ISSN (Print): 2328-3947

ISSN (Online): 2328-3955

Editor-in-Chief: Hari K. Koul




Computational Analysis of Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNPs) in Human GRM4 Gene

1Department of Bioinformatics, Africa city of technology, Sudan

2Alneelain University Faculty of Medical Laboratory Sciences, Sudan

3Department of haeatology, Elnehoud teaching Hospital, Sudan

4Medical Lab Manager, Tyba Hospital, Sudan

5Institute of Endemic Diseases, Khartoum University, Sudan

6Head Department of Biotechnology, Biotechnology Park, Africa city of technology, Sudan

American Journal of Biomedical Research. 2016, 4(3), 61-73
doi: 10.12691/ajbr-4-3-2
Copyright © 2016 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Afra Abd Elhamid Fadlalla Elshaikh, Mosab Mohamed Gasemelseed, Marwa Mohamed Osman, Samah Ahmed Ibrahim Shokri, Samia Othman massad, Nahid Ebrahim Merghani Fadl, Arafa Habiballa Ibrahim, Selma Shiekh Idris, Maab Mohamed Abdalla, Mohamed Ahmed Salih. Computational Analysis of Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNPs) in Human GRM4 Gene. American Journal of Biomedical Research. 2016; 4(3):61-73. doi: 10.12691/ajbr-4-3-2.

Correspondence to: Afra  Abd Elhamid Fadlalla Elshaikh, Department of Bioinformatics, Africa city of technology, Sudan. Email:


Background: L-glutamate is one of the most common amino acid in nature and it acts as excitatory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system. GRM4 is a large gene located in chromosome 6 and consists of 7217 bp (NCBI) divided into 10 exons. The location of GRM4 (chromosomal segment 6p21.3) is tentative susceptibility loci for Juvenile Myoclonic Epilepsy so many studies investigate the association of GRM4 polymorphism with myoclonic epilepsy juvenile. Design and methods: GRM4 gene was investigated in dbSNP/NCBI database NCBI and we used computational analysis approach. Deleterious nsSNPs were predicted by SIFT and Polyphen soft wares then the damaging nsSNPs were submitted to I mutant tool. Protein structural analysis of amino acid variants was performed by Chimera 1.8 and Project Hope. Results: We analyze 29854 SNPs from NCBI; 8561 of them found on homosapiens; of which 330 were missense, of which 208 were in the coding region, 334 were non-synonymous SNPs (nsSNPs), 232 were in the 3'un-translated region. These SNPs were analyzed using different soft wares; SIFT, Polyphen-2, Imutant3.0, PhD-SNP, PolymiRTs, Project Hope and GENEMAIA to investigate the effect of SNPs mutations on GRM4 protein structure and function. Conclusions: Computational tools were used to analyze deleterious SNPs in GRM4 gene. Out of 8561 SNPs, the SNPs (rs184636998), (rs199744441), (rs199744441), (rs149277708), (rs144660534), (rs139236496) were identified as highly damaging in coding region confirmed by using bioinformatics tools . In 3'un-translated region two SNPs (rs188406833) and (rs192860479) contained (C) allele had 4 miRSite as target binding site can be disrupts a conserved miRNA and one SNPs (rs77415386) contained (D) allele had 6 miRSite as derived allele that disrupts a conserved miRNA site. Further study must be done to detect the effect of these SNPs on the protein structure and function.



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Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase C677T and Platelet Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa Genes Polymorphism in Myocardial Infarction Egyptian Patients in Ismailia City

1Medical Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Suez Canal University, Ismailia, Egyp

2Cardiology Departments, Faculty of Medicine, Suez Canal University, Ismailia, Egypt

American Journal of Biomedical Research. 2016, 4(3), 74-79
doi: 10.12691/ajbr-4-3-3
Copyright © 2016 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Kefah H Ali, Nagwan A Sabek, Loaa A Tag Eldeen, Emad F Ismail, Gamela Nasr. Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase C677T and Platelet Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa Genes Polymorphism in Myocardial Infarction Egyptian Patients in Ismailia City. American Journal of Biomedical Research. 2016; 4(3):74-79. doi: 10.12691/ajbr-4-3-3.

Correspondence to: Nagwan  A Sabek, Medical Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Suez Canal University, Ismailia, Egyp. Email:


Background: Hyperhomocysteinemia and platelet glycoprotein GpIIIa polymorphism had been identified as risk factors for coronary atherosclerosis. The methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase MTHFR C677T variant has been shown to influence homocysteine metabolism, the interaction of plasma tHcy with other conventional risk factors remain uncertain in the clinical setting of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). The present study aimed to examine whether the MTHFR and platelet glycoprotein IIIa polymorphisms were associated with increased risk of (MI) in Egyptian patients. Subjects and Method: 150 newly diagnosed MI patients and 50 healthy matched subjects were recruited into this study, genotyping of the MTHFR C677T and GpIIIa 1565 A1/A2 polymorphisms were carried out by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) technique, plasma tHcy, and folic acid levels were estimated. Results: Fasting plasma total Hcy levels were significantly higher in MI patients than controls (P <0.05), folate levels were significantly lower in MI patients than controls (P <0.05), no significant differences were observed in the MTHFR C677T and GpIIIa genotypes frequencies between MI patients and controls (P > 0.05). The frequency of the MTHFR C allele was 80.6 % and 76 % in MI patients and controls respectively and did not differ significantly between the two groups (P > 0.05). The frequency of risk allele, GpIIIa, PIA2 was significantly higher in MI patients compared to controls (p<0.05), plasma tHcy level was significantly higher and folate level was significantly lower in MI patients carrying MTHFR CC and GPIIIa PIA2A2genotypes. Conclusions: In this population, the both risk alleles of MTHFR and GpIIb/IIIa polymorphisms had no major effect on the MI incidence, they were associated with higher homocysteine levels. A gene-environment interaction might increase the risk indirectly by elevating tHcy, especially when folate intake was low, our findings might support that MTHFR and GpIIb/IIIa polymorphisms as risk factors for MI.



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Toxicity Evaluation of the Aqueous Stem Extracts of Senna alata in Wistar Rats

1Department of Biochemistry, Abia State University, Uturu, Abia State, Nigeria

2Federal Medical Centre Umuahia, Abia State, Nigeria

3Department of Biochemistry, Rhema University, Aba, Abia State Nigeria

American Journal of Biomedical Research. 2016, 4(4), 80-86
doi: 10.12691/ajbr-4-4-1
Copyright © 2016 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Ugbogu A.E., Okezie E., Uche-Ikonne C., Duru M., Atasie O.C.. Toxicity Evaluation of the Aqueous Stem Extracts of Senna alata in Wistar Rats. American Journal of Biomedical Research. 2016; 4(4):80-86. doi: 10.12691/ajbr-4-4-1.

Correspondence to: Ugbogu  A.E., Department of Biochemistry, Abia State University, Uturu, Abia State, Nigeria. Email:


Aim: This study evaluated the phytochemicals, proximate and the toxicity effect of aqueous stem extract of Senna alata using wistar rats. In acute toxicity test, aqueous dried stem extract of Senna alata were administered orally up to 10 g/kg body weight to male wistar rats. Materials and methods: In sub-acute study, the wistar rats were daily administered orally with aqueous dried stem extract of Senna alata at doses of 250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg for 14 days and haematological, biochemical parameters were determined and a histopathology of the liver and kidney were analyzed. Results: The acute toxicity of oral administration of aqueous extracts of Senna alata stem on albino rats after 24 hours did not produce any mortality at concentration up to 10 g/kg body weight. In the subacute toxicity, significant differences (P> 0.05) were observed in the results of urea, creatinine, and bicarbonate across the tested groups when compared with the control rats. The results of the liver enzymes showed significant difference (P> 0.05) on alkaline transaminase (ALT), Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and Alkaline phosphatase (ALP). Conclusion: Our results showed that the dried stem of Senna alata is not toxic at the tested doses.



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