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Status of Childrens Outdoor Play in Urban Settings-Casestudy -Nagpur [Maharashtra, India]

1IDEAS, Nagpur and Ph.d scholar at V.N.I.T., Nagpur

2Department of Architecture, VNIT and Her Research Guide

American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture. 2015, 3(6), 200-207
doi: 10.12691/ajcea-3-6-2
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Kirti D. Bhonsle, V.S. Adane. Status of Childrens Outdoor Play in Urban Settings-Casestudy -Nagpur [Maharashtra, India]. American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture. 2015; 3(6):200-207. doi: 10.12691/ajcea-3-6-2.

Correspondence to: Kirti  D. Bhonsle, IDEAS, Nagpur and Ph.d scholar at V.N.I.T., Nagpur. Email:


The built environment is a material, spatial and cultural product of human labor that combines physical elements and energy in forms for living, working and playing. It has been defined as “the human-made space in which people live, work, and recreate on a day-to-day basis”. The “built environment encompasses places and spaces created or modified by people including buildings, parks, and transportation systems”. Apart from the standards of neighborhoods and their delineation, residential built environments are also based on resident’s perception. It is multi-dimensional, dynamic changing with time, space, social groups, technology and lifestyle. Residential built environment also denotes the integrated built context in which individuals live. The study investigates the quantitative aspects of the residential built environments in the city of Nagpur. The paper brings forth the barrier between the perceived and real aspects of the shrinking playable spaces in the residential built environments. It also tries to understand the children’s perception of the play spaces in their neighborhoods. A variety of methods have been used to collect data which included literature survey, research review, observation survey and children’s interviews. The study assessed how children perceived their neighborhood built environment and play provisions offered and identifies their preferences for a range of play opportunities that can be established by community and peoples participation.



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Rheology and Setting Time of Cement Paste

1Huazhong University of Science and Technology, China

2China University of Geosciences, Wuhan-China

American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture. 2015, 3(6), 208-211
doi: 10.12691/ajcea-3-6-3
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Mbujje Joel Webster, Wei Xiaozheng, Zawedde Aisha. Rheology and Setting Time of Cement Paste. American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture. 2015; 3(6):208-211. doi: 10.12691/ajcea-3-6-3.

Correspondence to: Wei  Xiaozheng, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, China. Email:


Experimental results about effect of superplasticizer dosage, fly ash content and water to cement ratio on rheology and setting time are presented. 16 samples are evaluated using a Brookfield laboratory rheometer and a standard vicat needle apparatus. Spread of the samples is also measured using mini slump cone (d1=60mm, d2=35, h=60mm) and an empirical relationship between spread and yield stress is put forward.



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Selecting Optimal Project Delivery System for Infrastructural Projects Using Analytic Hierarchy Process

1Isfahan University, Isfahan, Iran

2Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran

American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture. 2015, 3(6), 212-217
doi: 10.12691/ajcea-3-6-4
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Khalegh Barati, Gholam Reza Shiran, Samad M.E. Sepasgozar. Selecting Optimal Project Delivery System for Infrastructural Projects Using Analytic Hierarchy Process. American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture. 2015; 3(6):212-217. doi: 10.12691/ajcea-3-6-4.

Correspondence to: Samad  M.E. Sepasgozar, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran. Email:


Enormous financial requirements, high technological and scientific level, high work volume are the main differentiations between infrastructural andnormal projects. Given these specifications, selection of suitable project delivery system (PDS) for construction of infrastructural projects is of paramount importance, and making mistake and miscalculation in this field will incur irreparable loss to the development projects. Therefore, adoption of suitable policy in decision-making process with regard to the construction operation of project is of paramount significance, so that development of systems and logistics tools for the decision-making process can help project commissioners to improve current activities in the best form possible. The paper presents a decision-making model to select the optimal PDS for infrastructural construction projects based on identification and comparison of various contracting systems. The viewpoints of 62 expert engineers, contractors, consultants about the advantage and drawbacks of five more common PDSs have been collected via questionnaires and interviews. At the end, a comprehensive methodology has been presented to fine the optimal PDS for each Infrastructural project using Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP).



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