ISSN (Print): 2328-3947

ISSN (Online): 2328-3955

Editor-in-Chief: Hari K. Koul




Modulatory Effects of Ricinus Communis Leaf Extract on Cadmium Chloride-Induced Hyperlipidemia and Pancytopenia in Rats

1Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Basic and Applied Sciences, Osun State University, Osogbo, Nigeri

American Journal of Biomedical Research. 2016, 4(2), 38-41
doi: 10.12691/ajbr-4-2-2
Copyright © 2016 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Olu Israel OYEWOLE, Mojisola Oluwakemi SHOREMI, Johnson Olaleye OLADELE. Modulatory Effects of Ricinus Communis Leaf Extract on Cadmium Chloride-Induced Hyperlipidemia and Pancytopenia in Rats. American Journal of Biomedical Research. 2016; 4(2):38-41. doi: 10.12691/ajbr-4-2-2.

Correspondence to: Olu  Israel OYEWOLE, Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Basic and Applied Sciences, Osun State University, Osogbo, Nigeri. Email:


Cadmium (Cd) and its compounds are ubiquitous environmental toxins capable of inducing different types of toxicity in animals and human. Ricinus communis (castor bean) is a known medicinal plant with enormous health benefits. This study investigated the protective effects of ethanolic leaf extract of Ricinus communis on hyperlipidemia and pancytopenia induced by cadmium chloride in Wistar albino rats. Twenty five (25) adult male rats were divided into 5 groups of 5 rats each. Group A received distilled water, group B, C, D and E were administered 5mg/kg body weight CdCl2, group C, D and E were treated with 250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg bw respectively of Ricinus communis leaf extract for 14 days while rats in group B were left untreated. Results obtained showed that administration of cadmium caused significant reduction in cellular elements of the blood (pancytopenia) as well as increase in the level of serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL-cholesterol and coronary heart disease risk ratio while it decrease the level of HDL-cholesterol. Treatment of rats with graded dose of Ricinus communis leaf extract significantly ameliorate the adverse effects of cadmium as it boosted cellular elements of the blood while it also reduced serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL-cholesterol, coronary heart disease risk ratio as well as elevation of HDL-cholesterol level in the blood. We conclude that leaf extract of Ricinus communis has modulatory effects on cadmium induced pancytopenia and hyperlipidemia in rats.



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The Effect of Giving Trigona Honey and Honey Propolis Trigona to the mRNA Foxp3 Expression in Mice Balb/c Strain Induced by Salmonella Typhi

1Department of Epidemiology, Health College of RSU Daya, Makassar, Indonesia

2Department of Nursing, Hasanuddin University, Makassar, Indonesia

3Department of Biochemistry, Hasanuddin University, Makassar, Indonesia

4Department of ENT, Faculty of Medicine, Hasanuddin University, Indonesia

5Department Molecular Biology and Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, Hasanuddin University, Makassar, Indonesia

6Department of Microbiology, Tadulako University, Palu, Indonesia

7Department of Clinical Pathology, Hasanuddin University, Makassar, Indonesia

8Department of Chemistry, Hasanuddin University, Makassar, Indonesia

9Department of Oncology, Hasanuddin University, Makassar, Indonesia

American Journal of Biomedical Research. 2016, 4(2), 42-45
doi: 10.12691/ajbr-4-2-3
Copyright © 2016 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Andi Nilawati Usman, Yuliana Syam, Rosdiana Natzir, Sutji Pratiwi Rahardjo, Mochammad Hatta, Ressy Dwiyanti, Yuyun Widaningsih, Ainurafiq, Prihantono. The Effect of Giving Trigona Honey and Honey Propolis Trigona to the mRNA Foxp3 Expression in Mice Balb/c Strain Induced by Salmonella Typhi. American Journal of Biomedical Research. 2016; 4(2):42-45. doi: 10.12691/ajbr-4-2-3.

Correspondence to: Mochammad  Hatta, Department Molecular Biology and Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, Hasanuddin University, Makassar, Indonesia. Email:


Immune balance during infection is important to support both the defense of body immune system and prevent excessive immune response. Protein Foxp3, a transcription factor of regulatory T cell has pivotal roles in balancing body immune system. Honey and Propolis have proved their effects to both the proinflamatory and anti inflammatory responses but their effects to the Foxp3 expression need to be investigated. This study was investigated the effect of giving Trigona honey and honey propolis Trigona to the mRNA Foxp3 expression in Balb/c mice induced Salmonella typhi. Results of the study indicated that honey propolis Trigona had the highest effect to the mRNA Foxp3 expression followed by Trigona honey. Both Trigona honey and honey propolis had immunomodulatory effects through the Foxp3 mRNA expression.



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Highly Conserved Epitopes of ZIKA Envelope Glycoprotein May Act as a Novel Peptide Vaccine with High Coverage: Immunoinformatics Approach

1Department of Biotechnology, Africa city of Technology- Khartoum, Sudan

2Al Neelain University, Faculty of Medical Laboratory Sciences

3Department of Microbiology, Soba University Hospital, Khartoum-Sudan

American Journal of Biomedical Research. 2016, 4(3), 46-60
doi: 10.12691/ajbr-4-3-1
Copyright © 2016 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Marwan Mustafa Badawi, Marwa Mohamed Osman, Afra AbdElhamid Fadl Alla, Ammar Mohammed Ahmedani, Mohamed hamed Abdalla, Mosab Mohamed Gasemelseed, Ahmed Abubakar Elsayed, Mohamed Ahmed Salih. Highly Conserved Epitopes of ZIKA Envelope Glycoprotein May Act as a Novel Peptide Vaccine with High Coverage: Immunoinformatics Approach. American Journal of Biomedical Research. 2016; 4(3):46-60. doi: 10.12691/ajbr-4-3-1.

Correspondence to: Marwan  Mustafa Badawi, Department of Biotechnology, Africa city of Technology- Khartoum, Sudan. Email:


Zika virus (ZIKV) is positive sense single stranded RNA of Flavivirus genus belonging to the Flaviviridae family. It has neither drug nor protective vaccine, and considered to be in relatedness to neurological abnormalities such as Guillain Barre Syndrome and microcephaly of neonates. The aim of this study is to analyze envelope glycoprotein E of all Zika strains using in silico approaches looking for conservancy, which is further studied to predict all potential epitopes that can be used after in vitro and in vivo confirmation as a therapeutic peptide vaccine. A total of 50 Zikavirusvariants’(include 12from South America) polyproteins retrieved from NCBI database were aligned, and the conserved regions of Envelope Glycoprotein-E were selected for epitopes prediction. IEDB analysis resource was used to predict B and T cell epitopes and to calculate the population coverage. Epitopes with high scores in both B cell and T cell epitopes predicting tools were suggested. Three epitopes were proposed for international therapeutic peptide vaccine for B cell (AQDKP, TPNSPRAE and TPHWNNK) and two other epitopes designed especially for South America strains (LDKQSDTQYV and EVQYAGTDGPCK). For T cell epitopes, MMLELDPPF epitope was highly recommended as therapeutic peptide vaccine to interact with MHC class I along with three other epitopes (MAVLGDTAW, KEWFHDIPL and DTAWDFGSV) which showed very good population coverage against the whole world population. Three epitopes showed high affinity to interact with MHC class II alleles (FKSLFGGMS, LITANPVIT and VHTALAGAL) with excellent population coverage throughout the world and South America region. Herd immunity protocols can be achieved in countries with low population coverage percentage to minimize the active transmission of the virus, especially among pregnant women and other groups at risk.We recommendin vitro and in vivo proving the effectiveness of these proposed epitopes as a vaccine, as well as to be used as a diagnostic screening test.



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