Welcome to American Journal of Biomedical Research

American Journal of Biomedical Research is a peer-reviewed, open access journal that provides rapid publication of articles in all areas of biomedical research. The goal of this journal is to provide a platform for scientists and academicians all over the world to promote, share, and discuss various new issues and developments in different areas of biomedical research.

ISSN (Print): 2328-3947

ISSN (Online): 2328-3955

Editor-in-Chief: Hari K. Koul

Website: http://www.sciepub.com/journal/AJBR

   

Article

Evaluation of Thrombolytic and Cytotoxic activities of an Ornamental medicinal plant: Byttneria pilosa

1Department of Pharmacy, International Islamic University Chittagong, 154/A, College Road, Chittagong-4203, Bangladesh

2Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Health and Life Sciences, North South University, Dhaka-1229, Bangladesh

3State University of Bangladesh, 138, Mirpur Road, Dhaka-1205, Bangladesh


American Journal of Biomedical Research. 2015, 3(3), 35-39
doi: 10.12691/ajbr-3-3-1
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Mubarik Yusuf Ibrahim, Prawej Ansari, AKM Riasat-ul-Islam, Mahmuda Sultana, Nadia Akter Zhumur, Shah Mohammed Shafi. Evaluation of Thrombolytic and Cytotoxic activities of an Ornamental medicinal plant: Byttneria pilosa. American Journal of Biomedical Research. 2015; 3(3):35-39. doi: 10.12691/ajbr-3-3-1.

Correspondence to: Prawej  Ansari, Department of Pharmacy, International Islamic University Chittagong, 154/A, College Road, Chittagong-4203, Bangladesh. Email: chemist89ansari@gmail.com

Abstract

Purpose: The rapidly growing incidence of ischemic stroke caused by thrombosis of the arterial vessels is one of the major factors of death in the present world. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the chosen herbal preparations possess thrombolytic activity or not and aimed to find out its toxicity. Methods: An in vitro thrombolytic model was used to check the clot lysis effect of the crude extract of B. pilosa, streptokinase was used as a positive control and water as a negative control. In another part, we used Brine shrimp lethality bioassay method to measure the cytotoxic potency of the plant extract. Results: In the in vitro thrombolytic model, methanolic extract of B. pilosa showed significant (p <0.002) clot lysis activity with 46.20 ± 2.274% when compared with positive control Streptokinase (82.60 ± 2.45%) and negative control distilled water (11.29 ± 0.677%). Other part of our study showed moderate or little bit low activity with LC50 of 216.7µg/ml. Conclusions: Our study suggests that thrombolytic activity of B. pilosa could be considered as very promising and beneficial for the Bangladeshi traditional medicine. Lower effects in cytotoxic activity finding may be due to insufficient quantities of toxic metabolite or antitumor component in the extract. In vivo clot dissolving property and active components of the extract for clot lysis could lead the plants for their therapeutic uses. However, further work will establish whether, the phytochemicals from this plant could be incorporated as a thrombolytic agent for the improvement of the patients suffering from diseases like atherosclerosis or embolism.

Keywords

References

[1]  Elumalai A, Eswariah MC, Chowdary VCH, Kumar R, Anusha M and Naresh K; Screening of thrombolytic activity of Bougainvillea glabra leaves extract by In-Vitro; Asian J Res Pharm Sci; 2012; 2(4):134-136.
 
[2]  Emran TB, Rahman MA, Uddin MMN, Rahman MM, Dash R, Layzu C and Uddin MZ; Effects of organic extracts and their different fractions of five Bangladeshi plants on in vitro thrombolysis; BMC Compl Alt Med; 2015; 15:128-36.
 
[3]  Hossain MK, Hassan MM, Parvin MN, Hasan MM, Islam MS and Haque MA; Antimicrobial, cytotoxic and thrombolytic activity of Cassia senna leaves (family: Fabaceae); J App Pharm Sci; 2012; 2(6): 186-190.
 
[4]  Gennaro AR. Remington; The Science and Practice of Pharmacy; Thrombolytic agents; 20 th ed. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; New York; 2000; 1256-1257.
 
[5]  Sweta P, Rajpal SK, Jayant YD, Hemant JP, Girdhar MD and Hatim FD; Development of an in vitro model to study clot lysis activity of thrombolytic drugs; Throm J; 2006; 4(14):1-4.
 
Show More References
[6]  Collen D; Coronary thrombolysis: streptokinase or recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator; Ann Intern Med; 1990; 112: 529-538.
 
[7]  Marder VJ; Recombinant streptokinase – opportunity for an improved agent; Blood Coagul Fibrin; 1993; 4: 1039-1040.
 
[8]  Demrow HS, Slane PR, Folts JD; Administration of wine and grape juice inhibits in vivo platelet activity and thrombosis in stenosed canine coronary arteries; Circulation; 1995; 91:1182-1188.
 
[9]  Basta G, Lupi C, Lazzerini G, Chiarelli P, L'Abbate A, Rovai D; Therapeutic effect of diagnostic ultrasound on enzymatic thrombolysis: An in vitro study on blood of normal subjects and patients with coronary artery disease; Thromb Haemost; 2004; 91: 1078-1083.
 
[10]  Yamamoto J, Yamada K, Naemura A, Yamashita T and Arai R; Testing various herbs for antithrombotic effect; Nutrition; 2005; 21:580-587.
 
[11]  http://www.ebbd.info/byttneria-pilosa.html; cited 6 April 2015.
 
[12]  Islam A, Siddik AB, Hanee U, Guha A, Zaman F, Mokarroma U, Zahan H, Jabber S, Naurin S, Kabir H, Jahan S and Rahmatullah M; Ethnomedicinal practices of Chakma tribal healer practicing among a Marma community in Rangamati district, Bangladesh; World J Pharm Pharma Sci; 2015; 4(3): 180-188.
 
[13]  Rahman MA; Indigenous knowledge of herbal medicine in Bangladesh, 3 treatment of skin diseases by tribal communities of the hill tracts districts; Bangladesh J Bot; 2010; 39(2): 169-177.
 
[14]  Rahman MA, Uddin SB and Wilcock CC; Medicinal plants used by Chakma tribe in the hill tracts districts of Bangladesh; Indian J Trad Know; 2007; 6(3): 508-517.
 
[15]  A. Ghani; 1st ed.; Textbook of Pharmacognosy; Institution of Medical Technology, Dhaka, Bangladesh; 2005.
 
[16]  Rahman MA, Sultana R, Emran TB, Islam MS, Chakma JS, Rashid HU, et al; Effects of organic extracts of six Bangladeshi plants on in vitro thrombolysis and cytotoxicity; BMC Compl Alt Med; 2013; 13(25):1472-6882.
 
[17]  Prasad S, Kashyap RS, Deopujari JY, Purohit HJ, Taori GM and Daginawala HF; Development of an in vitro model to study clot lysis activity of thrombolytic drugs; Thromb J; 2006; 4:14.
 
[18]  Goldstein AL and Kalkan SM; Principles of Drug Action; 2nd ed; Willey Biochemical Health Publications; 1974; 376-381.
 
[19]  Meyer BB, Ferringi NR, Futman FJ, Jacobsen LB, Nichols DE and Mclaughlin JL; Brine shrimp a convenient general bioassay for active plant constituents; Planta Medica; 1982; 5: 31-34.
 
[20]  Libby P, Ridker PM and Hansson GK; Progress and challenges in translating the biology of atherosclerosis; Nature; 2011; 473: 317-325.
 
[21]  Fuentes E, Guzmán L, Alarcón M, Moore R and Palomo I; Thrombolytic/fibrinolytic mechanism of natural products; Fibrinolysis and Thrombolysis; chapter 5; 2014; 107-121.
 
[22]  Ananyeva NM; Kouiavskaia DV; Shima M and Saenko EL; Intrinsic pathway of blood coagulation contributes to thrombogenicity of atherosclerotic plaque; Blood; 2002; 99: 4475-4485.
 
[23]  Zinkstok SM, Vermeulen M, Stam J, de Haan RJ and Roos YB; Antiplatelet therapy in combination with rt-PA thrombolysis in ischemic stroke (ARTIS): rationale and design of a randomized controlled trial; Cerebrovasc Dis; 2010; 29: 79-81.
 
[24]  Rahman MA, Sultana R, Bin Emran T, Islam MS; Chakma JS, Rashid HU and Hasan CM; Effects of organic extracts of six Bangladeshi plants on in vitro thrombolysis and cytotoxicity; BMC Compl Alt Med; 2013; 13: 25.
 
[25]  Yamada K, Naemura A, Sawashita N, Noguchi Y and Yamamoto J; An onion variety has natural antithrombotic effect as assessed by thrombosis/thrombolysis models in rodents; Thromb Res; 2004; 114: 213-220.
 
[26]  Suzuki Y, Kondo K, Matsumoto Y, Zhao BQ, Otsuguro K, Maeda T, Tsukamoto Y, Urano T and Umemura K; Dietary supplementation of fermented soybean, natto, suppresses intimal thickening and modulates the lysis of mural thrombi after endothelial injury in rat femoral artery; Life Sci; 2003; 73: 1289-1298.
 
[27]  Rajput MS, Mathur V, Agrawal P, Chandrawanshi HK and Pilaniya U; Fibrinolytic activity of kaempferol isolated from the fruits of Lagenaria siceraria (Molina) Standley; Nat Prod Res; 2011; 25: 1870-1875.
 
[28]  Licciardi PV and Underwood JR; Plant-derived medicines: a novel class of immunological adjuvants; Int Immunopharmacol; 2011; 11(3): 390-8.
 
[29]  Potterat O and Hamburger M; Drug discovery and development with plant-derived compounds; Prog Drug Res; 2008; 65(45): 47-118.
 
[30]  Verstraete M; Third-generation thrombolytic drugs; Am J Med; 2000; 109(1):52-8.
 
[31]  McLauglin JL, Chang CJ and Smith DL; Simple bench-top bioassays (brine shrimp and potato discs) for the discovery of plant antitumour compounds. In: Human Medicinal Agents from Plants; Kinghorn AD and Balandrin MF; (Eds.), ACS Symposium 534, American Chemical Society, Washington, D. C.; 1993: 112-137.
 
[32]  Moreira MD, Picanço MC, Barbosa LC, Guedes RN, Barros EC and Campos MR; Compounds from Ageratum conyzoides: isolation, structural elucidation and insecticidal activity; Pest Manag Sci; 2007; 63: 615-621.
 
[33]  Okwori AEJ, Dina CO, Junaid S, Okeke IO, Adetunji JA and Olabode AO; Antibacterial activities of Ageratum conyzoides extracts on selected bacterial pathogens; Int J Micro; 2007; 4: 1937-1949.
 
Show Less References

Article

Evaluation of the Toxicity of Hemizygia bracteosa (Benth) Plant Used in Traditional Medicine for the Treatment of Diabetes Mellitus in Benin

1Laboratory of Teaching and Research in Food Microbiology, DSepartment of Food Technology Engineering, Polytechnic School of Abomey, University of Abomey, 01P.BP 2009 Cotonou, Benin

2Laboratory of Study and Research in Applied Chemistry, Polytechnic School of Abomey, University of Abomey-calavi, 01 BP 2009 Cotonou, Benin.

3Laboratory of Cytogenetic, Human Biology Unit, Faculty of Health Sciences / University of Abomey-calavi, Benin

4Association for the Promotion of Tropical Medicinal Plants (APTMP), 03 BP 246 Cotonou, Benin


American Journal of Biomedical Research. 2015, 3(3), 40-44
doi: 10.12691/ajbr-3-3-2
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Nicodème W CHABI, Christian T. R. KONFO, Marius ADJAGBA, Loukman MOUSSEDIKOU, Edwige AHOUSSI-DAHOUENON, Anatole LALEYE, Christophe GBAGUIDI, Mohamed Mansourou SOUMANOU. Evaluation of the Toxicity of Hemizygia bracteosa (Benth) Plant Used in Traditional Medicine for the Treatment of Diabetes Mellitus in Benin. American Journal of Biomedical Research. 2015; 3(3):40-44. doi: 10.12691/ajbr-3-3-2.

Correspondence to: Christian  T. R. KONFO, Laboratory of Study and Research in Applied Chemistry, Polytechnic School of Abomey, University of Abomey-calavi, 01 BP 2009 Cotonou, Benin.. Email: konfo01@yahoo.fr, nicodeme.chabi@gmail.com

Abstract

This study aims to assess the toxicity of Hemizygia bracteosa (Benth), a medicinal plant used for the treatment of diabetes mellitus in Benin. Wistar rats were force-feeded by using solutions obtained by dissolving the powder of this plant in distilled water. The assessment of biochemical parameters (blood glucose, triglycerides, cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, proteins) of Wistar rat serum was used to highlight the hypoglycaemic properties of this plant and its effects on cardiovascular risk factors. The results showed an increase in HDL-cholesterol levels (0.13 ± 0.004 vs 0.48 ± 0.15) and a decrease in total cholesterol levels (1.06 ± 0.40 vs 0.81 ± 0.12), triglycerides (1.2 ± 0.43 vs 1.18 ± 0.38), glucose (1.60 ± 0.25 vs 0.98 ± 0.24) and proteins (95. 33 ± 20.59 vs 58.30 ± 6.26) in rats serum after one month treatment. No significant differences were observed in control rats for all parameters. our data also shows that at concentrations from 2 g/kg this plant appears topresent significant toxicity on kidneys and liver. The use of this plant for diabetes treatment must be done with caution and doses must be controlled.

Keywords

References

[1]  Holm, G., V. Herbst, and B. Teil Brogenkundé, In: Planta Medica 67:263-269. 1998.
 
[2]  Kokwaro, J.O, Medicinal Plants of East Africa, Second Edition, Kenya Literature Bureau, Nairobi. 1993.
 
[3]  Elqaj, M., Ahami, A., & Belghyti, D, La phytothérapie comme alternative à la résistance des parasites intestinaux aux antiparasitaires. Journée scientifique" ressources naturelles et antibiotiques". Maroc. Juin. 2007.
 
[4]  OMS, (2002), la phytothérapie comme alternative à la résistance des parasites intestinaux aux antiparasitaires. Journée Scientifique « Ressources Naturelles et Antibiothérapie », Faculté des Sciences-Kenitra. 22 Juin 2007
 
[5]  India Council Of Medical Research, Quality Standards of India Medical plants, Volume 1. Ansari Nagar New Delhi-110029, India. 2003.
 
Show More References
[6]  Wild, S., G. Roglic., A. Green., R. Sicree and King, H, Global prevalence of diabetes estimates for the year 2000 and projections for 2030. Diabetes care, 27(5), 1047-1053. 2004.
 
[7]  Maiti, R., D.Jana., U. K. Das and D. Ghosh, Antidiabetic effect of aqueous extract of seed of Tamarindus indica in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 92(1), 85-91. 2004.
 
[8]  Iwu, M.M., A.R. Duncan., and C.O. Okunji, New Antimicrobials of plant.Origin.J.Janick(ed), ASHS Press, Alexandria, VA.Egypt. 1999.
 
[9]  Konfo, T.R.C., N.W. Chabi, J. Agbadjizo, E. Dahouenon-Ahoussi, M.M. Soumanou, and D.C.K. Sohounhloue, Influence de la feuille de Hemizygia bracteosa (Benth) sur la qualité de la bière du sorgho « tchakpalo » produite au Bénin. International Journal of Innovation and Applied Studies. 7 (2), 453-463. Aug.2014.
 
[10]  Cantino P.D., R.M. Harley., and S.J. Wagstaff, Genera of Labiatae: Status and classification. In: Harley R., M., Reynolds T. (eds) Advances in Labiatae science. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. 511-522. 1992.
 
[11]  Paton A. and K. Balkwill, Hemizygiastalmansii (Labiatea), a new species from Mpumalanga, South Africa and Swaziland Kew-Bull. 56: 491-496. 2001.
 
[12]  Hutchinson, J., and J. M Dalziel, Flora of Tropical West AfricaCrown agents for the ColoniesLondon. 1931.
 
[13]  Fossati, P. and L. Prencipe, Serum triglycerides determined colorimetrically with an enzyme that produces hydrogen peroxide. Clinical chemistry, 28(10): 2077-2080. 1982.
 
[14]  Doumas, B.T., D.D. Bayse., R.J. Carter., T. Peters. and R. Schaffer, A candidate reference method for determination of total protein in serum. I. Development and validation. Clinical Chemistry; 27(10): 1642-1650. 1981.
 
[15]  Oecd. (1994). OECD Guidelines for the Testing of Chemicals. Organization for Economic. (Section 4: Health Effects; Test No. 423: Acute Oral Toxicity-class method adopted on 17 December 2001.
 
[16]  Otieno, D. F., K. Balkwill. And A. J. Paton, A Multivariate analysis of the Hemizygia bracteosa complex. Plant Systematics and Evolution. 261: 19 – 38. 2006.
 
[17]  Chabane, D., F. Saidi., A. Rouibi. et K. Azine, Activité hypoglycémique de l’extrait aqueux d’Ajugaiva L. schreber chez les rats diabétiques induite par l’alloxane. Afrique Science 09 (1) 120-127. 2013.
 
[18]  Eddouks, M., A. Lemhadri., N.A. Zegghwagh. and J.B. Michel, Potent hypoglycemic activity of the aqueous extract of Chamaemelumnobile in normal in normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats, Diabetes Res. Clin. Pract, 67.189-195. 2005.
 
[19]  Alaoui, J.F., Y. Lagorce., M. Cherrah., H. Amarouch. and M. Roquehert, Activité analgésique et anti-inflammatoire des saponines d’arganiaspinosa, in : Annales pharmaceutiques Françaises, 220-228. 1998.
 
[20]  Deraedt, R., S. Journey, J. Benzouni. and M. Peterfalvi, Release of prostaglandins E and F in algogenic reaction and inhibition, Eur. J. 1980; 61: 17-24. Fitoterapia , 80 475-477. 2009.
 
[21]  Areej, M., S.P. Al-Taweel., A.F. Ghada., A. Saleh Ibrahim. and E.H. Kamal El Tahir, New flavane gallates isolated from the leaves of Plicosepaluscurviflorus and their hypoglycemic activity, Fitoterapia, 83, 1610-1615. 2012.
 
[22]  Deutschländer, M.S., N. Lall., M. Van de Venter. and S. Dewanjee, The hypoglycemic activity of EucleaundulataThunb. var. myrtina (Ebenaceae) root bark evaluated in a streptozotocin–nicotinamide induced type 2 diabetes rat model. South African Journal of Botany, 80, 9-12. 2012.
 
[23]  Antenne Médicale de Prévention du Dopage (AMPD), Les risques des plantes médicinales, Languedoc Roussillon, Lettre d'Actualités de septembre 2007.
 
Show Less References

Article

Effect of Variations in Post-set Temperature and Monomer Concentration on Self-cure Acrylic Surface Candidal Growth: An In-vitro Study

1Department of Dental Materials, Islamic International Dental College, Riphah University, Islamabad

2Department of Community Dentistry, Riphah International University


American Journal of Biomedical Research. 2015, 3(3), 45-52
doi: 10.12691/ajbr-3-3-3
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Nimra Tahir, Faisal Moeen, Muhammad Humza Bin Saeed. Effect of Variations in Post-set Temperature and Monomer Concentration on Self-cure Acrylic Surface Candidal Growth: An In-vitro Study. American Journal of Biomedical Research. 2015; 3(3):45-52. doi: 10.12691/ajbr-3-3-3.

Correspondence to: Faisal  Moeen, Department of Dental Materials, Islamic International Dental College, Riphah University, Islamabad. Email: faisalmoeen_is@yahoo.com, faisal.moeen@riphah.edu.pk

Abstract

Objectives: To identify the effect of variations in power-liquid ratio and post-set temperature on water absorption and residual monomer concentration on growth of Candida albicans on self-cure denture base resins. Methodology: 60 self-cured acrylic discs (39 x 4mm) were made and divided into 3 groups each having 20 specimens. Group 1 consisted of discs fabricated at a powder-liquid ratio of 5.1:2.8 as recommended by the manufacturer. Groups 2 and 3 constituted specimens with variations in post-set temperatures and powder-liquid ratios respectively. Specimens from group 2 were soaked in four water baths at temperatures of 37°C, 47°C, 57°C and 67°C for 24 hours. Specimens from the temperature-controlled group 3 were fabricated at four different powder-liquid ratios by increasing monomer liquid volume by 10%, 15%, 20% and 25%. The acrylic discs from control groups 1 and 3 were soaked at a constant temperature of 37°C for 24 hours. Residual monomer leeched out from disc into water was analyzed using Ultraviolet spectrophotometer. The variations in water absorption and Candidal growth were recorded. Results: Linear regression analysis was used to analyze the results. A moderately positive correlation was calculated for the association between powder-liquid ratio and Candidal growth (r = 0.67, p < 0.001) suggesting Candidal growth is higher at increased powder-liquid ratios having low monomer content. The correlation between the Candidal growth and the post-set temperatures was found to be moderately negative (r = -0.41 p < 0.001), indicating a decrease in Candidal cells on increasing post-set soaking temperatures. Conclusions: Candidal growth follows a positive linear relation with a decreasing powder-liquid ratio having cells increasing with an increase in liquid monomer content. Candidal growth follows a negative linear relation with post-set temperature soaking with cells decreasing with an increase in temperature.

Keywords

References

[1]  Mardegan RdC, Klein MI, Golvea MB, Rodrigues JAO, Gonçalves RB, Höfling JF. Biotyping and genotypic diversity among oral Candida albicans strains from caries-free and caries-active healthy children. Brazilian Journal of Microbiology. 2006;37(1):26-32.
 
[2]  Ahariz M, Loeb I, Courtois P. [Oral candidiasis and dentures]. Revue de stomatologie et de chirurgie maxillo-faciale. 2010;111(2):74-8.
 
[3]  Sitheeque M, Samaranayake L. Chronic hyperplastic candidosis/candidiasis (candidal leukoplakia). Critical Reviews in Oral Biology & Medicine. 2003;14(4):253-67.
 
[4]  Nikawa H, Chen J, Hamada T, Nishimura M, Polyzois G. Candida albicans colonization on thermal cycled maxillofacial polymeric materials in vitro. Journal of oral rehabilitation. 2001;28(6):526-33.
 
[5]  BUDTZ‐JöRGENSEN E. The significance of Candida albicans in denture stomatitis. European Journal of Oral Sciences. 1974;82(2):151-90.
 
Show More References
[6]  Sumi Y, Kagami H, Ohtsuka Y, Kakinoki Y, Haruguchi Y, Miyamoto H. High correlation between the bacterial species in denture plaque and pharyngeal microflora. Gerodontology. 2003;20(2):84-7.
 
[7]  Addy M, Shaw W, Hansford P, Hopkins M. The effect of orthodontic appliances on the distribution of Candida and plaque in adolescents. British journal of orthodontics. 1982;9(3):158-63.
 
[8]  Jeganathan S, Lin CC. Denture stomatitis—a review of the aetiology, diagnosis and management. Australian dental journal. 1992;37(2):107-14.
 
[9]  Gendreau L, Loewy ZG. Epidemiology and etiology of denture stomatitis. Journal of Prosthodontics. 2011;20(4):251-60.
 
[10]  Olsen I. Denture stomatitis occurrence and distribution of fungi. Acta Odontologica. 1974;32(5):329-33.
 
[11]  Minagi S, Miyake Y, Inagaki K, Tsuru H, Suginaka H. Hydrophobic interaction in Candida albicans and Candida tropicalis adherence to various denture base resin materials. Infection and immunity. 1985;47(1):11-4.
 
[12]  Vallittu PK, Lassila VP, Lappalainen R. Wetting the repair surface with methyl methacrylate affects the transverse strength of repaired heat-polymerized resin. The Journal of prosthetic dentistry. 1994;72(6):639-43.
 
[13]  Yamauchi M, Yamamoto K, Wakabayashi M, Kawano J. In vitro adherence of microorganisms to denture base resin with different surface texture. Dental materials journal. 1990;9(1):19-24.
 
[14]  Samaranayake L, MacFarlane T. An in-vitro study of the adherence of Candida albicans to acrylic surfaces. Archives of Oral Biology. 1980;25(8):603-9.
 
[15]  Klotz S, Drutz D, Zajic J. Factors governing adherence of Candida species to plastic surfaces. Infection and immunity. 1985;50(1):97-101.
 
[16]  Frazer RQ, Byron RT, Osborne PB, West KP. PMMA: an essential material in medicine and dentistry. Journal of long-term effects of medical implants. 2005;15(6).
 
[17]  Faltermeier A, Rosentritt M, Müssig D. Acrylic removable appliances: comparative evaluation of different postpolymerization methods. American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics. 2007;131(3):301. e16-. e22.
 
[18]  Lettieri M, Frigione M. Effects of humid environment on thermal and mechanical properties of a cold-curing structural epoxy adhesive. Construction and Building Materials. 2012;30:753-60.
 
[19]  Ghiassi B, Marcari G, Oliveira DV, Lourenço PB. Water degrading effects on the bond behavior in FRP-strengthened masonry. Composites Part B: Engineering. 2013;54:11-9.
 
[20]  Radford D, Challacombe S, Walter J. Denture plaque and adherence of Candida albicans to denture-base materials in vivo and in vitro. Critical Reviews in Oral Biology & Medicine. 1999;10(1):99-116.
 
[21]  Latief A. Sorption and solubility of a denture base acrylic: Cape Peninsula University of Technology; 2012.
 
[22]  Bayraktar G, Guvener B, Bural C, Uresin Y. Influence of polymerization method, curing process, and length of time of storage in water on the residual methyl methacrylate content in dental acrylic resins. Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part B: Applied Biomaterials. 2006;76(2):340-5.
 
[23]  Malacarne J, Carvalho RM, Mario F, Svizero N, Pashley DH, Tay FR, et al. Water sorption/solubility of dental adhesive resins. Dental materials. 2006;22(10):973-80.
 
[24]  Arendorf T, Walker D. Denture stomatitis: a review. Journal of oral rehabilitation. 1987;14(3):217-27.
 
[25]  Budtz-Jörgensen E, Samaranayake L, MacFarlane T. Candida-associated denture stomatitis and angular cheilitis. Oral candidosis. 1990:156-83.
 
[26]  Venkat R, Gopichander N, Vasantakumar M. Comprehensive Analysis of Repair/Reinforcement Materials for Polymethyl Methacrylate Denture Bases: Mechanical and Dimensional Stability Characteristics. The Journal of Indian Prosthodontic Society. 2013;13(4):439-49.
 
[27]  Fukazawa Y, Kagaya K. Molecular bases of adhesion of Candida albicans. Medical Mycology. 1997;35(2):87-99.
 
[28]  Ellepola AN, Samaranayake L. Adhesion of oral Candida albicans isolates to denture acrylic following limited exposure to antifungal agents. Archives of Oral Biology. 1998;43(12):999-1007.
 
[29]  Kalachandra S, Turner D. Water sorption of plasticized denture acrylic lining materials. Dental Materials. 1989;5(3):161-4.
 
[30]  Braden M, Wright P. Water absorption and water solubility of soft lining materials for acrylic dentures. Journal of dental research. 1983;62(6):764-8.
 
[31]  Dhanpal P, Yiu C, King N, Tay F, Hiraishi N. Effect of temperature on water sorption and solubility of dental adhesive resins. Journal of Dentistry. 2009;37(2):122-32.
 
[32]  Arima T, Murata H, Hamad T. The effects of cross‐linking agents on the water sorption and solubility characteristics of denture base resin. Journal of oral rehabilitation. 1996;23(7):476-80.
 
[33]  Dogan A, Bek B, Cevik N, Usanmaz A. The effect of preparation conditions of acrylic denture base materials on the level of residual monomer, mechanical properties and water absorption. Journal of Dentistry. 1995;23(5):313-8.
 
[34]  Vallittu PK, Miettinen V, Alakuijala P. Residual monomer content and its release into water from denture base materials. Dental Materials. 1995;11(5):338-42.
 
[35]  Corcione CE, Freuli F, Frigione M. Cold-Curing Structural Epoxy Resins: Analysis of the Curing Reaction as a Function of Curing Time and Thickness. Materials. 2014;7(9):6832-42.
 
Show Less References