American Journal of Biomedical Research

ISSN (Print): 2328-3947

ISSN (Online): 2328-3955

Website: http://www.sciepub.com/journal/AJBR

Article

Prevalence of Life Style Drugs Usage and Perceived Effects among University Students in Dar es Salaam

1Department of Pharmaceutical Microbiology, Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences (MUHAS), Dar es Salaam, Tanzania


American Journal of Biomedical Research. 2014, 2(2), 29-35
DOI: 10.12691/ajbr-2-2-3
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Kennedy D. Mwambete, Theresia Shemsika. Prevalence of Life Style Drugs Usage and Perceived Effects among University Students in Dar es Salaam. American Journal of Biomedical Research. 2014; 2(2):29-35. doi: 10.12691/ajbr-2-2-3.

Correspondence to: Kennedy  D. Mwambete, Department of Pharmaceutical Microbiology, Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences (MUHAS), Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Email: kmwambete@muhas.ac.tz

Abstract

This was a cross-sectional study involving randomly selected university students from University of Dar es Salaam (UDSM) and Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences (MUHAS). Each respondent filled in a consent form prior to an interview. Awareness and prevalence of LSD usage, perceived effects and personal opinions on LSD usefulness were investigated. A total of 310 students (222 males and 88 females) aged between 21 and 35 years were interviewed. About 56.5% (n=175) were non-medical students from UDSM while 135 (43.5%) were medical students from MUHAS. Majority (92%) of the students was aware of LSDs, though only 29.3% of them had used one of 10 tracer LSDs, while 18 (5.8 %) students were uncertain whether they had ever used LSDs or not. Over 81% of LSD users had used alcohols and 43% of those admitted to have been propelled by peer pressure. Euphoria and “good sleep” were the mentioned by 27% of LSDs users as motive for consuming them, while 32.5% said LSDs usage added an extra-financial burden. This is the first study on the prevalence of LDS usage in universities.

Keywords

References

[1]  Rahman, S., Gupta, V., Sukhlecha, A., & Khunte, Y. Lifestyle drugs: Concept and impact on society. Indian journal of pharmaceutical sciences, 72 (4), 409. 2010.
 
[2]  Everitt, D.E., Avorn, J., Baker, M.W. Clinical decision-making in the evaluation and treatment of insomnia. American Journal of Medicine, 89:357-62. 1990.
 
[3]  Gilbert, D., Walley, T., and New, B. Lifestyle medicines. British Medical Journal, 321 (7272), 1341, 2000.
 
[4]  Flower, R.J. Lifestyle and non-medical use of drugs. In: Rang HP. Dale MM, Ritter JM. editors. Rang and Dale’s pharmacology. 6th ed. London: Churchill living stone; 2007, 765-9.
 
[5]  Ashworth, M., Clement, S., & Wright, M. Demand, appropriateness and prescribing of ‘lifestyle drugs’: a consultation survey in general practice. Family Practice, 19 (3), 236-241, 2002.
 
Show More References
[6]  Young, S.N. Lifestyle drugs, mood, behavior and cognition. Journal of Psychiatry Neuroscience, 28 (2): 87-9, 2003.
 
[7]  Moynihan, R., Heath, I., Henry, D. selling sickness-The pharmaceutical industry and disease mongering. British Medical Journal, 324: 886-91, 2002.
 
[8]  Outram, S.M. The use of methylphenidate among students: the future of enhancement? Journal of Medical Ethics 36: 198-202, 2010.
 
[9]  Powell, R., Kahane, G., & Savulescu, J. Evolution, Genetic Engineering, and Human Enhancement. Philosophy & Technology, 25 (4), 439-458, 2012.
 
[10]  Fox, N. J., & Ward, K. J. Pharma in the bedroom... and the kitchen.... The pharmaceuticalisation of daily life. Sociology of health & illness, 30 (6), 856-868, 2008.
 
[11]  Shakespeare, J., Neve, E. and Hodder, K. Is norethisterone a lifestyle drug? Results of database analysis, British Medical Journal, 320, 291, 2000.
 
[12]  Aronson, J.K. From prescription-only to over-the-counter medicines (‘PoM to P'): time for an intermediate category. Br Med Bull 90: 63-69, 2009.
 
[13]  Coveney, C.M. Awakening expectations: Exploring social and ethical issues surrounding the medical and non-medical uses of cognition enhancing drugs in the UK (Doctoral dissertation, University of Nottingham), 2010.
 
[14]  Sapolsky, R.M. Why stress is bad for your brain. Science, 273: 749-750, 1996.
 
[15]  Lucke, J.C., Bell, S.K., Oatridge, B.J., and Hall, W.D. Academic doping or Viagra for the brain? The history of recreational drug use and pharmacological enhancement can provide insight into these uses of neuropharmaceuticals. EMBO Report, 12 (3): 197-201, March 3, 2011.
 
[16]  Fox, N. J., Ward, K. J., & O’Rourke, A. J. The ‘expert patient’: empowerment or medical dominance? The case of weight loss, pharmaceutical drugs and the Internet. Social Science & Medicine, 60 (6), 1299-1309, 2005.
 
[17]  Flower, R. Lifestyle drugs: pharmacology and the social agenda. Trends in Pharmacological Sciences, 25 (4), 182-185, 2004.
 
[18]  Edwards, I. R., & Aronson, J. K. Adverse drug reactions: definitions, diagnosis, and management. The Lancet, 356 (9237), 1255-1259, 2000.
 
[19]  Use, Food, Herbal Use, Toxicity Side-effects, and Warnings Contra-indications. “Martindale: the complete drug reference.” 2007.
 
[20]  Rose SPR. ‘Smart Drugs’: Do they work? Are they ethical? Will they be legal? Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 3: 975-9, 2002.
 
[21]  Fox, N.J. and Ward, K.J. Health identities: from expert patient to resisting consumer, Health, 10, 4, 461-79, 2006.
 
[22]  Shrier, L. A., Emans, S. J., Woods, E. R., & DuRant, R. H. The association of sexual risk behaviors and problem drug behaviors in high school students. Journal of Adolescent Health, 20 (5), 377-383, 1997
 
[23]  Little, A., & Roberts, S.C. Evolution, appearance, and occupational success. Evolutionary psychology: an international journal of evolutionary approaches to psychology and behavior, 10 (5), 782-801, 2012.
 
[24]  Ross, R., Freeman, J. A., & Janssen, I. Exercise alone is an effective strategy for reducing obesity and related comorbidities. Exercise and sport sciences reviews, 28 (4), 165-170, 2000.
 
[25]  Lexchin, J. Lifestyle drugs: issues for debate, Canadian Medical Association Journal, 164, 10, 1449-51, 2001.
 
[26]  Coveney, C. M., Nerlich, B., & Martin, P. Modafinil in the media: Metaphors, medicalisation and the body. Social Science & Medicine, 68 (3), 487-495, 2009.
 
[27]  Himle, J. A., Abelson, J. L., Haghightgou, H., Hill, E. M., Nesse, R. M., & Curtis, G. C. Effect of alcohol on social phobic anxiety. American Journal of Psychiatry, 156 (8), 1237-1243, 1999.
 
[28]  Burke, R.S., and Stephens, R.S. Social anxiety and drinking in college students: A social cognitive theory analysis. Clinical Psychology Reviews, 19 (5): 513-530, 1999.
 
[29]  Hallfors, D. D., Waller, M. W., Bauer, D., Ford, C. A., & Halpern, C. T. Which comes first in adolescence—sex and drugs or depression? American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 29 (3), 163-170, 2005.
 
[30]  Rehm, J., Sulkowska, U., Mańczuk, M., Boffetta, P., Powles, J., Popova, S., & Zatoński, W. Alcohol accounts for a high proportion of premature mortality in central and eastern Europe. International journal of epidemiology, 36 (2), 458-467, 2007.
 
[31]  Harrison, L., & Gardiner, E. Do the rich really die young? Alcohol‐related mortality and social class in Great Britain, 1988‐94. Addiction, 94 (12), 1871-1880, 1999.
 
[32]  Spencer, R.L., and Hutchison, K.E. Alcohol, aging, and the stress response. Alcohol Research & Health 23 (4): 272-283, 1999.
 
[33]  Webb, E., Ashton, C. H., Kelly, P., & Kamali, F. (1996). Alcohol and drug use in UK university students. The lancet, 348 (9032), 922-925.
 
[34]  Blay, Y.A. Skin bleaching and global white supremacy: By way of introduction. Journal of Pan African Studies, 4 (4), 2011.
 
[35]  Lewis, K. M., Harris, S., Camp, C., Kalala, W., Jones, W., Ellick, K. L. & Younge, S. The Historical and Cultural Influences of Skin Bleaching in Tanzania. In The Melanin Millennium Springer Netherlands, 2013, 19-38.
 
[36]  Archer, J., Archer, D. “Oral contraceptive efficacy and antibiotic interaction: a myth debunked.” Journal of American Academy of Dermatology, 46 (6): 917-23, 2002.
 
[37]  Brito, M.B., Nobre, F., Vieira, C.S. “Hormonal contraception and cardiovascular system.” Arquivos brasileiros de cardiologia 96 (4): e81-9, Apr 2011.
 
Show Less References

Article

The Effect of Nutritional Lipid Supplementation on Serum Lipid Levels and Effectiveness of Antitubercular Chemotherapy

1Department of Medical Biochemistry, College of Medicine, Ambrose Alli University, Ekpoma, Nigeria

2Department of Internal Medicine, Irrua Specialist Teaching Hospital, Irrua, Nigeria

3Department of Medical Physiology Ambrose Alli University, Ekpoma, Nigeria

4Department of Chemical Pathology, Ambrose Alli University, Ekpoma Nigeria

5Department of Medical Laboratory Science, College of Medicine, Ambrose Alli University, Ekpoma

6Department of Histopathology, College of Medicine, Ambrose Alli University, Ekpoma, Nigeria

7Department of Nursing Science, Ambrose Alli University, Ekpoma, Nigeria

8Department of Community Health, Irrua Specialist Teaching Hospital, Irrua Nigeria


American Journal of Biomedical Research. 2014, 2(2), 36-41
DOI: 10.12691/ajbr-2-2-4
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Iyamu O.A., Ugheoke J.E, Ozor M.O., Airhomwanbor K.O., Eidangbe A.P., Idehen I.C., Okhiai O., Akpede N. The Effect of Nutritional Lipid Supplementation on Serum Lipid Levels and Effectiveness of Antitubercular Chemotherapy. American Journal of Biomedical Research. 2014; 2(2):36-41. doi: 10.12691/ajbr-2-2-4.

Correspondence to: Iyamu  O.A., Department of Medical Biochemistry, College of Medicine, Ambrose Alli University, Ekpoma, Nigeria. Email: now_splash72@yahoo.com

Abstract

The effect of serum lipid levels on the incidence and management of tuberculosis has recently been brought to the fore. The aim was to see the effect of nutritional supplementation on susceptibility of organisms of the mycobacterium tuberculosis complex to some known antitubercular drugs via effect on serum lipid levels. Blood samples were collected for baseline estimation of serum lipids from 250 tuberculosis patients who were then allocated into four groups including: those taking drugs for tuberculosis(antitubercular drugs) treatment only, those on antitubercular drugs and one boiled egg daily, those on antitubercular drugs and fish oil (1000 IU/day), and those on antitubercular drugs and both egg and fish oil daily, all for a three month duration, at the end of which blood samples were collected for estimation of serum triglycerides, total cholesterol (TC), high density lipoprotein (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), very low density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C), and Phospholipids, using appropriate methods. Results shows that though treatment with antitubercular drugs and supplementation with fish oil led to increases in serum lipid levels which were ab initio lower in tuberculosis patients than Healthy controls, supplementation with boiled egg led to a higher increase in serum lipid levels. Supplementation with fish oil also led to the greatest decreases in antitubercular drug resistance. It is thus suggested that supplementation with lipid rich foods in tuberculosis treatment will decrease anti tuberculosis drug resistance and help the global campaign on tuberculosis eradication.

Keywords

References

[1]  Khan, AM. Role of a tuberculosis Sanatorium in the national campaign against white scourge. Pak J. Health, 1959 9:148-51. 1959.
 
[2]  Michael, D and Iseman, MD. Tuberculosis, a captain, preumococcus a lieutenant. Arch Intern. Med. 151 (10): 21-30. 1991.
 
[3]  Heather Milburn. Key issues in the diagnosis and management of tuberculosis. JR SOC Med. 100 (3): 134-141. 2007.
 
[4]  Vasconcellos SE, Huard RC, Niemann S, Kremer K, Santis AR, Syffys, RN and HO, JL. Distinct genetopy profiles of the two major clades of mycobacterium africanum. BMC infect Dis 10: 80. 2010.
 
[5]  Frieden TR, Sterling TR, Munsiff SS, Watt CJ, and Dye C. Tuberculosis, Lancet 362 (9387): 857-99. 2003.
 
Show More References
[6]  Schmidt, CW. Linking TB and the environment. Environ Health Persp. 116 (11): A478-A485. 2008.
 
[7]  WHO Global Tuberculosis report, 2012.
 
[8]  Awofeso N. Antituberculosis medication side effects constitute a major factor for poor adherence for tuberculosis treatment. Bull World Health organization. 2008.
 
[9]  Dohn, PJ, Raviglore MC. A Global tuberculosis incidence and mortality during 1999-2000). Bull of the World Health Organ 72 (2): 212-220. 2002.
 
[10]  Porwal C, Kansh A, Makkar N, Banavaliken JN, Banif M, Singla R, Bhatnagar AK, Behara D, Akande JN, Singh UB. Incidence and risk factors for extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis in Delhi region PLOs one 8 (2): e 55299. 2013.
 
[11]  WHO Global Tuberculosis Report, 2013.
 
[12]  Southwick F. “Chapter 4: Pulmonary infections”. Infectious diseases: A clinical short course, 2nd ed, McGraw-Hill Medical Publishing Division. Pp 104, 313-4. 2007.
 
[13]  Perez-Guzman C, Vargas MH, Quinonez F, Bazavilvazo N, Aguilar A.. A cholesterol-rich diet accelerates backeriologic sterilization in pulmonary tuberculosis. Chest; 127: 643-51. 2005.
 
[14]  Rodriguez-Roguero JJ, Iglesias CG, Vasquez M, Poigueras I, Braga S, Bustillo E, Mosquera JA.. Variation in plasma lipid and lipoprotein concentrations in community-acquired pneumonia in a 6-month prospective study. Eur J. Clin Chem Clin Biochem. 34 (3): 245-9.1996.
 
[15]  Deniz O, Tozkoparan E, Yaman H, Cakir E, Gumus S, Ozcan O, Boslar U, Bilgin H, Ekiz K. Serum HDL-C levels, log (TG/HDL-C) values and serum total cholesterol/HDL-C ratios significantly correlates with radiological extent of disease in patients with community-acquired pneumoma. Clin Biochem, 39: 287-92. 2006.
 
[16]  Volpato S, Palnuieri E, Felin R, Zulian, G. Acute phase markers are associated with reduced plasma lipid concentration in a population of hospitalized elderly patients. Genotology 2 46:22-7. 2000.
 
[17]  Cabana VG, Siegel JN, Jabesim SM. Effects of the acute phase response on the concentration and density distribution of plasma lipids and apolipoporteins. J. Lipid Res 30: 39-49. 1989.
 
[18]  Perez-Guzman C, Vargas MH, Salas-Martir C, Fredo-Santa Cruz T, Gallgos-Discua C, Flores-Lopez F. Rev Med Inst. Mex Seguro SOC 46 (3): 247-52. 2008.
 
[19]  Canetti C, Froman F,Grosset J, Handuroy P, Langenova M, Mahler HT, Meissner G, Mitchison, DH ed Sula L.. Mycobacteria laboratory methods for testing drug sensitivity and resistance. Bull WHO 41:21-43. 1963.
 
[20]  Setti S, Mewara A, Dhatwala SK, Singh H, Yadav R, Singh K,gupta D, Wanchu A. and Sharma M. Prevalence of multi drug resistance in mycobacterium isolates from HIV seropositive and seronegativepetients with pulmonary tuberculosis in north India. BMC Infectious Diseases, 13: 137. 2013
 
[21]  Rusil-Gerdes S, Pfuffer GE, Casal M, Chadinde M, and Siddiqi S. Multicentre laboratory validation of the BACTEC MGIT 960 techniques for testing susceptibilities of mycobacterium tuberculosis to classical second line drug and newer antimicrobials. J. Clin Microbiol 44 (3): 688-692. 2006.
 
[22]  Fredrickson, D.S., Levil R. L., and Lee R. S. Fat transport in lipoproteins-An integration approach to mechanisms and disorders. N. Engl. J. Med., 276: 273-281. 1967.
 
[23]  Gotto M.A. Lipoprotein metabolism and the Etiology of hyperlipidemia. Hospital Practice 23: 1-4. 1998
 
[24]  Trinder, P. Enzymatic calorimetric determination of triglycerides by GOP-PAP method. Ann. Clin Biochem, 6: 24-27. 1969.
 
[25]  Fridewald, WT, Lavy RI Fredrickson, DS. Estimation to density lipoprotein without use of the preparative ultracentrifuge. Clin chem. 18: 499-502. 1972.
 
[26]  Bergmenyer, HU. Ed. Methods of enzymatic analysis (3rd Ed.), USA pp 154-160. 1985.
 
[27]  Gomorris G. Colorimetric determination of serum phospholipids. J. Lab. Clin. Med, 27: 958. 1942
 
[28]  Glewett, Hassem HA Bhanji RA, Okorodudu A, Vandorjagt DJ. Serum lipid profiles and risk of cardiovascular disease in three different male population in northern Nigeria. J. Health Popul Nutr. 20 (2): 168-74. 2002.
 
[29]  Osuji CU, Omejua EG, Onwubuya EI, and Aheneka GI. Serum lipid profile of newly diagnosed hypertension patients in Nnewi, South-East Nigeria. Int. J. Hypertension Article ID 710486 7 pgs. 2012.
 
[30]  Akpa MR, Agomouh DI, Alasia DD. Lipid profile of healthy adult Nigerian in Port Harcourt, Nigeria. Nig. J, Med 15 (2): 137-40. 2006.
 
[31]  Saraswatty SD, and Shyamala-Devi CS. Antitubercular drugs induced hepatic oxidative stress and ultrastructural changes in rats. Bruc infect Dis. 12 (suppl 1): pg 5. 2012.
 
[32]  Stark KD, Park JE Maries VA and Holub BJ. Effect of a fish oil concentrate on serum lipid in hormone receiving and not relieving hormone replacement therapy in a placebo-controlled, double-bind trial. Am J. Chin Nutr. 72 (2): 389-394. 2000.
 
[33]  Mayurasakorn K, Frisura W, Sitphahul P, Honglo PO. High density lipoprotein cholesterol change after continuous egg consumption in healthy adult.J Med. Assoc. Thai 91 (3): 400-2. 2008.
 
[34]  Porter MW, Yamanaka S, Carlson D, and Flynn MA. Effect of dietary egg on serum cholesterol and triglycerides of human diet. Am J. Chin Nutr. 30 (4): 490-495. 1977.
 
Show Less References

Article

Gender Difference on Stress Induced by Malaria Parasite Infection and Effect of Anti-malaria Drug on Stress Index

1Department of Haematology and Blood Transfusion Science, Federal Medical Centre, Ido-Ekiti Ekiti State

2Croydon Grace Diagnostic Cenre, Igando, Lagos State


American Journal of Biomedical Research. 2014, 2(3), 42-46
DOI: 10.12691/ajbr-2-3-1
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
ESAN A. J, OMISAKIN C.T, TITILAYO O. E, FASAKIN K. A. Gender Difference on Stress Induced by Malaria Parasite Infection and Effect of Anti-malaria Drug on Stress Index. American Journal of Biomedical Research. 2014; 2(3):42-46. doi: 10.12691/ajbr-2-3-1.

Correspondence to: ESAN  A. J, Department of Haematology and Blood Transfusion Science, Federal Medical Centre, Ido-Ekiti Ekiti State. Email: ayodelejacob4u@gmail.com

Abstract

Malaria is a serious public health problem in most countries of the tropics. Oxidative stress is related to the severity of malaria, oxidative stress in malaria may originate from several sources including intracellular parasitized erythrocytes and extra-erythrocytes as a result of haemolysis and host response. The aim of this study therefore is to determine the gender difference on stress induced by malaria parasite infection and effect of anti-malaria drug on stress index. 202 confirmed malaria infected patients were recruited for the study between the ages of 15 – 64 years of both sexes at the general outpatient clinic of the Federal Medical Centre, Ido-Ekiti, Nigeria. 129(63.9%) were males and 73(36.1%) were females. The mean ± SD of MDA, MPC and WBC in male were significantly (P < 0.05) higher compared to female in pre, post anti-malaria drug treatment. Stress induced by malaria parasite was observed higher in male compared to female; gender norms and values that influence the division of labour, leisure patterns, and sleeping arrangements can influence different patterns of exposure to mosquitoes for men and women which responsible for differences in stress induced by malaria parasite among the gender; during malaria treatment, the level of stress induced by malaria parasite was decline due to the effect of anti-malaria drug used.

Keywords

References

[1]  UNICEF (2000). Rolling back malaria goals. A United Nation Children’s Fund document. 2000; 16pp.
 
[2]  Alaribe AAA, Ejekie GC, Ezedinachi ENU. The ecology of Bain BJ (1996). Ethnic and sex differences in the total and differential white cell count and platelet count. J Clin Pathol. (2006) 49: 664-666.
 
[3]  Rahman S. Gender aspects and women’s participation in the control and management of malaria in central Sudan. Social Science and Medicine, (1995) 42(10).
 
[4]  World Health Organization (WHO, 2010). Basic Malaria Microscopy. Part 1. Learner’s Guide 2010. 2nd ed. Geneva.
 
[5]  Das, B.S., J.K. Patnaik, S. Mohanty, S.K. Mishra, D. Mohanty, S.K. Satpathy and T.K. Bose. Plasma antioxidants and lipid peroxidation products in falciparum malaria. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg., (1993) 49: 720-725.
 
Show More References
[6]  Sibmooh N, Pipitaporn B, Wilairatana P, Dangdoungjai J, Udomsangpetch R, Looareesuwan S, Chantharaksri U: Effect of artemisinin on lipid peroxidation and fluidity of the erythrocyte membrane in malaria. Biol Pharm Bull (2000), 23: 1275-1280.
 
[7]  Atamma H, Ginsburg H: Origin of reactive oxygen species in erythrocytes infected with Plasmodium falciparum. Mol Biochem Parasitol, (1993) 61: 231-242.
 
[8]  Haynes RK. Artemisinin and derivatives: The future for malaria treatment? Curr Opin Infect Dis (2001) 14: 719-726.
 
[9]  Jayshree R S, Ganguly N K, Dubey M L, Mohan K, Mahajan R C. Generation of reactive oxygen Species by blood monocytes during acute P. Knowiesis infection in rhesus monkeys APMIS (1993) 101: 762-766.
 
[10]  Halliwell B. Drug anti oxidant effects; A basis for drug selection? (1991) Drugs 42(4): 569-605.
 
[11]  Rice – Evans C, Bruckdorfr K R. Free radical, lipoproteins and cardiovascular dysfunction. Molee Aspects Med (1992) 13: 1-111.
 
[12]  Golenser, J., E. Marva and M. Chevion,. The survival of plasmodium under oxidant stress. Parasitol. Today, (1991) 7: 142-146.
 
[13]  Vander jagt DL, Hunsaker LA, Campos N.M, Scaletti J.V. Localization and characterization of haemoglobin degrading aspartic proteinases from the malaria parasite plasmodium falciparum. Biochem Biophys Acta (1992) 1122: 256-264.
 
[14]  Kulkarni, A.G., A.N. Suryakar, A.S. Sardeshmukh and D.B. Rathi. Studies on Biochemical changes with special reference to oxidant and antioxidant in malaria patients. Indian J. Clin. Biochem. (2003), 18: 136-149.
 
[15]  Becker K, Tilley L, Vennerstron JL, Roberts D, Rogerson S, Ginsburg H. oxidative stress in malaria parasite infected erythrocytes: Host-Parasite Interactions Int J Parasitol; (2004) 34(2): 163-189.
 
[16]  Monica Cheesbrough (2005). Discrete Laboratory Practice in Tropical Countries Part 1, Cambridge Second Editions. Published by Press Syndicate of the University of Cambridge, chp. 5, page 247-258.
 
[17]  Dayachi F, Kabongo L, Ngoie K. Decreased mortality from Malaria in children with symptomatic HIV infection. Int. Cont. AIDS (1991) 2: 164.
 
[18]  Warhurst, D.C. and J.E. Williams,. Acp Broadsheet no 148. July 1996. Laboratory diagnosis of malaria. J. Clin. Pathol., (1996) 49: 533-538.
 
[19]  Akanbi, O.M., J.A. Badaki, O.Y. Adeniran and O.O. Olotu,. Effect of blood group and demographic characteristics on malaria infection, oxidative stress and haemoglobin levels in South Western Nigeria. Afr. J. Microbiol. Res., (2010) 4: 877-880.
 
[20]  Zuk M, McKean KA. Sex differences in parasite infections: patterns and processes. Inter J Parasitol; (1996) 26: 1009-23.
 
[21]  Dincer, Y., E. Ozen, P. Kadioglu, H. Hatemi and T. Akcay. Effect of sex hormones On lipid peroxidation in women with polycystic ovary syndrome, healthy women and men. Endocrine Res., (2001) 27: 309-316.
 
[22]  Barbacanne, M.A., J. Rami, J.B. Michel, J.P. Souchard and M. Philippe. Estradiol increases rat aorta endothelium-derived relaxing factor (EDRF) activity without changes in endothelial NO synthase gene expression: Possible role of decreased endothelium-derived superoxide anion production. Cardiovascular Res., (1999) 41: 672-681.
 
[23]  McElroy PD, Beier JC, Oster CN, Beadle C, Sherwood JA, Oloo AJ. Predicting outcome in malaria: correlation between rate of exposure to infected mosquitoes and level of Plasmodium falciparum parasitemia. Am J Trop Med Hyg; (1994) 51: 523-32.
 
[24]  Murthy GL, Sahay RK, Srinivasan VR, Upadhaya AC, Shantaram V, Gayatri K. Clinical profile of P. falciparum malaria in a tertiary care hospital. J Indian Med Assoc; (2000) 98: 160-2, 169.
 
[25]  Ringwald, P., Peyron, F.,Vuillez, J.P., Touze, J.E., Le Bras, J., Deloron, P. Levels of cytokines in plasma during Plasmodium falciparum malaria attacks. J. Clin. Microbiol. (1991) 29, 2076-2078.
 
[26]  Rosana Maria Feio Libonati, Berenice Bilharinho de Mendonc¸ Jos´e Antˆonio Mau´es, Juarez Antonio Sim˜oes Quaresma, Jos´e Maria de Souza. Some aspects of the behavior of the hypothalamus–pituitary–adrenal axis in patients with uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria: Cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone levels Acta Tropica (2006) 98: 270–276.
 
[27]  Tim Shwe, Myo Khin, Hia Mim, Koko Hia, Yin Yin Win, Kyin Htwe, and Thein Myint Thu. Serum cortisol levels in patients with uncomplicated and cerebral malaria (1998) vol. 29 No 1: 1-4.
 
[28]  Parker, L.N., Levin, E.R., Lifrak, E.T. Evidence for adrenocortical adaptation to severe illness. J. Clin. Endrocrinol. Metab. (1985) 60, 947-952.
 
[29]  Inamo Y, Iakeuchi S, Okuni M. Host responses and neuroendocrinological changes in pyrexia in childhood. Acta pacdiat jpn (overseas ed) (1991) 33: 628-632.
 
[30]  Davis TM, Binh TQ, Thu le TA, Long TT, Johnston W, Robertson K, Barrett PH: Glucose and lactate turnover in adults with falciparum malaria: effect of complications and antimalarial therapy. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg, (2002) 96:411-417.
 
[31]  Davis TM, Looareesuwan S, Pukrittayakamee S, Levy JC, Nagachinta B, White NJ. Glucose turnover in severe falciparum malaria. Metabolism; (1993) 42:334-340.
 
[32]  Dekker E, Romijn JA, Ekberg K, Wahren J, Van Thien H, Ackermans MT, Glucose production and gluconeogenesis in adults with uncomplicated falciparum malaria. Am J Physiol; (1997) 272:E1059-1064.
 
[33]  Tayek JA, Katz J. Glucose production, recycling, Cori cycle, and gluconeogenesis in humans: relationship to serum cortisol. Am J Physiol; (1997) 272:E476-484.
 
[34]  Kittl EM, Diridl G, Lenhart V, Neuwald C, Tomasits J, Pichler H, Bauer k: HDL-cholesterol as a sensitive diagnostic criterion in malaria. Wien Klin Wochenschr, (1992) 104:21-24.
 
[35]  Beckwith. R, Schenkel R. H. and Silverman P. H. Qualitative analysis of phospholipids isolated from nonviable Plasmodium antigen, Experimental Parasitology, (1975) vol. 37, no. 2, pp. 164-172.
 
Show Less References

Article

The Pattern of Parasite Density, Plasma Total Bile Acids and Lactate Dehydrogenase in Plasmodium Infected Patients in Rural Community

1Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Achievers University, Owo, Ondo state –Nigeria


American Journal of Biomedical Research. 2014, 2(3), 47-51
DOI: 10.12691/ajbr-2-3-2
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Mathew Folaranmi OLANIYAN, Elizabeth Moyinoluwa BABATUNDE. The Pattern of Parasite Density, Plasma Total Bile Acids and Lactate Dehydrogenase in Plasmodium Infected Patients in Rural Community. American Journal of Biomedical Research. 2014; 2(3):47-51. doi: 10.12691/ajbr-2-3-2.

Correspondence to: Mathew  Folaranmi OLANIYAN, Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Achievers University, Owo, Ondo state –Nigeria. Email: olaniyanmat@yahoo.com

Abstract

Background to the study: Pathophysiology of Plasmodium (vivax, ovale, falciparum and malariae) infection involves liver. Liver dysfunction and destruction of tissues could be indicated by the plasma level of Total Bile Acid (TBA) and Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH). Aim and Objective: This work was designed to evaluate the pattern of parasite density, plasma total bile acids, and Lactate dehydrogenase in Plasmodium infected patients in rural community. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out in Kishi, the Headquarter of Irepo Local government area of Oyo state - Nigeria. Seven hundred and nine (709) subjects (Female: n=403: male: n=306) aged 5 to 68 years were tested for Plasmodium infection using Giemsa- thick film technique. The overall prevalence of Plasmodium infection among the seven hundred and nine subjects screened was found to be 29.1% (206) including 12.97% (92) HIV, HBsAg and anti-HCV seronagative patients and 16.1% (114) HIV, HBsAg or anti-HCV seropositive patients. Ninety two (92 (12.97%)) that were HIV, HBsAg and anti-HCV seronagative(female-58 (63.0%); male-34 (37%)) were recruited out of 206 (29.1%) that were found to be infected with plasmodium spp for the study. None of the subject was jaundiced as at the time of sample collection. Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and anti-HCV tests were carried out by Enzyme Linked Immunozorbent Assay (ELIZA). HIV screening and confirmation were carried out by immuno-chromatographic and Immunobloting (Western blot) assays respectively. Fasting Plasma Total Bile Acids (TBA) and Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH) were analyzed in the patients biochemically by spectrophotometry. Result: The result obtained showed an overall prevalence of Plasmodium infection as 29.1% (206) (female: 107 (52%); male: 99 (48%)) including 12.97% (92) (Female: 58 (63.0%) Male: 34 (37%)) that were HIV, HBsAg and anti-HCV seronagative and 16.1% (114) (Female: 61 (53.5%); Male: 53 (46.5%)) were co-infected with at least one of HIV, HBV or HCV. The plasmodium infected subjects were grouped into three based on the parasite density such as: patients with parasite density of 50-499; 500-999 and ≥1000. The mean value of the parasite density of each group was correlated with the plasma level of LDH and TBA. In all groups there was a strong positive correlation(R=1; R2 =1) between the plasma TBA, LDH and plasmodium parasite density. The pattern of parasite density obtained in the rural community studied include 45.7% had a mean parasite density of 282±12.0; 43.5% (853±31.0) and 10.9% (1130±61.0). There was also a statistical significant increase in the mean value of LDH and TBA with increase in parasite density with p<0.05. Conclusion: This work showed an overall prevalence of 29.1% (206) plasmodium infection including 16.1% (114) of the patients co-infected with at least one of HIV, HBV or HCV. The plasma level of LDH and TBA was also found to be positively correlated and directly proportional to the parasite density. Evaluation of these parameters is therefore recommended for effective control and management.

Keywords

References

[1]  Brian M. Greenwood, David A. Fidock, Dennis E. Kyle, Stefan H.I. Kappe, Pedro L. Alonso, Frank H. Collins, Patrick E. Duffy. Malaria: progress, perils, and prospects for eradication. J. Clin. Invest.; 118: 1266-1276. 2008. Full Text at http://www.jci.org/articles/view/33996/files/pdf
 
[2]  Azuma M, Shi M, Danenberg KD, Gardner H, Barrett C, Jacques CJ et al. "Serum lactate dehydrogenase levels and glycolysis significantly correlate with tumor VEGFA and VEGFR expression in metastatic CRC patients.". Pharmacogenomics: 8 (12): 1705-13. 2007.
 
[3]  Russell DW. "The enzymes, regulation, and genetics of bile acid synthesis". Annu. Rev. Biochem.; 72: 13774, 2003.
 
[4]  Shima T1, Tada H, Morimoto M, Nakagawa Y, Obata H, Sasaki T, Park H, Nakajo S, Nakashima T, Okanoue T, Kashima K.Serum total bile acid level as a sensitive indicator of hepatic histological improvement in chronic hepatitis C patients responding to interferon treatment. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. Mar; 15 (3): 294-9, 2000.
 
[5]  Chiang JY. "Bile acids: regulation of synthesis". J. Lipid Res.: 50 (10): 1955-66. 2009. PMC 2739756. PMID 19346330.
 
Show More References
[6]  Hofmann AF. "The continuing importance of bile acids in liver and intestinal disease". Arch. Intern. Med.: 159 (22): 2647-58, 1999.
 
[7]  Greenwood BM, Armstrong JRM. Comparison of two simple methods for determining malaria parasite density. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.; 85: 186-188, 1991.
 
[8]  Cheesbrough, Monica. District Laboratory practice in tropical Countries part1. 2002: Cambridge low-price edition. Cambridge University Press.
 
[9]  UF Ekpo, AM Omotayo, MA Dipeolu. Sendentarization and the prevalence of malaria and anaemia among settled Fulani pastoralists in south-western Nigeria. Nigerian Journal of Parasitology Vol. 29 (2): pp. 125-130, 2008.
 
[10]  Jain. C, N.C. Mogra, Jhaman Mehta, Rishi Diwan, Gaurav Dalela.Comparison Of Seropositivity Of Hiv, Hbv, Hcv And Syphilis And Malaria In Replacement And Voluntary Blood Donors In Western India. IJCRR.; 5 (3): 43-46, 2013.
 
[11]  Allauddin Niazi, Mohammad Tahir, Khalid Farooq Danish, Muhammad Abid, Shazia. Low Seroprevalence of HBV, HCV, HIV and Malaria in Voluntary Non Remunerated Blood Donors. Ann. Pak. Inst. Med. Sci.; 4 (3): 162-164, 2008.
 
[12]  Oduola. T, Bello. I and Avwioro. G. Hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity evaluation in Wistar albino rats exposed to Morinda lucida leaf extract. N Am J Med Sci. 2 (5): 230-233. 2010
 
[13]  Uzuegbu U.E. and Emeka C.B. Changes in Liver Function Biomarkers among Malaria Infected Patients in Ikeja Lagos State, Nigeria. Current Research Journal of Biological Sciences: 3 (3): 172-174, 2010. 2011 ISSN: 2041-0778.
 
[14]  Bhalla A, Suri V, Singh V. "Malarial hepatopathy". Journal of Postgraduate Medicine: 52 (4): 315-20. 2006 PMID 17102560.
 
Show Less References

Article

Effect of Sitagliptin and Glimepiride on Glucose Homeostasis and cAMP Levels in Peripheral Tissues of HFD/STZ Diabetic Rats

1Department of Biochemistry, Medical Research Institute, Alexandria University, Egypt

2Department of Pharmacology, Medical Research Institute, Alexandria University, Egypt


American Journal of Biomedical Research. 2014, 2(3), 52-60
DOI: 10.12691/ajbr-2-3-3
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Mohamed I Saad, Maher A Kamel, Mervat Y Hanafi, Madiha H Helmy, Rowaida R Shehata. Effect of Sitagliptin and Glimepiride on Glucose Homeostasis and cAMP Levels in Peripheral Tissues of HFD/STZ Diabetic Rats. American Journal of Biomedical Research. 2014; 2(3):52-60. doi: 10.12691/ajbr-2-3-3.

Correspondence to: Mohamed  I Saad, Department of Biochemistry, Medical Research Institute, Alexandria University, Egypt. Email: m.ibrahim1988@hotmail.com

Abstract

Introduction: T2DM is a group of metabolic disorders manifested by hyperglycemia as a result of insulin insufficiency and/or resistance. The main goal of antidiabetic therapies is to lower glucose levels, and therefore prevent development of diabetes complications. DPP-4 inhibitors (e.g. sitagliptin) are relatively new antidiabetic drugs which inhibit the activity of DPP-4 enzyme and therefore prevent rapid degradation of incretin hormones. Objective: We investigated effects of sitagliptin on glucose homeostasis, lipid profile, and insulin signaling by determination of cAMP levels in peripheral tissues of HFD/STZ diabetic rats, compared to glimepiride. Methods: The experimental rats were divided into five groups, each group comprising 10 rats. Group (1) served as the normal control rats and administered DMSO (without treatments) as the vehicle. The rest of the groups were rendered diabetic by feeding HFD containing 40% fats for 4 weeks, followed by a single I.P. injection of STZ (45 mg/kg of body weight). One week after STZ injection, the rats with FBG level of ≥ 200 mg/dl were considered diabetic. Group (2) served as the diabetic untreated rats and administered DMSO (without treatments) as the vehicle. Group (3) served as diabetic rats treated with glimepiride (0.1 mg/kg of body weight). Group (4) and group (5) served as diabetic rats treated with sitagliptin (10 and 30 mg/kg of body weight, respectively). Treatments were dissolved in DMSO and were given orally for 4 weeks. At the end of the treatment period, the blood, liver and adipose tissues (White and brown) were collected for biochemical analysis. Results: In normal control rats, the highest content of cAMP was observed in BAT. Diabetic rats showed an elevation in cAMP levels of liver and WAT to be 1.3 and 3.9 fold control values, respectively, while in BAT, cAMP level decreased to be 0.4 fold control value. Sitagliptin and glimepiride significantly decreased cAMP levels in liver and WAT. Conclusion: We conclude that sitagliptin and glimepiride have comparable effects on glucose homeostasis. Both drugs have cAMP-lowering effect which may suggest their potential protecting effect against vascular complications of diabetes.

Keywords

References

[1]  Lin Y., Sun Z. Current views on type 2 diabetes. J Endocrinol 2010, 204 (1): 1-11.
 
[2]  Brass B.J., Abelev Z., Liao E.P., Poretsky L. Endocrine Pancreas. In Principles of Diabetes Mellitus. 2nd edition. Edited by Poretsky L. New York: Springer; 2010: 37-55.
 
[3]  Wu X., Garvey W.T. Insulin Action. In Textbook of Diabetes. 4th edition. Edited by Holt R.I.G., Cockram C.S., Flyvbjerg A., Goldstein R.J. Singapore: Wiley Blackwell; 2010: 104-125.
 
[4]  Ciaraldi T.P. Cellular Mechanisms of Insulin Action. In Principles of Diabetes Mellitus. 2nd edition. Edited by Poretsky L. New York: Springer; 2010: 75-87.
 
[5]  Gesta S., Tseng Y.H., Kahn C.R. Developmental origin of fat: tracking obesity to its source. Cell 2007, 131: 242-256.
 
Show More References
[6]  Sell H., Deshaies Y., Richard D. The brown adipocyte: update on its metabolic role. Int J Biochem Cell Biol 2004, 36 (11): 2098-2104.
 
[7]  Drucker D.J., Nauck M.A. The incretin system: glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors in type 2 diabetes. Lancet 2006, 368 (9548): 1696-1705.
 
[8]  Drucker D.J. The biology of incretin hormones. Cell Metab 2006, 3: 153-165.
 
[9]  Srinivasan K., Viswanad B., Asrat L., Kaul C.L., Ramarao P. Combination of high-fat diet-fed and low-dose streptozotocin-treated rat: a model for type 2 diabetes and pharmacological screening. Pharmacol Res 2005, 52: 313-320.
 
[10]  Lowry O.H., Rosebrough N.J., Farr A.L., Randall R.J. Protein measurements with Folin-phenol reagent. J Biol Chem 1951, 193: 265-270.
 
[11]  White M.F. Insulin signaling in health and disease. Science 2003, 302 (5651): 1710-1711.
 
[12]  Kahn S.E., Cooper M.E., Del Prato S. Pathophysiology and treatment of type 2 diabetes: perspectives on the past, present, and future. Lancet 2014, 383 (9922): 1068-1083.
 
[13]  Pirola L., Johnston A.M., Van Obberghen E. Modulation of insulin action. Diabetologia 2004, 47: 170-184.
 
[14]  Reaven G.M. Insulin resistance, the insulin resistance syndrome, and cardiovascular disease. Panminerva Med 2005, 47: 201-210.
 
[15]  Bryan J., Crane A., Vila-Carriles W.H., Babenko AP.., Aguilar-Bryan L. Insulin secretagogues, sulfonylurea receptors and K (ATP) channels. Curr Pharm Des 2005, 11: 2699-2716.
 
[16]  Jackson J.E., Bressler R. Clinical pharmacology of sulphonylurea hypoglycaemic agents: part 2. Drugs 1981, 22: 295-320.
 
[17]  Jackson J.E., Bressler R. Clinical pharmacology of sulphonylurea hypoglycaemic agents: part 1. Drugs 1981, 22: 211-245.
 
[18]  Nathan D.M., Buse J.B., Davidson M.B., Ferrannini E., Holman R.R., Sherwin R., Zinman B.; American Diabetes Association; European Association for Study of Diabetes. Medical management of hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes: a consensus algorithm for the initiation and adjustment of therapy: a consensus statement of the American Diabetes Association and the European Association for the Study of Diabetes. Diabetes Care 2009, 32: 193-203.
 
[19]  Chahil T.J., Ginsberg H.N. Diabetic dyslipidemia. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am 2006, 35: 491-510.
 
[20]  Mooradian A.D. Dyslipidemia in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Nat Clin Pract Endocrinol Metab 2009, 5 (3): 150-159.
 
[21]  Addison D., Aguilar D. Diabetes and cardiovascular disease: the potential benefit of incretin-based therapies. Curr Atheroscler Rep 2011, 13 (2): 115-122.
 
[22]  Lu Y.L., Zhou D.Q., Zhai H.L., Wu H., Guo Z.K. Decreased hepatic glucose production in obese rats by dipeptidyl peptidase-IV inhibitor sitagliptin. Chin Med J 2012, 125 (10): 1690-1694.
 
[23]  Müller G., Wied S., Wetekam E.M., Crecelius A., Unkelbach A., Pünter J. Stimulation of glucose utilization in 3T3 adipocytes and rat diaphragm in vitro by the sulphonylureas, glimepiride and glibenclamide, is correlated with modulations of the cAMP regulatory cascade. Biochem Pharmacol 1994, 30 (48): 985-996.
 
[24]  Magnusson I., Rothman D., Gerard D., Katz L., Shulman G. Contribution of hepatic glycogenolysis to glucose production in humans in response to a physiological increase in plasma glucagon concentration. Diabetes 1995, 44: 185-189.
 
[25]  Ballard K., Malmfors T., Rosell S. Adrenergic innervation and vascular patterns in canine adipose tissue. Microvasc Res 1974, 8: 164-171.
 
[26]  Boden G. Fatty acid-induced inflammation and insulin resistance in skeletal muscle and liver. Curr Diab Rep 2006, 6: 177-181.
 
[27]  Hausberg M., Morgan D.A., Mitchell J.L., Sivitz W.I., Mark A.L., Haynes W.G. Leptin potentiates thermogenic sympathetic responses to hypothermia: a receptor-mediated effect. Diabetes 2002, 51: 2434-2440.
 
[28]  Lafontan M., Berlan M. Fat cell adrenergic receptors and the control of white and brown fat cell function. J Lipid Res 1993, 34: 1057-1091.
 
[29]  Sell H., Deshaies Y., Richard D. The brown adipocyte: update on its metabolic role. Int J Biochem Cell Biol 2004, 36: 2098-104.
 
[30]  Orava J., Nuutila P., Lidell M.E., Oikonen V., Noponen T., Viljanen T., Scheinin M., Taittonen M., Niemi T., Enerback S., Virtanen K.A. Different metabolic responses of human brown adipose tissue to activation by cold and insulin. Cell metabolism 2011, 14 (2): 272-279.
 
Show Less References

Article

Hepatotoxicity of Methanol Seed Extract of Aframomum melegueta [Roscoe] K. Schum. (Grains of paradise) in Sprague-Dawley Rats

1Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Calabar, P.M.B. 1115 Calabar, Nigeria

2Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Calabar, P.M.B. 1115 Calabar, Nigeria

3Department of Veterinary Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Abuja, Nigeria

4Department of Veterinary Parasitology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Abuja, Nigeria


American Journal of Biomedical Research. 2014, 2(4), 61-66
DOI: 10.12691/ajbr-2-4-1
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Nwaehujor Chinaka O., Eban Linus K., Ode Julius O., Ejiofor Charles E., Igile Godwin O.. Hepatotoxicity of Methanol Seed Extract of Aframomum melegueta [Roscoe] K. Schum. (Grains of paradise) in Sprague-Dawley Rats. American Journal of Biomedical Research. 2014; 2(4):61-66. doi: 10.12691/ajbr-2-4-1.

Correspondence to: Nwaehujor  Chinaka O., Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Calabar, P.M.B. 1115 Calabar, Nigeria. Email: chinaka_n@yahoo.com

Abstract

The hepatotoxic effects of the seeds of Aframomum melegueta (Grains of paradise), a spice were studied in Sprague-Dawley rats. Individual rat groups received sub-chronic exposure of the methanol seed extract at 300 mg/kg for 7, 14 and 21 days respectively. Liver toxicity was evaluated with assay of circulating serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransaminase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), albumin, total bilirubin concentrations and histopathology of the liver of treated experimental rats. Serum levels of AST significantly (p<0.05) increased progressively in extract-treated rats compared to the control from day 7 till the termination of the study (day 21). However, serum ALT, ALP and total bilirubin levels of test rats were only significantly (p<0.05) elevated relative to the normal on days 14 and 21 of the investigation. The dose (300 mg/kg) of extract produced AST value of 55.8±3 µL-1 while the control was 32.2±1.9 µL-1; and ALT value became 16.8±1.1 µL-1 when control was 8.6±1.1 µL-1 on day 21; Total bilirubin was 1.4±0.1 mgdL-1 relative to control value of 0.5±0.2 mgdL-1. The serum albumin levels of extract-treated rats were however, comparable with that of the normal rats throughout the study period. Histopathology of the rat livers revealed mild focal necrosis of hepatocytes at day 7, moderate multifocal areas of hepatic necrosis at day 14 and severe, diffused necrosis of hepatocytes at day 21 of treatment with the extract. The results demonstrated that the methanol seed extract of A. melegueta was potent in inducing liver toxicity at the tested dose (300 mg/kg). Maximal caution should therefore be imbibed in prolonged excessive use of the plant seeds as spice in delicacies.

Keywords

References

[1]  Akendengue B and Louis AM (1994). Medicinal plants used by the Masango people in Gabon. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 41 (3): 193-2000.
 
[2]  Amal Abdulaziz B (2010) Prevalence of crude drugs used in Arab folk medicine available in Makkah Al-Mukarramah area. International Journal of Medicine and medical Science 2 (9): 256-262.
 
[3]  Cohen SZ (1986) Monitoring ground water for pesticides– Office of pesticide programme (TS-769C) - Environmental Protection Agency by American Chemical Society, Washington DC.
 
[4]  Council Directive 1986 86/609/EEC on the approximation of laws, regulations and administrative provisions of the member states regarding the protection of animals used for experimental and other scientific purposes (86/609/EEC), European Commission, Brussels (1986).
 
[5]  Beichner PE (1961) The grain of paradise. Speculum 32 (2): 302-307.
 
Show More References
[6]  Dalziel JM (1937) The useful plants of West Tropical Africa. The Crown Agents for the Colonies, London. pp. 52-560.
 
[7]  Daniel FA (2004) Florida Ethnobotany. CRC press, USA. p. 170.
 
[8]  Directive 2010/63/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 22 September, 2010 on the protection of animals used for scientific purposes, European Commission, Brussels (2010).
 
[9]  Dybas CL and Ilya R (2007) Out of Africa: A tale of gorillas, heart disease and a swamp plant. Bioscience 57: 392-397.
 
[10]  Echo IA, Osuagwu AN, Agbor RB, Okpako EC and Ekanem BE (2012) Phytochemical composition of Aframomum melegueta and Piper guineense seeds. World Journal of Applied Environmental Chemistry 2 (1): 17-21.
 
[11]  Hafez ESE (1970) Reproductive and breeding techniques for laboratory animals. Lea Fabiger, Philadelphia. pp. 10-31.
 
[12]  Harten AM (1970) Melegueta pepper. Economic Botany 24 (2): 208-216.
 
[13]  Ilic N, Schmidt BM, Poulev A and Raskin I (2010) Toxicological evaluation of grains of paradise (Aframomum melegueta [Roscoe] K. Schum). J. Ethnopharmacol. 127 (2): 352-6.
 
[14]  Jan Shin WU (2003) Transaminase GOT (AST) and GPT (ALT). International Journal of Pharmacology 1: 1-9.
 
[15]  Kinsley SR and Frankel SJ (1939) The determination of serum total protein and albumin- globulin ratio. J. Biol. Chem. 128: 131-7.
 
[16]  King EJ and King PR (1954). Estimation of phosphatase by determination of hydrolyzed phenol with antipyrin. J. Clin. Pathol. 7: 322-331.
 
[17]  Krishna KL, Mruthunjaya K and Patel JA (2009). Antioxidant and hepatoprotective activity of leaf extract of Justicia gendarussa Burm. Int. J. Biol. Chem. 3: 99-110.
 
[18]  Lewis JH and Schiff E (1988). Methotrexate-induced chronic liver injury: guidelines for detection and prevention. Am. J. Gastroenterol. 83: 1337.
 
[19]  Lorke D (1983). A new approach to practical acute toxicity testing, Archi. Toxicol. 54: 275-287.
 
[20]  Malloy HT and Evelyn KA (1937) The determination of bilirubin with the photometric colorimeter. J. Biol. Chem. 119: 481-490.
 
[21]  Meyer LJ (1962) Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics (3rd ed.). Iowa State University press, USA. p. 6.
 
[22]  Odugbemi T (2008) A textbook of Medicinal plants in Nigeria. Tolu press Lagos. p. 23-97.
 
[23]  Reitman S, Frankel S (1957) A colorimetric method for determination of serum glutamate oxaloacetate and glutamic pyruvate transaminase. Am. J. Clin. Pathol. 28: 56-58.
 
[24]  Robens JF and Richard JL (1992) Aflatoxins in animals and human health. Rev. Environ. Contam. Toxicl. 127: 69-94.
 
[25]  Simons DC (1956) Efik divination, ordeals, and omens. Southwestern Journal of Anthropology 12 (2): 223-228.
 
[26]  Sugita J, Yoneshiro T, Hatano T, Aita S, Ikemoto T, Uchiwa H, Iwanaga T, Kameya T, Kawai Y. and Saito, M. (2013). Grains of paradise (Aframomum melegueta) extract activates brown adipose tissue and increases whole-body energy expenditure in men. British Journal of Nutrition 110 (4): 733-738.
 
[27]  Tietz N (1996) Liver function tests, nitrogen metabolites and renal function In: Fundamentals of Clinical Chemistry 3rd ed. W. B. Saunders, Philadelphia. pp. 476-576.
 
[28]  Thibodeau GA and Patton KT (1999) Anatomy & Physiology (4th ed.). Mosby Missouri, USA. pp. 753-756.
 
[29]  Tolman KG and Rej R (1999) Liver function. In: Tietz Textbook of Clinical Chemistry (3rd ed.). Burtis, C.A. and Ashwood, E.R. (Eds.) W.B. Saunders, Philadelphia, PA., USA. pp. 1125-1177.
 
[30]  Umukoro S and Ashorobi RB (2001) Effect of Aframomum melegueta seeds on thermal pain and on carrageenin-induced edema. Nigerian Quaterly Journal of Hospital Medicine 11: 220-225.
 
[31]  Ukeh DA, Umoetok SB, Bowman AS, Mordue AJ, Pickett JA and Birkett MA (2011) Alligator pepper, Aframomum melegueta and Ginger, Zingiber officinale, reduce stored maize infestation by the maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais in traditional African granaries. Crop protection 32: 99-103.
 
[32]  Voeks R (2013) Ethnobotany of Brazil’s African Diaspora: The role of Floristic homogenization. African Ethnobotany in the Americas 395-416.
 
[33]  Wells FE (1988) Tests in Liver and Biliary Tract Disease. In: Varleys Practical Clinical Biochemistry. Gowenlock, H.A. (Ed.). CRC Press, Florida. pp. 561-593.
 
[34]  Yeung PK, Hubbard JW, Korchinski ED and Midha KK (1993) Pharmacokinetics of chlorpromazine and key metabolites. European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 45 (6): 563-9.
 
Show Less References

Article

Impedance of Results Using Lithium Heparin to Plain Tubes for Ionized Calcium

1Department of Biochemistry, HOD lab in-charge, Apollo Reach Hospital, Karimnagar, Andhra Pradesh, India

2Department of Biochemistry, Chalmeda Anadrao Institute of Medical Sciences, Karimnagar, India

3Department of Biochemistry, Prathima Institute of Medical Sciences, Karimnagar, India

4Department of Microbiology, Prathima Institute of Medical Sciences, Karimnagar, India


American Journal of Biomedical Research. 2014, 2(4), 67-69
DOI: 10.12691/ajbr-2-4-2
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
T Sudhakar, Sabitha Kandi, B venugopal, K. Bhagwan Reddy, Md. Rafi, Raj kumar, K. V. Ramana. Impedance of Results Using Lithium Heparin to Plain Tubes for Ionized Calcium. American Journal of Biomedical Research. 2014; 2(4):67-69. doi: 10.12691/ajbr-2-4-2.

Correspondence to: K.  V. Ramana, Department of Microbiology, Prathima Institute of Medical Sciences, Karimnagar, India. Email: ramana_20021@rediffmail.com

Abstract

The study was conducted to evaluate the differences in results obtained for assays of ionized calcium (iCa+2) by plain and heparinised blood sample and observe for any errors in values done by ion selective electrode (ISE) method and to determine which of the collection methods could be ideal and reliable. 49 samples of heparinised and 31 plain blood samples were analyzed at lab services, Apollo Reach hospital, Karimnagar, Telangana state for iCa+2 by ISE method using radiometer analyzer and the differences in data were documented statistically by calculating the mean and SD. The results of the study showed statistically significant difference in values of iCa+2 when blood was collected in plain tube (4.7±0.2) and with heparinised collection (4.4±0.3). It appears in the study that plain tube collection for the assay is ideal.

Keywords

References

[1]  Giddenne S, Vigezzi JF, Delacour H, Damiano J, Clerc Y. Direct determination or estimated value of plasma ionized calcium : indications and limits. Ann Biol Clin (paris) 2003. Jul – Aug ; 61(4): 393-9.
 
[2]  Forman DT, Lorenzo L. Ionised calcium; its significance and clinical usefulness. Ann Clin Lab Sci. 1991. sep – oct; 21(5): 297-304.
 
[3]  Robertson WG. Measurement of ionized calcium in body fluids – a review. Ann Clin Biochem. 1976; Nov; 13(6); 540-8.
 
[4]  Ladenson JH, Bowers GN Jr. Free calcium in serum II. Rigor of homeostatic control, correlations with total serum calcium and review of data on patients with disturbed calcium metabolism. Clin chem. 1973; 19: 575-82.
 
[5]  Wandrup J. Critical analytical and clinical aspects of ionized calcium in neonates. Clin Chem. 1989; 35: 2027-33.
 
Show More References
[6]  Robertson WC, Marshall RW. Ionised calcium in body fluids. Crit Rev clin Lab Sci. 1981; 15: 85-125.
 
[7]  Dimeski G, Tony Badrick, Andrew St. John. Ion selective electrodes (ISE’s) and interferences – A review. CLin Chim Acta. 2009.
 
[8]  Thode J, HOlmegaard N,SN, I. Transbol, Fogh-Andersen N, Siggard – Andersen O. Adjusted ionized calcium (at pH 7.4) and actual ionized calcium (at actual pH) in capillary blood compared for clinical evaluation of patients with disorders of calcium metabolism. Clin chem.. 1990; 36: 541-4.
 
[9]  Michael LAndt, Glen L. Hortin, Carl H>Smith, Adrain Mc Clellan, Mitchell G. Scott. Interference in ionized calcium measurements by heparin salts. Clin Chem. 1994; 40/4. 564-570.
 
[10]  Fogh-Anderson N, Christiansen TF, Komarmy L, Siggard-Andersen O. Measurement of free calcium ion in capillary blood and serum. Clin Chem. 1978; 24: 1545-52.
 
[11]  Biswas CK, Ramos JM, Kerr DNS. Heparin effect on ionized calcium concentration. Clin Chim Acta. 1981; 116: 343-7.
 
[12]  Lyon ME, Henderson P, Guajardo M, Kenny M.Evaluation of dry lithium heparin and zinc heparin anticoagulants for whole blood ionized calcium measurements[Abstract]. Clin Chem. 1993; 39: 1175-6.
 
[13]  Nieduszynski I. General physical properties of heparin. In:Lane A, Lindahl U, eds. Heparin, chemical and biological properties, clinical applications. Boca Raton, FL:CRC press, 1989; 51-64.
 
[14]  Heinng MPD, Joday WS. Heparinization of samples for plasma ionized calcium measuremes. It cae Med, 1998; 16: 67-8.
 
[15]  Urban P, Buchmann, Schidegger D. Facilitated determination of ionized calcium.Cln Che. 1985: 264-6.
 
[16]  Toffaletti J, Ernst P, Hunt P, Abrams B. Dry electrolyte balanced heparinised syringes evaluated for determining ionized calcium and ther eectrlytes in hole blood. Clin Chem. 1991; 37: 1730-3.
 
Show Less References

Article

Folic Acid Alleviates Oxidative Stress and Hyperhomocysteinemia Involved in Liver Dysfunction of Hypothyroid Rats

1Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, Tanta University, Egypt

2Department of medical Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Tanta University, Egypt

3Biochemistry Section, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Tanta University, Egypt


American Journal of Biomedical Research. 2014, 2(4), 70-76
DOI: 10.12691/ajbr-2-4-3
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Ehab Tousson, Wafaa Ibrahim, Afrah F. Salama, Wesam M. Hussein. Folic Acid Alleviates Oxidative Stress and Hyperhomocysteinemia Involved in Liver Dysfunction of Hypothyroid Rats. American Journal of Biomedical Research. 2014; 2(4):70-76. doi: 10.12691/ajbr-2-4-3.

Correspondence to: Ehab  Tousson, Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, Tanta University, Egypt. Email: toussonehab@yahoo.com

Abstract

Thyroid hormones are essential for growth and development of the liver. This study evaluated some biochemical alterations in post-pubertal hypothyroidism and its impact on liver functions. Additionally, the ameliorating role of folic acid supplementation was investigated. Fifty male albino rats were randomly divided into five groups (group I, control; group II, folic acid; group III, 0.05% propylthiouracil-induced hypothyroid rats; group IV, Co-treatment; group V post-treatment). There was a significant decrease in plasma T3, body weight, fluid and food intakes, folic acid, ALT, total thiol and tFRAP in hypothyroid rats as compared to control group. On the other hand, a significant increase in TSH, relative liver weight, plasma of total homocysteine, serum total protein, AST, total serum bilirubin, cholesterol and tMDA in hypothyroid rats as compared to control group. This reflects hyperhomocysteinemia and oxidative stress associated with hypothyroid state. Folic acid supplemented after restoration of the euthyroid state presented better amelioration over its concurrent supplementation. If confirmed in human beings, our results could propose that folic acid can be used as an adjuvant therapy in hypothyroidism disorders with thyroxin replacement therapy.

Keywords

References

[1]  Strait KA, Kinlaw WB, Mariash, CN, Oppenheimer JH. Kinetics of induction by thyroid hormone of the two hepatic mRNAs coding for cytosolic malic enzyme in the hypothyroid and euthyroid states. Evidence against an obligatory role of S14 protein in malic enzyme gene expression. J Biol Chem 1989; 264; 19784-9.
 
[2]  Morrison WL, Gibson JN, Jung RT. Skeletal muscle and whole body protein turnover in thyroid disease. Eur. J. Clin, 1988; 18; 62-8.
 
[3]  Rochon C, Tauveron I, Dejax C. Response of glucose disposal to hyperinsulinaemia in human hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism. Clin Sci 2003; 104; 7-15.
 
[4]  Ibrahim W, Tousson E, Ali EM, Mansour MA. Folic acid alleviates oxidative stress and hyperhomocysteinemia involved in testicular dysfunction of hypothyroid rats. General and Comparative Endocrinology 2011; 174; 143-9.
 
[5]  Ibrahim W, Tousson E, El-Masery T, Arafa N, Akela M. The effect of folic acid as an antioxidant on the hypothalamic monoamines in experimentally induced hypothyroid rat. Toxicology and Industrial Health 2012; 28; 253-61.
 
Show More References
[6]  Tousson E, Ali EM, Ibrahim W, Mansour MA. Treatment with folic acid ameliorated the histopathological alterations caused by propylthiouracil-induced hypothyroid rat testes. Toxicology and Industrial Health 2012b; 28; 566-76.
 
[7]  Tousson E, Ibrahim W, Arafa N and Akela MA. Monoamine concentrations changes in the PTU induced hypothyroid rat brain and the ameliorating role of folic acid. Human & Experimental Toxicology 2012a; 31; 282-9.
 
[8]  Salama AF, Tousson E, Ibrahim W and Hussein MW. Biochemical and histopathological studies in the PTU-induced hypothyroid rat kidney with reference to the ameliorating role of folic acid. Toxicology and Industrial Health 2013; 29 (7); 600-8.
 
[9]  Nair CP, Viswanathan G, Noronha JM. Folate mediated incorporation of ring-2-carbon of histidine into nucleic acids: influence of thyroid hormone. Metabolism 1994; 43; 1575-8.
 
[10]  Tousson E, Ali EM, Ibrahim W and Ashraf RM (2012): Histopathological and immunohistochemical alterations in rat heart after thyroidectomy and the role of hemin and ketoconazole in treatment. Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy. 66 (2012) 627-632.
 
[11]  Tousson E, Ali EM, Ibrahim W, Mansour MA. Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen as a Molecular Biomarker for Spermatogenesis in PTU-Induced Hypothyroidism of Rats. Reprod Sci 2011; 18; 679-86.
 
[12]  Tousson E, Hafez E, Massoud A, Sweef O, Atta N. Protective role of folic acid in thyroxine-induced cardiac hypertrophy in hyperthyroid rat. Biomedicine & Aging Pathology 2013; 3; 89-95.
 
[13]  Tousson E and Hafez E. Thyroxine-induced cardiac hypertrophy: Role of ascorbic acid in treatment. Biomedicine & Aging Pathology 2014; 4.
 
[14]  Tan KC, Shiu SW, Kung AW. Effect of thyroid dysfunction on high-density lipoprotein sub fraction metabolism: roles of hepatic lipase and cholesteryl ester transfer protein. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1998; 83; 2921-4.
 
[15]  Liverini G, Iossa S, Barletta A. Relationship between resting metabolism and hepatic metabolism: effect of hypothyroidism and 24 hours fasting. Hor Res 1992; 38; 154-8.
 
[16]  Comte B, Vidal H, Laville M, et al. Influence of thyroid hormones on gluconeogenesis from glycerol in rat hepatocytes: a dose-response study. Metabolism 1990; 39; 259-63.
 
[17]  Marchesini G, Fabbri A, Bianchi GP, et al. Hepatic conversion of amino nitrogen to urea nitrogen in hypothyroid patients and upon L-thyroxine therapy. Metabolism 1993; 42; 1263-6.
 
[18]  Balasubramaniam S, Mitropoulous KA, Myant NB. Hormonal Control of the Activities of Cholesterol-7hydroxylase and Hydroxy Methylglutaryl-Coa Reductase in Rats. In: Advances in bile acid research. Matern, S, Hachenschmidt, J, Back, P, et al, (eds). Stuttgart: Schattauer Verlag. P 61; 1975.
 
[19]  Lin-Lee YC, Strobl W, Soyal S, et al. Role of thyroid hormone in the expression of apo lipoprotein A-IV and C-III Genes in rat liver. J Lipid Res 1993; 34; 249-55.
 
[20]  Gebhart RL, Stone BG, Andreini JP, et al. Thyroid hormone differentially augments biliary sterol secretion in the rat. J Lipid Res 1992; 33; 1459-64.
 
[21]  Inkinen J, Sand J, Nordback I. Association between common bile duct stones and treated hypothyroidism. Hepatogastroenterology 2000; 47; 919-21.
 
[22]  Au-Yeung KW, Yip JCW, Siow YL, Karmin O. Folic acid inhibits homocysteine-induced superoxide anion production and nuclear factor kappa B activation in macrophages. Can J Physiol Pharmacol 2006; 84; 141-7.
 
[23]  Chopra IJ, Solomon DH, Ho RS. A radioimmunoassay of triiodothyronine. J Clin Endocrinol 1971; 33; 865-8.
 
[24]  Engall E. Methods in Enzymology. In: Methods in Enzymology. Van Vunakis H. and Langone J.J. (eds.), Vol. 70, Academic press, New York. pp 419-92; 1980.
 
[25]  Rietman S, Frankel S. A colorimetric method for determination of serum glutamic oxaloacetic and glutamic pyruvic transaminase. Amer J Clin Pathol 1957; 28; 56-61.
 
[26]  Jendrassik L, Gróf P. Vereinfachte photometrische Methoden zur Bestimmung des Blutbilirubins. Biochem Zeitschrift 1938; 297; 82-9.
 
[27]  Bowers L, Wong E. Kinetic serum creatinine assays. A critical evaluation and review. Clin Chem 1980; 26; 555-61.
 
[28]  Allain C, Poon L, Chan G, Richmond W, Fu C. Enzymatic determination of total serum cholesterol. Clin Chem 1974; 20 (4); 470-5.
 
[29]  Amidzic R, Brboric J, Cudina O, Vladimirov S. RP-HPLC Determination of vitamins B1, B3, B6, folic acid and B12 in multivitamin tablets. J Serb Chem Soc 2005; 70 (10); 1229-35.
 
[30]  Jayatilleke E, Shaw S. A high performance liquid chromatographic assay for reduced and oxidized glutathione in biological samples. Ana Biochem 1993; 214; 452-7.
 
[31]  Placer ZA, Cushmann LL, Johnson BC. Estimation of products of lipid peroxidation in biochemical systems. Anal Biochem 1966; 16; 359-64.
 
[32]  Benzie IF, Strain JJ. The ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) as a measure of antioxidant power: the FRAP assay. Anal Biochem 1996; 239; 70-6.
 
[33]  Gilbert ME, Paczkowski C. Propylthiouracil (PTU) induced hypothyroidism in the developing rat impairs synaptic transmission and plasticity in the dentate gyrus of the adult hippocampus. Dev Brain Res 2003; 145; 19-29.
 
[34]  Brosnan JT, Jacobs RL, Stead LM, Brosnan ME. Methylation demand: a key determinant of homocysteine metabolism. Acta Biochim 2004; 51; 405-13.
 
[35]  Diekman MJ, Harms MP, Endert E. Endocrine factors related to changes in total peripheral vascular resistance after treatment of thyrotoxic and hypothyroid patients. Eur J Endocrinol 2001; 144; 339-42.
 
[36]  Adrees M, Gibney J, El-Saeity N, Boran G. Effects of 18 months of L-T4 replacement in women with subclinical hypothyroidism. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 2001; 71 (2); 298-303.
 
[37]  Turhan S, Sezer S, Erden G, Guctekin A, Ucar F, Ginis Z, Ozturk O, Bingol S. Plasma homocysteine concentrations and serum lipid profile as atherosclerotic risk factors in subclinical hypothyroidism. Annu Saudi Med 2008; 28 (2); 96-101.
 
[38]  Parameswaran F, Nair CP, Viswanathan G, Noronha, JM. Folate mediated incorporation of ring-2-carbon of histidine into nucleicacids: influence of thyroid hormone. Metabolism 1994; 43; 1575-8.
 
[39]  39 Simon-Giavarotti KA, Giavarotti L, Gomes, LF, Lima AF, Veridiano AM, Garcia EA. Enhancement of lindane induced liver oxidative stress and hepatotoxicity by thyroid hormone is reduced by gadolinium chloride. Free Radic Res 2002; 36; 1033-9.
 
[40]  Malik R, Hodgson H. The relationship between the thyroid gland and the liver. Q J Med 2002; 95; 559-69.
 
[41]  Dory L, Roheim P. Rat plasma lipoproteins and apolipoproteins in experimental hypothyroidism. J Lipid Res 1981; 22 (2); 287-96.
 
[42]  Varghese, S, Shameena, B, Oommen, OV. Thyroid hormones regulate lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzyme activities in Anabas testudinens (Bloch). Comp Biochem Physiol 2001; 128; 165-71.
 
[43]  Al-Tonsi AA, Abdel-Gayoum AA, Saad M. The secondary dyslipidemia and deranged serum phosphate concentration in thyroid disorders. Exp Mol Pathol 2004; 76; 182-7.
 
[44]  Sheridan MA, His Kao Y. Regulation of metamorphosis associated changes in the lipid metabolism of selected vertebrates. Amer Zoolo 1998; 38; 350-68.
 
[45]  Morris M, Bostom A, Jacques P, Selhub J, Rosenberg I. Hyperhomocysteinemia and hypercholesterolemia associated with hypothyroidism in the third US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Atherosclerosis 2001; 155; 195-200.
 
[46]  Karmin O, Lynn EG, Chung YH, Siow YL, Man RY, Choy PC. Homocysteine stimulates the production and secretion of cholesterol in hepatic cells. Biochim Biophys Acta 1998; 1393; 317-24.
 
[47]  Layden TJ, Boyer JL. The effect of thyroid hormone on bile salt-independent bile flow and Na+, K+-ATPase activity in liver plasma membranes enriched in bile canaliculi. J Clin Invest 1976; 57; 1009-18.
 
[48]  Arora S, Chawla R, Tayal D, Gupta V, Sohi J, Mallika V. Biochemical markers of liver and kidney function are influenced by thyroid function a case-controlled follow up study in indian hypothyroid subjects. Indian J Clinic Biochem 2009; 24 (4); 370-4.
 
[49]  Messarah M, Boulakoud MS, Boumendjel A, El Feki A. The impact of thyroid activity variations on some oxidizing-stress parameters in rats. C R Biol 2007; 330; 107-12.
 
[50]  Yilmaz S, Ozan S, Benzer F, Canatan H. Oxidative damage an antioxidant enzyme activities in experimental hypothyroidism. Cell Biochem Funct 2003; 21; 325-30.
 
Show Less References

Article

Possible Effect of Corn Silk Extracts on Selected Liver Markers and Plasma Glucose in Rabbit

1Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Achievers University, Owo – Nigeria


American Journal of Biomedical Research. 2014, 2(4), 77-82
DOI: 10.12691/ajbr-2-4-4
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Mathew Folaranmi OLANIYAN, Victoria. O. FADARE. Possible Effect of Corn Silk Extracts on Selected Liver Markers and Plasma Glucose in Rabbit. American Journal of Biomedical Research. 2014; 2(4):77-82. doi: 10.12691/ajbr-2-4-4.

Correspondence to: Mathew  Folaranmi OLANIYAN, Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Achievers University, Owo – Nigeria. Email: olaniyanmat@yahoo.com

Abstract

Corn silk contains phytochemicals of medical benefits such as proteins, vitamins, carbohydrates, Ca, K, Mg and Na salts, fixed and volatile oils, steroids such as sitosterol and stigmasterol, alkaloids, saponins, tannins, and flavonoids. Extract of corn silk is being applied traditionally in the treatment of some medical conditions. This study therefore, aimed at the evaluation of the effect of corn silk extract on liver markers and plasma glucose. Fifteen rabbits of either sex divided into three experimental groups of 5 rabbits each were studied. The extract of the corn silk was obtained using in methanol and water. The control group (A) with average weight of 758 g were not ingested with the extract throughout the period of study. Group B with average weight of 1040 g were ingested with the water extract for 3 weeks while group C with average weight of 984 g were ingested with the methanolic extract for 3 weeks. Plasma LDH, GGT and Glucose were estimated in the rabbits biochemically by spectrophotometry. The rabbits were well kept and placed on normal diet throughout the period of study. There was a significantly lower mean value of plasma glucose in the rabbits ingested with methanol corn silk extract compared with the control subjects after one week of administration(p<0.05). There was also a significantly lower plasma glucose and a significantly higher LDH level in the rabbits administered with the methanolic extract than the given aqueous extract of corn silk (p<0.05).The results obtained also showed a significantly lower plasma GGT in the rabbits administered with the aqueous and methanolic extract of corn silk than the results obtained in the rabbits studied as control(p<0.05) after 3 weeks of administration. The result obtained showed a significantly lower mean value of glucose in the rabbit administered with the methanolic extract compared with those that were given aqueous extract for 4 weeks with p<0.05. The administration of methanolic and aqueous extract of corn silk has an hypoglycaemic and hepatoprotective effects on the rabbits. The methanolic extract was also found to increase plasma LDH. These parameters should therefore be estimated in the patients undergoing treatment with corn silk extract for effective clinical management. The results obtained also show a significant increase in weights of rabbits administered with the aqueous and methanolic extract of corn silk than the results obtained in the rabbits studied as control ‘p<0.005’.

Keywords

References

[1]  Newal CA, Anderson LA, Phillipson JD: Herbal Medicine: a Guide for Health-care Professionals. Edited by Newal CA. London, Pharmaceutical Press; 1996: 90.
 
[2]  Fleming T: PDR® for Herbal Medicines™. Second edition. Edited by Fleming T. New Jersey, Medical Economics Company; 2000: 224-225.
 
[3]  Zeringue HJ: Identification and effects of maize silk volatiles on cultures of Aspergillus flavus.J Agric Food Chem 2000, 48:921-925. PubMed Abstract | Publisher Full Text OpenURL
 
[4]  Jianyou Guo, Tongjun Liu, Linna Han and Yongmei Liu The effects of corn silk on glycaemic metabolism Nutrition & Metabolism 2009, 6: 47. online at: http://www.nutritionandmetabolism.com/content/6/1/47
 
[5]  Velazquez, D.V.O., Xavier, H.S., Batista, J.E.M., de Castro-Chavas, C. Zea mays L. extracts modify glomerular function and potassium urinary excretion in conscious rats. Phytomedicine 2005; 12: 363-369.
 
Show More References
[6]  Ajali, U., inya-agha, S.I., Odoh, U.E. Phytochemical and anti- diabetic studies of corn silk. Plant product Reasearch, volume. 2007; 11: 16-18.
 
[7]  Patricia, E., MolinaJan, B., HoekSteve Nelson David, M., Guidot Charles, H., LangJack, R., Wands James, M., Crawford. Mechanisms of Alcohol‐Induced Tissue Injury. Publications Browse by Subject Resources. Copyright © 1999-2014 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All Rights Reserved. www.mendeley.com Share on twitter
 
[8]  Kingsley Nwonu Agbafor, Moses Eje Ogbanshi, Emmanuel Iroha Akubugwo Phytochemical screening, hepatoprotective and antioxidant effects of leaf extracts of Zapoteca portoricensis. Advances in Biological Chemistry. 2014; Vol. 4 No. 1, Article ID: 43292, 5 pages.
 
Show Less References

Article

Impacts of Herbicide Exposure on Seminal Parameters among Oil Palm Plantation Workers in Lampung Province, Indonesia

1Department of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Lampung, Indonesia

2Department of Biology, Faculty of Mathematics and Sciences, University of Lampung, Indonesia


American Journal of Biomedical Research. 2014, 2(4), 83-87
DOI: 10.12691/ajbr-2-4-5
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Sutyarso, M. Kanedi. Impacts of Herbicide Exposure on Seminal Parameters among Oil Palm Plantation Workers in Lampung Province, Indonesia. American Journal of Biomedical Research. 2014; 2(4):83-87. doi: 10.12691/ajbr-2-4-5.

Correspondence to: M.  Kanedi, Department of Biology, Faculty of Mathematics and Sciences, University of Lampung, Indonesia. Email: wegayendi@yahoo.com

Abstract

It is a cross-sectional study to evaluate semen quality of plantation workers that due their daily obligation make them susceptible to herbicide exposures. The research participants were male workers of oil palm plantations in the District of Lampung Tengah, Lampung Province, Indonesia. They were those who meet the criteria of having more than one year work experience with herbicide, married and having children. Semen samples were taken by asking the participants to masturbate after they were advised to abstain from sexual intercourse for 4-5 days. Semen quality parameters that examined are volume, pH, sperm count, sperm motility, normal morphology and HOS-test. Based on years of the work periods, there were three groups of participants obtained. Group-1 are the participants who worked less than 10 years; group-2 are those who have work periods of 10-20 years; while group-3 are those who have worked more than 20 years. All of the semen quality parameters, except pH, decreased significantly with the increase in work periods far beyond the maximum decrease in normal elderly male. In conclusion, the daily tasks of oil palm plantation workers which prompt them expose to herbicide, suspected to be the cause of the decrease in semen quality parameters.

Keywords

References

[1]  USDA, Indonesia: Rising Global Demand Fuels Palm Oil Expansion. United States Department of Agriculture. 2010.
 
[2]  UNEP, Oil palm plantations: threats and opportunities for tropical ecosystems. UNEP Global Environmental Alert Service (GEAS). 2011.
 
[3]  Mohamad RB, Wibawa W, Mohayidin MG, Puteh AB, Juraimi AS, Awang Y and Lasim MBM. “Management of Mixed Weeds in Young Oil-palm Plantation with Selected Broad-Spectrum Herbicides,” Pertanika J. Trop. Agric. Sci. 2010; 33 (2): 193-03.
 
[4]  WHO, The WHO recommended classification of pesticides by hazard and guidelines to classification. 2005.
 
[5]  Karr, C.J., Solomon, G.M. and Brock-Utne, A.C. “Health Effects of Common Home, Lawn, and Garden Pesticides,” Pediatr Clin N Am 2007; 54: 63-80.
 
Show More References
[6]  Séralini GE, Clair E, Mesnage R, Gress S, Defarge N, Malatesta M, Hennequin D and de Vendômoiset JS. Long term toxicity of a Roundup herbicide and a Roundup-tolerant genetically modified maize. Food Chem Toxicol 2012.
 
[7]  Tuc VP, Wangsuphachart V, Tasanapradit P, Fungladda W, van Trong P and Nhung NT. “Impacts of pesticide use on semen characteristics among rice farmers in Kienxuong district, Thaibinh Province, Vietnam,” Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 2007; 38:569-75.
 
[8]  Hossain F, Ali O, D’Souza UJA and Naing DKS. “Effects of pestcide use on semen quality among farmers in rural area of Sabah, Malaysia,” Journal of Occupational Health 2010; 52: 353-60.
 
[9]  Sekiyama M, Tanaka M, Gunawan B, Abdoellah O and Watanabe C, “Pesticide Usage and Its Association with Health Symptoms among Farmers in Rural Villages in West Java, Indonesia,” Environmental Sciences 2007; 14(Supplement 2007): 023-33.
 
[10]  WHO, The WHO Laboratory Manual for The Examination and Processing of human semen. 5th ed. WHO Press. Geneva, Switzeland. 2010.
 
[11]  Hossain, A.M., Rizk, B., Barik, S., Huff, C. and Thorneycroft, I.H., Time course of hypo-osmotic swellings of human spermatozoa: evidence of ordered transition between swelling subtypes.” Human Reproduction 1998; 13(6): 1578-1583.
 
[12]  WHO Expert Consultation, “Appropriate body-mass index for Asian populations and its implications for policy and intervention strategies,” Lancet 2004; 363: 157-63.
 
[13]  MacDonald AA, Stewart AW and Farquhar CM. “Body mass index in relation to semen quality and reproductive hormones in New Zealand men: a cross-sectional study in fertility clinics,” Human Reproduction 2013; 0(0): 1-10.
 
[14]  Molina RI, Martini AC, Tissera A, Olmedo J, Senestrari D, de Cuneo MF and Ruiz RD., “Semen Quality and Aging: Analysis of 9.168 Samples in Cordoba, Argentina,” Arch. Esp. Urol 2010; 63 (3): 214-221.
 
[15]  Kidd SA, Eskenazi B and Wyrobek AJ. “Effects of male age on semen quality and fertility: a review of the literature,” Fertility and Sterility 2001; 75(2):237-48.
 
[16]  Akan JC, Mohammed Z, Jafiya L and Audu SI., “Organophosphorus Pesticide Residues in Different Tissues of Fish Samples from Alau Dam, Borno State, Nigeria,” World Journal of Fish and Marine Sciences 2013; 5(5): 519-26.
 
[17]  Smalling KL, Fellers GM, Kleeman PM and Kuivila KM. “Accumulation of Pesticides in Pacific Chorus Frogs (Pseudacris regilla) from California’s Sierra Nevada Mountains, USA,” Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 2013; 32(9): 2026-34.
 
[18]  Deshmukh US, Iram F and Joshi MS. “Effect of Acute Exposure of Glyphosate Herbicide, on Wistar Rats with Reference to Haematology and Biochemical Analysis,” The Bioscan 2013; 8(2): 381-3.
 
[19]  Ye M, Beach J, Martin JW and Senthilselvan A. Occupational Pesticide Exposures and Respiratory Health,” Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2013; 10: 6442-71.
 
[20]  Jurewicz, J, Hanke W, Radwan M and Bonde JP. “Environmental factors and semen quality,” Int J Occup Env Health 2010; 22: 305-29.
 
[21]  Hossain, F., Ali, O., D’Souza, U.J.A. and Naing, D.K.S., “Effects of pestcide use on semen quality among farmers in rural area of Sabah, Malaysia.,” Journal of Occupational Health, 2010, 52: 353-360.
 
[22]  D’Souza UJA, Narayana K, Zain A, Raju S, Nizam HM and Noriah O. “Dermal exposure to the herbicide paraquat results in genotoxic and cytotoxic damage to germ cells in the male rat,” Folia Morphol 2006; 65(1): 6-10.
 
[23]  Gasnier, C., Dumont, C., Benachour, N., Clair, E., Chagnon, M.C. and Seralini, G.E., “Glyphosate-based herbicides are toxic and endocrine disruptors in human cell lines,” Toxicology 262 (2009): 184-191.
 
[24]  Joshi SC, Tibrewal P, Sharma A and Sharma P. “Evaluation of toxic effect of 2,4-D (2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid) on fertility and biohemical parameters of male reproductive system of albino rats,” Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2012; 4(3): 338-42.
 
Show Less References

Someone is Doing on SciEP

Statistics of This Journal

Article Downloads: 82835

Article Views: 251645

Sponsors, Associates, and Links

To list your link on our website, please click here or contact us
2nd National Brassica Conference 2014