ISSN (Print): 2328-398X

ISSN (Online): 2328-3998

Editor-in-Chief: Apply for this position

Website: http://www.sciepub.com/journal/AJCEA

   

Article

Numerical Analysis on Seepage through Earthen Embankment Protected by Cement Concrete Block (CC Block) in Bangladesh

1Department of Civil Engineering, Rajshahi University of Engineering & Technology, Rajshahi, Bangladesh


American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture. 2016, 4(5), 181-188
doi: 10.12691/ajcea-4-5-5
Copyright © 2016 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
M. A. Alim, M. L. Rahman. Numerical Analysis on Seepage through Earthen Embankment Protected by Cement Concrete Block (CC Block) in Bangladesh. American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture. 2016; 4(5):181-188. doi: 10.12691/ajcea-4-5-5.

Correspondence to: M.  L. Rahman, Department of Civil Engineering, Rajshahi University of Engineering & Technology, Rajshahi, Bangladesh. Email: lutforrony@yahoo.com

Abstract

Flood submerges vast areas of Bangladesh every year. To protect agricultural lands and city areas from submergence due to flood, earthen embankments are provided. However, earthen embankments in Bangladesh are subjected to seepage and erosion. To protect embankments from seepage and erosion-Cement Concrete Blocks (CC Blocks) are usually provided. Provision of CC Blocks reduce erosion but cannot prevent seepage completely, which is one of the main causes of failure of earthen embankments in Bangladesh. In this study, five sections of Rajshahi City Protection Embankment (RCPE) are selected which are subjected to seepage and erosion during rainy seasons because they are not properly protected. Seepage analysis using Geo-Studio Software indicates that seepage through RCPE can be prevented completely, if the upstream surface of the embankment is protected by CC Blocks with joints between CC Blocks that are sealed properly.

Keywords

References

[1]  Amanullah, (1989). “A study on Flood Control Embankment in Bangladesh”. Department of Water Resources Engineering, Bangladesh University of Engineering & Technology, Dhaka, Bangladesh.
 
[2]  Das, M. B. (1998), “Principles of Geotechnical Engineering”. PWS Publishing crop, USA, 7th edition, p215.
 
[3]  Flood Forecasting and Warning Centre (FFWC). (2005, 3011, 2012, 2013, and 2014) Annual Flood Report, BWDB.
 
[4]  Hossain, A. N. H. A., (2004) “Flood Management: Issues and Options”. Presented in the International Conference Organized by Institute of Engineers, Bangladesh.
 
[5]  Hossain, M. B., Saki, T., and Hossain, M. Z. (2011) “River Embankments and Bank Failure: A Study on Geotechnical Characteristics and Stability Analysis”. American Journal of Environmental Sciences, Vol. 7 (2), pp102-107.
 
Show More References
[6]  Islam, M. S., Nasrin, S., Islam, M. S., and Moury, F. R. (2013) “Use of Vegetation and Geo-Jute in Erosion Control of Slopes in a Sub-Tropical climate”. Proceedings of International Journal of Civil, Environment, Structural, Construction and Architectural Engineering, Vol:7, No:1, pp54-62.
 
[7]  Monir, M. M. U., and Khan, Y. A. (2004) “Seasonal Potential Seepage Analysis of Rajshahi City Protection Embankment, Rajshahi, Bangladesh”. Proceedings of Ninth international symposium on river sedimentation, October 18-21,2004, China, pp1659-1665.
 
[8]  Schneider, S., Mallants, D., and Jacques, D. (2012) “Determining hydraulic properties of concrete and mortar by inverse modelling”. Material Resources Society, Vol. 1475, pp367-372.
 
Show Less References

Article

Quantification of Benefits of Steel Fiber Reinforcement for Rigid Pavement

1Public Works Department, Faculty of Engineering, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt


American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture. 2016, 4(6), 189-198
doi: 10.12691/ajcea-4-6-1
Copyright © 2016 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
M. A. Kamel. Quantification of Benefits of Steel Fiber Reinforcement for Rigid Pavement. American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture. 2016; 4(6):189-198. doi: 10.12691/ajcea-4-6-1.

Correspondence to: M.  A. Kamel, Public Works Department, Faculty of Engineering, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt. Email: mostafakamel2000@yahoo.com

Abstract

In the present study, strength parameters of steel fibers reinforced concrete (SFRC) were investigated. Their load carrying capacity and deflection characteristics were also evaluated and compared with those of Plain Cement Concrete (PCC). Three different concrete mixes were chosen. One is of PCC and two mixes are of SFRC with fibers content of 4% and 8% of cement weight. Tests on fresh concrete were conducted like, slump test, compaction factor test and Ve. Be. Test. Other tests were conducted on hardened concrete like, compressive strength, flexural strength, modulus of elasticity, indirect tensile strength and ultrasonic pulse velocity. Results leaded to design a SFRC mix with 8% steel fiber content for further tests. Moreover, plate load tests were conducted on pavement model slabs of PCC and SFRC casted and arranged over a prepared subgrade sandy soil in a model tank. Results revealed that the first crack load carrying capacity of SFRC slabs has enhanced by 19%, 15% and 7% for corner, edge and center loading respectively. Also, the failure load has increased for SFRC than for PCC in such a way that it has become 1.13, 1.08 1nd 1.05 for corner, edge and center loadings of the pavement model slabs. Similarly, deflections corresponding to first crack load were also increased for SFRC. A concept was adopted to quantify the benefits of adding steel fibers to PCC in terms of extension of the pavement service life and also in terms of reduction in the concrete thickness for the same service life of both reinforced and unreinforced concrete pavement sections.

Keywords

References

[1]  Soroushian, P. and Bayasi, “Fiber-Type effects on the Performance of Steel Fiber Reinforced Concrete”, ACI Material Journal, (88)2, 129-134, 1991.
 
[2]  Bekeart N.V., “Steel Fiber Reinforced Industrial Floor,” (design in Accordance with the Concrete Society TR34), Dramix manual, 48-49, 1998.
 
[3]  Brandt, A. M., “Fiber Reinforced Cement-Based (FRC) Composites after over 40 years of Development in Building and Civil Engineering”, Journal of Composite Structures, (86), 3-9, 2008.
 
[4]  Abdul Ahad, Z. R. and Shumank D. S., “Application of Steel Fiber in Increasing the Strength, Life-Period and Reducing Overall Cost of Road Construction,”, World Journal of Engineering and Technology, 3. 240-250, 2015.
 
[5]  Patil S. and Rupali K., “Study of Flexural Strength in Steel Fiber Reinforced Concrete,” International Journal of Recent Development in Engineering and Technology, 2(5), 2014.
 
Show More References
[6]  Aquib S. M. and Mittal O. P.,” A Study on Strength Properties of Rigid Pavement Concrete with Use of Steel Fibers and Marble Dust,” International Journal of Advanced Research in Education & Technology (IJARET), 3(2), 222-225, 2016.
 
[7]  Schrader, E. K,” Fiber Reinforced Concrete Pavements and Slabs (A State-of-the -Art Report)”, Proceedings, Steel Fiber Concrete US-Sweden Joint Seminar (NSF­ STU), Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute, Stockholm, Sweden, 109-131, 1985.
 
[8]  Naaman A. E. and Homrich J.R., “Tensile Stress–Strain Properties of SIFCON”, ACI Materials Journals, 86 (3), 369-377, 1989.
 
[9]  Liu C. and Ju Y., “Study on Mechanical Properties of Steel Fiber Reinforced Concrete”, Concrete and Cement Products, 115 (1), 16– 19, 2000.
 
[10]  Yang Q., and Zhu B., “Effect of steel fiber on the deicer-scaling resistance of concrete”, Journal of Cement and Concrete Research, (35), 2360-2363, 2005.
 
[11]  Granju J. L. and Balouch S. U., “Corrosion of Steel Fiber Reinforced Concrete From the Cracks”, Journal of Cement and Concrete Research, (35), 572-577, 2005.
 
[12]  Al-Ausi, M. A., Salih, S. A. and Aldouri, A. L. K., “Strength and Bahaviour of SFRC Slabs Subjected to Impact Loading”, RILEM Symposium, Univ. of Sheffield, 629-642, 1992.
 
[13]  Sathakumar, A. R., “Dynamic, Impact, and Fatigue Bahaviour of SFRC, National Seminar on FRC for Hydraulic Structures, Structural Engg. Research Center, Madras, India, 5. 1-13, 1992.
 
[14]  Vasan R. M., Chandra S., and Singh U. N., “Load Carrying Capacity of Thin SFRC Pavements over WBM,” Highway Research Board (HRB), Indian Road Congress, India, (59), 25-40, 1998.
 
[15]  ASTM C150/C150M “Standard Specification for Portland Cement”, ASTM International; 2016.
 
[16]  ACI 318M-08 “Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete”, American Concrete Institute; 2008.
 
[17]  ACI 211-1-91 “Standard Practice for Selecting Proportions for Normal, Heavyweight, and Mass Concrete”, American Concrete Institute; Reapproved 2009.
 
[18]  Y. P. Gupta, “Concrete Technology and Good Construction Practices” New Age Publishers, New Delhi, India, 2014.
 
[19]  ASTM C143/C143M, “Standard Test Method for Slump of Hydraulic-Cement Concrete”, AST International; 2015
 
[20]  BS EN 12350-2, “Testing Fresh Concrete, Slump Test”, 2009.
 
[21]  BS EN 12350-4, “Testing Fresh Concrete, Degree of Comapctability”, 2009.
 
[22]  BS EN 12390-5, “Testing Hardened Concrete, Flexural Strength of Test Specimens”, 2009.
 
[23]  ASTM C469 / C469M, “Standard Test Method for Static Modulus of Elasticity and Poisson’s Ratio of Concrete in Compression”, ASTM International, 2014.
 
[24]  BS 1881: Part 207, “Testing concrete. Recommendations for the assessment of concrete strength by near-to-surface tests”, British Standards; 1992.
 
[25]  Sidney M., Young, J. F., and Darwin, D., “Concrete”, Prentice Hall, Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458, USA, 2nd Edition, 2003.
 
[26]  BS EN 12390-6, “Testing Hardened Concrete, Tensile Splitting Strength of Test Specimens”, 2009.
 
[27]  V.M. Malhotra and N.J. Carino, “Handbook of Non-Destructive Testing”, CRC Press, 2nd Edition, 2004.
 
[28]  Kamel, M. A., “Development of A Design Procedure for Reinforced Flexible Pavement”, Ph. D. Thesis, Indian Institute of Technology-Roorkee, Roorkee, India, 2005.
 
Show Less References

Article

Effects of Faulty Design Phase on School Buildings Maintenance in Gaza Strip

1Civil Engineering Department, Islamic University of Gaza, Gaza, Palestine

2Buildings Technology Engineering Department, University College of Applied Sciences, Gaza, Palestine


American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture. 2016, 4(6), 199-210
doi: 10.12691/ajcea-4-6-2
Copyright © 2016 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
B.A. Tayeh, Khalid Al Hallaq, Fathi A. Sabha. Effects of Faulty Design Phase on School Buildings Maintenance in Gaza Strip. American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture. 2016; 4(6):199-210. doi: 10.12691/ajcea-4-6-2.

Correspondence to: B.A.  Tayeh, Civil Engineering Department, Islamic University of Gaza, Gaza, Palestine. Email: btayeh@iugaza.edu.ps

Abstract

The aim of this paper is to identify and rank the design phase faults/errors affecting on the maintenance of the United Nations Relief and Works Agency (UNRWA)'s school’s buildings in Gaza Strip, and to propose recommendations for minimizing the future maintenance problem related to the school buildings at Gaza Strip. A survey was conducted to collect the required data were adopted in this study. This study reveals the important factors that leading to defects in the design stage which includes: lack of workshops to discuss construction problems between project parts, Inadequate QA/QC programs during design stage, Lack of auditing and archiving of approved as-built drawing documents electronically after the completion the project. The study recommends several actions to improve maintenance performance of UNRWA's schools in Gaza Strip. The designer must take into account maintenance considerations during the design and supervision stages by choosing of durable materials. The UNRWA should conduct workshops or training courses for designers, supervisor, and maintenance engineers.

Keywords

References

[1]  UNRWA (2014). “School Projects Proposal.” report prepared by infrastructure and camp improvement program, UNRWA HQ
 
[2]  Ali, A., Keong, K., Zakaria, N., Zolkafli, U., and Akashah, F. (2013). “The effect of design on maintenance for school buildings in Penang, Malaysia.” Structural Survey, 31(3), 194-201.
 
[3]  Hoe, A. (2009). “The effects of faulty design and construction on building maintenance (case study : Kolej Perdana) “ Doctoral dissertation, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia.
 
[4]  Abu Hamam, I. M. (2008). “Rehabilitation Needs for Existing Buildings in Gaza Strip.” Master Thesis, Islamic University of Gaza.
 
[5]  Lam, K. (2007). “Design for maintenance from the viewpoint of sustainable hospital buildings.” The Australian Hospital Engineer, 30(1), 30-34.
 
Show More References
[6]  Parida, A., and Kumar, U. (2006). “Maintenance performance measurement (MPM): issues and challenges.” Journal of Quality in Maintenance Engineering, 12(3), 239-251.
 
[7]  Kirk, S. J., and Dell'Isola, A. J. (1995). Life cycle costing for design professionals, McGraw-Hill, New York.
 
[8]  Arditi, D., and Nawakorawit, M. (1999). “Designing buildings for maintenance: designers' perspective.” Journal of Architectural Engineering, 5(4), 107-116.
 
[9]  Amani, N., Nasly, M. A., Mohamed, A. H., and Samat, R. A. (2012). “Asurvey on the implementation of facilities maintenance management system of building in Iran.” Malaysian Journal of Civil Engineering, 24(1), 85-95.
 
[10]  Alner, G. R., and Fellows, R. F. “Maintenance of local authority school building in UK: a case study.” Proc., Proceedings of the International Symposium on Property Maintenance Management and Modernisation, Singapore, 90-99.
 
[11]  Zainol, N., Woon, N., Ramli, N., and Mohammad, I. “Barriers of Implementing Green Building Maintenance: A Preliminary Survey.” Proc., Proceeding of the Global Conference on Business, Economics and Social Sciences, 425-436.
 
[12]  Chanter, B., and Swallow, P. (2008). Building maintenance management, John Wiley & Sons.
 
[13]  BSI (1993). “BS 3811-Glossary of Maintenance Management Terms in Terotechnology.” British Standards Institute, London.
 
[14]  Mohamed, A. A. M. (2013). “optimization of budget allocation for school buildings rehabilitation using data envelopment analysis.” Master Thesis, Cairo University.
 
[15]  Löfsten, H. (2000). “Measuring maintenance performance–in search for a maintenance productivity index.” International Journal of Production Economics, 63(1), 47-58.
 
[16]  Lateef, O. A. A., Khamidi, M. F., and Idrus, A. (2011). “Appraisal of the building maintenance management practices of Malaysian universities.” Journal of Building Appraisal, 6(3), 261-275.
 
[17]  Ali, A. S., Kamaruzzaman, S. N., Sulaiman, R., and Cheong Peng, Y. (2010). “Factors affecting housing maintenance cost in Malaysia.” Journal of Facilities Management, 8(4), 285-298.
 
[18]  Arditi, D., and Nawakorawit, M. (1999). “Issues in building maintenance: property managers' perspective.” Journal of Architectural Engineering, 5(4), 117-132.
 
[19]  Adenuga, O., and Iyagba, R. (2005). “Strategic Approach to Maintenance Practices for Public Buildings in Lagos State.” Journal of Environmental Studies, 5(1).
 
[20]  Al-Shiha, M. M. (1993). “The Effects of Faulty Design and Construction of Building Maintenance.” KING FAHD UNIVERSITY OF PETROLEUM & MINERALS.
 
[21]  Assaf, S., Al-Hammad, A. M., and Al-Shihah, M. (1996). “Effects of faulty design and construction on building maintenance.” Journal of performance of constructed Facilities, 10(4), 171-174.
 
[22]  Bin Hashem, A. (2006). “Maintenance management and services case study Perkeso buildings in Penisular of Malaysia.” Master Thesis, University Technology of Malaysia.
 
[23]  Cooper, J., and Jones, K. “Routine maintenance and sustainability of existing social housing.” Proc., Proceedings from CIB W070 Conference in Facilities Management, Heriot Watt University, Edinburgh, UK.
 
[24]  Cobbinah, P. J. (2010). “Maintenance of buildings of public insitutions in Ghana. Case study of selected institutions in the ashanti region of ghana.” Master Thesis, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology.
 
[25]  Al-Farra, M. Z. (2011). “Improving the tender document conditions to minimize the building maintenance in Gaza Strip.” Master Thesis, Islamic University of Gaza.
 
[26]  Olanrewaju, A. L., and Abdul-Aziz, A. R. (2015). “Building Maintenance Processes, Principles, Procedures, Practices and Strategies.” Building Maintenance Processes and Practices, 79-129.
 
[27]  Enshassi, A. A., and El Shorafa, F. (2015). “Key performance indicators for the maintenance of public hospitals buildings in the Gaza Strip.” Facilities, 33(3/4), 206-228.
 
[28]  Fellows, R. F., and Liu, A. M. M. (1997). Research methods for construction, John Wiley & Sons.
 
[29]  Israel, G. D. (1992). Determining sample size, University of Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agriculture Sciences, EDIS.
 
[30]  Kish, L. (1965). “Survey sampling.”
 
[31]  Moser, C. A., and Kalton, G. (1971). “Survey methods in social investigation.” Survey methods in social investigation.(2nd Edition).
 
[32]  Enshassi, A. A., Arain, F. M., and Tayeh, B. A. (2010). “Subcontractor Prequalification Practices in Palestine.” International Journal of Construction Management, 10(4), 45-74.
 
[33]  El-Hallaq, K., and Tayeh, B. A. (2016). “Strategic Planning in Construction Companies in Gaza Strip.” Journal of Engineering Research and Technology, 2(2).
 
[34]  Enshassi, A. A., Arain, F., and Tayeh, B. A. (2012). “Major causes of problems between contractors and subcontractors in the Gaza Strip.” Journal of Financial Management of Property and Construction, 17(1), 92-112.
 
[35]  Razak, M., and Jaafar, M. (2012). “An assessment on faulty public hospital design in Malaysia.” Journal of Design+ Built, 5(1).
 
[36]  Naoum, S. G. (2012). Dissertation research and writing for construction students, Reed educational and professional publishing Ltd.
 
[37]  Al-Hammad, A. M., Assaf, S., and Al-Shihah, M. (1997). “The effect of faulty design on building maintenance.” Journal of Quality in Maintenance Engineering, 3(1), 29-39.
 
[38]  Hassanain, M., Assaf, S., Al-Ofi, K., and Al-Abdullah, A. (2013). “Factors affecting maintenance cost of hospital facilities in Saudi Arabia.” Property Management, 31(4), 297-310.
 
Show Less References