You are here:

American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture

ISSN (Print): 2328-398X

ISSN (Online): 2328-3998

Website: http://www.sciepub.com/journal/AJCEA

Article

A Comparison of AHP and PROMETHEE Family Decision Making Methods for Selection of Building Structural System

1Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, USA

2School of Civil Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

3Department of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran


American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture. 2014, 2(5), 149-159
DOI: 10.12691/ajcea-2-5-1
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Vahid Balali, Banafsheh Zahraie, Abbas Roozbahani. A Comparison of AHP and PROMETHEE Family Decision Making Methods for Selection of Building Structural System. American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture. 2014; 2(5):149-159. doi: 10.12691/ajcea-2-5-1.

Correspondence to: Vahid  Balali, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, USA. Email: balali2@illinois.edu

Abstract

Introduction of new structural systems into construction industry has created a competitive environment wherein selecting the most appropriate structural system has become increasingly difficult. Some structural systems have priority over others due to their unique features,as well as the special requirements of various construction projects. The structural system’s selection process is intended to show the trade-off among different alternatives when evaluated by technical and nontechnical professionals and maximize the agreement between all interested parties. This paper addresses how the best system can be selected using AHP and PROMETHEE family of multiple criteria decision-making techniques. These techniques have been utilized in this study for selecting the appropriate structural system among 3D Panel with light walls in building frames, LSF, ICF, Tunnel Formwork system, and Tronco in a low rise multi-housing project in Iran. A questionnaire has been designed to collect engineering judgments and experts’ opinions on various parameters such as weight of different criteria. The team of experts who has cooperated in this research includes engineers and managers of consultants, contractors, and owners who are involved in different low rise multi-housing projects in Iran. A comparison between the two techniques has been carried out based on the consistency of the results, the required amount of interactions with the decision-makers, and ease of understanding. For the case study of this research, 3D Panel with light walls in building frames has been selected as the most appropriate structural system. The PROMETHEE II has been selected as the preferred method for the appropriate structural system selection process since its results are consistent, easy to understand, and require less information from decision-makers compared to AHP.

Keywords

References

[1]  V. Balali, B. Zahraie, A. Hosseini, A. Roozbahani, Selecting appropriate structural system: Application of PROMETHEE decision making method, 2nd International Conference on Engineering Systems Management and Its Applications (ICESMA), Sharjah, UAE., 2010, pp. 1-6.
 
[2]  M. Golabchi, H. Mazaherian, “New Architectural Technologies., University of Tehran Press., Tehran, Iran, 2010.
 
[3]  V. Balali, B. Zahraie, A. Roozbahani, Integration of ELECTRE III and PROMETHEEII Decision Making Methods with Interval Approach: Application in Selection of Appropriate Structural Systems, Journal of Computing in Civil Engineering 28 (2) (2014) 297-314.
 
[4]  M. Rogers, Using Electre III to aid the choice of housing construction process within structural engineering, Journal of Construction Management and Economic 18 (3) (2000) 333-342.
 
[5]  M.A.B. Tabarak, D.S. William, Artificial neural network for the selection of buildable structural systems, Journal of Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management 10 (4) (2003) 263-271.
 
Show More References
[6]  R.M. Rivard, R.J. Leclercq, FROM ARCHITECTURAL SKETCHES TO FEASIBLE STRUCTURAL SYSTEMS, in: J. Gero (Ed.), Design Computing and Cognition ’06, Springer Netherlands, 2006, pp. 675-694.
 
[7]  J. Messner, V. Sanvido, R. Kumara, StructNet: A Neural Network for Structural System Selection, Journal of Computer-Aided Civil and Infrastructure Engineering 9 (2008) 109-118.
 
[8]  Z. Turskis, E.K. Zavadskas, F. Peldschus, Multi-criteria Optimization System for Decision Making in Construction Design and Management, Journal of Economics of Engineering Decisions 1 (61) (2009) 7-17.
 
[9]  O.S. Shamrani, G.G. Schierle, Selection of optimum structural systems and materials, Journal of Art in Science and Engineering 13 (2009) 91-103.
 
[10]  T.L. Saaty, Mathematical Models for Decision Support, Springer Link, 1988.
 
[11]  K.M.A.-S. Al-Harbi, Application of the AHP in project management, International Journal of Project Management 19 (1) (2001) 19-27.
 
[12]  M.K. Tiwari, R. Banerjee, A decision support system for the selection of a casting process using analytic hierarchy process, Journal of Production Planning & Control: The Management of Operations 12 (7) (2001) 689-691.
 
[13]  J. Wong, H. Li, J. Lai, Evaluating the system intelligence of the intelligent building systems: Part 2: Construction and validation of analytical models, Automation in Construction 17 (3) (2008) 303-321.
 
[14]  L. Juhua, T. Lishou, Y. Lei, Application of AHP Method in Building Construction and Cultural Combined - By Human Living Environment Construction of PengAn as the Background, Management and Service Science (MASS), 2011 International Conference on, 2011, pp. 1-4.
 
[15]  D.C. Morais, A.T. de Almeida, Group decision-making for leakage management strategy of water network, Resources, Conservation and Recycling 52 (2) (2007) 441-459.
 
[16]  R. Ginevičius, V. Podvezko, M. Novotny, The Use Of PROMETHEE Method For Evaluating The Strategic Pptential Of Construction Enterprises, The 10th International Conference on Modern Building Materials, Structures, and Techniques, Vilnius, Lithuania, 2010, pp. 407-413.
 
[17]  J. San Cristobal, Critical Path Definition Using Multicriteria Decision Making: PROMETHEE Method, Journal of Management in Engineering 29 (2) (2013) 158-163.
 
[18]  V. Balali, A. Mottaghi, O.R. Shoghli, M. Golabchi, Selection of Appropriate Material, Construction Technique, and Structural System of Bridges by Use of Multi-Criteria Decision-Making Method, Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board (TRR) (2431) (2014) 79-87.
 
[19]  R.U. Bilsel, G. Büyüközkan, D. Ruan, A fuzzy preference-ranking model for a quality evaluation of hospital web sites, International Journal of Intelligent Systems 21 (11) (2006) 1181-1197.
 
[20]  M. Dağdeviren, Decision making in equipment selection: an integrated approach with AHP and PROMETHEE, Journal of Intelligent Manufacturing 19 (4) (2008) 397-406.
 
[21]  M. Fathollah, F. Taham, A. Ashouri, Developing a Conceptual Framework for Simulation Analysis in a Supply Chain Based on Common Platform (SCBCP), Journal of applied research and technology 7 (2) (2009) 163-184.
 
[22]  A. Kasaeian, O. Shoghli, A. Afshar, T. Narmak, Nondominated archiving genetic algorithm for multi-objective optimization of time-cost trade-off, Proc., 8th WSEAS Int. Conf. on Evolutionary Computing, 2007.
 
[23]  J. Wang, C. Wei, D. Yang, A decision method for vendor selection based on AHP/PROMETHEE/GAIA, Journal of Dalian University of Technology 46 (6) (2006) 926-931.
 
[24]  J.-J. Wang, D.-L. Yang, Using a hybrid multi-criteria decision aid method for information systems outsourcing, Computers & Operations Research 34 (12) (2007) 3691-3700.
 
[25]  J.P. Brans, Lingenierie de la Decision. Elaboration DinstrumentsDaide a la Decision, Methode PROMETHEE In: Nadeau, R., Landry, M. (Eds.), Laide a la Decision: Nature, Instruments et Perspectives Davenir., de Universite Laval, Quebec, Canada, 1982, pp. 183-214.
 
[26]  J.P. Brans, P. Vincke, A Preference Ranking Organisation Method: (The PROMETHEE Method for Multiple Criteria Decision-Making), Management Science 31 (6) (1985) 647-656.
 
[27]  J.P. Brans, P. Vincke, B. Mareschal, How to select and how to rank projects: The Promethee method, European Journal of Operational Research 24 (2) (1986) 228-238.
 
[28]  S.K. Amponsah, K.F. Darkwah, A. Inusah, Logistic preference function for preference ranking organization method for enrichment evaluation (PROMETHEE) decision analysis., African Journal of Mathematics and Computer Science Research 5 (6) (2012) 112-119.
 
[29]  V. Podvezko, A. Podviezko, Dependence of multi-criteria evaluation result on choice of preference functions and their parameters, Technological and Economic Development of Economy 16 (1) (2010) 143-158.
 
[30]  J.P. Brans, B. Mareschal, The PROMETHEE GAIA Decision Support System for Multicriteria Investigations, Journal of Investigation Operative 4 (2) (1994) 107-117.
 
Show Less References

Article

The Effect of sieved Coal Bottom Ash as a Sand Substitute on the Properties of Concrete with Percentage Variation in Cement

1Department Civil Engineering, NDMVPS’s KBT College of Engineering, Nashik, India

2Department of Applied Mechanics, SVNIT, Surat, India


American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture. 2014, 2(5), 160-166
DOI: 10.12691/ajcea-2-5-2
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
M. P. Kadam, Y. D. Patil. The Effect of sieved Coal Bottom Ash as a Sand Substitute on the Properties of Concrete with Percentage Variation in Cement. American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture. 2014; 2(5):160-166. doi: 10.12691/ajcea-2-5-2.

Correspondence to: M.  P. Kadam, Department Civil Engineering, NDMVPS’s KBT College of Engineering, Nashik, India. Email: kadammadhav@yahoo.co.in

Abstract

This paper presents the results of an experimental investigation on the effect of sieved coal bottom ash as a substitute for natural sand on the properties of concrete, when an extra 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 25% and 30% weight of cement was added. First, M-35 grade concrete was casted and tested; using a fixed percentage of 70% sieved coal bottom ash and 30% natural sand. The water cement ratio was maintained at 0.45. Then various tests including compressive strength, split tensile strength, flexural strength, density and water permeability were performed on the sieved coal bottom ash concrete. The results were compared with the control concrete and the percentage variations in strength were studied at 7, 28, 56 and 112 days. The results indicate a considerable increase in strength when 20% extra cement was added with the weight of cement.

Keywords

References

[1]  Aggarwal P., Aggarwal Y, Gupt S.M., Effect of bottom ash as replacement of fine aggregates in concrete, Asian Journal of Civil Engineering (building and housing), 2007, Vol. 8, no. 1 Pages 49-62.
 
[2]  Andrade L.B., J.C. Rocha, M. Cheriaf, Influence of coal bottom ash as fine aggregate on fresh properties of concrete, Construction and Building Materials, 2009, Vol. 23, pp. 609-614.
 
[3]  Chai Jaturapitakkul and Raungrut Cheerarot, Development of Bottom Ash as Pozzolanic material, Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering, 2003, Vol.15, pp. 48-53.
 
[4]  DIN 1048 (part-5): German Standard for determination of Permeability of Concrete.
 
[5]  H.K. Kim, H.K. Lee, Use of power plant bottom ash as fine and coarse aggregates in high-strength concrete, Construction and Building Materials, 2011, Vol. 25, pp. 1115-1122.
 
Show More References
[6]  IS 2386-1963(part-III) Method for test for aggregates for Concrete
 
[7]  IS 383-1970 – Specification for coarse and fine aggregates from the natural source for concrete.
 
[8]  IS 456-2000 code of practice for plain and reinforced cement concrete for general construction work.
 
[9]  IS 516 – 1959 Methods of test for strength of concrete.
 
[10]  IS 5816 – 1970 Methods of test for splitting tensile strength of concrete cylinders.
 
[11]  Malhotra V.M., and Mehta P.K., pozzolanic and cementitious materials, Gordon and Breach Publishers, Pennsylvania, 1996.
 
[12]  Malhotra V.M. and Painter K.E., Early-age strength properties, and freezing and thawing resistance of concrete were incorporating high volume of ASTM Class F Fly ash, the International Journal of Cement Composites and Lightweight Concrete, 1995, Vol. 11 No. 1 pp. 38-46.
 
[13]  Mohd Syahrul Hisyam bin Mohd Sani, Fadhluhartini bt Muftah, Zulkifli Muda, The Properties of Special Concrete Using Bottom Ash (WBA) as Partial Sand Replacement, International Journal of Sustainable Construction Engineering & Technology, 2010, Vol.2, pp. 65-76.O.
 
[14]  O. E. Manz, Worldwide production of coal ash and utilization in concrete and other products, Elsevier Science Ltd. Fuel, 1997 Vol. 76, pp. 691-696.
 
[15]  Rafat Siddique, Effect of fine aggregate replacement with Class F fly ash on the abrasion resistance of concrete, Cement and Concrete Research, 2003, Vol. 33, pp. 1877-1881.
 
[16]  Ratchayut Kasemchaisir and Somnuk Tangtermsirikul, Properties of Self-Compacting concrete in Corporating Bottom Ash as a Partial Replacement of Fine Aggregate, Science Asia, 2008, Vol. 34 pp. 87-95.
 
[17]  Trakool ARAMRAKS Experimental Study of Concrete Mix with Bottom Ash as Fine Aggregate in Thailand, SEAMEO-INNOTECH, 2006.
 
[18]  Y. Bai, F. Darcy, P. A. M. Basheer, Strength and drying shrinkage properties of concrete containing furnace bottom ash as fine aggregate, Construction and Building Materials, 2005, Vol. 19, pp. 691-697.
 
[19]  Y. Bai and P. A. M. Basheer, Influence of furnace bottom ash on properties of concrete, Structures & Buildings, 2003, Vol. 156, pp. 5-92.
 
Show Less References

Article

The Investigation of Effective Parameters on the Stability of Concrete Gravity Dams with Case Study on Folsom, Blue Stone, and Pine Flat Dams

1Department of Civil Engineering, Master of civil Engineering, young researchers and elite club, roudehen branch, islamic azad university, roudehen, Iran

2Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Civil Engineering, The University of Roudehen Branch, Tehran, Iran

3Doctor of civil engineering structures, an associate professor and head of University of Science and Technology


American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture. 2014, 2(5), 167-173
DOI: 10.12691/ajcea-2-5-3
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Elyas behradimehr, afshin mansouri, babak aminnejad, mohammad ali barkhordari bafghi. The Investigation of Effective Parameters on the Stability of Concrete Gravity Dams with Case Study on Folsom, Blue Stone, and Pine Flat Dams. American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture. 2014; 2(5):167-173. doi: 10.12691/ajcea-2-5-3.

Correspondence to: Elyas  behradimehr, Department of Civil Engineering, Master of civil Engineering, young researchers and elite club, roudehen branch, islamic azad university, roudehen, Iran. Email: bakhsat_engineer@yahoo.com

Abstract

In this research, the effective parameters in stability of concrete gravity dams in the form of case study on three important dams: Blue stone; Folsom; and Pine Flat, are investigated. Typically, cognition and understanding of effective parameters in stability and knowing the role of each them, in designing new dams, could be very helpful. Concrete gravity dams (which are surveyed in this research) have their strength and stability because of their weight. The shape of their section are triangle and commonly, The base of the triangle is greater than the dam is stable, the more stable dam is. Also, in this investigation we are going to study the horizontal displacement called sliding of dam’s bottom, in contact with foundation by ABAQUS software. The sliding displacement has no considerable change in each of the three nodes on heel and toe, and also in middle part of dam, and eventually is equal in each three and all parts of the dam’s bottom and foundation. With choosing three nodes on the dam’s bottom and similar nodes on the foundation, and with differentiating horizontal displacements of these nodes with each other, the relative displacements of dam are obtained. With using these displacements acquired from ABAQUS software in RS-DAM software, we show them as time series graph and relative displacement. Whenever this graph has a jump with the increase of earthquake PGAs (end of the graph moves away from the starting point of it), dams is considered as unstable.

Keywords

References

[1]  Lo, K.Y. and Ogawa, T. “The Evaluation of Existing Concrete Dams on Rock Foundations and Remedial Measures”, International Commission on Large Dams, 1991.
 
[2]  Chavez, J. W. and Fenves G. L. “Earthquake Response of Concrete Gravity Dams Including Base Sliding”, Journal of Structural Engineering, ASCE, Vol. 121, No. 5, 865-875, 1995.
 
[3]  Horyna, T. “Reliability Analysis of Base Sliding of Concrete Gravity Dam Subjected to Earthquake”, University of British Columbia, 1999.
 
[4]  Ruggeri, G. “Working Group on Sliding Safety of Existing Dam”, Final Report, ICOLD European Club, 2004.
 
[5]  Ftima, M. B. and Leger, P. “Seismic Stability of Cracked Concrete Dams Using Rigid Block Models”, 2006.
 
Show More References
[6]  11- Fishman, Y. A. "Stability of Concrete Retaining Structures and Their Interface with Rock Foundations", 2009.
 
[7]  Fishman, Y. A. "Stability of Concrete Retaining Structures and Their Interface with1 Rock Foundations", 2009.
 
[8]  US Ar my Corps of Engineers (USACE), "Roller-Compacted Concrete, EM 1110-2-2006, 2000.
 
Show Less References

Article

Hydration and Strength Behavior of Sugarcane-Baggase Ash Concrete Using Electrical Resistivity Measurement

1Civil Engineering and Mechanics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China

2Civil Engineering Department, Hassan Usman Katsina Polytechnic, Katsina State , Nigeria


American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture. 2014, 2(5), 174-176
DOI: 10.12691/ajcea-2-5-4
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Muazu Bawa Samaila, Wei Xiaosheng, Ashhabu Elkaseem. Hydration and Strength Behavior of Sugarcane-Baggase Ash Concrete Using Electrical Resistivity Measurement. American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture. 2014; 2(5):174-176. doi: 10.12691/ajcea-2-5-4.

Correspondence to: Muazu  Bawa Samaila, Civil Engineering and Mechanics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China. Email: muazubawaf@yahoo.com

Abstract

Electrical resistivity method was adopted in monitoring the hydration of concrete containing different percentage of baggase ash. It has been discovered that the bulk electrical resistivity is a function of the solution electrical resistivity and porosity. Two model components were suggested where the solution resistivity was dominated by bulk resistivity at early age then by porosity at later age. The result found that the pore discontinuity occurs faster with increasing baggase ash quantity up to 20% then started declining meaning that 20% is within the optimum range of the baggase ash quantity to be used and this is similar to the results obtained from compressive strength, setting time tests.

Keywords

References

[1]  Guilherme, C.C., Romildo D. T. F., Luís M. T., Eduardo de M. R. F, “Ultrafine grinding of sugar cane bagasse ash for application as pozzolanic admixture in concrete,” Cem. Concr. Res., 39 (2). 110-115, Feb. 2009.
 
[2]  Martirena, J.F.M.H., Middeendor, B., Gehrke, M., and Budelmann, H., “Use of wastes of the sugar industry as pozzolana in lime-pozzolana binders: study of the reaction,” Cem. Concr. Res. 28 (11). 1525-1536, Nov. 1998.
 
[3]  Singh, N.B., Singh, V.D., and Rai, S., “Hydration of bagasse ash-blended Portland cement,” Cem. Concr. Res., 30 (9). 1485-1488, Sept. 2000.
 
[4]  Ganesan, K., Rajagopal, K., Thangavel, K, “Evaluation of bagasse ash as supplementary cementitious material,” Cem. Concr. Compos., 29 (6). 515-524, Jul. 2007.
 
[5]  Zongjin, L., Lianzhen, X., and Xiaosheng, W., “Determination of concrete setting time using electrical resistivity measurement,” Journal of materials in civil engineering, 19 (5), 423-427. May 2007.
 
Show More References
[6]  ASTM-Standards “Standard Test Method for Setting Time of Hydraulic Cement”, C191-92, 1993, 866-868.
 
[7]  Zongjin, L., Xiaosheng, W, and Wenlai, L., “Preliminary interpretation of Portland cement hydration process using resistivity measurements,” Material Journal, American Concrete Institute, 100 (3): 253-257. June 2003.
 
[8]  Xiaosheng, W., Lianzhen, X., and Zongjin L., “Electrical measurement to assess hydration process and the porosity formation,” Journal of Wuhan University of Tech., 23 (5): 761-766. 2008.
 
Show Less References

Article

Optimizing the Risk-preparedness and Disaster Management Systems of all World Heritage Sites by Exploiting HPWS and Conform to the UNESCO Guidelines

1Faculty of Architecture and Environmental Design, (IIUM), Gombak, Malaysia


American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture. 2014, 2(6), 177-185
DOI: 10.12691/ajcea-2-6-1
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Mehdi S. Kaddory Al-Zubaidy. Optimizing the Risk-preparedness and Disaster Management Systems of all World Heritage Sites by Exploiting HPWS and Conform to the UNESCO Guidelines. American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture. 2014; 2(6):177-185. doi: 10.12691/ajcea-2-6-1.

Correspondence to: Mehdi  S. Kaddory Al-Zubaidy, Faculty of Architecture and Environmental Design, (IIUM), Gombak, Malaysia. Email: mkaddory@yahoo.com

Abstract

The paper examines the possible efficacy of HPWS (High-Performance Work System) in optimizing the risk-preparedness and disaster management of the World Heritage Sites (WHS), using Alhambra Palace, Spain, as the test site. Most of the WHSs are vulnerable to various types of risks, and the UNESCO has set a stringent standard for their maintenance, failing which any WHS will lose its title. The paper has a goal of finding a common risk-preparedness and disaster management solution that would enable all WHSs to conform to the maintenance standard set by the UNESCO. A test survey conducted on Alhambra site WHS which chosen as a case study of World Heritage Sites under UNESCO, the feedback shown that it is possible to exploit HPWS to optimize the risk-preparedness and disaster management systems of all World Heritage Sites and conform to the UNESCO Guidelines.

Keywords

References

[1]  UNESCO, (2009). Strengthening Disaster Risk Reduction at World Heritage Properties: the Olympia Protocol for International Cooperation. [online]. Available at http://www.iaaconservation.org.il/images/files/pdf_docs/Olympia_Protocol.pdf.
 
[2]  UNESCO. (2012). World heritage list. [Online] Available: http://whc.unesco.org/en/list (January 12, 2011).
 
[3]  Rits-DMUCH. (2012). UNESCO Chair Program on Cultural Heritage and Risk Management International Training Course on Disaster Risk Management of Cultural Heritage 2012. [online]. Available at http://www.ritsumeigcoe.jp/heritagerisknet.dmuch/detail/what/201203/ITC2012_backgroundandobjective.pdf.
 
[4]  George, P. (2012). Disaster archaeology. [online]. Available at http://www.drgeorgepc.com/DisastersCulturalSites.html.
 
[5]  Wright, P and Guthrie, J. (2005). Labor productivity and HRM. Academy of Management Journal, 46(1), pp. 137-174.
 
Show More References
[6]  Gardner, T. and Allen, M. (2005). Relationship between worker performance and HR practices. Personnel Psychology, 57: 4, 419-416.
 
[7]  Stovel, H. (1998). Risk preparedness: A management manual for World Cultural Heritage. Rome: ICCROM.
 
[8]  Shaw, D and Delery, J. (2001). Research in Personnel and HR management. Greenwich, CT: Jai Press.
 
[9]  Civallero, E. (2008). When Memory Turns into Ashes ... Memoricide During the XX Century. [online]. Available at http://www.libr.org/isc/issues/ISC25/articles/WHEN%20MEMORY%20TURNS%20INTO%20ASHES.pdf.
 
[10]  Chiedozie, A, (2009), The history of Nalanda University. [Online] Available: http://www.ehow.com/about_5272488_history-nalanda-university.html (December 3, 2012).
 
[11]  Stovel, H. (1998). Risk preparedness: a management manual for world cultural heritage. [online]. Available at http://www.iccrom.org/pdf/ICCROM_17_RiskPreparedness_en.pdf (January, 27, 2103).
 
[12]  Taboroff, J. (2003). Natural disasters and urban cultural heritage: A reassessment. In Building safer cities: The future of disaster risk. World Bank: Washington, DC. [Online] Available: http://www.preventionweb.net/files/638_868.pdf. ( January 5, 2011).
 
[13]  Erturk, N. (2004). Earthquake preparedness towards cultural heritage losses: The case study of Istanbul museums. In C. Menegazzi (ed.), International Symposium on Cultural Heritage Disaster Preparedness and Response (pp. 243-248). Paris: International Council of Museums (ICOM) Publications.
 
[14]  Grugulis, I. and Marchinton, M. (2000). Best practice management. Journal of Human Resource Management, 11: 6, 1114-1154.
 
[15]  UNESCO / WHC. (2008). Operational guidelines for the implementation of the world heritage convention. Paris: UNESCO World Heritage Centre.
 
[16]  UNESCO / WHC, (2007), Case studies on climate change and world heritage.
 
[17]  Wittemyer, G., Elsen, P., Bean, W.T., Coleman, A., Burton, O. & Brashares, J.S. (2008). Accelerated human population growth at protected area edges. Science, 321, 123-126.
 
[18]  Paauwe, J. (2004). Achieving long term viability in HRM performance. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
 
[19]  Boxall, P. & Macky, K. (2007). High-performance work systems and organisational performance: Bridging theory and practice. Asia Pacific Journal of Human Resources, 45(3), 261-270.
 
[20]  Boxall, P. & Macky, K. (2009). Research and theory on high-performance work systems: progressing the high involvement stream. Human Resource Management Journal, 19(1), 3-23.
 
[21]  Barnes, W. F. (2001). The challenge of implementing and sustaining high performance work system in the United States: An evolutionary analysis of I/N Tek and Kote. Doctoral dissertation: University of Notre Dame.
 
[22]  Ichniowski, C., Kochan, T., Levine, D., Olson, O., & Strauss, G. (1996). What works at work. Industrial Relations, 35, 299-333.
 
[23]  Applebaum, E., Bailey, T., Berg, P., and Kalleberg, A. (2000). Manufacturing advantage: Why high-performance work systems pay off, Ithaca: ILR Press.
 
[24]  Ichniowski, C., Shaw, K., & Prennushi, G. (1997) The effects of human resources management practices on productivity: a study of steel finishing lines. The American Economic Review, 87(3), 291-313.
 
[25]  Huselid, M.A. (1995). The impact of human resource management practices on turnover, productivity, and corporate financial performance. Academy of Management Journal, 38(3), 635-672.
 
[26]  Gardner, J. (1989). On leadership. New York: Free Press.
 
[27]  Goleman, D. (1995). Emotional intelligence. NY: Bantam.
 
[28]  Goleman, D. (1998). Working with emotional intelligence. NY: Bantam.
 
[29]  Owen Jones and the Alhambra, (2012), [Online] Available: http://www.alhambrapatronato.es/index.php/Exhibition/719+M5728c79703e/0/?&cHash=57c0703348a63747a1ab8e27159513ec (December 22, 2012).
 
[30]  Hermann, E. D. (1996). Urban Formation and Landscape: Symbol and Agent of Social, Political and Environmental Change Fourteenth-Century Nasrid Granada. PhD Dissertation, Harvard University.
 
[31]  Irwin, R. (2004). The Alhambra. London: Profile Books. World Cultural Heritage. 22(1).pp. 18-34.
 
[32]  Andreason, A.R. (1996). Profits for nonprofits: Find a corporate partner. Harvard Business Review, 74 (6), 47-69.
 
[33]  Bryman, A., & Bell, E. (2003).Business Research Methods. Oxford: Oxford.
 
[34]  Al-Zubaidy, Mehdi S. Kaddory; Omer, Spahic; Abdullah, Alias (2012), Exploiting HPWS to Fulfil UNESCO Goals of Preserving and Utilising WHSs FOR THE Benefit of Mankind Part 1, Journal of Knowledge & Human Resource Management, Vol. 4 Issue 8, p88.
 
[35]  Al-Zubaidy, Mehdi S. Kaddory; Omer, Spahic; Abdullah, Alias (2013), Minimizing Environmental Impact on World Heritage Sites by Exploiting Green Energy, Journal of Global Intelligence & Policy; Fall2013, Vol. 6 Issue 11, p 141.
 
Show Less References

Article

Reducing Construction Disputes through Effective Claims Management

1Construction Engineering & Utilities Department, Zagazig University, Zagazig, Egypt


American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture. 2014, 2(6), 186-196
DOI: 10.12691/ajcea-2-6-2
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Hossam H. Mohamed, Ahmed H. Ibrahim, Asmaa A. Soliman. Reducing Construction Disputes through Effective Claims Management. American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture. 2014; 2(6):186-196. doi: 10.12691/ajcea-2-6-2.

Correspondence to: Asmaa  A. Soliman, Construction Engineering & Utilities Department, Zagazig University, Zagazig, Egypt. Email: asmaamadany@hotmail.com

Abstract

Reducing construction disputes appears to be the main goal for many researchers in the last decay. Each of them has attempted to clearly identify the expected causes of disputes. Construction claims can be considered as a main source of disputes. This paper aims to identify the most important causes that converting construction claims into disputes. A proposed system that can help to avoid converting construction claims into disputes was provided. Factors that causing disputable claims were identified through four stages. The first stage 140 factors that causing disputable claims were collected from international literature. The second stage a brainstorming was used to reduce the number of these factors and get the most common factors causing disputable claims. Hence 31 factors were only considered. These factors were divided into three major categories: behavioral, contractual and operational matters. Through third stage, the thirty one factors were subjected to a further survey to identify their importance index (relative significance). One hundred and two interviews were conducted and their results are employed to develop an importance index score for these disputable claims causes. Furthermore, the thirty one disputable claims causes were then ranked according to their relative importance. The fourth stage, The 80/20 rule applied to the causes identified to get the eight most important causes that represented about 25% of the causes. The most important eight factors were considered as the factors that converting claims into disputes which identified as follows: 1) delay interim payment from client, 2) qualification of team work, 3) extension of time, 4) incomplete drawings and specification, 5) Poorly written contracts clauses, 6) change orders, 7) cooperation and communication nature among project team, 8) late supply of equipment and materials. A proposed system for avoiding converting claims into disputes was presented. Furthermore, a checklist was designed during construction stage and four actual case studies were considered and discussed.

Keywords

References

[1]  Alkass, S., Mazerolle, M. and Harris, F., “Construction delay analysis techniques. “, Journal of ConstructionManagement and Economic, Vol. 14, March 1995, pp 375-394.
 
[2]  Charehzehi, A. and Ahankoob, A, “The use of analytical approach for the selection of dispute resolution”. Department of Structure and Materials, Faculty of Civil Engineering, University of Teknologi Malaysia (UTM), Johor Bahru, Johor, Malaysia, 2013.
 
[3]  Easterby-Smith, M., Thorpe, R. and lowe, A, “ Management research: a introduction “, SAGE publications Ltd, 2002.
 
[4]  El-Mesteckawi, L, “Managing construction disputes in Egypt”, M.Sc. Thesis, Cairo University, Egypt, 2007.
 
[5]  EL-Touny, A., “Estimating contingency cost for highway construction projects”. M.Sc.Thesis, Zagazig University. Egypt, 2014.
 
Show More References
[6]  El-Wakel, E., “Developing computerized construction claims decision support system to raie ability of construction management team against claims”. M.Sc.Thesis, Zagazig University, Egypt, 2006.
 
[7]  Fakhr El-Deen, Sh., “Efficiency of construction claim management process. M.Sc. Thesis, Arab Academy for Science Technology and Maritime Transportation, Egypt, 2012.
 
[8]  Gebken, R., “Quantification of transactional dispute resolution costs for the U.S. construction industry”, PHD, thesis, The University of Texas at Austin, 2006.
 
[9]  Ibrahim, M., “Estimating minimum acceptable construction claim amounts in negotiation process.” M.Sc.Thesis, Cairo University, 2007.
 
[10]  Kumaraswamy, M., “Conflicts, claims and disputes”, Journal of Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management”, 4(2), 1997, pp.95-111.
 
[11]  Tochaiwat, K. and Chovichien, V., “Problems of clients’ construction claim management in Thailand”. Department of Civil Engineering, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand, 2007.
 
[12]  Ren, Z., Anumba, C. and Ugwu, O., “Towards a multi-agent system for construction claims negotiation”, Department of Civil & Building Engineering, University of Loughborough, Loughborough, UK, 2000.
 
[13]  Soliman, A.A. (Incomplete), “Effective claims management to reduce risks of construction disputes”. M.Sc.Thesis, Zagazig University, Egypt.
 
Show Less References

Article

A Literature Evaluation of the Energy Efficiency of Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) -Certified Buildings

1Faculty of Architecture and Environmental Design, (IIUM), Gombak, Malaysia


American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture. 2015, 3(1), 1-7
DOI: 10.12691/ajcea-3-1-1
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Mehdi S. Kaddory Al-Zubaidy. A Literature Evaluation of the Energy Efficiency of Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) -Certified Buildings. American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture. 2015; 3(1):1-7. doi: 10.12691/ajcea-3-1-1.

Correspondence to: Mehdi  S. Kaddory Al-Zubaidy, Faculty of Architecture and Environmental Design, (IIUM), Gombak, Malaysia. Email: mkaddory@yahoo.com

Abstract

The Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design offers a means of certifying buildings that ensure environmental sustainability. Among the key areas evaluated for the certification is the energy efficiency of the design. Most of the studies selected showed that LEED certified buildings registered energy efficiency benefits. However, a few articles challenged these findings, citing that some LEED certified buildings did not show improvement in energy efficiency compared to non-LEED certified buildings. The disparity in study findings relates to the research design of the documents studied, the design-orientation of the LEED system, differences in occupancy numbers and building energy uses and the disparity in construction periods for the buildings under study.

Keywords

References

[1]  Purdey, S. (2012). The Normative Root of the Climate Change Problem. Ethics and the Environment, 17 (2), pp. 75-96.
 
[2]  Brundtland, G. (1987). Report of the World Commission on Environment and Development: Our Common Future. United Nations General Assembly document A/42/427.
 
[3]  Zou, W. & Couani, P. (2012). Managing Risks in Green Building Supply Chain. Architectural engineering and Design Management, 8, pp. 143-158.
 
[4]  USGBC (2013). LEEDS. Retrieved 21June 2013 from http://www.usgbc.org/leed.
 
[5]  Melinda, T. (2010). The Question of LEED: Why the Country’s Leading Green Building Certification may be Inherently Flawed. The Envirnomental Magazine, 21 (6), pp. 15-19.
 
Show More References
[6]  Nadine, M. (2009). Building Rating System Requirement Raises Concerns. Engineering News Record, 263 (2), pp. 12-13.
 
[7]  Industrial Engineer (2009). Freshness Counts, Too. IE, 44(12), pp. 14.
 
[8]  Brown, R. (2010). LEEDing to Better Buildings. USA Today Magazine, 139 (2786), p 61.
 
[9]  UNEP (2007). Buildings can play key role in combating climate change. UNEP News Centre. Retrieved on 17 June 2013 from http://www.unep.org/Documents.Multilingual/Default.asp?DocumentID=502&ArticleID=5545&=en.
 
[10]  Nyikos, D., Thai, A., Hicks, M & Leach, S. (2012). To LEED or Not to LEED: Analysis of Cost Premiums Associated With Sustainable Facility Design. Engineering Management Journal, 24 (4), pp. 50-62.
 
[11]  Cho, H., Gowri, K. & Liu, B., 2010. Modelling of Air Infiltration through Door Openings. Washington: US Department of Energy.
 
[12]  Newsham, R., Mancini, S. & Birt, B. (2009). Do LEED-certified buildings save energy? Yes, but… Energy and Buildings, 41 98), pp. 897-905.
 
[13]  Hedge, A., Rollings, K., & Robinson, J. (2010). Green Ergonomics: Advocating for the Human Element in Buildings, Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 54th Annual Meeting, pp. 693-697.
 
[14]  Stegal, N. (2004). Cost Implications of LEED Silver Certification for New House Residence Hall at Carnegie Mellon University. Senior Honors Research Project, Carnegie Institute of Technology. Retrieved 18 June 2013 from http://www.cmu.edu/greenpractices/greeningthe-campus/green-buildings/newhouse_report.pdf.
 
[15]  Tuhus, M. (2010). The Question of LEED: Why the country’s leading green building certification may be inherently flawed. The Environmental Magazine, 21 (6), pp. 15-19.
 
[16]  Fowler, M., & Rauch, M. (2006). Sustainable Building Rating Systems Summary. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Report 15858, Retrieved 20 June 2013 from http://wbdg.org/ccb/GSAMAN/sustainable_bldg_rating_systems.pdf.
 
[17]  Johansson, O. (2011). The spatial diffusion of green building technologies: The case of Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED ) in the United States. International Journal of Technology Management & Sustainable Development, 10 (3), pp. 251-266.
 
[18]  DePoy E, Gitlin N. (1993). Introduction to research: multiple strategies for health and human services. St. Louis: Mosby-Year Book.
 
[19]  Mulrow, C. and Cook, D. (1998). Systematic Reviews: Synthesis of Best Evidence for Health Care Decisions. Race: ACP Press.
 
[20]  Tyrer, P. and Freeman, C. (2006). Research Methods in Psychiatry. London: The Royal College of Psychiatrists.
 
[21]  AccessPoint (2013). History of LEED. Retrieved 20 June 2013 from http://www.businessrecovery.ws/leed-certification/history-of-leed.
 
[22]  Oxman D. (1994). Systematic reviews: checklists for review articles. BMJ, 309, pp. 648-51.
 
[23]  Turner, C. (2006). LEED building performance in the Cascadia Region: A post occupancy evaluation report. Retrieved 18 June 2013 from https://www.usgbc.org/chapters/cascadia/docs/pdf/POE_REPORT_2006.pdf.
 
[24]  Diamond, R., Optiz, M., Hicks, T., Vonneida, B. & Herrera, S. (2006). Evaluating the energy performance of the first generation of LEED-certified commercial buildings. ACEEE Summer Study on Energy Efficiency in Buildings, pp. 3/41-3/52.
 
[25]  Torcellini, P., Deru, M., Griffith, B., Long, N., Pless, S. & Judkoff, R. (2004). Lessons learned from the field evaluation of six high-performance buildings. ACEEE Summer Study on Energy Efficiency of Buildings, pp. 3-325 to 3-337.
 
[26]  Baylon, D.; Storm, P. (2008). Comparison of commercial LEED buildings and non-LEED buildings within the 2002-2004 Pacific Northwest commercial building stock. ACEEE Summer Study on Energy Efficiency of Buildings, pp. 4/1 to 4/12.
 
[27]  Turner, C. & Frankel, M. (2008). Energy performance of LEED for New Construction Buildings, Final Report. Washington: US Green Building Council.
 
[28]  Scofield, J. (2009). Do LEED-certified buildings save energy? Not really… Energy Build, 41 (12), pp. 897-905.
 
[29]  Menassa, C., Managasarian, S., Asmar, M. & Kirar, C. (2012). Energy Consumption Evaluation of US Navy LEED-Certified Buildings. Journal of Performance of Constructed Facilities, 26 (1), pp. 46-53.
 
[30]  Kamal, S. Lawsuit Contrasts LEED Certification and Energy Efficiency. Retrieved 20 June 2013 from www.greenbuildingnews.com/articles/2011/02/4/lawsuite-contrasts-leed-certification-and-energy-efficiency.
 
[31]  Osborn, C. (2006). Statistical Applications for Health Information Management. Sudbury: Jones and Bartlett Publishers, Inc.
 
[32]  Gershman, J. (2009). Fake Green Labels, Buildings Don’t Save Energy. The New York Post, September 21 2009. Retrieved 19 June 2013 from http://www.nypost.com/p/news/opinion/opedcolumnists/fake_green_labels_aU9PWSSD4p71LigLp0z4eO.
 
[33]  Dunn, S., and Makela, E. (2008). Going beyond code: A guide to creating energy efficient and sustainable buildings in the southwest. Boulder: Southwest Energy Efficiency Project.
 
[34]  Khan, K. S., Kunz, R., Kleijnen, J., & Antes, G. (2003). Systematic Reviews to Support Evidence-based Medicine: How to review and apply findings of healthcare research. London: The Royal Society of Medicine Press Ltd.
 
[35]  Mendenhall, W., Beaver, R. and Beaver, B. (2013). Introduction to Probability and Statistics, 14th Edition. Boston: Cengage Learning.
 
[36]  USA Today, 2013. In U.S. Building Industry, is it too Easy to be Green? Retrieved 20 June 2013 from http://www.usatoday.com/story/news/nation/2012/10/24/green-building-leed-certification/1650517/.
 
[37]  Malin, N. (2008). Lies, Damn Lies, and… (Another Look at LEED Energy Efficiency). Retrieved 20 June 2013 from http://www2.buildinggreen.com/blogs/lies-damn-lies-and-another-look-leed-energy-efficiency.
 
[38]  Sustainable Business News (2013). Why some NYC buildings are more efficient than LEED-certified ones. Retrieved 20 June 2013 from http://www.greenbiz.com/blog/2013/01/03/some-nyc-buildings-more-efficient-leed-certified?page=0%2C0.
 
[39]  Quirk, V. (2012). Where is LEED Leading Us?… And Should We Follow? Retrieved 21 June 2013 from http://www.archdaily.com/227934/where-is-leed-leading-us-and-should-we-follow.
 
[40]  Seville, C. (2011). How to Cheat at LEED for Homes. Retrieved 21 June 2013 from http://www.greenbuildingadvisor.com/blogs/dept/green-building-curmudgeon/how-cheat-leed-homes.
 
[41]  Oates, D. & Sullivan, K. (2012). Postoccupancy Energy Consumption Survey of Arizona’s LEED New Construction Population. Journal of Construction Engineering & Management, 138 (6), pp. 742-750.
 
[42]  Al-Zubaidy, Mehdi S. Kaddory; Omer, Spahic; Abdullah, Alias (2013), Minimizing Environmental Impact on World Heritage Sites by Exploiting Green Energy, Journal of Global Intelligence & Policy;Fall2013, Vol. 6 Issue 11, p141Jacobs, M. & Fernández, F. (2009), Alhambra, Frances Lincoln.
 
[43]  Mehdi S. Kaddory Al-zubaidy. (Vol. 3 - Issue 11 (November - 2014)). “Use of Novel Green Energy Design in Sustainable Buildings to Mitigate Effects of Climate Change”, International Journal of Engineering Research & Technology (IJERT).
 
Show Less References

Article

Geotechnical Properties of Sub- Soils in Escravos Estuary, Western Niger Delta, Nigeria

1Department of Geology, University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria

2Department of Geology, Federal University of Technology, Minna, Nigeria

3Geostrat International Services Limited, No.14 Mannila Pepple Street, D-Line, Port Harcourt, Nigeria


American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture. 2015, 3(1), 8-14
DOI: 10.12691/ajcea-3-1-2
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
H.O Nwankwoala, A.N. Amadi, T. Warmate, M. O. Jimoh. Geotechnical Properties of Sub- Soils in Escravos Estuary, Western Niger Delta, Nigeria. American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture. 2015; 3(1):8-14. doi: 10.12691/ajcea-3-1-2.

Correspondence to: A.N.  Amadi, Department of Geology, Federal University of Technology, Minna, Nigeria. Email: geoama76@gmail.com

Abstract

This study evaluates the sub-soil geotechnical characteristics at the onshore pipeline route at Escravos estuary, Western Niger Delta, Nigeria. Acquisition of soil samples for geotechnical studies was done by conventional boring method using light shell and auger hand rig. Samples were analyzed in the laboratory using standard analytical procedures. The samples explored showed a profile of very soft greenish dark grey and reddish brown clay formation. All samples observed confirmed this lithostratigraphy except for some of the grab samples. The entire formation generally, presents a low amount of organic content, low shear strength and high carbonate content. The unit weight showed an increase with high carbonate content. The samples gave a high amount of moisture content, higher than the liquid limit which indicates that on loading the pipeline route, the weight of the pipeline will dissipate a large amount of the pore water with a resultant increase in settlement. The pipeline should be placed on slippers pad at designated locations on the seabed along the survey route to avoid excessive settlement. This would distribute the anticipated pressure from the pipeline over a greater area and thus reduce the excessive settlement which is the characteristics of the very soft marine clay encountered in this investigation. The dimensions and bearing capacity of such slippers pads can easily be determined.

Keywords

References

[1]  Abam T. K. S. (1999). Dynamics and quality of water resources in the Niger Delta. Proceedings of IUGG 99 Symposium HSS Birmingham) IAHS Publ. No. 259, pp. 429-437.
 
[2]  Allen, J. R. L. (1965). Late Quatenary Niger Delta and adjacent areas: sedimentary environment and lithofacies. American Association of Petroleum Geologists, Vol. 49, pp. 549-600.
 
[3]  Amajor, L. C. and Ofoegbu C. O. (1988). Determination of polluted aquifers by stratigraphically controlled biochemical mapping; Example from the Eastern Niger Delta, Nigeria. Groundwater and Mineral Resources of Nigeria, pp. 62-73.
 
[4]  Dun,T.S, Anderson L.R. and Keifer (1980). Fundamental of Geotechnical Analysis – John Wiley Publisher, 414 pages.
 
[5]  Etu-Efeotor, J.O (1981). Preliminary hydrogeochemical investigation of subsurface waters in parts of the Niger Delta. Jour. Min. Geol. 18(1):103-105
 
Show More References
[6]  Etu-Efeotor, J.O and Akpokodje, E.G (1990). Aquifer systems of the Niger Delta. Journal of Mining Geology, 26(2):279-284.
 
[7]  Etu-Efeotor, J.O and Odigi, M.I (1983). Water supply problems in the Eastern Niger Delta. Jour. Min. Geol. 26(2):279-279.
 
[8]  Haddou, M.B; Essahlaoui, A; Boujlal, M; Elouali, A; and Hmaidi, A (2013). Study of the geotechnical parameters of the different soils by correlation analysis and statistics in the Kenitra Region of Morocco. Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, 3(2): 51-60.
 
[9]  Niger Delta Environmental Survey (1999) Physical Environment Report on the Hydrology of the Niger Delta.
 
[10]  Nwankwoala, H.O and Oborie, E (2014). Geotechnical Investigation and Characterization of Sub-soils in Yenagoa, Bayelsa State, Central Niger Delta, Nigeria. Civil and Environmental Research, 6(7):75-83.
 
[11]  Nwankwoala, H.O and Warmate, T (2014). Subsurface Soil Characterization of a Site for Infrastructural Development Purposes in D/Line, Port Harcourt, Nigeria. American International Journal of Contemporary Research, 4(6): 139-148.
 
[12]  Nwankwoala, H.O; Amadi, A.N; Ushie, F.A & Warmate, T (2014). Determination of Subsurface Geotechnical Properties for Foundation Design and Construction in Akenfa Community, Bayelsa State, Nigeria. American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture, 2(4): 130-135.
 
[13]  Osakuni M.U and Abam T.K.S: (2004) Shallow resisitivity measurement for cathodic protection of pipelines in the Nigeri Delta. Environmental Geology Vol. 45. No.6 747-752.
 
[14]  Peck, R.B; Hanson W.E and Thornburn T.H (1973) Foundation Engineering 2nd Edition John Wiley and Sons 514pp.
 
[15]  Short, K. C. and Stauble, A. J. (1967).Outline of Geology of the Niger Delta. American Association of Geologists, Vol. 51, No. 5, pp. 761-779.
 
[16]  Tomlinson M. J (1999) Foundation Design and Construction 6th Edition, Longman, 536.
 
Show Less References

Article

The Importance of New Technology for Delay Mitigation in Construction Projects

1Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran

2Sharif University of Technology, Tehran, Iran


American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture. 2015, 3(1), 15-20
DOI: 10.12691/ajcea-3-1-3
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Samad M E Sepasgozar, Mohamad Ahmadzade Razkenari, Khalegh Barati. The Importance of New Technology for Delay Mitigation in Construction Projects. American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture. 2015; 3(1):15-20. doi: 10.12691/ajcea-3-1-3.

Correspondence to: Khalegh  Barati, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran, Iran. Email: khalegh.barati@yahoo.com

Abstract

Construction technology has a great potential to improve productivity and decrease project duration. Delay happens in many construction projects, although the priority of delay causes is different in various countries due to environmental effects. Delays can lead to considerable negative effects such as lawsuits between owners and contractors, loss of productivity and revenue, and contract termination. This paper presents key sources of construction projects delay in Iran, following a review of publications related to delay. In addition, the paper presents the relationship between new technology and time overrun in those projects. One of the main causes of delay in many projects is that they use an old generation of construction technologies; however, the role of technology adoption in delay is ignored. In order to collect first-hand data to explore the delay sources, experienced project managers of the residential and industrial projects were recruited. Experienced professionals from twenty six companies participated in this study. Seventy-three delay causes were identified in the sample projects, in which 25 factors were related to the new technology restriction. The result of the study assists policy makers and practitioners to understand the actual factors causing delay. The value of the study is that it investigates three main issues such as frequency of occurrence, degree of severity, and importance of each factor. Different than other studies, the paper focuses on technology attributes that may affect the project scheduling and time.

Keywords

References

[1]  Sepasgozar, M.E. Samad; Shirazi, M. Sasan. (2008). Delay analysis due engineering document in construction and industrial project and contractors claim; case of Iran. The first Intel conference on strategic project management (pp. 21-31). Tehran: Sharif University.
 
[2]  Abd El-Razek, M., Bassioni, H., & Mobarak, A. (2008). Causes of delay in building construction projects in Egypt. Journal of construction engineering and management, 134(11), 831-841.
 
[3]  Aibinu, A. A., & Odeyinka, H. A. (2006). Construction delays and their causative factors in Nigeria. Journal of construction engineering and management, 132(7), 667-677.
 
[4]  Al-Barak, A. (1993). Causes of contractors’ failures in Saudi Arabia. Master of Science thesis, KFUPM, Dhahran, Saudi Arabia.
 
[5]  Al-Ghafly, M. A. (1995). Delay in the construction of public utility projects in Saudi Arabia. King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals.
 
Show More References
[6]  Al-Khalil, M. I., & Al-Ghafly, M. A. (1999a). Delay in public utility projects in Saudi Arabia. International Journal of Project Management, 17(2), 101-106.
 
[7]  Al-Khalil, M. I., & Al-Ghafly, M. A. (1999b). Important causes of delay in public utility projects in Saudi Arabia. Construction Management & Economics, 17(5), 647-655.
 
[8]  Al-Kharashi, A., & Skitmore, M. (2009). Causes of delays in Saudi Arabian public sector construction projects. Construction Management and Economics, 27(1), 3-23.
 
[9]  Al-Momani, A. H. (2000). Construction delay: a quantitative analysis. International Journal of Project Management, 18(1), 51-59.
 
[10]  Alaghbari, W. e., Kadir, M. R. A., & Salim, A. (2007). The significant factors causing delay of building construction projects in Malaysia. Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management, 14(2), 192-206.
 
[11]  Alkass, S., Mazerolle, M., & Harris, F. (1996). Construction delay analysis techniques. Construction Management & Economics, 14(5), 375-394.
 
[12]  Assaf, S. A., & Al-Hejji, S. (2006). Causes of delay in large construction projects. International Journal of Project Management, 24(4), 349-357.
 
[13]  Braimah, N., & Ndekugri, I. (2008). Factors influencing the selection of delay analysis methodologies. International Journal of Project Management, 26(8), 789-799.
 
[14]  Chan, D. W., & Kumaraswamy, M. M. (1997). A comparative study of causes of time overruns in Hong Kong construction projects. International Journal of Project Management, 15(1), 55-63.
 
[15]  Faridi, A. S., & El-Sayegh, S. M. (2006). Significant factors causing delay in the UAE construction industry. Construction Management and Economics, 24(11), 1167-1176.
 
[16]  Frimpong, Y., Oluwoye, J., & Crawford, L. (2003). Causes of delay and cost overruns in construction of groundwater projects in a developing countries; Ghana as a case study. International Journal of Project Management, 21(5), 321-326.
 
[17]  Fugar, F. D., & Agyakwah-Baah, A. B. (2010). Delays in building construction projects in Ghana. Australasian Journal of Construction Economics and Building, The, 10(1/2), 128.
 
[18]  Iyer, K., & Jha, K. (2006). Critical factors affecting schedule performance: Evidence from Indian construction projects. Journal of construction engineering and management, 132(8), 871-881.
 
[19]  Kaliba, C., Muya, M., & Mumba, K. (2009). Cost escalation and schedule delays in road construction projects in Zambia. International Journal of Project Management, 27(5), 522-531.
 
[20]  Kaming, P. F., Olomolaiye, P. O., Holt, G. D., & Harris, F. C. (1997). Factors influencing construction time and cost overruns on high-rise projects in Indonesia. Construction Management & Economics, 15(1), 83-94.
 
[21]  Kassab, M., Hipel, K., & Hegazy, T. (2006). Conflict resolution in construction disputes using the graph model. Journal of construction engineering and management, 132(10), 1043-1052.
 
[22]  Koushki, P., Al‐Rashid, K., & Kartam, N. (2005). Delays and cost increases in the construction of private residential projects in Kuwait. Construction Management and Economics, 23(3), 285-294.
 
[23]  Le-Hoai, L., Dai Lee, Y., & Lee, J. Y. (2008). Delay and cost overruns in Vietnam large construction projects: A comparison with other selected countries. KSCE journal of civil engineering, 12(6), 367-377.
 
[24]  Lo, T. Y., Fung, I. W., & Tung, K. C. (2006). Construction delays in Hong Kong civil engineering projects. Journal of construction engineering and management, 132(6), 636-649.
 
[25]  Lowsley, S., & Linnett, C. (2006). About time-: delay analysis in construction: RICS.
 
[26]  M Dlakwa, M., & F Culpin, M. (1990). Reasons for overrun in public sector construction projects in Nigeria. International Journal of Project Management, 8(4), 237-241.
 
[27]  Marzouk, M. M., & El-Rasas, T. I. (2014). Analyzing delay causes in Egyptian construction projects. Journal of Advanced Research, 5(1), 49-55.
 
[28]  Mezher, T. M., & Tawil, W. (1998). Causes of delays in the construction industry in Lebanon. Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management, 5(3), 252-260.
 
[29]  Noulmanee, A., Wachirathamrojn, J., Tantichattanont, P., & Sittivijan, P. (1999). Internal causes of delays in highway construction projects in Thailand.
 
[30]  Odeh, A. M., & Battaineh, H. T. (2002). Causes of construction delay: traditional contracts. International Journal of Project Management, 20(1), 67-73.
 
[31]  Ogunlana, S. O., Promkuntong, K., & Jearkjirm, V. (1996). Construction delays in a fast-growing economy: comparing Thailand with other economies. International Journal of Project Management, 14(1), 37-45.
 
[32]  Ruqaishi, M., & Bashir, H. A. (2013). Causes of delay in construction projects in the oil and gas industry in the gulf cooperation council countries: a case study. Journal of Management in Engineering.
 
[33]  Sambasivan, M., & Soon, Y. W. (2007). Causes and effects of delays in Malaysian construction industry. International Journal of Project Management, 25(5), 517-526.
 
[34]  Shehu, Z., Endut, I. R., Akintoye, A., & Holt, G. D. (2014). Cost overrun in the Malaysian construction industry projects: A deeper insight. International Journal of Project Management.
 
[35]  Stumpf, G. R. (2000). Schedule delay analysis. COST ENGINEERING-ANN ARBOR THEN MORGANTOWN-, 42(7), 32-32.
 
[36]  Sweis, G., Sweis, R., Abu Hammad, A., & Shboul, A. (2008). Delays in construction projects: The case of Jordan. International Journal of Project Management, 26(6), 665-674.
 
[37]  Sweis, G. J. (2013). Factors Affecting Time Overruns in Public Construction Projects: The Case of Jordan. International Journal of Business and Management, 8(23), p120.
 
[38]  Toor, S. U. R., & Ogunlana, S. O. (2008). Problems causing delays in major construction projects in Thailand. Construction Management and Economics, 26(4), 395-408.
 
[39]  Van Thuyet, N., Ogunlana, S. O., & Dey, P. K. (2007). Risk management in oil and gas construction projects in Vietnam. International journal of energy sector management, 1(2), 175-194.
 
Show Less References

Article

Factors Affecting on Productivity of Oil and Gas Construction Projects: An AHP Analysis

1Sharif University of Technology, Tehran, Iran

2Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran


American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture. 2015, 3(1), 21-27
DOI: 10.12691/ajcea-3-1-4
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Khalegh Barati, Samad M.E. Sepasgozar. Factors Affecting on Productivity of Oil and Gas Construction Projects: An AHP Analysis. American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture. 2015; 3(1):21-27. doi: 10.12691/ajcea-3-1-4.

Correspondence to: Samad  M.E. Sepasgozar, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran. Email: khalegh.barati@yahoo.com; samad.sepasgozar@gmail.com

Abstract

The oil and gas construction sector is one of the main industries all over the world which plays a powerful role in economic growth of all countries inasmuch as accounts 5 to 10 percent of Gross national product (GNP) of countries. Over the last decade, by considering the huge amount of money spent in constructing these kinds of mega projects, the issue of identifying affecting factors and their roles on productivity has become main challenge for engaging teams in the process of execution. In spite of its importance, no extensive and comprehensive researches have been yet conducted to assess the effective factors in productivity of these projects. This paper presents several factors affecting the productivity in the oil and gas construction projects. The paper also provides a priority list of important factors affecting the productivity based on a survey conducted in a large oil zone. Respondents involved in employer organizations, construction managers and consultants, contractor teams and university lecturers. Finally, through Analytical Hierarchical Process (AHP) and paired comparison between the effective factors and categorized groups, the importance and the effect of these factors on productivity of oil and gas construction projects were obtained. The result of the analysis shows that management factors are most effective factors while project’s factors do not have significant effect on productivity.

Keywords

References

[1]  Khoramshahi, F.; Dehghan, R. and Mortaheb, M.M.: Factors Influencing Construction Productivity, Proceedings of the 10th EASEC, 2006, 269-274, Bangkok, Thailand.
 
[2]  Weng-Tat, C.: A Systems Perspective of Construction Productivity Improvement Efforts, Proceeding of the 1st International Conference of European Asian Civil Engineering Forum, Jakarta–Indonesia, 2007, E43-E50.
 
[3]  Kazaz, A.; Manisali, E. and Ulubeyli, S.: Effect of Basic Motivational Factors on Construction Workforce Productivity in Turkey, Journal of Civil Engineering and Management, 14(2), p. 95-106, 2008.
 
[4]  Ibbs, W., Impact of Change's Timing on Labor Productivity, Journal of Construction Engineering and Management, 131(11), 2005, 1219-1223.
 
[5]  Soekiman, A., Quality of Work Life as an Alternative Strategy for Managing Human Resource in Construction Industry, Proceeding of the 1st International Conference on Engineering, Environment, Economic, Safety & Health, B-III-2, 2011, 1-7, Manado, Indonesia.
 
Show More References
[6]  Haskell, P.H.: Construction Industry Productivity, America’s Design-Build Leader, 2004.
 
[7]  Rankin, L.K., Lozon, J.P., Jergeas, G.F. Detailed Execution Planning Model for Large Oil and Gas Construction Projects. Proceedings of CSCE 6th Construction Specialty Conference, (2005). Toronto, CT-130, 1-9.
 
[8]  The Canadian Construction Association (CCA), Canadian Construction Industry Forecast.” <http://www.cca-acc.com/factsheet/factsheet.html> (February 7, 2008).
 
[9]  Jergeas, G.F., Analysis of the Front-End Loading of Alberta Mega Oil Sands Projects.” Project Management Journal, 39 (4), 2008, 95-104.
 
[10]  Fayek, A.R., Yorke, M., and Cherlet, R.,Workforce Training Initiatives for Megaproject Success, Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering, 33(12), 2006b, 1561-1570.
 
[11]  Lozon, J. and Jergeas, G. Best Practices – Too Much of a Good Thing?. Proceedings of the CSCE Annual Conferences, (2008), Quebec City, QC. CO-395, 1-8.
 
[12]  Canada Research Chair of Project Management Systems (CRCPM), <http://www.albertacanada.com/files/albertacanada/improving_construction_productivity.pdf> (Access date: Sep 17, 2014).
 
[13]  Elliott, B.G., Project Historical Databases for the Canadian Oil sands.” AACE International Transactions, EST.02, 2005, 1-5.
 
[14]  Hewage K.N. and Ruwanpura, J.Y. Carpentry workers issues and efficiencies related to construction productivity in commercial construction projects in Alberta. Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering, 33(8), 2006, 1075-1089.
 
[15]  Alinaitwe H. M., Mwakali J. A., and Hansson B., Factors affecting the productivity of building craftsmen –Studies of Uganda”. “Journal of Civil Engineering and Management”, 13(3), 2007, 169-176.
 
[16]  Kothari, CR.: Research methodology, methods and techniques, Wisha Prakashan, 2003, New Delhi
 
[17]  Edwards, D.J., Yang, J., Wright, B.C. and Love, P.E.D., Establishing the link between plant operator performance and personal motivation, Journal of Engineering, Design and Technology, 5(2), 2007, 173-187.
 
[18]  Kadir M. R. A., Lee W. P., Jaafar M. S., Sapuan S. M., Ali A. A. A., Factors affecting construction labour productivity for Malaysian residential projects. “Structural Survey”, 23(1), 2005, 42-54.
 
[19]  J.Dai, P.M.Goodrum, W.F.Maloney, and C.Srinivasan, Latent structures of the factors affecting construction labor productivity, Journal of Construction Engineering and Management, 135(5), 2009b, 397-406.
 
Show Less References