American Journal of Biomedical Research

ISSN (Print): 2328-3947

ISSN (Online): 2328-3955

Website: http://www.sciepub.com/journal/AJBR

Article

Hepatotoxicity of Methanol Seed Extract of Aframomum melegueta [Roscoe] K. Schum. (Grains of paradise) in Sprague-Dawley Rats

1Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Calabar, P.M.B. 1115 Calabar, Nigeria

2Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Calabar, P.M.B. 1115 Calabar, Nigeria

3Department of Veterinary Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Abuja, Nigeria

4Department of Veterinary Parasitology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Abuja, Nigeria


American Journal of Biomedical Research. 2014, 2(4), 61-66
DOI: 10.12691/ajbr-2-4-1
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Nwaehujor Chinaka O., Eban Linus K., Ode Julius O., Ejiofor Charles E., Igile Godwin O.. Hepatotoxicity of Methanol Seed Extract of Aframomum melegueta [Roscoe] K. Schum. (Grains of paradise) in Sprague-Dawley Rats. American Journal of Biomedical Research. 2014; 2(4):61-66. doi: 10.12691/ajbr-2-4-1.

Correspondence to: Nwaehujor  Chinaka O., Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Calabar, P.M.B. 1115 Calabar, Nigeria. Email: chinaka_n@yahoo.com

Abstract

The hepatotoxic effects of the seeds of Aframomum melegueta (Grains of paradise), a spice were studied in Sprague-Dawley rats. Individual rat groups received sub-chronic exposure of the methanol seed extract at 300 mg/kg for 7, 14 and 21 days respectively. Liver toxicity was evaluated with assay of circulating serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransaminase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), albumin, total bilirubin concentrations and histopathology of the liver of treated experimental rats. Serum levels of AST significantly (p<0.05) increased progressively in extract-treated rats compared to the control from day 7 till the termination of the study (day 21). However, serum ALT, ALP and total bilirubin levels of test rats were only significantly (p<0.05) elevated relative to the normal on days 14 and 21 of the investigation. The dose (300 mg/kg) of extract produced AST value of 55.8±3 µL-1 while the control was 32.2±1.9 µL-1; and ALT value became 16.8±1.1 µL-1 when control was 8.6±1.1 µL-1 on day 21; Total bilirubin was 1.4±0.1 mgdL-1 relative to control value of 0.5±0.2 mgdL-1. The serum albumin levels of extract-treated rats were however, comparable with that of the normal rats throughout the study period. Histopathology of the rat livers revealed mild focal necrosis of hepatocytes at day 7, moderate multifocal areas of hepatic necrosis at day 14 and severe, diffused necrosis of hepatocytes at day 21 of treatment with the extract. The results demonstrated that the methanol seed extract of A. melegueta was potent in inducing liver toxicity at the tested dose (300 mg/kg). Maximal caution should therefore be imbibed in prolonged excessive use of the plant seeds as spice in delicacies.

Keywords

References

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Article

Impedance of Results Using Lithium Heparin to Plain Tubes for Ionized Calcium

1Department of Biochemistry, HOD lab in-charge, Apollo Reach Hospital, Karimnagar, Andhra Pradesh, India

2Department of Biochemistry, Chalmeda Anadrao Institute of Medical Sciences, Karimnagar, India

3Department of Biochemistry, Prathima Institute of Medical Sciences, Karimnagar, India

4Department of Microbiology, Prathima Institute of Medical Sciences, Karimnagar, India


American Journal of Biomedical Research. 2014, 2(4), 67-69
DOI: 10.12691/ajbr-2-4-2
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
T Sudhakar, Sabitha Kandi, B venugopal, K. Bhagwan Reddy, Md. Rafi, Raj kumar, K. V. Ramana. Impedance of Results Using Lithium Heparin to Plain Tubes for Ionized Calcium. American Journal of Biomedical Research. 2014; 2(4):67-69. doi: 10.12691/ajbr-2-4-2.

Correspondence to: K.  V. Ramana, Department of Microbiology, Prathima Institute of Medical Sciences, Karimnagar, India. Email: ramana_20021@rediffmail.com

Abstract

The study was conducted to evaluate the differences in results obtained for assays of ionized calcium (iCa+2) by plain and heparinised blood sample and observe for any errors in values done by ion selective electrode (ISE) method and to determine which of the collection methods could be ideal and reliable. 49 samples of heparinised and 31 plain blood samples were analyzed at lab services, Apollo Reach hospital, Karimnagar, Telangana state for iCa+2 by ISE method using radiometer analyzer and the differences in data were documented statistically by calculating the mean and SD. The results of the study showed statistically significant difference in values of iCa+2 when blood was collected in plain tube (4.7±0.2) and with heparinised collection (4.4±0.3). It appears in the study that plain tube collection for the assay is ideal.

Keywords

References

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Article

Folic Acid Alleviates Oxidative Stress and Hyperhomocysteinemia Involved in Liver Dysfunction of Hypothyroid Rats

1Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, Tanta University, Egypt

2Department of medical Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Tanta University, Egypt

3Biochemistry Section, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Tanta University, Egypt


American Journal of Biomedical Research. 2014, 2(4), 70-76
DOI: 10.12691/ajbr-2-4-3
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Ehab Tousson, Wafaa Ibrahim, Afrah F. Salama, Wesam M. Hussein. Folic Acid Alleviates Oxidative Stress and Hyperhomocysteinemia Involved in Liver Dysfunction of Hypothyroid Rats. American Journal of Biomedical Research. 2014; 2(4):70-76. doi: 10.12691/ajbr-2-4-3.

Correspondence to: Ehab  Tousson, Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, Tanta University, Egypt. Email: toussonehab@yahoo.com

Abstract

Thyroid hormones are essential for growth and development of the liver. This study evaluated some biochemical alterations in post-pubertal hypothyroidism and its impact on liver functions. Additionally, the ameliorating role of folic acid supplementation was investigated. Fifty male albino rats were randomly divided into five groups (group I, control; group II, folic acid; group III, 0.05% propylthiouracil-induced hypothyroid rats; group IV, Co-treatment; group V post-treatment). There was a significant decrease in plasma T3, body weight, fluid and food intakes, folic acid, ALT, total thiol and tFRAP in hypothyroid rats as compared to control group. On the other hand, a significant increase in TSH, relative liver weight, plasma of total homocysteine, serum total protein, AST, total serum bilirubin, cholesterol and tMDA in hypothyroid rats as compared to control group. This reflects hyperhomocysteinemia and oxidative stress associated with hypothyroid state. Folic acid supplemented after restoration of the euthyroid state presented better amelioration over its concurrent supplementation. If confirmed in human beings, our results could propose that folic acid can be used as an adjuvant therapy in hypothyroidism disorders with thyroxin replacement therapy.

Keywords

References

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Article

Possible Effect of Corn Silk Extracts on Selected Liver Markers and Plasma Glucose in Rabbit

1Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Achievers University, Owo – Nigeria


American Journal of Biomedical Research. 2014, 2(4), 77-82
DOI: 10.12691/ajbr-2-4-4
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Mathew Folaranmi OLANIYAN, Victoria. O. FADARE. Possible Effect of Corn Silk Extracts on Selected Liver Markers and Plasma Glucose in Rabbit. American Journal of Biomedical Research. 2014; 2(4):77-82. doi: 10.12691/ajbr-2-4-4.

Correspondence to: Mathew  Folaranmi OLANIYAN, Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Achievers University, Owo – Nigeria. Email: olaniyanmat@yahoo.com

Abstract

Corn silk contains phytochemicals of medical benefits such as proteins, vitamins, carbohydrates, Ca, K, Mg and Na salts, fixed and volatile oils, steroids such as sitosterol and stigmasterol, alkaloids, saponins, tannins, and flavonoids. Extract of corn silk is being applied traditionally in the treatment of some medical conditions. This study therefore, aimed at the evaluation of the effect of corn silk extract on liver markers and plasma glucose. Fifteen rabbits of either sex divided into three experimental groups of 5 rabbits each were studied. The extract of the corn silk was obtained using in methanol and water. The control group (A) with average weight of 758 g were not ingested with the extract throughout the period of study. Group B with average weight of 1040 g were ingested with the water extract for 3 weeks while group C with average weight of 984 g were ingested with the methanolic extract for 3 weeks. Plasma LDH, GGT and Glucose were estimated in the rabbits biochemically by spectrophotometry. The rabbits were well kept and placed on normal diet throughout the period of study. There was a significantly lower mean value of plasma glucose in the rabbits ingested with methanol corn silk extract compared with the control subjects after one week of administration(p<0.05). There was also a significantly lower plasma glucose and a significantly higher LDH level in the rabbits administered with the methanolic extract than the given aqueous extract of corn silk (p<0.05).The results obtained also showed a significantly lower plasma GGT in the rabbits administered with the aqueous and methanolic extract of corn silk than the results obtained in the rabbits studied as control(p<0.05) after 3 weeks of administration. The result obtained showed a significantly lower mean value of glucose in the rabbit administered with the methanolic extract compared with those that were given aqueous extract for 4 weeks with p<0.05. The administration of methanolic and aqueous extract of corn silk has an hypoglycaemic and hepatoprotective effects on the rabbits. The methanolic extract was also found to increase plasma LDH. These parameters should therefore be estimated in the patients undergoing treatment with corn silk extract for effective clinical management. The results obtained also show a significant increase in weights of rabbits administered with the aqueous and methanolic extract of corn silk than the results obtained in the rabbits studied as control ‘p<0.005’.

Keywords

References

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[7]  Patricia, E., MolinaJan, B., HoekSteve Nelson David, M., Guidot Charles, H., LangJack, R., Wands James, M., Crawford. Mechanisms of Alcohol‐Induced Tissue Injury. Publications Browse by Subject Resources. Copyright © 1999-2014 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All Rights Reserved. www.mendeley.com Share on twitter
 
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Article

Impacts of Herbicide Exposure on Seminal Parameters among Oil Palm Plantation Workers in Lampung Province, Indonesia

1Department of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Lampung, Indonesia

2Department of Biology, Faculty of Mathematics and Sciences, University of Lampung, Indonesia


American Journal of Biomedical Research. 2014, 2(4), 83-87
DOI: 10.12691/ajbr-2-4-5
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Sutyarso, M. Kanedi. Impacts of Herbicide Exposure on Seminal Parameters among Oil Palm Plantation Workers in Lampung Province, Indonesia. American Journal of Biomedical Research. 2014; 2(4):83-87. doi: 10.12691/ajbr-2-4-5.

Correspondence to: M.  Kanedi, Department of Biology, Faculty of Mathematics and Sciences, University of Lampung, Indonesia. Email: wegayendi@yahoo.com

Abstract

It is a cross-sectional study to evaluate semen quality of plantation workers that due their daily obligation make them susceptible to herbicide exposures. The research participants were male workers of oil palm plantations in the District of Lampung Tengah, Lampung Province, Indonesia. They were those who meet the criteria of having more than one year work experience with herbicide, married and having children. Semen samples were taken by asking the participants to masturbate after they were advised to abstain from sexual intercourse for 4-5 days. Semen quality parameters that examined are volume, pH, sperm count, sperm motility, normal morphology and HOS-test. Based on years of the work periods, there were three groups of participants obtained. Group-1 are the participants who worked less than 10 years; group-2 are those who have work periods of 10-20 years; while group-3 are those who have worked more than 20 years. All of the semen quality parameters, except pH, decreased significantly with the increase in work periods far beyond the maximum decrease in normal elderly male. In conclusion, the daily tasks of oil palm plantation workers which prompt them expose to herbicide, suspected to be the cause of the decrease in semen quality parameters.

Keywords

References

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Article

The Mechanisms of PLANT Rhizome Curcuma Longa Action on Carbohydrate Metabolism in Alloxan - Induced Diabetes Mellitus Rats

1Department of Anatomy, Physiology and Life Safety FSBEI HPE «Novosibirsk State Pedagogical University», Novosibirsk


American Journal of Biomedical Research. 2015, 3(1), 1-5
DOI: 10.12691/ajbr-3-1-1
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Aizman R.I., Koroshchenko G.A., Gajdarova A.P., Lukanina S.N., Subotyalov M.A.. The Mechanisms of PLANT Rhizome Curcuma Longa Action on Carbohydrate Metabolism in Alloxan - Induced Diabetes Mellitus Rats. American Journal of Biomedical Research. 2015; 3(1):1-5. doi: 10.12691/ajbr-3-1-1.

Correspondence to: Aizman  R.I., Department of Anatomy, Physiology and Life Safety FSBEI HPE «Novosibirsk State Pedagogical University», Novosibirsk. Email: aizman.roman@yandex.ru

Abstract

In experiments on rats with the alloxan-induced diabetes model the mechanisms of the turmeric (Curcuma longa) rhizomes influence on the various links in carbohydrate metabolism were studied. For this purpose, the glucose concentration in whole blood, titer hormones of insulin, C-peptide and cortisol in plasma, content of glycogen in the liver, structural and functional organization of the islet apparatus of the rats pancreas were studied. Under the influence of the turmeric rhizomes intake in rats with diabetes, as compared with the same animals on a standard diet, there were less expressed increasing of the glucose concentration in blood, increasing of the insulin and C-peptide concentration in plasma, lowering the concentration of cortisol and reliable increasing of the glycogen level in the liver. In the study of the microstructure of samples of pancreatic tissue of experimental animals on the background of the turmeric intake, the most preservation of the islet apparatus in comparison with a group of animals in conditions of a standard diet was marked. The results indicate the positive impact of the Curcuma longa rhizomes on the homeostatic mechanisms of the carbohydrate metabolism regulation in the alloxan-induced diabetes.Aim. The effects of the plant rhizome Curcuma longa as a food additive were studied on different processes of carbohydrate metabolism: glucose concentration in blood, concentration of hormones - insulin and C-peptide in plasma, content of glycogen in the liver, structural and functional organization of the islet apparatus of the pancreas in rats with alloxan-induced diabetes mellitus. Materials and methods. The concentration of glucose in blood and perfused solution was determined with the picricacid method by intensity of colour reaction on a spectrophotometer. The concentration of hormones (insulin, C-peptide) was determined by the immunoenzyme method with standard sets on a tablet spectrophotometer. The morphological structure of the pancreas was studied by a method of light microscopy. The content of glycogen in the liver was measured by means of a SHICK-reaction on the Mac-Manus method with measurement of colour intensity on a spectrophotometer. Results. Under the influence of the turmeric rhizomes intake in rats with diabetes, as compared with diabetic animals on a standard diet, a lower increase of the glucose concentration in blood, the tendency of decrease of glucose absorption in the gut, higher concentration of the insulin and C-peptide in plasma and the significant increase of glycogen content in the liver was found. The microstructure of pancreatic tissue samples of experimental animals using turmeric intake, was characterized by the better preservation of the islet apparatus in comparison with a group of animals on a standard diet. Conclusion. The results indicate the positive effect of the Curcuma longa rhizomes on the homeostatic mechanisms of the carbohydrate metabolism regulation in the alloxan-induced diabetes mellitus rats.

Keywords

References

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Article

Potential Investigation of Anti-Inflammatory Activity and Phytochemical Investigations of Ethanolic Extract of Glycosmis Pentaphylla Leaves

1Department of Pharmacy, North South University, Dhaka-1229, Bangladesh

2Department of Pharmacy, International Islamic University Chittagong, 154/A, College Road, Chittagong-4203, Bangladesh

3Department of Pharmacy, Progati Medical Institute, Dhaka-1216, Bangladesh


American Journal of Biomedical Research. 2015, 3(1), 6-8
DOI: 10.12691/ajbr-3-1-2
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Prawej Ansari, Shofiul Azam, Md. Reyad-ul-ferdous, Apsana Hossain, Tasana Azad, Sukdeb Goswami, Kallol Kanti Mondal. Potential Investigation of Anti-Inflammatory Activity and Phytochemical Investigations of Ethanolic Extract of Glycosmis Pentaphylla Leaves. American Journal of Biomedical Research. 2015; 3(1):6-8. doi: 10.12691/ajbr-3-1-2.

Correspondence to: Md.  Reyad-ul-ferdous, Department of Pharmacy, North South University, Dhaka-1229, Bangladesh. Email: rockyreyad@yahoo.com

Abstract

The present study is carried out with the ethanolic extract of leaves of Glycosmis pentaphylla. Traditional use of it inspired us to investigate the blood corpuscular protective power of this plant as it used as blood tonic in Chinese traditional medicine. By the phytochemical screening we have both flavonoids and steroids. There’s also alkaloids are found which have extensive physiologic action embodying analgesic activity. This investigation is made following the most simple, reliable and less time consuming method. As the human red blood corpuscular membrane is similar to lysosomal membranes that influence inflammatory process. Significant result obtained using ethanolic extract of G. pentaphylla have better acceptance as it shows good response in inhibiting hemolysis (55.16%) at highest concentration and these investigation surely stimulate further screening and isolation process.

Keywords

References

[1]  Ghani A. Medicinal Plants of Bangladesh. 2nd ed. The Asiatic Society of Bangladesh, 2003: 1-17.
 
[2]  A review on the pharmacology and phytochemistry of traditional medicinal plant, Glycosmis pentaphylla (Retz.) Correa, Sreejith, P. S.; Praseeja, R. J.; Asha, V. V., Journal of Pharmacy Research, 2012; 5 (5), p 27-23.
 
[3]  Antidiabetic and Analgesic Effects of Glycosmis pentaphylla (Retz.) in Swiss Albino Mice,Most. Chand Sultana Khatun, M Ripon Mia, M Ashraf Ali, M Moshiur Rahman, Khadiza Begum, Kohinur Begum, Ibrahim medical college journal, 2012; 6 (1), p 21-26.
 
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Article

Identification and Characterization of Antigenic 36 Kda Outer Membrane Protein (OMP) of Salmonella entericaserovar Typhi (S.typhi) from Makassar, South Sulawesi, Indonesia

1Department of Biology, Islam Government University, Makassar, Indonesia

2Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Hasanuddin University, Makassar, Indonesia

3Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Life Sciences, Hasanuddin University, Makassar, Indonesia

4Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Hasanuddin University, Makassar, Indonesia

5Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Tadulako University, Palu, Indonesia

6Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Mulawarman University, Samarinda, Indonesia


American Journal of Biomedical Research. 2015, 3(1), 9-12
DOI: 10.12691/ajbr-3-1-3
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Cut Muthiadin, Rosdiana Natsir, Rosana Agus, Muhammad Nasrum, Ressy Dwiyanti, Muhammad Sabir, Yadi Yasir, Mochammad Hatta. Identification and Characterization of Antigenic 36 Kda Outer Membrane Protein (OMP) of Salmonella entericaserovar Typhi (S.typhi) from Makassar, South Sulawesi, Indonesia. American Journal of Biomedical Research. 2015; 3(1):9-12. doi: 10.12691/ajbr-3-1-3.

Correspondence to: Mochammad  Hatta, Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Hasanuddin University, Makassar, Indonesia. Email: hattaram@indosat.net.id

Abstract

Typhoid fever caused by Salmonella entericaserovar Typhi (S. typhi), still remains a public health concern. A simple, rapid and early diagnostic test has been a long felt need for clinicians. Adh036 protein, discovered from Malang, Indonesia, has a candidate vaccine potential for Typhoid Fever. This study aims towards identification and characterization of 36 kda Outer Membrane Protein (OMP) from Makassar, South Sulawesi, Indonesia as a generalization protein test. Isolated bacteria were cultured in MacConkey medium and Brain Heart Infusion Broth (BHIB), and then harvested by using sarcosyl and sonication methods. Then, crude protein was purified by dialysis method using fractional ammonium sulfate precipitation and the protein contents were analyzed using sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophores (SDS-PAGE) for identification it’s molecular weight. The results, from five purified proteins, only three fractions show band at 36 kda, were 0-20%, 20-40%, and 40-60%.

Keywords

References

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Article

Cellular Immune Responses to HIV and falciparum Malaria Co-infection among Pregnant Mothers

1The Polytechnic Ibadan, Saki Campus

2Cellular Parasitology Programme, Department of Zoology, University Ibadan, Nigeria

3Parasitology Unit, Department of Zoology, University of Ibadan, Nigeria


American Journal of Biomedical Research. 2015, 3(2), 13-20
DOI: 10.12691/ajbr-3-2-1
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Adeoti O.M, Awobode H.O, Anumudu C.I. Cellular Immune Responses to HIV and falciparum Malaria Co-infection among Pregnant Mothers. American Journal of Biomedical Research. 2015; 3(2):13-20. doi: 10.12691/ajbr-3-2-1.

Correspondence to: Adeoti  O.M, The Polytechnic Ibadan, Saki Campus. Email: txy23m@yahoo.com

Abstract

Co-infection of malaria and HIV often result in a precarious switch of the immune reaction from T-helper 1 (Th-1) - type 1 to type 2 or vice versa. Immunological status are seriously threatened in the case of infection by HIV and Plasmodium falciparum or both in pregnant mother, hence the need to investigate the immunological responses at different status of infections. A total of 149 mothers were recruited in a longitudinal study in the endemic area of Saki. Rapid diagnostic tested kits were used for HIV diagnosis in mother; CD4+ counts were enumerated by using FACS count techniques. Four cytokines were profiled TNF-α, IL-2, IL-10 and IFN-γ by Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay. The data generated were analyzed using appropriate method. The prevalence of malaria in mothers was 85/149 (57.1%); a higher mean parasite density of 340×103 parasite/μL of blood was observed in multigravidae than in secundigravidae with 195×103 parasite/μL of blood and 265×103 parasite/ of blood in primigravidae, there was no significant relation between parity and parasite density in the participating mothers. The HIV and malaria was (22.8%) in mothers while the co infection of HIV and sero-prevalence was (30.2%). The CD4+ counts below WHO recommended were observed in 46.9, 33.4 and 47.1% HIV positive, malaria positive and co-infection mothers respectively. However, the concentration differentials of TNF-α, IL-10, IL-2 and IFN-γ in sero-positive mothers were-0.025, -0.0102, +0.0357 and 0.0255 pg/µL respectively. The CD4- T-lymphocytes counts, predominance of Th2 and proportion of co-infection mothers suggest significant health risk.

Keywords

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Article

Effects of Chronic Alcohol Ingestion on Hematological Parameters in Albino Mice Experimentally Challenged with Escherichia coli Strain 0157:H7

1Department of Animal Production and health, Faculty of Agriculture, Federal University, Oye-ekiti, Ekiti State, Nigeria

2Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Calabar, P.M.B. 1115 Calabar, Nigeria

3Department of Fisheries and Aqua-culture, Faculty of Agriculture, Federal University, Oye-ekiti, Ekiti State, Nigeria

4Department of Veterinary Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Abuja, Nigeria

5Department of Veterinary Microbiology and Pathology, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Enugu State, Nigeria


American Journal of Biomedical Research. 2015, 3(2), 21-28
DOI: 10.12691/ajbr-3-2-2
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Asuzu Onyeka V., Nwaehujor Chinaka O., Okeke Onyinye S., Ode Julius O., Chah Kennedy F.. Effects of Chronic Alcohol Ingestion on Hematological Parameters in Albino Mice Experimentally Challenged with Escherichia coli Strain 0157:H7. American Journal of Biomedical Research. 2015; 3(2):21-28. doi: 10.12691/ajbr-3-2-2.

Correspondence to: Nwaehujor  Chinaka O., Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Calabar, P.M.B. 1115 Calabar, Nigeria. Email: chinaka_n@yahoo.com

Abstract

The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of chronic alcohol consumption on hematology when challenged with E. coli strain 0157:H7 using albino mice as experimental model. Eight weeks old mice (26.6 – 35.3 g) of both sexes were used in the study and were divided into 6 groups of 12 mice each using stratified random selection method. Group 1 was given 10 % ethanol (V/V) in their drinking water. Group 2 received 20 % of ethanol. The third group received 30 % of ethanol while Group 4 and 5 received 40 % of alcohol ad-libitum respectively. Group 6 served as control and received only distilled water. The alcohol-treated groups received ethanol for 3 weeks to establish a chronic state of alcoholism and Groups 1-4 were then challenged with E. coli strain 0157:H7 for 7 days. Blood samples were collected via the median canthus of the eyes from the retrobublar plexus. The blood samples were allowed to clot and the sera was obtained by aspiration into Bijou bottles for hematology analysis like packed cell volume (PCV), hemoglobin (Hb), white blood cell (WBC), red blood cell (RBC), neutrophil, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophil, and basophil. There was a significance difference (P< 0.05) in the mean WBC, RBC, PCV and Hb values between various groups. The means of WBC of the groups exposed to 10 % alcohol with E. coli (9.2±0.1) had a significantly higher (P<0.05) value than all the other alcohol-treated groups. The mean PCV of groups exposed to 40 % alcohol with E. coli (36.67±0.88), 30 % alcohol with E. coli (37±1.08) and 20 % alcohol with E. coli (37.50±1.19) were significantly (P<0.05) less than that of groups exposed to 10 % alcohol with E. coli (39.60±1.40). Groups that consumed 10% alcohol with E. coli, water with E. coli (41.67±0.88), and water without E. coli (42.25±1.31) were significantly (P<0.05) lower than the group that consumed 40 % alcohol without E. coli challenge (46.25±0.75), but higher than the groups treated with alcohol and challenged with E. coli. There was significant difference (P< 0.05) in the RBC mean values between the various groups. The mean values of groups exposed to 40% alcohol with E. coli (899.2±116.58) and 30 % alcohol with E. coli (923.3±38.37) were significantly (P<0.05) lower than 20 % alcohol with E. coli (978.3±46.39), water with E. coli (985±31.75), water without (998.8±85.81) and 40 % alcohol without E. coli (1068.2±22.58). Neutrophil, lymphocyte and monocyte values across the various groups revealed significant differences (P< 0.05) among the different groups. The results showed that chronic alcohol (ethanol) consumption has adverse pathologic effects on the packed cell volume (PCV), hemoglobin (Hb), white blood cell (WBC), red blood cell (RBC), neutrophil, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophil, and basophil. Although alcohol is generally obtained from the fermentation of starch-containing food, its abuse and daily consumption causes damage hematological parameters in the body. Thus, when such a body is challenged with a pathogenic organism, there is less resistance to systemic entry of the cells by the organism, faster access to body cell due to the dehydration effect, and a quick necrotic time due to the toxins produced by such pathogenic organisms.

Keywords

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