ISSN (Print): 2328-398X

ISSN (Online): 2328-3998

Editor-in-Chief: Mohammad Arif Kamal

Website: http://www.sciepub.com/journal/AJCEA

   

Article

Influence of Treatments on the Date Palm Fiber and Cement Matrix Behavior: Tensile and Pull-Out Tests

1Department Of Civil Engineering, University Tahri Mohamme, Bechar, Algeria


American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture. 2016, 4(6), 211-215
doi: 10.12691/ajcea-4-6-3
Copyright © 2016 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Brahmi Hamid, Hamouine Abdelmadjid. Influence of Treatments on the Date Palm Fiber and Cement Matrix Behavior: Tensile and Pull-Out Tests. American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture. 2016; 4(6):211-215. doi: 10.12691/ajcea-4-6-3.

Correspondence to: Brahmi  Hamid, Department Of Civil Engineering, University Tahri Mohamme, Bechar, Algeria. Email: brahmi888@hotmail.fr

Abstract

As part of our research on the adhesive bond between the vegetable date palm fibers and the cement matrix, we found that this phenomenon degrades progressively with the age of the matrix. It is well on durability that menaces this operation. To improve the behavior of the vegetable date palm fiber in cement matrix (mortar) vis-a-vis the bond stress, we conducted two types of treatments, the first directly addresses the fiber (alkaline and autoclave treatment), the second is done by replacing a portion of a cement by pozzolanic materials (pozzolana or métakaolin). Direct tests (pull-out test) were performed to find the bond stress fiber-cement matrix whose the mortar maturity being varied from 3, 7, 14, 28, and 90 days.

Keywords

References

[1]  Brahmi Hamid. “Adhérence des fibres végétales de palmier dattier au béton hydraulique”, mémoire of Master University of Bechar 2011.
 
[2]  Edgars Sparnins. «Mechanical properties of flax fibers and their composites» licentiate thesis Lulea University of Technology Department of Applied Physics and Mechanical Engineering Division of Polymer Engineering 2006.
 
[3]  Amina Djoudi. Mohammed Mouldi Khenfer, Abderrahim Bali «Etude d’un nouveau composite en plâtre renforce avec les fibres végétale du palmier”-1st International Conference on sustainable Built Environment Infrastructures in Developing Countries ENSET Oran (Algeria) –October 12-14, 2009.
 
[4]  Nadia Benmansour. “Etude des performances de produits renouvelables et locaux adaptés aux applications de l'isolation thermique dans le bâtiment”. Thèse of Magister University el hadj Lakhdar Batna (2011).
 
[5]  Romildo Dias ToledoFilho, Kuruvilla Joseph, Khosrow Ghavami& George Leslie England. “the use of sisal fibre as reinforcement in cement based composites» Revista Brasileira of Engenharia Agricola Ambiental, v.3, n.2, p.245-256, 1999.
 
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[6]  Cesar juarez, Gerardo fajardo. “Caractérisation microstructurale des fibres naturelles pour des matériaux composites a base de ciment”. Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering, 2009, Vol. 36, N° 3 : p 449-462.
 
[7]  Yong Ni (1995). “natural fiber reinforced cement composites». Thesis department of mechanical engineering Victoria University of technology Australia.
 
[8]  A.Kriker, G.Debicki. ”Mechanical properties of data palm fiber and concrete reinforced with date palm fibers in hot-dry climate». Cement &concrete composites vol.27(2005)554-654.
 
[9]  Pascal CASANOVA. “bétons renforcés de fibres metalliques: du materiau a la structure”. theses of doctorate, National School of Bridges and Roads june 1995.
 
[10]  Bei Wang pre-treatment of flax fibers for use in rotationally molded biocomposites a thesis of a degree of Master of Science, university of Saskatchewan Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, July 2004.
 
[11]  Romildo Dias ToledoFilho, Kuruvilla Joseph, Khosrow Ghavami& George Leslie England “the use of sisal fibre as reinforcement in cement based composites» Revista Brasileira of Engenharia Agricola Ambiental, v.3, n.2, p.245-256, 1999.
 
[12]  Flavio de Andrade Silva, Barzin Mobasher, Romildo Dias de Toledo Filho. “Advances in Natural Fiber Cement Composites: A Material for the Sustainable Construction Industry» 4th Colloquium on Textile Reinforced Structures (CTRS4).
 
[13]  Adil SBIAI. “Matériaux composite à matrice époxyde chargée par des fibres de palmier dattier : effet de l’oxydation au tempo sur les fibres”. thèses of Doctorate 2011 ISAL0043, june 2011.
 
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[18]  Alawar.A, Ahmed.M.A. “Characterization of treated date palm tree fiber as composite reinforcement”. Composite: part B 40(2009) 601-606.
 
[19]  R.Khiari, M.F.Mhenni. “Chemical composition and pulping of date palm rachis and Posidonia oceanic-A comparison with other wood and non-wood fiber sources”. Bioresource technology 101(2010). 775-780.
 
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Article

Examining the Need and Necessity of Water Harvesting in Greater Noida, India: A Planning Approach

1Institute of Town Planners of India, New Delhi-110002, India

2Master of Planning, CEPT University, Ahmedabad-380009, India

3Architecture Section, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh-202002, India


American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture. 2016, 4(6), 216-220
doi: 10.12691/ajcea-4-6-4
Copyright © 2017 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Ashwini Kumar, Nauman Najamuddin, Mohammad Arif Kamal. Examining the Need and Necessity of Water Harvesting in Greater Noida, India: A Planning Approach. American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture. 2016; 4(6):216-220. doi: 10.12691/ajcea-4-6-4.

Correspondence to: Mohammad  Arif Kamal, Architecture Section, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh-202002, India. Email: architectarif@gmail.com

Abstract

Water shortage is one of the major problems of the 21st century which incidentally is also the beginning of the new millennium. Horrible predictors are being made regarding the water problems being faced by the mankind during the next 50 years. If the last 50 years are any guide, there is no double that the world is going to face a serious problem. Since water is life we cannot do without it, we all have to think how to deal with this situation. Until the scientists can think of better and durable solutions we must do whatever is possible at the grass root level.

Keywords

References

[1]  C. S. Agarwal. S. Mittal and H. Goyal. Rain Water Harvesting: An Appropriate Technology for Rural Water Supply, International Seminar on Rural Water Supply, IIT Roorkee, India, 2000.
 
[2]  M.B. Raju and B. Umapathi, Rainwater Harvesting in a coastal urban Agglomeration- A Case Study. National Seminar on Rain Water Harvesting, Central Ground Water Board (CGWB), New Delhi, 2000.
 
[3]  S. P. Sinha, Y. B. Kaushik, D. Chakraborty, Rain Water Harvesting to Augment Ground Water Resources: Agenda for the Future, National Seminar on Rain Water Harvesting, Central Ground Water Board, New Delhi, 2000.
 
[4]  D. Rai. Appropriate Methodologies of Ground Water Recharge in Different Hydrological set-up of U.P., All India Seminar on Ground Water Recharge: Strategy for Sustainable Water World, The Institution of Engineers (India), Lucknow, 2000.
 
[5]  B. C. Joshi, District Brochure of Gautam Budh Nagar, U.P., India, 2008.
 
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[6]  A. Agarwal, S. Narain and S. Dasgupta, A Water Harvesting Manual for Urban Areas: Case Studies from Delhi, Centre for Science and Environment, New Delhi, 2003.
 
[7]  D.K. Chadha, Key note address on ground water recharge; Strategy for Sustainable Water World. All India Seminar on Ground Water Recharge: Strategy for Sustainable Water World, The Institution of Engineers (India), Lucknow, 2000.
 
[8]  D. K. Singh, Rain Water Harvesting, Conservation, Management Strategies for Urban and Rural Sectors, Online available from http://www.iec.edu.in/wp-content/01/8_DK-Singh.pdf on 15th December 2016.
 
[9]  B. C. Joshi, District Brochure of Gautam Budh Nagar, U.P., India, 2008.
 
[10]  R. S. Sinha, Policy Initiatives for Rain Water Harvesting in UP, Challenges and Gaps, 2016 Online available from http://www.indiawaterportal.org/sites/indiawaterportal.org/files/R.S.%20Sinha.pdf on 28th December 2016.
 
[11]  A. Bhattacharya and R. O’Neil, Harvesting Rainwater, Online available from https://ccs.in/internship_papers/2003/chap35.pdf, on 28th December 2016.
 
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Article

Response of Domestic Damascene Architectural Elements to the Climatic Factors between the Traditional and Modern Times

1Department of Architecture, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran


American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture. 2017, 5(1), 1-7
doi: 10.12691/ajcea-5-1-1
Copyright © 2017 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Mansour Yeganeh, Zeinab B. Farhat, Hiba A. Al-Hawasili. Response of Domestic Damascene Architectural Elements to the Climatic Factors between the Traditional and Modern Times. American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture. 2017; 5(1):1-7. doi: 10.12691/ajcea-5-1-1.

Correspondence to: Mansour  Yeganeh, Department of Architecture, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran. Email: yeganeh@Modares.ac.ir

Abstract

The climatic factors (temperature, humidity, earth geology, wind speed and direction, solar radiance) are considered one of the most important effects on any site prepared for construction. Thus, these factors are studied before suggesting any schematic regulations and plans for its influence on the building form, allocation, materials options, and suitable green cover, and the functional distribution between parts. This study is trying to analyze the effects of climatic and regional factors on the design elements of the domestic architecture of Damascus. We are going to select different cases of traditional houses that evolved and transformed through several transitions of history. Then we will analyze these transformations and the extent of the response and maintenance of respecting climatic conditions. Research method is descriptive and interpretative. For literature review the descriptive method is used and analyzing of cases is done by interpretative method. Samples are selected from saurian traditional and modern hoses. Building materials, shape of spaces and opening are studied variables in this study. Comparative method is used for comparison of mentioned variables in related to climate factors. The result of study shows that the traditional house in Damascus is considered a reflection of serious attempts in the environmental design which is compatible with regional climate. New buildings completely ignored climate closed central space, called (the sofa) replaced the interior courtyard within the traditional dwelling, with a deficit of this space to insuring sufficient light and air inside the building. Also it relied on those structural materials of medium or high energy content, such as cement, glass and aluminum, which are widely used today in constructing modern residential buildings, despite the lack of suitability of climate in the region. This was accompanied by the excessive use of heaters and air-conditioners to achieve the thermal comfort inside the building, without considering the amount of energy consumed.

Keywords

References

[1]  Al-Qusaybati, Nada, Impact of the Environment Built on Environmental and Urban, 2013.
 
[2]  Balance (Case Study: Damascus), El-Tawassol Revue, 63(14).
 
[3]  Jawhar, Jamal & Ahmad Y. Shawali, the Appropriate Design Limits for Guiding Energy Consumption in Domestic Building, 2011, University of Al-Baeth Magazine. 33(11). 27.
 
[4]  Kamal M. A., 'Learning from the Past: Climatic Appropriateness in Traditional Domestic Architecture of Lucknow in summer', Heritage 2011, International Conference on Conservation of Architecture, Urban Areas, Nature & Landscape, 13-15 March , Amman.
 
[5]  Kamal M. A., 'The Study of Thermal Mass as a Passive Design Technique for Building Comfort and Energy Efficiency', 2011, Journal of Civil Engineering & Architecture, U.S.A., 5(1). 84-88.
 
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[6]  Meda Corpus Program, Middle East Cultural Architecture - Urban House with Courtyard , 2004, European Union: Syria.
 
[7]  Mikhael, Salwa, Arab Architects Peculiarity and Role in Solving Domestic Architecture Problems, 2004, Damascus University Magazine for Engineering Sciences. 20(2), 28.
 
[8]  Shinyara, Paul, (Not Published), Studies in the Environment and its Impact on Architecture and Urbanism.
 
[9]  Yeganeh Mansour, Socio-Economic Values and Architectural Features in Traditional Bazaars of Islamic Cites, 2016, Urban Management, 42.149-162.
 
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