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American Journal of Cardiovascular Disease Research

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Website: http://www.sciepub.com/journal/AJCDR

Article

Anemia Prevalence and Sociodemographic Factors among Patient with Cardiovascular Disease in Gaza-Palestine

1AL Shifa Hospital, Cardiology department, Gaza, Palestine

2Al Quds University, Faculty of Public Health, Gaza, Palestine


American Journal of Cardiovascular Disease Research. 2014, 2(1), 4-8
DOI: 10.12691/ajcdr-2-1-2
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Amal Jamee, Yehia Abed. Anemia Prevalence and Sociodemographic Factors among Patient with Cardiovascular Disease in Gaza-Palestine. American Journal of Cardiovascular Disease Research. 2014; 2(1):4-8. doi: 10.12691/ajcdr-2-1-2.

Correspondence to: Amal  Jamee, AL Shifa Hospital, Cardiology department, Gaza, Palestine. Email: dr_amal08@yahoo.fr

Abstract

Chronic anemia is a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases outcome in patients with heart failure, dilated cardiomyopathy and uncontrolled hypertension. This study was performed to analyze the prevalence of anemia among cardiac patients and to determine the relationship between anemia and socio demographic characteristics. The study design is a cross sectional based on 300 cardiac patients ( ≥ 19 years) who were hospitalized in ALShifa hospital (Gaza) for 3 months period during the year 2012. The analysis includes socio demographic data, traditional risk factors for cardiovascular diseases (CVD), and Laboratory test included (hemoglobin and clearance creatinine measurement). Collected data was analyzed by using statistical package for social science version 20.0. Anemia was defined as Hemoglobin less than < 12 g/dl in female and less than 13 g/dl in male based on World health organization criteria. Among 300 patients, 181patients (60.3%) were anemic and 119 (39.7%) were non-anemic. The mean age for all population was 61.4 years. Mean age of patients with anemia tends to be higher (63.9 years) than non-anemic (57.7 years) and the differences between the two means reached statistical significant level (P value < 0.001). Anemia was more common in female (71.4%), older age (71.1%), diabetics (70%), impaired clearance creatinine (70%), hypertensive’s (65%) and low education level (64.5%). The highest proportion belonged to valvular heart disease (77.8%), congestive heart failure (74.6%) followed by hypertension (54%), and the lowest is coronary artery disease (46%). Logistic regression reveals that low education, low clearance creatinine level, smoking and diabetes are independently associated with anemia. We conclude that Anemia is common among cardiovascular disease patients, and worsens the prognosis of their clinical condition. Intervention policies to minimize anemia risk factors are needed.

Keywords

References

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Article

The Role of Calcium-Sensitizer Levosimendan for the Treatment of Heart Failure

1Department of Pharmacy, GRD (PG) IMT, Dehradun, (Uttarakhand), India


American Journal of Cardiovascular Disease Research. 2014, 2(1), 9-16
DOI: 10.12691/ajcdr-2-1-3
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Mohammad Asif. The Role of Calcium-Sensitizer Levosimendan for the Treatment of Heart Failure. American Journal of Cardiovascular Disease Research. 2014; 2(1):9-16. doi: 10.12691/ajcdr-2-1-3.

Correspondence to: Mohammad  Asif, Department of Pharmacy, GRD (PG) IMT, Dehradun, (Uttarakhand), India. Email: aasif321@gmail.com

Abstract

In the treatment of heart failure, clinical signs are low cardiac output, therapy with positive inotropic agents in an acute cardiac care is mandatory. Three classes of inotropic drugs are currently used, including beta-adrenergic agonists (especially dobutamine), phosphodiesterase inhibitors (such as milrinone) and the recently developed calcium sensitizers such as levosimendan. The classic inotropic drugs offer short-term haemodynamic enhancement in heart failure patient and their use has been connected with poor prognosis. The inotropic drugs, the Ca2+-sensitizers, may offer a choice of long-lasting result.

Keywords

References

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Article

Viscum Album Versus Bleomycin for Pleurodesis among Patients with Malignant Pleural Effusion

1Cardiothoracic Surgery Department, Suez Canal University, Ismailia, Egypt


American Journal of Cardiovascular Disease Research. 2014, 2(2), 17-22
DOI: 10.12691/ajcdr-2-2-1
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Marawan H. Elkasas, Hamdy D. Elayouty. Viscum Album Versus Bleomycin for Pleurodesis among Patients with Malignant Pleural Effusion. American Journal of Cardiovascular Disease Research. 2014; 2(2):17-22. doi: 10.12691/ajcdr-2-2-1.

Correspondence to: Hamdy  D. Elayouty, Cardiothoracic Surgery Department, Suez Canal University, Ismailia, Egypt. Email: h.dosoky@yahoo.com

Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To compare between mistletoe(Viscum album) and bleomycin as chemical agents for pleurodesis in malignant pleural effusions. METHODS: In this study 50 patients with pathologically confirmed, symptomatic, malignant pleural effusion irrespective of the primary tumor were studied at Suez Canal University hospital in the period of 3 years from January 2009 to December 2012. Patients were divided into 2 groups; 25 patients each: group A(pleurodesis with Mistletoe using 100mg – 5 ampoules-repeated two or three times, injected every other day) and group B(pleurodesis with Bleomycin1 iu/kg average-4 ampoules-or maximally 60 units). follow-up included postero-anterior and lateral chest radiography done after one week, month and 3 months. RESULTS: Most of the patients among both groups show complete remission defined as no effusion detected within four weeks of pleurodesis (72% and 56% among bleomycin and Viscum groups respectively). Significant difference was found between both groups. Recurrences were more frequent among group A (20% versus 8% in group B), P < 0.05. Hospital stay was shorter in the bleomycin group of patients, with a mean of (6.2) day. CONCLUSION: Both bleomycin and Viscum album are effective and safe agents for chemical pleurodesis, however bleomycin has some advantages over Viscum album due to its lower incidence of failure, and being more economic and for the shorter hospital stay.

Keywords

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[27]  Balassoulis G, Sichletidis L, Spyratos D, Chloros D, Zarogoulidis K, Kontakiotis T, Bagalas V, Porpodis K, Manika K, Patakas D. Efficacy and safety of erythromycin as sclerosing agent in patients with recurrent malignant pleural effusion. Am J Clin Oncol. 2008 Aug; 31(4): 384-9.
 
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Article

Coronary Artery Disease in Overweight and Obese Women in Gaza- Palestine: An Observational Study

1AL Shifa Hospital, Cardiology department, Gaza, Palestine

2Al Quds University, Faculty of Public Health, Gaza, Palestine


American Journal of Cardiovascular Disease Research. 2014, 2(2), 23-26
DOI: 10.12691/ajcdr-2-2-2
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Amal Jamee, Yehia Abed. Coronary Artery Disease in Overweight and Obese Women in Gaza- Palestine: An Observational Study. American Journal of Cardiovascular Disease Research. 2014; 2(2):23-26. doi: 10.12691/ajcdr-2-2-2.

Correspondence to: Amal  Jamee, AL Shifa Hospital, Cardiology department, Gaza, Palestine. Email: dr_amal08@yahoo.fr

Abstract

Coronary artery disease risk factors are increasing worldwide, the increase is more prominent among young women due to increase of unfavorable coronary risk factors mainly related to increase in Body mass index rates(BMI). Coronary events predominate in obese women with other associated coronary risk factors. Increase BMI increases risk of fatal or non-fatal coronary events 1.5 to 3 times. Our study aimed to identify risk factors for coronary artery disease among obese and overweight Palestinian women, to plan for interventions policies. The study design is an observational based on 500 overweight and obese women (BMI greater than or equal 25 kg/m2). Coronary angiography was performed for all the study population, and revealed 250 patients with approved CAD, the rest of the study population consist of 250 cases with normal coronary. Socio demographic data, traditional cardiovascular risk factors, blood glucose, hemoglobin and clearance creatinine measurement were collected. We excluded all patients with history of prior cardiac surgery or percutaneous coronary intervention. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS version 20.0. Our findings indicate that the mean age for cases is (63.5 ±8.7) vs. (58.2±9.8) for control and the difference is statically significant (Pvalue= 0.001). Other risk factors include rise of systolic and diastolic blood pressure, high blood sugar and impaired clearance creatinine are present in overweight and obese women with documented coronary artery disease. Regression analysis shows that advancing ages, and diabetes, are the main factors for development of coronary artery disease in obese women. Conclusion: Diabetes Mellitus is the major risk factor for the development of CAD and measures to control diabetes will minimize the chances of CAD among overweight and obese women in Palestine.

Keywords

References

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Article

Air Pollution and Cardiovascular Mortality in Kerman from 2006 to 2011

1Department of Environmental Health, Faculty of Public Health, Kerman Medical University, Kerman, Iran

2Department of Epidemiology and Dept of Environmental Health, Faculty of Public Health, Kerman Medical University, Kerman, Iran


American Journal of Cardiovascular Disease Research. 2014, 2(2), 27-30
DOI: 10.12691/ajcdr-2-2-3
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Hashemi S.Yaser, Khanjani Narges, Soltaninejad Yaser, Momenzadeh Rasoul. Air Pollution and Cardiovascular Mortality in Kerman from 2006 to 2011. American Journal of Cardiovascular Disease Research. 2014; 2(2):27-30. doi: 10.12691/ajcdr-2-2-3.

Correspondence to: Khanjani  Narges, Department of Epidemiology and Dept of Environmental Health, Faculty of Public Health, Kerman Medical University, Kerman, Iran. Email: n_khanjani@kmu.ac.ir

Abstract

Air pollution is one of the problems in major world cities that endanger the health of the inhabitants of these cities. Air pollution may cause increased death from cardiovascular diseases. This study was carried out in Kerman, Iran. Data about cardiovascular mortality was inquired from the Kerman city Health Authority and air pollution data was inquired from the Kerman Environmental Protection Agency from 2006 to 2011. The concentration of seven pollutants SO2, NO2, O3, CO, PM10, NOX NO, is measured daily in Kerman. The relation between mortality from cardiovascular diseases and air pollution was analyzed by using correlation and negative binomial regression. Statistical analysis showed that the only significant correlation observed was between ozone and female cardiovascular mortality (r = 0.31). With increase in ozone, the number of female cardiovascular deaths increased as well. But in both crude and adjusted negative binomial regression increase in pollutants was not associated with increased incidence of cardiovascular deaths. There was not a significant relation between air pollution and cardiovascular death in Kerman. More studies in cities with higher levels of pollutants are needed to assess the effects of pollutants on cardiovascular mortality.

Keywords

References

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[19]  Ballester, F., J. Tenías, and S. Perez-Hoyos, Air pollution and emergency hospital admissions for cardiovascular diseases in Valencia, Spain. Journal of epidemiology and community health, 55(1): p. 57-65. 2001.
 
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Article

High Grade Atrioventricular Block Presenting with Cardiac Arrest

1Department of Medicine, Harlem Hospital Center in Affiliation with Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons

2Division of Cardiology Department of Medicine, Harlem Hospital Center in Affiliation with Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons


American Journal of Cardiovascular Disease Research. 2014, 2(2), 31-35
DOI: 10.12691/ajcdr-2-2-4
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Olusegun Sheyin, Margaret Mgbemena, Oluwabomilasiri Magnus-Lawson, Luqman Salahudeen, Bredy Pierre-Louis, Damian Kurian. High Grade Atrioventricular Block Presenting with Cardiac Arrest. American Journal of Cardiovascular Disease Research. 2014; 2(2):31-35. doi: 10.12691/ajcdr-2-2-4.

Correspondence to: Olusegun  Sheyin, Department of Medicine, Harlem Hospital Center in Affiliation with Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons. Email: oas2120@columbia.edu

Abstract

Introduction: Atrioventricular block usually does not cause cardiac arrest because of the development of an escape rhythm which maintains cardiac output. We report a case of high grade AV block presenting with cardiac arrest. Case Description: A 74-year-old man with past medical history of hypertension, dyslipidemia and a recent stroke was brought to the emergency room after a cardiac arrest, with pulseless electrical activity as the initial rhythm. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation was performed with return of spontaneous circulation after five minutes. On examination, he was unresponsive, with heart rate of 33 beats per minute, blood pressure of 108/51mmHg, normal heart sounds and clear lungs. He was given a total of 2mg of atropine, following which he was started on dopamine infusion, with no significant increase in heart rate. His electrocardiogram showed high grade AV block with ventricular rate of 30 beats per minute. An assessment of cardiac arrest due to severe conduction disease, with no evidence of acute coronary syndrome was made. A trans-venous pacemaker was inserted with improvement in the patient’s blood pressure and mental status. EKG revealed demand ventricular pacing with 100% ventricular capture. By the third day of admission, he was fully awake and following simple commands, but he remained pacemaker-dependent with no subsidiary rhythm. He had a dual chamber permanent pacemaker inserted without complication. Discussion: In advanced (high grade) second degree AV block, there is failure of conduction of two or more consecutive P waves. High grade AV block may be asymptomatic, or it may present with symptoms of hypoperfusion due to reduced cardiac output. Conclusion: This case describes a not previously reported presentation of high grade AV block with cardiac arrest and is in agreement with the 2008 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association/Heart Rhythm Society (ACC/AHA/HRS) device guidelines recommendations for permanent pacemaker insertion.

Keywords

References

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[9]  Dhingra RC, Denes P, Wu D, et al, “The significance of second degree atrioventricular block and bundle branch block. Observations regarding site and type of block,” Circulation, 49. 638. 1983
 
[10]  Strasberg B, Amat-Y-Leon F, Dhingra RC, et al, “Natural history of chronic second-degree atrioventricular nodal block,” Circulation 63. 1043. 1981
 
[11]  Epstein AE, DiMarco JP, Ellenbogen KA, et al. ACC/AHA/HRS 2008 Guidelines for Device-Based Therapy of Cardiac Rhythm Abnormalities: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines (Writing Committee to Revise the ACC/AHA/NASPE 2002 Guideline Update for Implantation of Cardiac Pacemakers and Antiarrhythmia Devices): developed in collaboration with the American Association for Thoracic Surgery and Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Circulation 2008; 117:e350.
 
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Article

Acute Paraperisis Due to Acute Aortic Thrombosis in Young Adult- A Mysterious Case

1Department of Cardiology, SMS medical College and Attached Group of Hospital, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India


American Journal of Cardiovascular Disease Research. 2014, 2(2), 36-38
DOI: 10.12691/ajcdr-2-2-5
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Gaurav Singhal, Vijay Pathak, Dinesh Gautam, Manish Ruhela. Acute Paraperisis Due to Acute Aortic Thrombosis in Young Adult- A Mysterious Case. American Journal of Cardiovascular Disease Research. 2014; 2(2):36-38. doi: 10.12691/ajcdr-2-2-5.

Correspondence to: Gaurav  Singhal, Department of Cardiology, SMS medical College and Attached Group of Hospital, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India. Email: dr.garv@gmail.com

Abstract

The occlusion of the Aorta is a rare event, which is potentially life threatening. Acute onset paraplegia is rare event due to sudden aortic thrombosis. We present the case of a 38-year-old man who was referred to the emergency department of our hospital because of sudden onset bilateral lower limb weakness and abdominal pain. He had no history of any disease. He was nonsmoker, nonalcoholic. He had no family history. A computerized tomography angiography of abdominal aorta and bilateral lower limb revealed the thrombosis of the abdominal aorta and of both iliac arteries. After 18 hour of admission he died due to ventricular tachycardia and ventricular fibrillation.

Keywords

References

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Article

Comparative Study of Hypothyroidism with Cardiometabolic Risk

1Lab incharge, Apollo Reach Hospital, Karimnagar, Telangana, India

2Department of Biochemistry, Chalmeda Ananda Rao Institutue of Medical sciences, Karimnagar, Telangana, India

3Department of Biochemistry, Prathima Institute of Medical sciences, Karimnagar, Telangana, India

4Department of Microbiology, Prathima Institute of Medical sciences, Karimnagar, Telangana, India


American Journal of Cardiovascular Disease Research. 2015, 3(1), 1-4
DOI: 10.12691/ajcdr-3-1-1
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
T Sudhakar, Sabitha Kandi, B Venugopal, K. Bhagwan Reddy, K V Ramana. Comparative Study of Hypothyroidism with Cardiometabolic Risk. American Journal of Cardiovascular Disease Research. 2015; 3(1):1-4. doi: 10.12691/ajcdr-3-1-1.

Correspondence to: K  V Ramana, Department of Microbiology, Prathima Institute of Medical sciences, Karimnagar, Telangana, India. Email: ramana_20021@rediffmail.com

Abstract

Hypothyroidism is a thyroid deficient state which shows its influence on other metabolic pathways whereas sub-clinical hypothyroidism (SCH) is a condition where there is decreased secretion of Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) with no significant clinical symptoms. Thyroid hormones (T3, T4 and TSH) play an effective role in various aspects of metabolism, development and differentiation of cells. In the present study which included 558 male subjects who came for regular health checkup, 68 (12.18%) were newly diagnosed as suffering from hypothyroidism and among them, 27 (4.83%) had altered lipid parameters. The presenting symptoms included unknown cause of fatigue and weight gain. The atherogenic lipid abnormalities in subjects with hypothyroidism in Indians should be interpreted with paramount importance as there is unexpected improvement or worsening of their lipid profile which may be influenced by abnormal thyroid hormone secretion. The altered lipid profile is seen in conditions where TSH is more than 10 mIU/ml which can result in increased risk of cardiac diseases and altered hemodynamic states. Alcoholism, smoking, sedentary life style, genetic predisposition and stress are added factors to earlier onset of SCH. The important aspects in management of thyroid diseases include the public health awareness, regular screening for the presence of dyslipedemia and thyroid function tests.

Keywords

References

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Article

Risk Factors of Peripartum Cardiomyopathy and the Important Role of Prenatal Care

1Department of Cardiology and Vascular Medicine, Padjadjaran University, Jalan Eijkman 38, Bandung 40161, Indonesia


American Journal of Cardiovascular Disease Research. 2015, 3(1), 5-8
DOI: 10.12691/ajcdr-3-1-2
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Hawani Sasmaya Prameswari, Augustine Purnomowati, Toni Mustahsani Aprami. Risk Factors of Peripartum Cardiomyopathy and the Important Role of Prenatal Care. American Journal of Cardiovascular Disease Research. 2015; 3(1):5-8. doi: 10.12691/ajcdr-3-1-2.

Correspondence to: Hawani  Sasmaya Prameswari, Department of Cardiology and Vascular Medicine, Padjadjaran University, Jalan Eijkman 38, Bandung 40161, Indonesia. Email: hawanisasmaya@gmail.com

Abstract

Peripartum cardiomyopathy (PPCM) is one of dilated cardiomyopathy of unknown cause. The aim of this study is to determine the risk factors and the importance of prenatal care (PNC). This is a descriptive and analytical study with Chi Square test of PPCM cases collected from medical records January 1, 2011 through December 31, 2013 in the Dr.Hasan Sadikin Central General Hospital as the top-referral hospital of West Java Province. We collected 57 PPCM cases (18.7%) of 305 pregnant women or 6 months postpartum with cardiovascular problems. Distribution of PPCM cases decreased significantly (p= 0.002) from 2011 (27 patients), 2012 (16 patients), and 2013 (14 patients), with average age 30.3 (±7.9) years, cesarean delivery (43.8%), pervaginal (37.5%), forceps (15%), and vacuum-extractor (3.8%). Regular prenatal care was 84.20%. Lower socioeconomic patients were 63.2%, therefore the issue of welfare can lead to vulnerability to PPCM. Confirmed diagnosis using echography made during postpartum was 52.63% and antepartum was 47.5%. Preeclampsia was 43.80% (p=0.007) mostly NYHA functional class IV (86.30%). Echocardiography was performed on 57 patients have average ejection fraction 34.8%, global hypokinetic in 98.27% patients, 39.6% with all cardiac chamber dilatation, left atrium and left ventricle dilation in 34.48%, and 25.86% with left ventricular dilatation. The hospital based prevalence was 18.68%, with the majority (84.20%) was NYHA functional class IV. The significant risk factors were age over 30 years, multiparous, low socioeconomic, and preeclampsia. This study is probably the first report mentioning a high prevalence of PPCM in Indonesia. This report provides an awareness of PPCM during PNC to prevent the morbidity and mortality. PPCM disorder requires regular and careful PNC by taking into account existing risk factors is the key that is required and must be held in every health centre.

Keywords

References

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Article

“Requiring Intravenous Nitroglycerin” Should be considered a High Risk Feature in Patients with Non-ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction and Unstable Angina

1Department of Medicine, Harlem Hospital Center in affiliation with Columbia University Medical Center New York, NY 10037

2Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Harlem Hospital Center in affiliation with Columbia University Medical Center New York, NY 10037


American Journal of Cardiovascular Disease Research. 2015, 3(1), 9-12
DOI: 10.12691/ajcdr-3-1-3
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Olusegun Sheyin, Melissa Fajardo, Oladapo Igandan, Bredy Pierre-Louis. “Requiring Intravenous Nitroglycerin” Should be considered a High Risk Feature in Patients with Non-ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction and Unstable Angina. American Journal of Cardiovascular Disease Research. 2015; 3(1):9-12. doi: 10.12691/ajcdr-3-1-3.

Correspondence to: Olusegun  Sheyin, Department of Medicine, Harlem Hospital Center in affiliation with Columbia University Medical Center New York, NY 10037. Email: oas2120@columbia.edu

Abstract

Introduction: Early risk stratification of patients with unstable angina (UA) and non-ST elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) is crucial to identify those at high risk for further cardiac events as they may benefit from an early invasive strategy of coronary angiography and revascularization. The TIMI score, a widely used predictive model to guide management strategy in UA and NSTEMI may not accurately stratify risk. Case description: A 63-year-old man, who is an active smoker with past medical history of hypertension and dyslipidemia, presented with severe sub-sternal, crushing chest pain, which began four hours prior to presentation. His EKG revealed sinus tachycardia, without ST segment deviations or Q waves. He received aspirin, three doses of sublingual nitroglycerin and metoprolol, but continued to have chest pain, thus he was commenced on intravenous nitroglycerin infusion. His chest pain went away after two hours on nitroglycerin infusion. His initial serum troponin I was 0.31 ng/mL and 3.60 ng/mL four hours after presentation. He was admitted for NSTEMI and started on clopidogrel, atorvastatin and intravenous heparin. Echocardiogram revealed inferio-septal wall a kinesis and severely reduced left ventricular systolic function. His troponin I continued to rise, peaking at 37.4 ng/mL. He was started on eptifibatide and was referred for coronary angiography and percutaneous coronary intervention, with finding of fifty percent proximal and distal left anterior descending artery (LAD) lesions. Discussion: With a TIMI score of 2, our patient was classified as low risk at presentation. The need for intravenous nitroglycerin infusion for continuing chest pain in the management of UA or NSTEMI may suggest a greater degree of myocardial ischemia and a higher risk for adverse cardiovascular outcomes. This case demonstrates that UA and NSTEMI patients requiring intravenous nitroglycerin initially planned for conservative therapeutic approach need continuous risk stratification which may dictate a change to the invasive management strategy.

Keywords

References

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