ISSN (Print): 2328-3947

ISSN (Online): 2328-3955

Editor-in-Chief: Hari K. Koul




Drug resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Clinical Samples at Kampala International University-teaching Hospital, Bushenyi District, Uganda

1School of Pharmacy, Kampala International University-Western Campus. P.O BOX 71, Bushenyi, Uganda

2Department of Biochemistry, Kampala International University-Western Campus. P.O BOX 71, Bushenyi, Uganda

3Department of Microbiology & Immunology, Kampala International University-Western Campus. P.O BOX 71, Bushenyi, Uganda

4School of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, United States International University – Africa, Nairobi, Kenya

American Journal of Biomedical Research. 2016, 4(4), 94-98
doi: 10.12691/ajbr-4-4-3
Copyright © 2016 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Janet Nalwoga, Michael Tirwomwe, Albert Nyanchoka Onchweri, Josephat Nyabayo Maniga, Cyprian Mose Nyaribo, Conrad Ondieki Miruka. Drug resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Clinical Samples at Kampala International University-teaching Hospital, Bushenyi District, Uganda. American Journal of Biomedical Research. 2016; 4(4):94-98. doi: 10.12691/ajbr-4-4-3.

Correspondence to: Conrad  Ondieki Miruka, Department of Biochemistry, Kampala International University-Western Campus. P.O BOX 71, Bushenyi, Uganda. Email:


Background: Staphylococcus aureus that is resistant to methicillin is an important nosocomial pathogen that often causes infections that are hard to treat. This is due to the fact that the pathogen is usually resistant to other commonly used antibiotics. The presence of drug resistant MRSA among patients has previously been documented in various parts of Uganda. However no reports have been documented for Kampala International University-Teaching hospital in western Uganda. This study was therefore carried out to determine the prevalence and antibiotic resistance of MRSA strains in the patients hospitalized in the surgical ward. Methods: Wound swabs were collected from both male and female patients hospitalized in the surgical ward. Samples were then cultured in suitable media. The Staphylococcus aureus colonies that were obtained were tested for resistance to oxacillin to determine the strains that were MRSA. Further antibiotic resistance of the MRSA isolates was determined by the disc diffusion method using various antibiotics. Results: Out of the one hundred and fourteen isolates from the clinical samples, only seventy five isolates were clearly identified as S. aureus with 85.3% coagulase positive and 13.3% coagulase negative. Methicillin resistant staphylococcus aureus was prevalent at a rate of 56.1%. among the MRSA isolates, resistance to ciprofloxacin was observed to be the highest while resistance to ceftriaxone was observed to be the least. Conclusion: The high prevalence of MRSA amongst the surgical ward patients requires proper measures to be taken to prevent further spread of the pathogen. It is recommended that the source of this drug resistant strains of MRSA be determined so as to design appropriate interventions to prevent the future emergence of infections that are hard to treat.



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Cloning Open Reading Frame (ORF) of Rv2430c Mycobacterium tuberculosis Indonesian Isolate in Escherichia coli JM 109

1Department Of Biology, Faculty of Life Sciences, Hasanuddin University, Indonesia

2Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Hasanuddin University, Indonesia

3Development Ministry of Health of Republic of Indonesia, Central Basic Biomedical, Health Technology National Institute of Health and Research, Indonesia

American Journal of Biomedical Research. 2016, 4(4), 99-101
doi: 10.12691/ajbr-4-4-4
Copyright © 2016 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Rosana Agus, Muhammad Nasrum Massi, Francisca Srioetami Tanoerahardjo. Cloning Open Reading Frame (ORF) of Rv2430c Mycobacterium tuberculosis Indonesian Isolate in Escherichia coli JM 109. American Journal of Biomedical Research. 2016; 4(4):99-101. doi: 10.12691/ajbr-4-4-4.

Correspondence to: Rosana  Agus, Department Of Biology, Faculty of Life Sciences, Hasanuddin University, Indonesia. Email:


Various strategies have been implemented to prevent tuberculosis. Vaccination with Bacille Calmette Guerin (BCG) vaccine is still used around the world. Generally, most people in have gained BCG vaccine as an infant, but the effectiveness of these vaccines do not survive to adulthood. Therefore, the necessary replacement BCG vaccine more effective to eliminate tuberculosis. Mycobacterium tuberculosis is an intracellular pathogen and it was inside the macrophage, which is considered to be the most important component of the immune system. M. tuberculosis has two sets of genes are highly polymorphic referred to as PE and PPE families. These unique families of proteins account for about 10% of the mycobacterial genome and have attracted great interest from a variety of different studies around the world. One member of the as a vaccine candidate is Rv 2430c. It is known that the sera of all patients infected with TB showed strong antibody responses against Rv 2430c compared to healthy individuals. The existence of these antibodies indicates that this protein is found in vivo during infection and is a native immunogenic molecule. The purpose of this study was to clone the Open Reading Frame (ORF) Rv 2430c M. tuberculosis Indonesian isolates to host cells Esherichia coli JM 109. The method used is by isolating -chromosomal DNA from clinical isolates from Indonesia, amplifying the ORF Rv 2430c with , ligating into cloning vectors pGEM-T and transform to E.coli JM 109. Characterization of clones do with migration analysis, restriction analysis and . The results obtained are recombinant clones that carry insertion was Rv 2430cKeywords: Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Rv 2430c, ORF, , JM 109.



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Expression, Down-regulation and Function of CCRL2 on Three Human Cancer Cell Lines

1AL-Mustansirya University, College of Engineering, Environmental Engineering Department, Baghdad-Iraq

2Kirkuk University, College of Science, Chemistry Department, Kirkuk-Iraq

3Iraqi Center for Cancer and Medical Genetics, Baghdad-Iraq

American Journal of Biomedical Research. 2017, 5(1), 1-7
doi: 10.12691/ajbr-5-1-1
Copyright © 2017 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Nadia MatterALMhana, Israa Zainal, Nahi Y. Yaseen. Expression, Down-regulation and Function of CCRL2 on Three Human Cancer Cell Lines. American Journal of Biomedical Research. 2017; 5(1):1-7. doi: 10.12691/ajbr-5-1-1.

Correspondence to: Nadia  MatterALMhana, AL-Mustansirya University, College of Engineering, Environmental Engineering Department, Baghdad-Iraq. Email:


C-C chemokine receptor like 2 (CCRL2) is a member of the atypical chemokine receptor family; it is a hepta helical transmembrane receptor, expression of which has been shown on almost all human hematopoietic cells. CCRL2 were previously considered to be orphan receptor and as a receptor presenting its chemo attractant ligand to functional receptors. The function and expression of CCRL2 in cancer is not understood at present. Here, we investigated the expression of CCRL2 as well as the effects on cellular proliferation resulting from their knockdown in three cancer cell lines include: human cerebral glioblastoma multi form (ANGM, at passages 75-84), human cervical cancer (HeLa, at 70 passages), and human pelvic rhabdomyosarcoma (RD, at 75 passages) cell lines. In addition, all cell lines were screened for mRNA expression of CCRL2 by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Cell lines with detectable expression were used for knockdown experiments; and the respective influence after transfection with small interfering RNA (siRNA) concentrations (2,3,4,5,6,7 and 8) ρmol for (24 , 48 and 72) hour were determined for both CCRL2 gene and the house keeping gene GAPDH as control. The Knockdown of CCRL2 was highly successful; the expression of CCRL2 was down-regulated by over 76.0%, 89.6% and 80.7% after transfection for 48 hour to (ANGM, HeLa and RD) cell lines respectively. The results also indicated that in the CCRL2 absence there was a significant decrease in the cell proliferation, suggesting a pro-tumoral effect of CCRL2. The potential roles of CCRL2 as a novel therapeutic target and biomarker warrant further investigations.



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