Welcome to American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture

American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture is a peer-reviewed, open access journal that provides rapid publication of articles in all areas of Civil Engineering and Architecture. The aim of the journal is to provide academicians, researchers and professionals a platform to share cutting-edge development in the field of Civil Engineering and Architecture.

ISSN (Print): 2328-398X

ISSN (Online): 2328-3998

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Website: http://www.sciepub.com/journal/AJCEA



Adfreeze Forces on Lightly Loaded Pile Foundations of Solar PV Farms in Cold Regions

1Senior Consulting Engineer, Black &Veatch, Toronto, Canada

2MSc Structural Engineering, City University, London, UK

American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture. 2015, 3(4), 109-117
doi: 10.12691/ajcea-3-4-1
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Kibriya T., Tahir L.. Adfreeze Forces on Lightly Loaded Pile Foundations of Solar PV Farms in Cold Regions. American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture. 2015; 3(4):109-117. doi: 10.12691/ajcea-3-4-1.

Correspondence to: Kibriya  T., Senior Consulting Engineer, Black &Veatch, Toronto, Canada. Email: t_kibriya@yahoo.coml


Renewable energy generation through utility scale ground mounted solar photo-voltaic systems has gained steady popularity with increasing number of such facilities being constructed in various regions worldwide. Solar PV systems are very popular in the province of Ontario in Canada and strong growth in this sector is led by the popular initiatives of the Government of Ontario which offers extremely attractive rates for generation of renewable energy through Ontario Hydro’s popular Feed-In Tariff (FIT) Program. Many other countries offer incentives on such generation of renewable energy while many governments aim at increasing the percentages of renewable energy in their systems tremendously. Most ambitious plan has recently been launched by the state of Hawaii to deploy 100% of renewable energy in their grid by 2045. Solar PV systems are a cheap source of renewable energy as the energy released by the sun is harnessed as electricity by the solar photo-voltaic panels which is fed to the main transmission systems after raising its voltage. The costs of solar photo-voltaic panels meanwhile have also kept downward trends while the manufacture of various types of solar panels has multiplied rapidly. These renewable energy generation facilities are fully sustainable being completely recyclable on completion of their design/ contract period. Typical utility scale ground mounted solar PV facilities usually comprise of solar PV panels mounted on series of racking tables supported on foundations mostly comprising of partially embedded steel pipes. The governing loads for the foundations of these lightly loaded solar PV structures are usually frost loads in areas facing extremely cold winters. In fine grained soils like silty/ clayey soils, large adfreeze stresses develop due to penetrating frost deep into the soil resulting into uplift of foundation piles. Typical winter conditions in Ontario are harsh with extreme frost conditions in most areas which poses unique issues for design and construction of such foundations. Being a relatively newer technology, codes and standards for design and testing of such lightly loaded solar PV structures are still in the formulation stages. Frost heaving and its effects often create adverse conditions for these structures thereby affecting the production and continuous supply of renewable energy. Due to larger depths of frost penetration in extreme winter conditions, understanding the action of frost and related development of adfreeze stresses on these lightly loaded pile foundations is extremely important. Calculating reasonable frost depths and thereby the design loads is an important part of pile design for such facilities while the contractors tend to save on pile lengths to save on costs and compromising the structural design. Many such Solar PV facilities have experienced frost uplift of foundation piles either during the construction phase or during its lifetime. Since frost heave is more of a serviceability related issue, unfactored adfreeze loads without any factor of safety is a usual tendency by the EPC contractors. This paper investigates the frost depths and adfreeze stress related issues with the foundation piles of solar PV facilities hence the governing design forces on these piles and suggests appropriate frost related design stresses for the foundation piles. The authors have been heavily involved in design/ design reviews, pile selection/ design and pile load testing in the majority of the solar PV farms in Canada and US along with rehabilitation of piles affected by frost [1,2,3].



[1]  Kibriya, T., Racking Foundation Piles Design and Testing Review Report for Various Solar PV Farms in Ontario, 2013.
[2]  Kibriya, T., Construction Issues Faced By Renewable Energy Production Facilities – Solar PV Farms in Ontario, Canada, Standard Scientific Research and Essays Vol1 (14): 391-397, December 2013.
[3]  Kibriya T. & Tahir L., Renewable Energy Generation - Critical study on design of pile foundations for Solar Photovoltaic (PV) ground mounted systems in Ontario, Canada, Standard Scientific Research and Essays Vol. 3(3): 056-065, March, 2015.
[4]  Pewe, Troy L. & Paige, Russell A., Frost Heaving of Piles with an Example from Fairbanks, Alaska, Geological Survey Bulletin 1111-1, 1963.
[5]  Canadian Geotechnical Society, Canadian Foundation Engineering Manual, 4th Edition, 2006.
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[6]  Penner. E., Uplift Forces on foundations in frost heaving soils, Canadian Geotechnical Journal, Volume 11, No.3, 1974.
[7]  Penner, E. & Goodrich, L.E., Adfreezing Stresses on Steel Piles, Thompson, Manitoba, Proceeding of Fourth International Conference – Permafrost, Fairbanks, Alaska, July 17-22, 1983.
[8]  Department of Army and Air Force, TM5-852-4, Arctic and Sub-Arctic Construction - Foundations for Structures, October, 1983.
[9]  Sailors Engineering Associates, Adfreeze Bond Reduction by Slick-coat Friction Reduction Epoxy Coating, Georgia, USA.
[10]  Parmesvaran, V.R., Table 1, Adfreeze strength of piles in ice with varying loading rates, Adfreeze strength of model piles in ice, Canadian Geotech. J. Vol. 18. 1981.
[11]  Hiroshi S., Mechanical properties between ice and various materials used in hydraulic structures. Int. Journal for. Offshore and Polar Engg. Vol. 21, No. 2. 2011.
[12]  Domaschuk, L., (1982). Frost heave forces on embedded structural units, Department of Civil Engineering, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Canada, Proceedings of the 4th Canadian Permafrost Conference, National Research Council, Canada 1982.
[13]  Volokhov, S.S., The role of the zone of contact of frozen soils with foundation materials in the formation of adfreezing strengths, Permafrost – Seventh International Conference, Yellowknife, Canada, Collection Nordicana # 55.
[14]  ASTM, D3689, Standard Test Methods for Deep Foundations under Static Axial Tensile Load, 2007.
[15]  ASTM, D1143, Standard Test Methods for Deep Foundations under Static Axial Compressive Load, 2007.
[16]  ASTM, D3966, Standard Test Methods for Deep Foundations under Lateral Load, 2007.
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Traditional vs FEA Based Analysis/Design of Baseplates for Tall Telecommunication & Transmission Poles

1Senior Consulting Engineer, B&V, Canada

2City University, London, UK

American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture. 2015, 3(4), 118-128
doi: 10.12691/ajcea-3-4-2
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Tahir Kibriya, Leena Tahir. Traditional vs FEA Based Analysis/Design of Baseplates for Tall Telecommunication & Transmission Poles. American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture. 2015; 3(4):118-128. doi: 10.12691/ajcea-3-4-2.

Correspondence to: Tahir  Kibriya, Senior Consulting Engineer, B&V, Canada. Email: t_kibriya@yahoo.com


Various shapes of steel poles are commonly used in the telecommunications and transmission industry for carrying telecommunication equipment to transmit signals for communication equipment or wires and power equipment like transformers etc. for power transmission purposes. These poles vary from 50’ to almost 500’ heights with winds being the governing loads in addition to superimposed equipment loads and snow/ice loads and hence require careful design. The poles vary from being round in geometry to 8/12/16/24/28 sided shapes. With large base diameters and appreciable moments and direct loads, typically the pole baseplates are round, hexagonal or square with/without stiffeners and either rest on the supporting anchor rod base nuts or on grout over the base support, all of which require different analysis/ design procedures. From the literature, one can observe that while baseplate analysis and design for large poles structures has not been amply investigated, limited investigations and testing carried out on base plates designed by various methods and most test results have indicated most procedures to be under designing plates. While AISC and ASCE 48 codes provide limited guidance on design of these various types of pole baseplates, ANSI/EIA/TIA 222F & 222G codes merely refer to AISC for design of these different configurations of baseplates. Many proprietary base plate analysis/design worksheets commercially available produce different results. With the availability of advanced structural analysis techniques like FEA, a comparison is made between the baseplates designed by typical methods using commercially available baseplate worksheets and those designed by using the FEA techniques. The analysis results vary appreciably between the traditional methods and the FEA based method. This paper analyses few pole base plates based on FEA and compares them with the baseplates designed by traditional methods and suggests appropriate improvements in the current design/ analysis procedures so as to reduce the appreciable differences between the both procedures.



[1]  ANSI/ TIA 222G – 2005, Structural Standard for Antenna Supporting Structures and Antennas, EIA/ TIA, 2005.
[2]  ANSI/ TIA/ EIA – 222F – 1996, Structural Standards for Steel Antenna Towers and Antenna Supporting Structures, TIA/ EIA, 1996.
[3]  AISC Steel Design Guide 1 – Base Plate and Anchor Rod Design, AISC, 2006.
[4]  Horn, Daniel, Technical Manual 1, Design of Monopole Bases, Concepts Inc., 2004.
[5]  ASCE/SEI 48-05, Design of Steel Transmission Poles, ASCE/ SEI, 2011.
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[6]  Honek, William C. & Westphal, Derek, Practical Design and Detailing of Steel Column Base Plates, Forell Elsesser Engineers Inc., July, 1999.
[7]  Chabbra, Surendra J., Column Base Plate Design Table, Engineering Journal, AISC, 2003 pp 12-20.
[8]  Drake, Richard M. & Elkin, Sharon J., Beam-Column Base Plate Design - LRFD Method, Engineering Journal, AISC, First Quarter, 1999.
[9]  Timoshenko, S. & Woinowsky-Krieger, S., Theory and Design of Plates and shells, 2nd Ed, McGraw Hill, 1976.
[10]  Young, Warren C. & Budynas, Richard G. Roark’s Formulas for Stress & Strain, 7th Ed. McGraw Hill, 2002.
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The Upshot of the 2012 Flooding on Structural Components and Fabrics of Buildings at Ogbaru, Anambra State Nigeria

1Department of Building, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria

2Department of Quantity Surveying, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria

American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture. 2015, 3(4), 129-136
doi: 10.12691/ajcea-3-4-3
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Ezeokoli F. O., Okoye P. U., Ugochukwu S. C.. The Upshot of the 2012 Flooding on Structural Components and Fabrics of Buildings at Ogbaru, Anambra State Nigeria. American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture. 2015; 3(4):129-136. doi: 10.12691/ajcea-3-4-3.

Correspondence to: Okoye  P. U., Department of Building, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria. Email: pu.okoye@unizik.edu.ng


The study examined the effect of the 2012 flooding on structural components and fabrics of buildings at Ogbaru Local Government Area of Anambra State. It also examined the heights of the ground floors and foundations of the buildings respectively in relation to the height of the flood. Questionnaire survey on the selected households and physical examination on the building structures were carried out. The study revealed that most buildings in the area were either fully or partially submerged during the flood incidence. it further revealed that there no very severe damages on the structural components of the buildings, despite that most of the buildings have low ground floor levels (74%) and shallow foundations (68%) below 300mm. However, building fabrics and elements such as finishes and electrical fittings were severely damaged when the flood height rose 1 metre above the ground floor level. More so, the study revealed that the flood severely damaged both the structural components and fabrics of very old, weak and mud buildings. Based on this, the study recommended that building constructors in the area should raise the ground floor level of their building projects to at least 1 metre above the ground level. It also recommended suspension of buildings on plinths and use of deep stripe or raft foundation. The use water resistant materials and components such as paints, doors, windows and electrical fittings and incorporation of oversite concrete as floors while building new structures or refurbishing existing ones are also recommended.



[1]  Ofori, G., Construction industry development for disaster prevention and response, Singapore University Press, Singapore, 2006.
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[3]  Haigh, R., “Developing a resilience built environment: post-disaster reconstruction as a window of opportunity,” International Conference on sustainable environments (ICSBE,) Kandy, Dec. 13-14, 2010.
[4]  Linham, M. M. and Nicholls, R.J., “Technologies for climate change adaptation – coastal erosion and flooding,” UNEP Risø Centre on Energy, Climate and Sustainable Development Risø DTU National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy, Roskilde Denmark, 2010. Available: http://www.uneprisoe.org/ http://tech-action.org/ [Accessed November 5, 2014].
[5]  Schramn, D. and Dries, R., Natural Hazard; causes and effects, University of Wisconson, U.S.A, 1986.
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[6]  Nwilo, P.C., “Geospatial information in flooding and disaster management in Nigeria,” 7th Annual Lecture of Faculty of Environmental Sciences Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria, 2013.
[7]  Don Okpala, V.U., “The environmental effects of flood disaster in Anambra state,” Advances in Applied Science Research, 4(1), 499-505, 2013. [Online]. Available: www.pelagiaresearchlibrary.com [Accessed September 26, 2014].
[8]  Ezeabasili, A.C.C. and Okonkwo, A.U., “Climate change impacts on the built environment in Nigeria,” African Research Review, 7(4), 288-303, 2013.
[9]  National Emergency Management Agency (NEMA), “Annual report on flood,” Official Gazette, Abuja, 2012.
[10]  Ajaero, C.K. and Mozie, A.T., “Socio-demographic differentials in vulnerability to flood disasters in rural Southeastern Nigeria,” International Seminar on Demographic Differential Vulnerability to Natural Disasters in the Context of Climate Change Adaptation organised by IUSSP in collaboration with Chulalongkorn University Bangkok and the Wittgenstein Centre for Demography and Global Human Capital (IIASA, VID/OAW,WU) held in Kao Lak, Thailand, 23-25 April, 2014.
[11]  Nigerian Meteorological Agency (NIMET), Nigerian Meteorological Agency (NIMET) 2012 seasonal rainfall prediction & socio-economic implications for Nigeria, 2012.
[12]  Jha, A., Lamond, J., Bloch, R., Bhattacharya, N., Lopez, A., Papachristodoulou, N., Bird, B., Proverbs, D., Davies, J. and Barker, R., Five feet high and rising cities and flooding in the 21st century,” Policy Research Working Paper, The World Bank East Asia and Pacific Region Transport, Energy & Urban Sustainable Development Unit, 2011.
[13]  CIRIA, Improving the flood performance of new buildings flood resilient construction, RIBA Publishing, London, UK, 2007.
[14]  United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA), “Nigeria: Floods Situation Report No. 2 (as of 15 November 2012),” Report of OCHA Humanitarian Advisory team in Nigeria in collaboration with humanitarian partners, 2012. www.ochaonline.un.org/rowca
[15]  Anambra State Government (ANSG), “Anambra State Flood Disaster Relief Coordinating Committee Interim Report 1,” Anambra Forum, 2012.
[16]  Anambra State Emergency Management Agencies (ANSEMA), “Report on flood in Anambra state,” Official Report, Awka, 2012.
[17]  Efobi, K. and Anierobi, C., “Impact of flooding on riverine communities: the experience of the Omambala and other areas in Anambra State, Nigeria,” Journal of Economics and Sustainable Development, 4(18), 58-63, 2013.
[18]  Monanu, P.C., “Temperature and sunshine,” in Ofomata, G.E.K.(ed), Nigeria in Maps: Eastern States, Ethiope Publishing House, Benin City, 16-18, 1975a.
[19]  Monanu, P.C., “Humidity,” in Ofomata, G.E.K.(ed), Nigeria in Maps :Eastern States, Ethiope Publishing House, Benin City, 19-21, 1975b.
[20]  Ezenwaji E.E., Orji M.U., Enete, C.I. and Ahiadu, H.O., “The effect of climate change on the communities of Ogbaru Wetland of South West Anambra State, Nigeria,” New York Science Journal, 7(10), 68 - 74, 2014. http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork
[21]  National Population Commission (NPC), “Population census figures for 2006,” Official Gazette, Abuja, 2006.
[22]  Cochran, W. G., Sampling techniques, (3rd ed.), John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1977.
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