSRS) compared to control specimens.

Keywords

References

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[6]  Tavarez, F.A., (2001), “Simulation of Behavior of Composite Grid Reinforced Concrete Beams Using Explicit Finite Element Methods,” Master’s Thesis, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin.
 
[7]  Kachlakev, D.; Miller, T.; Yim, S., May, 2001, “Finite Element Modeling of Reinforced Concrete Structures Strengthened With FRP Laminates”, California Polytechnic State University, San Lius Obispo, CA and Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR for Oregon Department of Transportation, May.
 
[8]  A.G.Tsonos, et.al., "Seismic resistance of Type 2 Exterior Beam column joints reinforced with inclined bars" The ACI structural Journal, Title No. 89-S1. 1992.
 
[9]  Park, R and Paulay.T., "Behaviour of Reinforced Concrete Beam-Column Joints Under Cyclic Loading", Proceedings Fifth World Conference on Earthquake Engineering, Rome, Paper 88, pp. 10, 1973.
 
[10]  Paulay, T., Park, R. and Birss, G.R., "Elastic Beam-Column Joints for Ductile Frames, Proceedings 7th World Confe-rence on Earthquake Engineering, Istanbul, Vol. 6, pp. 331-338, 1980.
 
[11]  Thirugnanam.G.S., 2001, "Ductile behavior of SIFCON Structural member" Journals of Structural engineering, Vo-lume 28, No.1, pp 27-32, 2001.
 
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[15]  Lakshmi G.A, Anjan Dutta, Deb S.K Grim, R.E., 2008. Numerical Study of Strengthening of Beam Column Joints under Cyclic Excitation Using FRP Composites, Journal of structural engineering, vol. 35, pp 59-65.
 
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Article

The Effect of Submerged-Vanes on Formation Location of the Saddle Point in Lateral Intake from a Straight Channel

1Department of Water Structures Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran

2IIHR-Hydroscience & Engineering, the University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA, USA


American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture. 2014, 2(1), 26-33
DOI: 10.12691/ajcea-2-1-3
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Seyed Hessam Seyed Mirzaei, Seyed Ali Ayyoubzadeh, Ali Reza Firoozfar. The Effect of Submerged-Vanes on Formation Location of the Saddle Point in Lateral Intake from a Straight Channel. American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture. 2014; 2(1):26-33. doi: 10.12691/ajcea-2-1-3.

Correspondence to: Seyed  Ali Ayyoubzadeh, Department of Water Structures Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran. Email: ayyoub@modares.ac.ir

Abstract

One of the most important problems that the river engineers have long been faced with lateral intake from rivers is sedimentation in intakes. Formation of the saddle point nearby the intake entrance is one of the main reasons for entry of the sediments into the intake channel. Using the structures in the rivers causes change of the flow pattern and consequently changing of the formation location of the saddle point. The submerged vanes are one of the structures that are installed with different dimensions and configuration in front of the intake channel to control the sediment issues,. In this study the impact of the submerged vanes dimensions and configuration on the formation location of saddle point has been investigated. The FLUENT mathematical model has been used for the simulation. Various range of the parameters has been considered for them based on the recommended range, and the simulations have been performed in three intake ratios of 0.11, 0.16 and 0.21. The results showed that increasing the vanes height has a positive effect on intake conditions, and results in formation of the saddle point in a distance farther from the intake entrance and omission of the return flows. Utilization of submerged vanes with larger transverse distance is better for intake from rivers as no flow from downstream side of the intake channel returns to it. As the intake ratio increases the saddle point forms at a distance closer to the intake entrance, and the return flows are entered into the intake from the downstream corner of the intake entrance. Formation location of the saddle point is independent from other parameters.

Keywords

References

[
[[1]  Barkdoll, B. D., “Sediment control at lateral diversions,” PhD dissertation, Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Iowa, Iowa city, Iowa. 1997.
 
[[2]  FLUENT user’s guide manual-version 6.3.26,” Fluent Incorporated, New Hampshire., 2006.
 
[[3]  Neary, V. S., Sotiropoulos, F., and Odgaard, A. J., “Three-dimensional numerical model of lateral-intake inflows,” Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, ASCE, 125 (2):126-140. 1999.
 
[[4]  Omidbeigi, M., A., “Experimental investigation and three dimensional numerical simulation of lateral intake with submerged vanes, M.Sc. dissertation. Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran. 2010.
 
[[5]  Seyed Mirzaei, S., H., “Determination of appropriate dimensions and configuration of submerged vanes in lateral intake of river using FLUENT mathematical model,” M.Sc. dissertation. Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran. 2011.
 
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[6]  Taylor, E., “Flow characteristics at rectangular open channel junction,” Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, ASCE, 10 (6).893-902. Jun. 1944.
 
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Article

Determination of the Shape Function of a Multiple Cracked Beam Element and Its Application for the Free Vibration Analysis of a Multiple Cracked Frame Structure

1Faculty of Civil Engieering, University of Civil Engineering, Hanoi, Vietnam

2V-CIC, Hanoi, Vietnam


American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture. 2014, 2(1), 12-25
DOI: 10.12691/ajcea-2-1-2
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Tran Van Lien, Trinh Anh Hao. Determination of the Shape Function of a Multiple Cracked Beam Element and Its Application for the Free Vibration Analysis of a Multiple Cracked Frame Structure. American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture. 2014; 2(1):12-25. doi: 10.12691/ajcea-2-1-2.

Correspondence to: Tran  Van Lien, Faculty of Civil Engieering, University of Civil Engineering, Hanoi, Vietnam. Email: LienTV@hotmail.com

Abstract

Assessment of the behavior of damaged structures as well as determination of the locations and the depths of cracks in multiple cracked structures are very important and attractive for many researchers. This article presents some results on the determination of the vibration shape function of a multiple cracked elastic beam element, which is modeled as an assembly of intact sub-segments connected by massless rotational springs. Algorithms and computer programs to analyse changes of natural mode shapes of multiple cracked beams have been determined. Numerical analysis of natural mode shapes of cracked simple support beams using the obtained expression shows a good agreement in comparison with the well-known analytical methods. The methodology approach and results presented in this article are new and the basis for building an efficient method to identify cracks in frame structures using wavelet analysis of mode shapes.

Keywords

References

[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[
[[1]  Tran Thanh Hai (2011), Diagnosis of cracked beams by using vibration methods, PhD thesis, Institute of Mechanics, Vietnamese.
 
[[2]  Tran Van Lien (2003), The inverse problems in mechanics and its application, PhD thesis, National University of Civil Engineering, Vietnamese.
 
[[3]  Adams R.D., Cawley P., Pie C.J. and Stone B.J.A. (1978), “A vibration technique for non-destructively assessing the integrity of structures”, Journal of Mechanical Engineering Science, 20, 93-100.
 
[[4]  Bathe K.J. (1996), Finite Element Procedures, Prence-Hall.
 
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[7]  Nguyen Xuan Hung (1999), Dynamics of structures and its application in structural identification, Institute of Applied Mechanics, National Center for Natural Science and Technology.
 
[8]  Khiem N.T., Lien T.V. (2001), “A simplified method for frequency analysis of multiple cracked beam”, Journal of Sound and Vibration, 245 (4), 737-751.
 
[9]  Nguyen Tien Khiem and Dao Nhu Mai (1997), “Natural frequency analysis of cracked beam”, Vietnam Journal of Mechanics, NCNST of Vietnam, 19 (2), 28-38.
 
[10]  Leung A.Y.T. (1993), Dynamic Stiffness and Substructures, Springer-Verlag, London.
 
[11]  Rao S.S. (1986), Mechanical vibrations. Second Edition, Addison-Wesley Pub Company.
 
[12]  Sato H. (1983), “Free vibration of beams with abrupt changes of cross-section”, Journal of Sound and Vibration, 89, 59-64.
 
[13]  Shrifin E.I. and Ruotolo R. (1999) “Natural frequencies of a beam with an arbitrary number of cracks”, Journal of Sound and Vibration, 222 (3), 409-423.
 
[14]  Khiem N.T., Lien T.V. (2004), “Multi-crack detection for beam by the natural frequencies”, Journal of Sound and Vibration, 273 (1-2), 175-184.
 
[15]  Chondros T.G., Dimarogonas A.D. and Yao J. (1998), “A continuous cracked beam vibration theory”, Journal of Sound and Vibration, 215 (1), 17-34.
 
[16]  Haisty B.S. and Springer W.T. (1988), “A general beam element for use in damage assessment of complex structures”, Journal of Vibration, Acoustics, Stress and Reliability in Design, 110, 389-394.
 
[17]  Gounaris G., Dimarogonas A. (1988), “A finite element of a cracked prismatic beam for structural analysis”, Computers and Structures, 28, 309-313.
 
[18]  Khiem N.T., Lien T.V. (2002), “The dynamic stiffness matrix method in forced vibration analysis of multiple cracked beam”, Journal of Sound and Vibration, 254 (3), 541-555.
 
[19]  Zheng D.Y., Kessissoglou N.J. (2004), “Free vibration analysis of a cracked beam by finite element method”, Journal of Sound and Vibration, Vol 273 (3), 457-475.
 
[20]  Baris Binici (2005),”Vibration of beam with multiple open cracks subjected to axial force”, Journal of Sound and Vibration, Vol 287 (1-2), 277-295.
 
[21]  Brasiliano A., Doz G. N., Brito J.L.V. (2004),”Damage identification in continuous beams and frame structures using the residual error method in the movement equation”, Nuclear Engineering and Design, 227, 1-17.
 
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Article

Bituminous Materials with a High Resistance to Flow Rutting

1Department of Civil Engineering, University of Tlemcen, Abou Bekr Belkaid, Algeria

2Department of Civil Engineering, University of Djillali Liabèsse, Sidi Bel Abbès, Algeria

3Engineer Highway and Environment, East-West Highway (ANA / DPN), Algeria


American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture. 2014, 2(1), 1-11
DOI: 10.12691/ajcea-2-1-1
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Kerboua Mohammed, Megnounif. A, Benguediab. M, Benrahou. KH, Kaoulala. F. Bituminous Materials with a High Resistance to Flow Rutting. American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture. 2014; 2(1):1-11. doi: 10.12691/ajcea-2-1-1.

Correspondence to: Kerboua  Mohammed, Department of Civil Engineering, University of Tlemcen, Abou Bekr Belkaid, Algeria. Email: kerbouammed@yahoo.fr

Abstract

The importance of developing an analysis of the flexural behavior of beams is related firstly to the use of beams as a basic element in the realization of structures, and also to characterize the mechanical properties of laminates and sandwich materials from bending test performed on specimens shaped beams. Determining the mechanical behavior of pavement materials is used to calculate the distribution of stresses and strains in the pavement as the rigidity of the materials to determine the thickness to set up according to the resistance of these materials to different damage mechanisms, depending on climate and traffic. Comparison of the mechanical behavior of materials used to make a selection of the type of materials and interventions based on their performance. In addition, knowledge of the mechanical behavior of materials used to develop specifications based on the on the physical properties of these materials and selection criteria for the type of intervention based on a cost analysis of the life cycle. This study examines the mechanical behavior of a bituminous material quasi-compact. It aims to develop a pattern of behavior meets the requirements for industrial exploitation. Experimental responses show a behavior similar to that of concrete, namely the asymmetry. Only the normal stress is taken into account. Although for different layers, the normal distribution of the stress is linear and is based only on the depth of the beam. However, the stress distribution in the beam is not perfectly linear but piecewise linear.

Keywords

References

[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[
[[1]  Ali B., Shahrour I., Dumont A. G. et Perret J. Modelling of Rutting in Asphalt Flexible Pavement. 10th International Conference on Asphalt Pavements. 2006.
 
[[2]  Corté J. F. et Di Benedetto H. Matériaux routiers bitumineux 1, Vol 1. Hermes Lavoisier, 2004.
 
[[3]  Di Benedetto H. et Corté J. F. Matériaux routiers bitumineux 2, Vol 2. Hermes Lavoisier, 2005.
 
[[4]  K.A. GUZLAN & S.H. CARPENTER-"Energy-derived, damage-based failure criterion for fatigue testing"-Transportation Research Record-n 1723-pp. 141-149-2000.
 
[[5]  Y. LEFEUVRE, C. DE LA ROCHE & J.M. PIAU.-"Asphalt material fatigue test under cyclic loading: an interpretation based on a viscoelastic model including unilateral damage"-Eurasphalt and Eurobitume Congress-Barcelona-sept. 2000.
 
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[6]  Bezazi A., El Mahi A., Berthélot J-M., Bezazi B., 2009. “Experimental analysis of behavior and damage of sandwich composite materials in three-point bending. Part 2. Fatigue test results and damage mechanisms.” Strength of Materials, vol. 41, pp 257-267.
 
[7]  El Mahi A., Bezazi A., 2008. “Describing the Flexural Behaviour of Cross-ply Laminates Under Cyclic Fatigue.” Appl Compos Mater, vol. 16, pp 33-53.
 
[8]  Marec A., Thomas J.-H., El Guerjouma R., 2008. “Damage characterization of polymer-based composite materials: Multivariable analysis and wavelet transform for clustering acoustic emission data.” Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing, vol. 22 (6), pp. 1441-1464.
 
[9]  Godin N., Huguet S., Gaertner R., 2005. “Integration of the Kohonen’s selforganising map and k-means algorithm for the segmentation of the AE data collected during tensile tests on cross-ply composites.” Non destructive Testing and Evaluation Int., vol. 38, pp. 299-309.
 
[10]  Zeng, M., Bahia, H.U., Zahai, H., Anerson, MR., Turner, P., Annuel meeting of th association of asphalt paving technologists, 2001.
 
[11]  LU, X., Influence of polymer modificationon low temperature behaviour of bituminous binders and mixters, Zurch, 2003.
 
[12]  SALENÇON, J. (1983), Viscoelasticity: Course of calculation of the inelastic structures, Paris: Press National school of the Highways Departments, 88 p.
 
[13]  DI BENEDETTO (H.), SOLTANI (A.), CHAVEROT (P.)-has rational approach for tiredness ramming-1st European Eurobitume and Eurasphalt Congress, Strasbourg, 1996 A.
 
[14]  YOUNG F., MINDESS S., GRAY R. and BENTUR A. (1998). The science and technology off civil engineering materials. Prentice Hall
 
[15]  ELABD AND Al, 2004 ELABD A., HORNYCH P., BREYSSE D., DENIS A. AND CHAZALLON turnover simplified method off prediction off pavement deformations off unbound pavement layers. 6th International Symposium one Unbound Pavement. 2004.
 
[16]  Dessouky Samer Hassan. Multiscale Approach for Modeling Hot Mix Asphalt. Thèse: Texas A & M University, 2005.
 
[17]  Doubbaneh (E.)-Comportement mécanique des enrobés bitumineux des petites aux grandes déformations-Thèse de doctorat de l’Ecole Nationale des Travaux Publics de l’Etat, 1995.
 
[18]  Linder (R.). -Application de l'essai de traction directe aux enrobés bitumineux-Bulletin de Liaison des Laboratoires des Ponts et Chaussées, N Spécial V, pp. 255-274, 1977.
 
[19]  Huet (C.) -Etude par une méthode d'impédance du comportement visco-élastique des matériaux hydrocarbonés-Thèse de Docteur-Ingénieur, Faculté des Sciences de Paris, 1963.
 
[20]  Mandel (J.) -Cours de mécanique des milieux continus, Tomes 1 et 2-Ed. Gauthier et Villars, Paris, 1966.
 
[21]  Salencon (J.) -Cours de calcul des structures anélastiques-Viscoélasticité-Presses de l'Ecole Nationale des Ponts et Chaussées-Paris, 1983.
 
[22]  Hénaff. F., Morel. G., 2005. “Fatigue des structures.”, Edition ellipses.
 
[23]  “Resistance of Flexible Pavements to Plastic Deformation” prepared by a road research group of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD).
 
[24]  Adedimila (A. S.), Kennedy (T.W.) -Fatigue and Resilient Characteristics of Asphalt Mixtures by Repeated Load Indirect Tensile Test-Research Report 183-5, Center for Highway Research, The University of Texas-Austin, 1975.
 
[25]  Baburamani (P.S.) -The dissipated energy concept in fatigue characterisation of asphalt mixes-A summary report. Research report ARR 235, Australian Road Research Board, 1992.
 
[26]  Francken, L., Vanelstraete, A., Relation between mix stiffness and binder complex modulus. Eurobitume Workshop, 1995.
 
[27]  DI BENEDETTO H. (1998). Modeling: difference between state of knowledge and applications. Day LAVOC: Federal polytechnic school of Lausanne (FPSL). September, Switzerland, 28 p.
 
[28]  LAVEISSIERE, 2001 LAVEISSIERE D. Modeling of the increase of fatigue crack in the road structures by damage and macro-cracking. Thesis: University of Limoges, 2001.
 
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Article

Virtual 3D Campus Modeling by Using Close Range Photogrammetry

1Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology-Roorkee, Roorkee, Uttrakhand, India

2School of Mechanical & Building Science, Vellore Institute of Technology(VIT) University, Vellore, Tamilnadu, India


American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture. 2013, 1(6), 200-205
DOI: 10.12691/ajcea-1-6-9
Copyright © 2013 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Surendra Pal Singh, Kamal Jain, V.Ravibabu Mandla. Virtual 3D Campus Modeling by Using Close Range Photogrammetry. American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture. 2013; 1(6):200-205. doi: 10.12691/ajcea-1-6-9.

Correspondence to: Surendra  Pal Singh, Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology-Roorkee, Roorkee, Uttrakhand, India. Email: surendra.geomatics@gmail.com

Abstract

Virtual 3D modeling is a very important and hot topic for researchers of Geomatics. Many scientists are working in this direction. All over the world, so many educational institutes are available with its own campus. Campus is the land on which Institute; College or University buildings are situated. In the modern digital era, the demand of 3D Campus is increasing. Virtual 3D model of campus gives a good and photo-realistic appearance. In Geomatics market, So many image based techniques are available for 3D modeling. Photogrammetry and Laser scanning are the main Geomatics techniques. Satellite Photogrammetry and Aerial Photogrammetry is not easy to use by every person, because the images are not easily available for everybody. Due to this a new approach is possible to make virtual 3D Campus. Close Range Photogrammetry is very easy to use. Images are easy to obtain by any handheld digital camera. Cost and Time is main key issue for this. In this paper, we are giving a simple and cheapest solution to create virtual 3D campus of any educational institute by using simple photographs based on Close range Photogrammetry. In this study, we used simple digital images obtained by a Hand held digital camera. This paper will describe the introduction, methodology, advantages, drawbacks and limitations of this method. In this study, we used the study area, Campus of Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee, (Uttrakhand), India. From this study, we find out the height and length of building of Civil Engineering department. The result of this study is also within the permissible limit and acceptable. It is a significance study for 3D modeling by using Close Range Photogrammetry. This 3D campus model can be exported in various other formats for various applications. These 3D models can be exported to Google Earth also. These 3D campus models can also be published on the website of that Institute or University.

Keywords

References

[[[[[[[[[[[[
[[1]  Anuar Ahmad, Lawali Rabiu, “Generation of Three Dimensional Model of Building using Photogrammetric Technique”, IEEE, 7th International Colloquium on Signal Processing and its Applications, 2011.
 
[[2]  Badekas, John, “Photogrammetric Surveys of Monuments and Sites”, International Symposium on Photogrammetric Surveys of Monuments and Sites. Amsterdam, Ed.1975.
 
[[3]  C. Armenakis and Gunho Sohn, “i Campus: 3D Modeling of York University Campus”, ASPRS 2009 Annual Conference, Baltimore, Maryland, March 9-13, 2009.
 
[[4]  Gruin, A., Wang, X., “CyberCity Modeler: a tool for interactive 3- D city model generation”, Photogrammetric week Wichmann, Karlsruhe, 1999.
 
[[5]  Remondino, Fabio, and Sabry El-Hakim., “Image based 3D Modelling: A Review”, The Photogrammetric Record, 21, 115, 269-291, 2006.
 
Show More References
[6]  Singh, Surendra Pal, Jain, Kamal, Mandla V. Ravibabu, “Design and Calibration of Multi Camera setup for 3D City modeling”, International Journal of Engineering Research & Technology (IJERT),Vol. 2, Issue 5, May-2013.
 
[7]  Singh, Surendra Pal, Jain, Kamal, Mandla V. Ravibabu, ”3-D Building Modeling from Close Range Photogrammetry”, International conference in Geomatrix-12, CSRE, Indian Institute of Technology-Bombay, India, Feb 26-29,2012.
 
[8]  Singh, Surendra Pal, Jain, Kamal, Mandla V. Ravibabu, “Virtual 3D City modeling: Techniques and Applications”, 3D GeoInfo 2013, 8th 3D GeoInfo Conference, ISPRS WG II/2 Workshop, “Advances in Multi-scale and multi-dimensional modeling and data representation”, Istanbul, Turkey, 27-29 November, 2013.
 
[9]  Singh, Surendra Pal, Jain, Kamal, Mandla V. Ravibabu, “ Image Based 3D Modeling of Campus (Department of Civil Engineering, IIT Roorkee, Uttarakhand, India) by Using SketchUp”, International Journal of Advanced Civil Engineering and Architecture Research, Volume 2, Issue 1, pp. 65-71, Article ID Tech-168, 2013.
 
[10]  Shashi, M. and Jain, Kamal, “Use of Photogrammetry in 3D Modeling and visualization of buildings”, Asian Research Publishing Network (ARPN) - Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences. Vol. 2, No. 2, April, 2007.
 
[11]  Shashi M. and Jain, Kamal, “Use of Amateur camera in Architectural Photogrammetry”, Map World Forum, Hyderabad, India, 2007.
 
[12]  Stancik,P., “Principle of Streophotogrammetry-3D Point coordinates reconstruction”, conference a soutěže Student EEICT 2004.
 
[13]  Paul E Debevec., et al, “Image-based modeling and rendering of architecture with interactive photogrammetry and view-dependent texture mapping”, Proceedings of the IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems, Volume 5, 31 May-3 June, pp 514-517, 1998.
 
[14]  Waldhäusl P., Ogleby C.,”3 x 3 Rules for simple photogrammetric documentation of architecture”, In: J.G.Fryer (Editor), International Archives of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, Part5, pp 426-429, 1994.
 
[15]  Zlatanova, S., Tempfli, K., “Modelling for 3D GIS:Spatial Analysis and Visualization Through The Web”, IAPRS, Vol. XXXIII, Amsterdam, 2000.
 
[16]  Zulkepli Majid, Halim Setan, Mohamad Ghazali Hashim, Julian Goh, “3D Campus Modeling using Terrestrial Laser Scanning Technology –First Experience in Malaysia”, 3D Geoinfo 2008, Seoul, KOREA, 13-14 November 2008.
 
[17]  Photomodeler (http://www.photomodeler.com).
 
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Article

Investigation of Oil Reservoir Vibration under the Impact of Earthquake in Proper and Corrosion-Occurred Tanks

1Department of Civil Engineering, Master of civil Engineering, The University of Roudehen Branch, Tehran, Iran

2Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Civil Engineering, The University of Roudehen Branch, Tehran, Iran


American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture. 2013, 1(6), 181-199
DOI: 10.12691/ajcea-1-6-8
Copyright © 2013 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Afshin Mansouri, Babak Aminnejad. Investigation of Oil Reservoir Vibration under the Impact of Earthquake in Proper and Corrosion-Occurred Tanks. American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture. 2013; 1(6):181-199. doi: 10.12691/ajcea-1-6-8.

Correspondence to: Afshin  Mansouri, Department of Civil Engineering, Master of civil Engineering, The University of Roudehen Branch, Tehran, Iran. Email: afshinmansoori@gmail.com

Abstract

Steel cylindrical reservoirs had the highest utilization in the field of oil source storage and petrochemical in the recent years due to their significant importance. These types of reservoirs are conventionally made with steady and floating roofs. Long term erosion agents have destructive impacts on dynamic features of these reservoirs. Results of numerical researches demonstrate that the internal corrosion of reservoir walls as a constant dependent to time, which is made due to the connection of fluids and chemical interactions with the internal wall of reservoir causes the corrosion of inside the reservoir wall and reduction in wall stiffness. In this research dynamic behavior of three models of steel cylindrical reservoirs (with the same height to diameter proportion) containing fluid is modeled using ANSYS software by applying the finite element method. In this modeling, features of a cylindrical reservoir containing 0.9 height of liquid is used which its fluid is considered to be incompressible and viscose. First Modal and Harmonic analyses are used to evaluate the natural frequency and formed mode-shapes in the tank-fluid system. These models are compared and verified with the similar and current experimental formulas. Next by applying corrosion on one of the tanks, dynamic features are evaluated using the software. Then some mass is applied in the place of corrosion to the walls of reservoir with proper boundary conditions in several steps, which in each step, the changes in the added mass are considered using the transient analysis and finally the natural frequency is evaluated. This cycle continued until the frequency of reservoir having added mass has equaled to the frequency of corrosion reservoir which this method is called equivalent mass. In the end, the added mass to the reservoir is formulated using mathematical techniques. Based on the analytical results we found that corrosion or long term erosion have remarkable influences on natural frequency, mode-shapes of structures and its vibration.

Keywords

References

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[[1]  Cho. J. R, Song. J. M, Lee. J. K “ Finite element techniques for the free-vibration and seismic analysis of liquid-storage tanks” Finite Elements in Analysis and Design, Vol 37, 2001, pp 467-483.
 
[[2]  Shrimali. M. K, Jangid. R.S “ Seismic response of liquid storage tanks isolated by sliding bearings” Engineering Structures, Vol 24, 2002, pp 909-921.
 
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[[4]  Shrimali. M. K, Jangid. R. S “Non-linear seismic response of base-isolated liquid storage tanks to bi-directional excitation” Nuclear Engineering and Design, Vol 217, 2002, pp 1-20.
 
[[5]  Kyung Hwan Cho, Moon Kyum Kim, Yun Mook Lim, Seong Yong Cho “Seismic response of base-isolated liquid storage tanks considering fluid–structure–soil interaction in time domain” Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, Vol 24, 2004, pp 839-852.
 
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[6]  Pranesh Chatterjee, Biswajit Basu. “Nonstationary seismic response of a tank on a bilinear hysteretic soil using wavelet transform” Probabilistic Engineering Mechanics, Vol 21, 2006, pp 54-63.
 
[7]  Hugo Hernández-Barrios, Ernesto Heredia-Zavoni, Álvaro A. Aldama-Rodríguez “Nonlinear sloshing response of cylindrical tanks subjected to earthquake ground motion” Engineering Structures, Vol 29, 2007, pp 3364-3376.
 
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Article

Determining the Contribution of Different Structural Layers of Asphalt Pavement System to Rutting Using Transverse Profile Analysis

1Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering, University of Engineering & Technology (UET), Taxila, Pakistan

2National Institute of Transportation, School of Civil & Environmental Engineering (SCEE), National University of Sciences & Technology (NUST), Islamabad, Pakistan


American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture. 2013, 1(6), 174-180
DOI: 10.12691/ajcea-1-6-7
Copyright © 2013 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Hussan S., Kamal M. A., Khan M. B., Irfan M., Hafeez I.. Determining the Contribution of Different Structural Layers of Asphalt Pavement System to Rutting Using Transverse Profile Analysis. American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture. 2013; 1(6):174-180. doi: 10.12691/ajcea-1-6-7.

Correspondence to: Hussan  S., Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering, University of Engineering & Technology (UET), Taxila, Pakistan. Email: sabahathussan@yahoo.com

Abstract

Rutting is one of the major distresses which cause hydroplaning and structural failures in a flexible pavement. The extent of damage depends upon the load induced and the strength of each pavement layer. Rutting can occur due to the failure of the subgrade, the base or at the wearing surface/ hot mixasphalt (HMA) layer(s).In order to take remedial measures, it is imperative to be cognizant of the contribution of each layer to ascertain the cause of underlying phenomena of rutting. This research study demonstrates the analysis of the pavement transverse surface profile that could be used to identify the layer responsible for the permanent deformation. Transverse surface profiling techniqueis easier, non-destructive, and economicalas compared to traditional methods of coring and trenching to examine underlying layers. A 300 meter section on National Highway (N-5) was selected exhibiting severe rutting to perform transverse profile analysis. Results of this study suggest that rutting at the selected site is mainly due to the shear failure of HMA layer. These results were also validated by field trenching on the test section. The study concluded that HMA layer should be removed and replaced with appropriately designed high performance mix specifications.

Keywords

References

[[[[[[[[[
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[[2]  Dawley, C.B., Hogewiede B. L., and Anderson, K. O., Mitigation of Instability Rutting of Asphalt Concrete Pavements in Lethbridge, Alberta, Canada.Journal of Association of Asphalt Paving Technologists, Vol. 59, Association of Paving Technologists, St. Paul, Minnesota., 1990: p. 481-508.
 
[[3]  Lenngren, C.A., Some Approaches in Treating Automatically Collected Data on Rutting. Transportation Research Record: Journal of theTransportation Research Board, No. 1196, Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, Washington, D.C., 1988: p. pp. 20-26.
 
[[4]  Gramling, W.L., Hunt, J. E., and Suzuki, G. S., Rational Approach to Cross-Profile and Rut Depth Analysis. Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, No. 1311, Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, Washington, D.C., 1991: p. 173-179.
 
[[5]  Chen, D.H., Bilyeu, J., Walker, D., and Murphy, M., Study of Rut-Depth Measurements. Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, No. 1764, Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, Washington, D.C., 2001: p. 78-88.
 
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[6]  Ali, H.A., Tayabji, S. D., Using Transverse Profile Data to Compute Plastic Deformation Parameters for Asphalt Concrete Pavements. Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, No. 1716, Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, Washington, D.C., 2000: p. 89-97.
 
[7]  Mehta, Y., Roque, R., Lopp, G., and Villiers, C., Evaluation of Road Surface Profiler and Transverse Profilogragh for Determination of Rut Depths. Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, No. 1764, Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, Washington, D.C., 2001: p. 157-163.
 
[8]  Villiers, C., Roque, R., and Dietrich, B., Interpretation of Transverse Profiles to Determine the Source of Rutting within an Asphalt Pavement System. Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, No. 1196, Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, Washington, D.C., 2005: p. 73-81.
 
[9]  Tsai, Y., Wang, Z., Li, F., Assessment of Rut Depth Measurement Using Emerging 3D Continuous Laser Profiling Technology, in Transportation Research Board 90th Annual Meeting. 2011: Washington DC. p. 14.
 
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[14]  White, T.D., Haddock, J. E., Hand, A. J. T., and H., Fang., NCHRP Report 468: Contributions of Pavement Structural Layers to Rutting of Hot Mix Asphalt Pavements.Transportation Research Board, National Research Council, Washington, D.C. 2002.
 
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Article

Early Implementation of Building Information Modeling into a Cold-Formed Steel Company: Providing Novel Project Management Techniques and Solutions to Industry

1School of Planning, Architecture & Civil Engineering, Queen’s University Belfast, Belfast, United Kingdom

2Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand


American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture. 2013, 1(6), 164-173
DOI: 10.12691/ajcea-1-6-6
Copyright © 2013 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Samuel A. Barrett, John P. Spillane, James B. P. Lim. Early Implementation of Building Information Modeling into a Cold-Formed Steel Company: Providing Novel Project Management Techniques and Solutions to Industry. American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture. 2013; 1(6):164-173. doi: 10.12691/ajcea-1-6-6.

Correspondence to: John P. Spillane, School of Planning, Architecture & Civil Engineering, Queen’s University Belfast, Belfast, United Kingdom. Email: j.spillane@qub.ac.uk

Abstract

The ability of building information modeling (BIM) to positively impact projects in the AEC through greater collaboration and integration is widely acknowledged. This paper aims to examine the development of BIM and how it can contribute to the cold-formed steel (CFS) building industry. This is achieved through the adoption of a qualitative methodology encompassing a literature review, exploratory interviews with industry experts, culminating in the development of e-learning material for the sector. In doing so, the research team have collaborated with one of the United Kingdom’s largest cold-formed steel designer/fabricators. By demonstrating the capabilities of BIM software and providing technical and informative videos in its creation, this project has found two key outcomes. Firstly, to provide invaluable assistance in the transition from traditional processes to a fully collaborative 3D BIM as required by the UK Government under the “Government Construction Strategy” by 2016 in all public sector projects. Secondly, to demonstrate BIM’s potential not only within CFS companies, but also within the AEC sector as a whole. As the flexibility, adaptability and interoperability of BIM software is alluded to, the results indicate that the introduction and development of BIM and the underlying ethos suggests that it is a key tool in the development of the industry as a whole.

Keywords

Article

Health and Transportation: the Dangers and Prevalence of Road Rage within the Transportation System

1RK&K Engineers, Baltimore, MD, USA

2Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering, University of Delaware, Newark, DE, USA


American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture. 2013, 1(6), 156-163
DOI: 10.12691/ajcea-1-6-5
Copyright © 2013 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Sean Humphrey, Ardeshir Faghri, Mingxin Li. Health and Transportation: the Dangers and Prevalence of Road Rage within the Transportation System. American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture. 2013; 1(6):156-163. doi: 10.12691/ajcea-1-6-5.

Correspondence to: Mingxin Li, Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering, University of Delaware, Newark, DE, USA. Email: lmx@udel.edu

Abstract

Road rage is accepted as a legitimate danger to the safe, effective, and efficient operation of the transportation system, it is important to understand its prevalence, and the characteristics of drivers that can be used to predict potential for it. By distributing a modified version of the Deffenbacher Driving Anger Scale to a wide variety of drivers and compiling the data collected from that, it was possible to determine just how common driving anger and road rage truly were. It was found that nearly all drivers of either gender and any age were prone to at least moderate levels of anger, though specifics about driver commutes, such as length and type of commute, did significantly influence likelihood of experiencing anger. While it is likely impossible to ever eliminate this driving anger entirely, there are measures that can be taken to significantly reduce the frequency of its occurrence. By implementing changes to modern transportation engineering city design and development models, particularly focusing on reducing or reimagining urban sprawl, improving traffic flow in city driving, and implementing more strict anti-road rage laws which discourage drivers from acting on their driving anger, it is possible to eliminate some of the factors most likely to induce driving anger and road rage, thereby reducing the frequency of road rage occurrence within the transportation system as a whole.

Keywords

Article

Search for Sustainability in Contemporary Architecture of Iran

1Architecture and Energy Department, Kish international Campus, University of Tehran, Iran

2Department of Architecture, Faculty of Art and Architecture, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran


American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture. 2013, 1(6), 129-142
DOI: 10.12691/ajcea-1-6-3
Copyright © 2013 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Leila Mousavi, Mohammadjavad Mahdavinejhad. Search for Sustainability in Contemporary Architecture of Iran. American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture. 2013; 1(6):129-142. doi: 10.12691/ajcea-1-6-3.

Correspondence to: Leila  Mousavi, Architecture and Energy Department, Kish international Campus, University of Tehran, Iran. Email: leila.mousavi@ut.ac.ir

Abstract

The environmental challenges, the significant effects of architecture, building manufacture technologies and the construction industry have caused the movement towards sustainable architecture to be considered as one of the most important and influential trends in the early years of the 21st century. Sustainable architecture and compliance with environmental features have also been noted in Iran both in theory and practice. However, it seems that in the developing countries, particularly in Iran, the architects’ tendency towards the concept of sustainability possesses some features of its own. Therefore, the foremost questions addressed in this study are: 1-what is the main feature of sustainability in Iran’s contemporary architecture? And what criteria have been applied for its utilization? 2- What sorts of sustainability- related considerations have been taken into account by the architects and building designers? The methodology adopted to investigate these issues is the conduct of case studies, utilizing the compound strategies. The data collection was performed via a library procedure, whereby thirty samples of Iran’s contemporary and post- revolution architecture for which sustainability was considered were selected. The findings of the study reveal that the trend of sustainability in Iran’s contemporary architecture mostly manifests itself in attempts to maximize the usage of solar energy, to choose the optimal direction for a building, the light absorption capabilities, proper ventilation based on the specific climate and weather, and the use of plants in the space.

Keywords

References

[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[
[[1]  Darsner, Simon, Principles of Stability, translated by Daneshvar Kakhaki, Mahmoud et al, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, 2005.
 
[[2]  Kibert, Charles, sustainable construction: Green building design and delivery, Hoboken,N.J.: Jhon Wiley & sons, third edition, 2012.
 
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[[5]  kamel nia, hamed- diba, darab- shayan, hamid, "Approaches of Contemporary Architecture of Iran", Journal of Architecture and Urbanism, 2006.
 
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[7]  Soflayi, Farzaneh, "Stability of climate elements in Iranian traditional architecture (hot and dry climate)", a set of the Third Conference about the optimization of fuel consumption in buildings, 2003.
 
[8]  Khodabakhshi, Shohreh and Mofidi Seyed Majid, "Stability construction in relation to Iran's traditional architecture", Third International Conference of Energy, 2001.
 
[9]  Singeri, Maryam, "Tabriz building design solutions based on stability architecture", First National Conference on Renewable Energy, Islamic Azad University, Takestan Branch, 2008.
 
[10]  Nasr, Tahereh. (Suha), "Stability Architecture and the need for stability solutions in architecture", Civil International Journal, 74, 2010.
 
[11]  Mofidi Shemirani, Seyed Majid - Akhtar Kavan, Mahdi, "Global indicators of stability development", First National Conference on Industry and Student and stability Development, 2007.
 
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[14]  Armaqhan, Maryam, Gorgi Mahlabany, Joseph, "The values of the Iranian vernacular architecture with stability architecture approach", Journal of Housing and Rural Environment, 2009.
 
[15]  Maddahi, Seyed Mahdi, Seyed Mohammad Sagh Yazdannoost, "The considering principles and fundamentals of stability architecture and provide strategies to make it operation", Scientific- experience and research Monthly Magazine of road and construction architecture- installment and Urbanization, 2009.
 
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Article

The Environmental Profile of Wood in the Building Industry Today: Comments on the Results of Some LCA Studies

1Department of Architectural Sciences, University of Genoa, Genoa, Italy


American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture. 2013, 1(6), 122-128
DOI: 10.12691/ajcea-1-6-2
Copyright © 2013 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Chiara Piccardo, Adriano Magliocco. The Environmental Profile of Wood in the Building Industry Today: Comments on the Results of Some LCA Studies. American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture. 2013; 1(6):122-128. doi: 10.12691/ajcea-1-6-2.

Correspondence to: Chiara Piccardo, Department of Architectural Sciences, University of Genoa, Genoa, Italy. Email: chiara.piccardo@libero.it

Abstract

In the last years, following the technological progress in wood processing industry and the increased use of wood-based products in construction industry, the scientific community has investigated the environmental performances of wood-base building materials and their substitution potential of energy-intensive material.The article describes and comments the results of a representative sample of LCA studies, most of them published in international journals or in free access research reports. All analyzed LCA studies compare wood, as a building system, with other materials and construction technologies (such as reinforced concrete, steal and masonry); these studies highlight the potential of wood-based building materials to improve the environmental performances of construction industry besides the possible negative aspects related to the wood product manufacturing and the construction process. Some methodological limits are considered comparing LCA results among selected studies, because of the variability of the case studies, the subjectivity of the system boundary definition and the differences between the referenced data sources. However the comparative purpose of this analysis provides an interesting framework of the current research and highlights how timber buildings and wood-based products could still improve their environmental performances during all life cycle stages. Wood, as construction material, could increase its competitiveness in building industry thanks to its environmental performances, starting from its renewable source and its carbon storing potential.

Keywords

References

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[13]  Gustavsson, L., Joelsson, A., “Life cycle primary energy analysis of residential buildings”, Energy and Buildings, 42 (2). 210-220. 2010.
 
[14]  Gustavsson, L., Joelsson, A., Sathre, R., “Life cycle primary energy use and carbon emission of an eight-storey wood-framed apartment building”, Energy and Buildings, 42 (2). 230-242. 2010.
 
[15]  Gustavsson, L., Pingoud, K., Sathre, R., “Carbon dioxide balance of wood substitution: comparing concrete- and wood-framed buildings”, Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change, 11 (3). 667-691. 2006.
 
[16]  John, S., Nebel, B., Perez, N., Buchanan, A., Environmental Impacts of Multi-Storey Buildings Using Different Construction Materials, Report 2008-02, Department of Civil and Natural Resources Engineering, University of Canterbury, New Zealand, 2009.
 
[17]  Klöpffer, W., “The Role of SETAC in the Development of LCA”, The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, 11 (1), Supplement. 116-122. 2006.
 
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[19]  Lippke, B., Wilson, J., Perez-Garcia, J., Bowyer, J., Meil, J., “CORRIM: Life-Cycle Environmental Performance of Renewable Building Materials”, Forest Products Journal, 54 (6). 8-19. 2004.
 
[20]  Martínez, A. G., Casas, J. N., “Life Cicle Assesments of Three Dwellings in Andalusia (Spain): The Significance of the Regional Context”, Science-Future of Lithuania, 4 (2). 106-112. 2012.
 
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Article

The Role of Domed Shape Roofs in Energy Loss at Night in Hot and Dry Climate (Case Study: Isfahan Historical Mosques` Domes in Iran)

1Department of Architecture, Faculty of Art and Architecture, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran

2Department of Architecture, Faculty of Arts and Architecture, Tehran Paradise Fine Art University, Kish Campus, Kish, Iran

3Department of Architecture, Faculty of Arts and Architecture, Tehran Paradise Fine Art University, Tehran, Iran


American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture. 2013, 1(6), 117-121
DOI: 10.12691/ajcea-1-6-1
Copyright © 2013 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Mohammadjavad Mahdavinejad, Negar Badri, Maryam Fakhari, Mahya Haqshenas. The Role of Domed Shape Roofs in Energy Loss at Night in Hot and Dry Climate (Case Study: Isfahan Historical Mosques` Domes in Iran). American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture. 2013; 1(6):117-121. doi: 10.12691/ajcea-1-6-1.

Correspondence to: Mohammadjavad Mahdavinejad, Department of Architecture, Faculty of Art and Architecture, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran. Email: Mahdavinejad@modares.ac.ir

Abstract

As a covering method of buildings` roof, domed roof have mostly been applied in Iran and other countries according to adobe material abundance comparing with timber ones. Furthermore, dome remains in first place in architectural designs due to their favorable thermal performance; so that it has been widely utilized in mosques, shrines, churches, bazaar and schools construction. On this account, the current research studies on the role of shape in roofs energy loss specifically in cold annual period to achieve the optimized form. The paper discusses a comparison to four types of roof (slab and three types of dome) in hot and dry climatic zone of Iran, Esfahan city. The research method is based upon modeling and simulation. It is to find the most efficient form of buildings which can be designed in contemporary architecture of developing countries. The result shows that although the flat shape roof appears in an appropriate thermal performance, there is a meaningful correlation between roofs total volumes and heating load at night, however the result is in need of further investigation.

Keywords

References

[[[[[
[[1]  F. Haghighat, M.N. Bahadori,. Thermal Performance Evaluation of Domed Roofs, Energy and Building 36, pp1254-1263. (2011).
 
[[2]  M. Mahdavinejad, M. Bemanian, G. Abolvardi, and S.M. Elhamian: Analyzing the state of seismic consideration of architectural non-structural components (ANSCs) in design process, International Journal of Disaster Resilience in the Built Environment, Vol. 3, Iss: 2, pp. 133-147, (2012).
 
[[3]  M. Mahdavinejad, A. Moradchelleh: Problems and Tendencies of the Development of the Architectural Sciences, Middle-East Journal of Scientific Research, 10 (6): 677-682, (2011).
 
[[4]  M. Mahdavinejad, A. Doroodgar, A. Moradchelleh: The Impacts of Revivalist Trends on the Contemporary Architecture of Iran (1977-2011), Middle-East Journal of Scientific Research, 11 (2): 176-183, (2012).
 
[[5]  M. Mahdavinejad, S. Ahmadzadeh Siyahrood, M. Ghasempourabadi, M. Poulad, M.: Development of Intelligent Pattern for Modeling a Parametric Program for Public Space, Applied Mechanics and Materials, Vols. 220-223, pp. 2930-2935, (2012).
 
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[6]  M. Mahdavinejad, A. Moradchelleh: The Impact of Family and Social Class on Efficiency of Arts Education and Learning, Middle-East Journal of Scientific Research, 11 (8): 1068-1077, (2012).
 
[7]  M. Mahdavinejad, A. Moradchelleh: Family-Led Method in Art Education and Learning, Case: Tehran, Iran, Middle-East Journal of Scientific Research, 9 (4): 554-560, (2011).
 
[8]  L. Groat, D. Wang, Architectural Research Methods, John Wily & sons, Canada, pp.275-300, (2002).
 
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[10]  M. Mahdavinejad, M. Ghasempourabadi, H. Ghaedi,. The Role of Form Compositions in Energy Consumption of High-Rise Buildings, Advanced Material research 488-489, pp175-181. (2012).
 
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Article

Ceramic Dust as Construction Material in Rigid Pavement

1Civil Engineering Department, S.V. National Institute of Technology Surat, Gujarat, India


American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture. 2013, 1(5), 112-116
DOI: 10.12691/ajcea-1-5-5
Copyright © 2013 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Electricwala Fatima, Ankit Jhamb, Rakesh Kumar. Ceramic Dust as Construction Material in Rigid Pavement. American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture. 2013; 1(5):112-116. doi: 10.12691/ajcea-1-5-5.

Correspondence to: Rakesh Kumar, Civil Engineering Department, S.V. National Institute of Technology Surat, Gujarat, India. Email: krakesh1999@gmail.com

Abstract

Ceramic dust is produced as waste from ceramic bricks, roof and floor tiles and stoneware waste industries. Concrete (M35) was made by replacing % (up to 30%) of cement (OPC 53) grade with ceramic dust (passing 75µm) shows good workability, compressive strength, split-tensile strength, flexural strength and elastic modulus. In this experimental investigation, concrete specimens were tested at different age for different mechanical properties. The results show that with water – cement ratio (0.46), core compressive strength increase by 3.9% to 5.6% by replacing 20% cement content with ceramic dust. It was observed that no significant change in flexural strength and split-tensile strength when compared to the conventional concrete.

Keywords

References

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[[5]  Pincha Torkittikul, Arnon Chaipanich, “Utilization of ceramic waste as fine aggregate within portland cement and fly ash concretes”, cement and concrete composites 32, 440-449,2010.
 
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[8]  RM. Senthamarai, P. Devadas Manoharan, D, Gobinath, “Concrete made from ceramic industry waste: durability properties” construction and building materials, 25, 2413-2419, 2011.
 
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Article

Effect of Stirrups Orientation on Flexural Response of RC Deep Beams

1Department of Civil Engineering, SRES’s college of Engineering, Kopargaon-423601, Maharashtra, India


American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture. 2013, 1(5), 107-111
DOI: 10.12691/ajcea-1-5-4
Copyright © 2013 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Atteshamuddin S. Sayyad, Subhash V. Patankar. Effect of Stirrups Orientation on Flexural Response of RC Deep Beams. American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture. 2013; 1(5):107-111. doi: 10.12691/ajcea-1-5-4.

Correspondence to: Atteshamuddin S. Sayyad, Department of Civil Engineering, SRES’s college of Engineering, Kopargaon-423601, Maharashtra, India. Email: attu_sayyad@yahoo.co.in

Abstract

In this paper, the effect of stirrup orientation on flexural response of reinforced concrete (RC) deep beams with two different shear-span-to-depth (a/d) ratios is presented. For RC beams with the same shear and flexural reinforcements, shear failure is most likely to occur in deep beams rather than in regular beams. Thus, solution for deep beams with shear deficiencies is of great importance. For that purpose a lateral, vertical and inclined stirrup design with two different ‘a/d’ ratios is proposed. A series of tests were carried out in order to demonstrate the effect of proposed design. The test results of proposed lateral stirrup design indicated the increase of load carrying capacity. The present study shows that the ‘a/d’ ratio has more influence on the shear capacity, as ‘a/d’ ratio increases, the shear strength increases in case of short deep beam. The relative effectiveness of lateral (horizontal), vertical and inclined web reinforcement on the load capacity is mainly influenced by the ‘a/d’ ratio. The strength considered for investigation is flexural strength. Beam of size 700mm X 150mm X 150mm for flexure strength. The specimens were water cured for 28 days and tested with 2 point load subsequently.

Keywords

References

[[[[[
[[1]  Gedik, Y.H., Nakamura, H., Ueda, N. and Kunieda, M. “A new stirrups design considering 3D effect in short deep beam,” Procedia Engineering, 14. 2964 -2971. 2011.
 
[[2]  Mohammad, M., Jummat, M.B. and Chemrouk, M. “An experimental investigation of stress strain distribution in high strength concrete deep beam, Procedia Engineering, 14(2). 2141-2150. 2011.
 
[[3]  Kim, H.S., Lee, M.S. and Shin, Y.S. “Structural behaviour of deep RC beam under combined axial and bending force,” Procedia Engineering, 14. 2212-2218. 2011.
 
[[4]  Lu, W.Y. “Shear strength prediction for steel reinforced concrete deep beam,” Journal of construction steel research, 62. 933-942. 2005.
 
[[5]  Yang, K.H., Chung, H.S., Lee, E.T. and Eun, H.C. “Shear characteristics of high strength concrete deep beam without shear reinforcements,” Engineering Structures, 25. 1343-1352. 2003.
 
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[6]  Kotsovos, M.D. “Design of reinforced concrete deep beams,” The Structural Engineer, 66(2). 28-32. 1988.
 
[7]  Kong, F.K., Robins, P.T. and Sharp, G.R. “Shear analysis and design of reinforced concrete deep beams”, The Structural Engineering, 50(10). 405-408. 1972.
 
[8]  Rajasekaran, S. and Nalinaa, K. “Shear compression failure in reinforced concrete deep beam,” Journal of Structural Engineering, 129(4). 544-553. 2003.
 
[9]  Kong, F.K., Robins, P.J. Kirby, D.P. and David R. “Short deep beams with inclined web reinforcement” ACI Journal, 69(16). 172-175. 1972.
 
[10]  Arabzadeh, A., Aghayari, R. and Rahai, A.R. “Investigation of experimental and analytical shear strength of reinforced concrete deep beams,” International Journal of Civil Engineering, 9(3). 207-214. September.2011.
 
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Article

Influence of Crushed Coarse Aggregates on Properties of Concrete

1Department of Civil Engineering, Chittagong University of Engineering & Technology, Chittagong, Bangladesh


American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture. 2013, 1(5), 103-106
DOI: 10.12691/ajcea-1-5-3
Copyright © 2013 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
I. B. Muhit, S. Haque, Md. Rabiul Alam. Influence of Crushed Coarse Aggregates on Properties of Concrete. American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture. 2013; 1(5):103-106. doi: 10.12691/ajcea-1-5-3.

Correspondence to: I. B. Muhit, Department of Civil Engineering, Chittagong University of Engineering & Technology, Chittagong, Bangladesh. Email: imrose_cuet@live.com

Abstract

Both coarse aggregates and fine aggregates are the main constituents of concrete because they not only give the body to the concrete, it also have a significant effect on the fresh concrete based on aggregate’s shape, size, texture, grading and crushing type. Moreover it is proved that aggregate’s types has the severe effect on physic-mechanical properties of concrete as aggregate covered almost 70 to 80 percent of the total volume of concrete. This paper investigates the effects on properties of concrete due to types of crushed aggregates alone. To observe the effects of crushed aggregates sharply, all other components like water cement ratio kept constant for each type and two types of crushed aggregates were used. ‘Impact Crushed’ and ‘Vertically Shafted’ aggregates type have been used to prepare five different groups of concrete blocks and these five groups have different water-cement (w/c) ratio. Source of these two aggregates, density and water absorption also kept constant to identify the effects on properties of concrete only for crushing type. Finally after 1 week and after 4 weeks slump values (consistency of the concrete) and compressive strength were measured without mixing any admixture or superplasticiser to the concrete. Compressive strength difference for all groups at 1 week and 4 weeks also analysed at the end of the study.

Keywords

References

[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[
[[1]  Shetty, M.S. (2003 Edition) Concrete Technology: Theory and Practice, S. Chand & Company Ltd, India.
 
[[2]  Midness, S., & Young, J.F.(1981), Concrete, New York. Prentice Hall.
 
[[3]  De Larrard, F. (1999), “Concrete Mixture Proportioning: A Scientific Approach,” London.
 
[[4]  Aictin, P.C., High Performance Concrete, E & FN Spon, London, 1998.
 
[[5]  Andersen, P.J. and Johansen, V., “A Guide to Determining the Optimal Gradation of Concrete Aggregates,” SHRP-C-334, 1993.
 
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[6]  Galloway, J. E. Jr., “Grading, Shape, and Surface Properties,” ASTM Special Technical Publication No. 169C, Philadelphia, 1994, pp. 401-410.
 
[7]  Popovics, S. (1994), “The Slump Test Is Useless - Or Is It?” Concrete International, Vol. 16, No. 9, pp. 30-33.
 
[8]  Kosmatka, S. (1994), “Bleeding,” ASTM Special Technical Publication No. 169C, Philadelphia, pp. 89-111.
 
[9]  Legg, F.E. Jr. (1998), Aggregates, Chapter 2, Concrete Construction Handbook, ed. Dobrowolski, J. McGraw-Hill, 4th ed.
 
[10]  Durney, T. E. Jr. (1983), “Particle Shape Effects due to Crushing Method and Particle Size,” Thesis, West Virginia University.
 
[11]  ASTM C 29 Test Method for Bulk Density (“Unit Weight”) and Voids in Aggregate, Philadelphia, PA: American Society for Testing and Materials, 1997.
 
[12]  ASTM C 33 Standard Specification for Concrete Aggregates, Philadelphia, PA: American Society for Testing and Materials, 2003.
 
[13]  ASTM C 109 Standard Test Method for Compressive Strength of Hydraulic Cement Mortars (using 2-in. or [50-mm] Cube Specimens), Philadelphia, PA: American Society for Testing and Materials, 1999.
 
[14]  ASTM C 127, Standard Test Method for Specific Gravity and Absorption of Coarse Aggregate, Philadelphia, PA: American Society for Testing and Materials, 2001.
 
[15]  ASTM C 128, Standard Test Method for Specific Gravity and Absorption of Fine Aggregate, Philadelphia, PA: American Society for Testing and Materials, 2001.
 
[16]  ASTM C 136, Standard Test Method for Sieve Analysis of Fine and Coarse Aggregates, Philadelphia, PA: American Society for Testing and Materials, 2001.
 
[17]  ASTM C 138, Standard Test Method for Unit Weight, Yield, and Air Content (Gravimetric) of Concrete, Philadelphia, PA: American Society for Testing and Materials, 2001.
 
[18]  ASTM C 143, Standard Test Method for Slump of Hydraulic Cement Concrete, Philadelphia, PA: American Society for Testing and Materials, 2000.
 
[19]  ASTM C 157, Standard Test Method for Length Change of Hardened Hydraulic-Cement Mortar and Concrete, Philadelphia, PA: American Society for Testing and Materials, 1999.
 
[20]  ASTM C 187, Standard Test Method for Normal Consistency of Hydraulic Cement, Philadelphia, PA: American Society for Testing and Materials, 1998.
 
[21]  ASTM C 192, Standard Practice for Making and Curing Concrete Tests Specimens in the Laboratory Concrete, Philadelphia, PA: American Society for Testing and Materials, 2000.
 
[22]  ASTM C 204, Standard Test Method for Fineness of Hydraulic Cement by Air Permeability Apparatus, Philadelphia, PA: American Society for Testing and Materials, 2000.
 
[23]  Beaupre, D. and Mindess, S., Rheology of Fresh Concrete: Principles, Measurement, and Applications, Materials Science of Concrete V, ed. Skalny J. and Mindess, S., 1989, pp. 149-190.
 
[24]  Ahmed, E. and El-Kourd, A. (1989) “Properties of Concrete Incorporating Natural and Crushed Stone Very Fine Sand,” Materials Journal, American Concrete Institute, Vol. 86, No. 4, pp. 417-424.
 
[25]  Hudson, B.P. (1999), “Concrete Workability with High Fines Content Sands”.
 
[26]  Shilstone, J. M, Sr. and Shilstone, J. M., Jr. (2002), “Performance-Based Concrete Mixtures and Specifications for Today,” Concrete International.
 
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Article

Performance Evaluation of Waste Polyethylene and PVC on Hot Asphalt Mixtures

1Department of Civil Engineering, Rajshahi University of Engineering & Technology, Rajshahi, Bangladesh

2Department of Civil Engineering, Stamford University Bangladesh, Dhaka, Bangladesh


American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture. 2013, 1(5), 97-102
DOI: 10.12691/ajcea-1-5-2
Copyright © 2013 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Md. Nobinur Rahman, Mohammad Ahmeduzzaman, M. A. Sobhan, T. U. Ahmed. Performance Evaluation of Waste Polyethylene and PVC on Hot Asphalt Mixtures. American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture. 2013; 1(5):97-102. doi: 10.12691/ajcea-1-5-2.

Correspondence to: Md. Nobinur Rahman, Department of Civil Engineering, Rajshahi University of Engineering & Technology, Rajshahi, Bangladesh. Email: mnrahmanruet@gmail.com

Abstract

Since the forefront invention of Polyethylene and Polyvinyl chloride (PVC), it has been spasmodically used in every possible purpose which is biologically non-degradable and has a blimp environmental problem leading astringent environmental impact. Nevertheless, for such property of sustainability the polyethylene and PVC have been reused in the field of transportation engineering for enhancing the property of asphalt binder, since for having a desirable binding property. At the same time the recycling of waste polyethylene and PVC can save disposal sites and reduce the amount of inert drawn from quarries. In this investigation, waste polyethylene and PVC as the sort of polymer is used to investigate the potential prospects to enhance asphalt mixture properties and to check the design criteria of asphalt mixture using this two modifier at optimum binder content. The investigation concentrated on the test of modified binder properties and Marshall mix design was used, first to determine the optimum binder content and then further to test the modified mixture properties. The tests include the determination of unit weight, stability, flow and voids characteristics. Some of the measured properties of asphalt mixture with the modifier used in this study were within the acceptable recommended limits. On the basis of experimental results, it is concluded that the asphalt mixtures with waste polyethylene modifier up to 10% and waste PVC modifier up to 7.5% can be used for flexible pavement construction in a warmer region from the standpoint of stability, stiffness and voids characteristics.

Keywords

References

[[[[[[[[[
[[1]  Catt, OV, 2004. Investigation of polymer modified asphalt by shear and tensile compliances. Proceedings of the Annual Conference And Exhibition of the Transportation Association of , September 19-22, 2004, , QC., .
 
[[2]  Coplantz, JS, Yapp, MT and Finn, FN, 1993. Review of Relationships between Modified Asphalt Properties and Pavement Performance. National Research Council, 2101 Constitution Avenue, NW, Washington DC, USA.
 
[[3]  Awwad, MT and Shbeeb, L, 2007. “The Use of Polyethylene in Hot Asphalt Mixtures”, American Journal of Applied Sciences, 4(6), 390-396.
 
[[4]  Hinislioglu, S and Agar, E, 2004. “Use of waste high density polyethylene as bitumen modifier in asphalt concrete mix”, Journal of Materials letters, 58, 267-271.
 
[[5]  Little, DN, 1993. Enhancement of Asphalt Concrete Mixtures to Meet Structural Requirements through the Addition of Recycled Polyethylene. Use of Waste Materials in Hot-Mix Asphalt, ASTM STP 1193, Fred Weller, H. (Ed.). ASTM International, Philadelphia, 210-306.
 
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[6]  Jew, P, and Woodhams, RT, 1982. “Polyethylene modified bitumens for paving applications”, Proceedings of the Association of Asphalt Paving Technologies 55-82, 541.
 
[7]  Rahman, MN, Sobhan, MA and Ahmed, TU, 2012. “Effects of waste polyethylene on bituminous mixes”, Proceedings of the 1st International Conference on Civil Engineering for Sustainable Development, Khulna, Bangladesh.
 
[8]  Punith, VS and Veeraragavan, A, 2010. “Evaluation of reclaimed polyethylene-modified asphalt pavements”, ASTM J. Mater. Eval., Vol. 38.
 
[9]  Kalantar, ZN, Mahrez, A and Karim, MR, 2010. “Properties of bituminous binder modified with waste polyethylene terephthalate”, Proceeding of Malaysian Universities Transportation Research Forum and Conferences, Universiti Tenaga Nasional.
 
[10]  Sabina, Khan, TA, Sangita, Sharma, DK, and Sharma, BM, 2009. “The performance evaluation of waste plastic/polymer modified bituminous concrete mixes”, J. Sci. Ind. Res., 68, 975-979.
 
[11]  The Asphalt Institute, 1984. Mix Design Methods for Asphalt Concrete and Other Hot-Mix Types. 6th Edition, Asphalt Institute, Lexington, KY, USA.
 
[12]  Sobhan, MA, Mofiz, SA and Rasel, HM, 2011. “Effect of gradation and compactive effort on the properties of bituminous mixes with waste concrete aggregates”, International Journal of Civil and Environmental Engineering, 11(4), 18-21
 
[13]  Whiteoak, D, 1991. “The Shell Bitumen Handbook”, Thomas Telford, London, UK.
 
[14]  Roberts, FL, 1991. “Hot Mix Asphalt Materials, Mixture Design and Construction”, NAPA Educational Foundation, Auburn, AL., USA, Pages: 490.
 
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Article

Estimating Residual Service Life of Deteriorated Reinforced Concrete Structures

1Civil Engineering Department, Univ. Institute of Technology, Rajiv Gandhi Technological Univ., Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India

2Director, S.G.S. Institute of Technology and Science, Indore, Madhya Pradesh, India


American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture. 2013, 1(5), 92-96
DOI: 10.12691/ajcea-1-5-1
Copyright © 2013 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Sanjeev Kumar Verma, Sudhir Singh Bhadauria, Saleem Akhtar. Estimating Residual Service Life of Deteriorated Reinforced Concrete Structures. American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture. 2013; 1(5):92-96. doi: 10.12691/ajcea-1-5-1.

Correspondence to: Sanjeev Kumar Verma, Civil Engineering Department, Univ. Institute of Technology, Rajiv Gandhi Technological Univ., Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India. Email: sanjeev.apm@gmail.com

Abstract

Evaluating present condition of reinforced concrete (RC) structures is necessary for planning future maintenance and estimating residual service life of structures. A ten point (0-9) condition rating system is proposed for obtaining present condition of RC structures based on the measured values of concrete cover, carbonation depth and chloride concentration at rebar depth through in-situ tests. Proposed condition rating has been related to maintenance, inspection and replacement priorities. A model similar to Tutti’s model (1982) (Figure 1) has been developed and presented in this article to predict remaining service life of deteriorated structure, by evaluating present condition of RC structures.

Keywords

References

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Article

A Mixed Force-Displacement Method for the Exact Solution of Plane Frames

1Department of Civil Engineering, University of Messina, Messina, Italy


American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture. 2013, 1(4), 82-91
DOI: 10.12691/ajcea-1-4-3
Copyright © 2013 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Giovanni Falsone, Dario Settineri. A Mixed Force-Displacement Method for the Exact Solution of Plane Frames. American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture. 2013; 1(4):82-91. doi: 10.12691/ajcea-1-4-3.

Correspondence to: Giovanni Falsone, Department of Civil Engineering, University of Messina, Messina, Italy. Email: gfalsone@unime.it

Abstract

This paper deals with the solution of statically undetermined plane frames by using a mixed force-displacement method based on the use of the differential equations of both the bar axial deformation and the beam bending. The unknowns in solving the algebraic equations derived by the proposed approach are represented by the integration constants of each mono-axial frame of the structure. The applications examples show that, even if the dimensions of the problem are larger than both cases related to the use of the force and of the displacement methods, the proposed approach does not require post-processing for finding any kinematic and static response quantity. Therefore, this approach can be considered as an alternative to the Finite Element approaches for solving plane multi-axial frames.

Keywords

References

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[7]  G. Falsone, The use of generalised functions in the discontinuous beam bending differential equations, International Journal of Engineering Education, 18(3), pp.337-343 (2002).
 
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Article

Prediction of Ultimate Shear Capacity of Reinforced Normal and High Strength Concrete Beams Without Stirrups Using Fuzzy Logic

1Civil Engineering Department, College of Engineering, Misan University, Misan, Iraq


American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture. 2013, 1(4), 75-81
DOI: 10.12691/ajcea-1-4-2
Copyright © 2013 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Abdulkhaliq Abdulyimah Jaafer. Prediction of Ultimate Shear Capacity of Reinforced Normal and High Strength Concrete Beams Without Stirrups Using Fuzzy Logic. American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture. 2013; 1(4):75-81. doi: 10.12691/ajcea-1-4-2.

Correspondence to: Abdulkhaliq Abdulyimah Jaafer, Civil Engineering Department, College of Engineering, Misan University, Misan, Iraq. Email: aljabery_1981@yahoo.com

Abstract

The main objective of the present study is to predict the ultimate shear capacity of reinforced concrete beams no contains web reinforcement. Fuzzy inference system (FIS) was developed to predict the shear strength of these beams using Mamadani method. Fuzzy inference system (FIS) model has been proved to be very effective in predicting the ultimate shear strength of concrete beams without stirrups. The regression analysis between the output of the FIS model and the corresponding target, R2 = 0.9969 and 0.9509 for training and testing data, respectively. Based on FIS results, a parametric analysis was carried out to study the influence of each parameter affecting the shear strength of beams without stirrups and these results are compared with the provisions of ACI-code.

Keywords

References

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[7]  Demir, F., "A new way of prediction elastic modulus of normal and high strength concrete-fuzzy logic", Cement and Concrete Research, 35, 2005, pp. 1531-1538.
 
[8]  Nataraja, M.C., Jayaram, M.A., and Ravikumar, C.N., "Prediction of early strength of concrete: a fuzzy inference system model", International Journal of Physical Sciences, Vol. 1, 2, 2006, pp. 047-056.
 
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[11]  Ozcan, F., Atis, C.D., Karahan, O., Uncuoglu, U., and Tanyildizi, H., "Comparison of artificial neural network and fuzzy logic models for prediction of long-term compressive strength of silica fume concrete", Advances in Engineering Software, 40, 2009, pp. 856-863.
 
[12]  American Concrete Institute (ACI), "Building code requirements for structural concrete" ACI 318-08, American Concrete Institute, Detroit, 2008.
 
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Article

Impact of Land Use Parameters on Household Travel Behavior

1Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Shahjalal University of Science and Technology, Sylhet, Bangladesh

2Public Works Department, Ministry of Housing and Public Works, Government of the People’s Republic of Bangladesh, Dhaka, Bangladesh


American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture. 2013, 1(4), 70-74
DOI: 10.12691/ajcea-1-4-1
Copyright © 2013 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Md. Bashirul Haque, Mafuzur Rahman, Md. Abu Sayed Khan, Muhammad Nahid Parvez. Impact of Land Use Parameters on Household Travel Behavior. American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture. 2013; 1(4):70-74. doi: 10.12691/ajcea-1-4-1.

Correspondence to: Md. Bashirul Haque, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Shahjalal University of Science and Technology, Sylhet, Bangladesh. Email: bashir_cee@yahoo.com

Abstract

Influence of socio-economic and land use factors on households travel behavior are important to develop a travel demand forecasting model. This paper examines the relative importance of these factors on household daily trips generation rate and household kilometers travelled. Linear regression models have been developed in this regard. Data used to develop these models have been collected from household’s survey among different zones of Sylhet City Corporation (SCC) area and other secondary sources. From the model output, it has been found that land use parameters (accessibility and entropy) have significant contribution on trip production, trip attraction and household kilometers travelled along with the socio-economic characteristics of the people living in SCC area. The model framework developed in this paper can help to formulate comprehensive transport and land use policy for the different cities of Bangladesh as well as for other developing countries, particularly those in Asia, which share similar socio-economic characteristics.

Keywords

References

[[1]  Faysal, R.H. and Khan, M.F.M. (2010), Effect of Land Use Mix On Household Travel Behavior: A Case Study On Sylhet City Corporation Area, B.Sc. EngineeringThesis, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Shahjalal University of Science and Technology, Sylhet, Bangladesh.
 
[[2]  Haque M. B., Ayaz S. B. and Choudhury C. F. (2012), A Combined Residential Location and Transport Mode Choice Model, Presentation at the International Conference of the International Association for Travel Behavior Research (IATBR), Toronto, Canada.
 
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