American Journal of Biomedical Research»Articles

Article

Effect of Sitagliptin and Glimepiride on Glucose Homeostasis and cAMP Levels in Peripheral Tissues of HFD/STZ Diabetic Rats

1Department of Biochemistry, Medical Research Institute, Alexandria University, Egypt

2Department of Pharmacology, Medical Research Institute, Alexandria University, Egypt


American Journal of Biomedical Research. 2014, 2(3), 52-60
DOI: 10.12691/ajbr-2-3-3
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Mohamed I Saad, Maher A Kamel, Mervat Y Hanafi, Madiha H Helmy, Rowaida R Shehata. Effect of Sitagliptin and Glimepiride on Glucose Homeostasis and cAMP Levels in Peripheral Tissues of HFD/STZ Diabetic Rats. American Journal of Biomedical Research. 2014; 2(3):52-60. doi: 10.12691/ajbr-2-3-3.

Correspondence to: Mohamed  I Saad, Department of Biochemistry, Medical Research Institute, Alexandria University, Egypt. Email: m.ibrahim1988@hotmail.com

Abstract

Introduction: T2DM is a group of metabolic disorders manifested by hyperglycemia as a result of insulin insufficiency and/or resistance. The main goal of antidiabetic therapies is to lower glucose levels, and therefore prevent development of diabetes complications. DPP-4 inhibitors (e.g. sitagliptin) are relatively new antidiabetic drugs which inhibit the activity of DPP-4 enzyme and therefore prevent rapid degradation of incretin hormones. Objective: We investigated effects of sitagliptin on glucose homeostasis, lipid profile, and insulin signaling by determination of cAMP levels in peripheral tissues of HFD/STZ diabetic rats, compared to glimepiride. Methods: The experimental rats were divided into five groups, each group comprising 10 rats. Group (1) served as the normal control rats and administered DMSO (without treatments) as the vehicle. The rest of the groups were rendered diabetic by feeding HFD containing 40% fats for 4 weeks, followed by a single I.P. injection of STZ (45 mg/kg of body weight). One week after STZ injection, the rats with FBG level of ≥ 200 mg/dl were considered diabetic. Group (2) served as the diabetic untreated rats and administered DMSO (without treatments) as the vehicle. Group (3) served as diabetic rats treated with glimepiride (0.1 mg/kg of body weight). Group (4) and group (5) served as diabetic rats treated with sitagliptin (10 and 30 mg/kg of body weight, respectively). Treatments were dissolved in DMSO and were given orally for 4 weeks. At the end of the treatment period, the blood, liver and adipose tissues (White and brown) were collected for biochemical analysis. Results: In normal control rats, the highest content of cAMP was observed in BAT. Diabetic rats showed an elevation in cAMP levels of liver and WAT to be 1.3 and 3.9 fold control values, respectively, while in BAT, cAMP level decreased to be 0.4 fold control value. Sitagliptin and glimepiride significantly decreased cAMP levels in liver and WAT. Conclusion: We conclude that sitagliptin and glimepiride have comparable effects on glucose homeostasis. Both drugs have cAMP-lowering effect which may suggest their potential protecting effect against vascular complications of diabetes.

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References

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Article

The Pattern of Parasite Density, Plasma Total Bile Acids and Lactate Dehydrogenase in Plasmodium Infected Patients in Rural Community

1Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Achievers University, Owo, Ondo state –Nigeria


American Journal of Biomedical Research. 2014, 2(3), 47-51
DOI: 10.12691/ajbr-2-3-2
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Mathew Folaranmi OLANIYAN, Elizabeth Moyinoluwa BABATUNDE. The Pattern of Parasite Density, Plasma Total Bile Acids and Lactate Dehydrogenase in Plasmodium Infected Patients in Rural Community. American Journal of Biomedical Research. 2014; 2(3):47-51. doi: 10.12691/ajbr-2-3-2.

Correspondence to: Mathew  Folaranmi OLANIYAN, Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Achievers University, Owo, Ondo state –Nigeria. Email: olaniyanmat@yahoo.com

Abstract

Background to the study: Pathophysiology of Plasmodium (vivax, ovale, falciparum and malariae) infection involves liver. Liver dysfunction and destruction of tissues could be indicated by the plasma level of Total Bile Acid (TBA) and Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH). Aim and Objective: This work was designed to evaluate the pattern of parasite density, plasma total bile acids, and Lactate dehydrogenase in Plasmodium infected patients in rural community. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out in Kishi, the Headquarter of Irepo Local government area of Oyo state - Nigeria. Seven hundred and nine (709) subjects (Female: n=403: male: n=306) aged 5 to 68 years were tested for Plasmodium infection using Giemsa- thick film technique. The overall prevalence of Plasmodium infection among the seven hundred and nine subjects screened was found to be 29.1% (206) including 12.97% (92) HIV, HBsAg and anti-HCV seronagative patients and 16.1% (114) HIV, HBsAg or anti-HCV seropositive patients. Ninety two (92 (12.97%)) that were HIV, HBsAg and anti-HCV seronagative(female-58 (63.0%); male-34 (37%)) were recruited out of 206 (29.1%) that were found to be infected with plasmodium spp for the study. None of the subject was jaundiced as at the time of sample collection. Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and anti-HCV tests were carried out by Enzyme Linked Immunozorbent Assay (ELIZA). HIV screening and confirmation were carried out by immuno-chromatographic and Immunobloting (Western blot) assays respectively. Fasting Plasma Total Bile Acids (TBA) and Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH) were analyzed in the patients biochemically by spectrophotometry. Result: The result obtained showed an overall prevalence of Plasmodium infection as 29.1% (206) (female: 107 (52%); male: 99 (48%)) including 12.97% (92) (Female: 58 (63.0%) Male: 34 (37%)) that were HIV, HBsAg and anti-HCV seronagative and 16.1% (114) (Female: 61 (53.5%); Male: 53 (46.5%)) were co-infected with at least one of HIV, HBV or HCV. The plasmodium infected subjects were grouped into three based on the parasite density such as: patients with parasite density of 50-499; 500-999 and ≥1000. The mean value of the parasite density of each group was correlated with the plasma level of LDH and TBA. In all groups there was a strong positive correlation(R=1; R2 =1) between the plasma TBA, LDH and plasmodium parasite density. The pattern of parasite density obtained in the rural community studied include 45.7% had a mean parasite density of 282±12.0; 43.5% (853±31.0) and 10.9% (1130±61.0). There was also a statistical significant increase in the mean value of LDH and TBA with increase in parasite density with p<0.05. Conclusion: This work showed an overall prevalence of 29.1% (206) plasmodium infection including 16.1% (114) of the patients co-infected with at least one of HIV, HBV or HCV. The plasma level of LDH and TBA was also found to be positively correlated and directly proportional to the parasite density. Evaluation of these parameters is therefore recommended for effective control and management.

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References

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Article

Gender Difference on Stress Induced by Malaria Parasite Infection and Effect of Anti-malaria Drug on Stress Index

1Department of Haematology and Blood Transfusion Science, Federal Medical Centre, Ido-Ekiti Ekiti State

2Croydon Grace Diagnostic Cenre, Igando, Lagos State


American Journal of Biomedical Research. 2014, 2(3), 42-46
DOI: 10.12691/ajbr-2-3-1
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
ESAN A. J, OMISAKIN C.T, TITILAYO O. E, FASAKIN K. A. Gender Difference on Stress Induced by Malaria Parasite Infection and Effect of Anti-malaria Drug on Stress Index. American Journal of Biomedical Research. 2014; 2(3):42-46. doi: 10.12691/ajbr-2-3-1.

Correspondence to: ESAN  A. J, Department of Haematology and Blood Transfusion Science, Federal Medical Centre, Ido-Ekiti Ekiti State. Email: ayodelejacob4u@gmail.com

Abstract

Malaria is a serious public health problem in most countries of the tropics. Oxidative stress is related to the severity of malaria, oxidative stress in malaria may originate from several sources including intracellular parasitized erythrocytes and extra-erythrocytes as a result of haemolysis and host response. The aim of this study therefore is to determine the gender difference on stress induced by malaria parasite infection and effect of anti-malaria drug on stress index. 202 confirmed malaria infected patients were recruited for the study between the ages of 15 – 64 years of both sexes at the general outpatient clinic of the Federal Medical Centre, Ido-Ekiti, Nigeria. 129(63.9%) were males and 73(36.1%) were females. The mean ± SD of MDA, MPC and WBC in male were significantly (P < 0.05) higher compared to female in pre, post anti-malaria drug treatment. Stress induced by malaria parasite was observed higher in male compared to female; gender norms and values that influence the division of labour, leisure patterns, and sleeping arrangements can influence different patterns of exposure to mosquitoes for men and women which responsible for differences in stress induced by malaria parasite among the gender; during malaria treatment, the level of stress induced by malaria parasite was decline due to the effect of anti-malaria drug used.

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References

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Article

The Effect of Nutritional Lipid Supplementation on Serum Lipid Levels and Effectiveness of Antitubercular Chemotherapy

1Department of Medical Biochemistry, College of Medicine, Ambrose Alli University, Ekpoma, Nigeria

2Department of Internal Medicine, Irrua Specialist Teaching Hospital, Irrua, Nigeria

3Department of Medical Physiology Ambrose Alli University, Ekpoma, Nigeria

4Department of Chemical Pathology, Ambrose Alli University, Ekpoma Nigeria

5Department of Medical Laboratory Science, College of Medicine, Ambrose Alli University, Ekpoma

6Department of Histopathology, College of Medicine, Ambrose Alli University, Ekpoma, Nigeria

7Department of Nursing Science, Ambrose Alli University, Ekpoma, Nigeria

8Department of Community Health, Irrua Specialist Teaching Hospital, Irrua Nigeria


American Journal of Biomedical Research. 2014, 2(2), 36-41
DOI: 10.12691/ajbr-2-2-4
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Iyamu O.A., Ugheoke J.E, Ozor M.O., Airhomwanbor K.O., Eidangbe A.P., Idehen I.C., Okhiai O., Akpede N. The Effect of Nutritional Lipid Supplementation on Serum Lipid Levels and Effectiveness of Antitubercular Chemotherapy. American Journal of Biomedical Research. 2014; 2(2):36-41. doi: 10.12691/ajbr-2-2-4.

Correspondence to: Iyamu  O.A., Department of Medical Biochemistry, College of Medicine, Ambrose Alli University, Ekpoma, Nigeria. Email: now_splash72@yahoo.com

Abstract

The effect of serum lipid levels on the incidence and management of tuberculosis has recently been brought to the fore. The aim was to see the effect of nutritional supplementation on susceptibility of organisms of the mycobacterium tuberculosis complex to some known antitubercular drugs via effect on serum lipid levels. Blood samples were collected for baseline estimation of serum lipids from 250 tuberculosis patients who were then allocated into four groups including: those taking drugs for tuberculosis(antitubercular drugs) treatment only, those on antitubercular drugs and one boiled egg daily, those on antitubercular drugs and fish oil (1000 IU/day), and those on antitubercular drugs and both egg and fish oil daily, all for a three month duration, at the end of which blood samples were collected for estimation of serum triglycerides, total cholesterol (TC), high density lipoprotein (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), very low density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C), and Phospholipids, using appropriate methods. Results shows that though treatment with antitubercular drugs and supplementation with fish oil led to increases in serum lipid levels which were ab initio lower in tuberculosis patients than Healthy controls, supplementation with boiled egg led to a higher increase in serum lipid levels. Supplementation with fish oil also led to the greatest decreases in antitubercular drug resistance. It is thus suggested that supplementation with lipid rich foods in tuberculosis treatment will decrease anti tuberculosis drug resistance and help the global campaign on tuberculosis eradication.

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References

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Article

Prevalence of Life Style Drugs Usage and Perceived Effects among University Students in Dar es Salaam

1Department of Pharmaceutical Microbiology, Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences (MUHAS), Dar es Salaam, Tanzania


American Journal of Biomedical Research. 2014, 2(2), 29-35
DOI: 10.12691/ajbr-2-2-3
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Kennedy D. Mwambete, Theresia Shemsika. Prevalence of Life Style Drugs Usage and Perceived Effects among University Students in Dar es Salaam. American Journal of Biomedical Research. 2014; 2(2):29-35. doi: 10.12691/ajbr-2-2-3.

Correspondence to: Kennedy  D. Mwambete, Department of Pharmaceutical Microbiology, Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences (MUHAS), Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Email: kmwambete@muhas.ac.tz

Abstract

This was a cross-sectional study involving randomly selected university students from University of Dar es Salaam (UDSM) and Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences (MUHAS). Each respondent filled in a consent form prior to an interview. Awareness and prevalence of LSD usage, perceived effects and personal opinions on LSD usefulness were investigated. A total of 310 students (222 males and 88 females) aged between 21 and 35 years were interviewed. About 56.5% (n=175) were non-medical students from UDSM while 135 (43.5%) were medical students from MUHAS. Majority (92%) of the students was aware of LSDs, though only 29.3% of them had used one of 10 tracer LSDs, while 18 (5.8 %) students were uncertain whether they had ever used LSDs or not. Over 81% of LSD users had used alcohols and 43% of those admitted to have been propelled by peer pressure. Euphoria and “good sleep” were the mentioned by 27% of LSDs users as motive for consuming them, while 32.5% said LSDs usage added an extra-financial burden. This is the first study on the prevalence of LDS usage in universities.

Keywords

References

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Article

Health, Piety and Peace by Spirit, Ayurveda, Modern Yoga & Science

1World Health Piety and Peace Center, Panch Nibia-Shesh Ke Pura-Belvan Padari Mirzapur, India

2Mahima Reasearch Foundation & Social Welfare, BHU Varanasi


American Journal of Biomedical Research. 2014, 2(2), 19-28
DOI: 10.12691/ajbr-2-2-2
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
RAVI S PANDEY. Health, Piety and Peace by Spirit, Ayurveda, Modern Yoga & Science. American Journal of Biomedical Research. 2014; 2(2):19-28. doi: 10.12691/ajbr-2-2-2.

Correspondence to: RAVI  S PANDEY, World Health Piety and Peace Center, Panch Nibia-Shesh Ke Pura-Belvan Padari Mirzapur, India. Email: dr.rspandey@yahoo.com

Abstract

Wise men of intellects know that the materialistic human body is genetically controlled, environmentally modulated and controlled by unknown deluding power (Maya) or ULTIMATE. In the current period of time, Lust, Anger, Greed, Pride, Jealous, duplicity, perversity, hypocrisy, malice, heresy, pride, infatuation, concupiscence and arrogance pervade the whole universe. All are unreal, even though remedy is unknown. In this presidential address, I am bringing the new insights of these invisible agents and their remedies in association with diseases of mind, brain and body to provide complete health, doctrine and peace to whole world. The available unfathomable universe (Spirit, Piety, Vedas, Puranas, Agamas, Modern Yoga and Science) has been churned out in the laboratory of Nature and nectar like medicine has been discovered in the form of Ayurvedic, Yoga, Devotion, Wisdom and Dispassion. In brief, the root cause of diseases is the unreal concept of universe that is duality. Where is duality? In real fact, this does not exist and we all are just sleeping in night of delusion. All the human beings are bound to live their life under three humors “Sattva, Rajas and Tamas” and three states “Awaken, Dream and Sound Sleep” under the management of nature as slave of Desire, Senses & Mind. Indeed, all are suffering by time; fate; merit; demerit or disposition, but exact reason is unknown. In this, my approach is to bring the hypothesis of evenness theory in scientific society as the time is constant, only the dangerous waves of ignorance are flowing in the current period of time in all over universe. Under steeped condition, I and other have studied the level of DNA, RNA and Protein that is visible. Thus, we believe science with complete confidence and faith. Is there any remedy available to eradicate these invincible factors of diseases? Yes! Interestingly, in the laboratories of Nature, I have developed the remedies for these invincible factors along with an Ayurvedic formulation for the treatment of Vitiligo. Considering the very limit of Nescience and tremendous grief of whole universe, I have worked little hard to developed some nectar type medicine and in stage to reframe the universe by providing Health, Doctrine & Peace.

Keywords

References

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Article

Prevalence of Hymenolepis nana in Indigenous Tapirapé Ethnic Group from the Brazilian Amazon

1Department of Biological Science, University of State of Mato Grosso, Cáceres, Mato Grosso, Brazil

2Department of Parasitology, Institute of Biomedical Science, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil

3Department of Parasitology, Institute of Animal Biology, University of Campinas, Campinas, Brazil

4Department of Nursing, University of State of Mato Grosso, Cáceres, Mato Grosso, Brazil

5Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil


American Journal of Biomedical Research. 2014, 2(2), 16-18
DOI: 10.12691/ajbr-2-2-1
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Antonio F. Malheiros, Patrick D. Mathews, Larissa M. Scalon Lemos, Guilherme B. Braga, Jeffrey J. Shaw. Prevalence of Hymenolepis nana in Indigenous Tapirapé Ethnic Group from the Brazilian Amazon. American Journal of Biomedical Research. 2014; 2(2):16-18. doi: 10.12691/ajbr-2-2-1.

Correspondence to: Antonio  F. Malheiros, Department of Biological Science, University of State of Mato Grosso, Cáceres, Mato Grosso, Brazil. Email: p151867@dac.unicamp.br

Abstract

A total of 1528 stool samples were examined during a survey of intestinal parasites in 542 members of the Tapirapé ethnic group (279 females and 263 males), who live in the Brazilian Amazon region of Mato Grosso. Overall, 542 individuals from six indigenous villages were enrolled of whom 45 (8.3%) were positive for Hymenolepis nana based on analysis by microscopy of fecal concentrates. H. nana was more prevalent in male individuals (77.8%) as compared to females (22.2%). Moreover, males aged under 15 years have been associated with positivity for H. nana (P = 0.02). This study is the first report of the prevalence of H. nana in members of the indigenous Tapirapé ethnic group from the Brazilian Amazon.

Keywords

References

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Article

Sero-Prevalence of Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C Virue Co-Infection among Pregnant Women in Nigeria

1Hematology Department, Federal medical Centre, Ido-Ekiti, Nigeria

2Medical Microbiology Department, Federal Medical Centre, Ido-Ekiti, Nigeria

3Ondo State General Hospital, Okitipupa, Nigeria


American Journal of Biomedical Research. 2014, 2(1), 11-15
DOI: 10.12691/ajbr-2-1-3
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
A.J Esan, C.T. Omisakin, T. Ojo-Bola, M.F Owoseni, K.A Fasakin, A.A Ogunleye. Sero-Prevalence of Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C Virue Co-Infection among Pregnant Women in Nigeria. American Journal of Biomedical Research. 2014; 2(1):11-15. doi: 10.12691/ajbr-2-1-3.

Correspondence to: A.J  Esan, Hematology Department, Federal medical Centre, Ido-Ekiti, Nigeria. Email: ayodelejacob4u@gmail.com; ayodelejacob4u@yahoo.com

Abstract

This study was carried out to determine sero-prevalence of hepatitis B and hepatitis C virus co-infection among pregnant women. Viral hepatitis during pregnancy is associated with high risk of maternal complications; infections with Hepatitis B virus (HBV) or the Hepatitis C virus (HCV) are public health problems. Worldwide, there are about 350 million HBV carriers and 130 to 170 million people infected with HCV. The presence of HBV and HCV was determined using third-generation enzyme immunoassay (EIA), reactive samples were further confirmed using enzyme linked immune sorbent assay (ELISA) (Bio-Rad, France). Age group 26-30 and 31-35 had highest frequency of 240 (36.98%) and 206 (31.74%) respectively in HBV and HCV. Sero prevalence of HBV and HCV were 44 (6.78%) and 9 (1.39%) respectively. Prevalence of HBV and HCV co-infection was 1 (0.15%) in age group 31-35. Proper management of maternal hepatitis during the prenatal phase ensures better outcomes in the infant, therefore screening of pregnant women for hepatitis B and C virus are necessary in order to identify those neonates at risk of transmission.

Keywords

References

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Article

Effect of Alcohol Consumption and Oxidative Stress and Its Role in DNA Damage

1Department of Biochemistry, Government Medical College, Nagpur, India

2Department of Biochemistry, Chalmeda Anandarao Institute of Medical Sciences,karimnagar, India

3Department of Microbiology, Prathima Institute of Medical Sciences, Karimnagar, India


American Journal of Biomedical Research. 2014, 2(1), 7-10
DOI: 10.12691/ajbr-2-1-2
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Neelesh Deshpande, Sabitha Kandi, Manohar Muddeshwar, K V Ramana. Effect of Alcohol Consumption and Oxidative Stress and Its Role in DNA Damage. American Journal of Biomedical Research. 2014; 2(1):7-10. doi: 10.12691/ajbr-2-1-2.

Correspondence to: K  V Ramana, Department of Microbiology, Prathima Institute of Medical Sciences, Karimnagar, India. Email: ramana_20021@rediffmail.com

Abstract

Oxidative stress has been increasingly implicated in different stages of liver cirrhosis and has been found responsible for DNA damage. Alcohol consumption and oxidative stress have been linked with DNA damage and progression of disease, leading to the hypothesis that chronic alcoholism causes DNA damage. The study was aimed at evaluating the relation between alcohol consumption and relative oxidative damage in different stages of liver cirrhosis. The study included two groups based on severity of cirrhosis of liver; categorized as compensated and decompensated liver cirrhotic patients based on child Pugh criteria. All decompensated cirrhotic patients in the study group had significantly higher MDA levels (P < 0.001) associated with DNA Damage (P > 0.01) than those with compensated cirrhotic patients and control group who were not suffering from liver cirrhosis. These results highlighted a significant higher degree of DNA damage in decompensated cirrhotic patients associated with oxidative stress as shown from greater average DNA migration in decompensated cirrhotic patients than in the compensated cirrhotic patients with low level of oxidative stress. Thus these results suggest that increase in MDA levels may be associated with pathogenesis and progression of liver cirrhosis.

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References

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Article

Deficiency of GATA6 as a Molecular Tool to Assess the Risk for Cervical Cancer

1Faculty of Sciences and technology (FAST) / Laboratory of Biochemistry and molecular biology (LBBM), Institute of Biomedical Sciences and Applications (ISBA) / University Abomey-Calavi (UAC), Benin

2Gynecology/obstetric service and CIPEC, CHDU Borgou, Parakou, Bénin

3Gynecology/obstetric and oncology services, CNHU, UAC, Cotonou, BENIN

4Gynecology/obstetric service, Hospital Mènontin, Cotonou, Benin

5Sylvester Cancer Center/Miller Medical School of Medicine, University of Miami, USA


American Journal of Biomedical Research. 2014, 2(1), 1-6
DOI: 10.12691/ajbr-2-1-1
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Capo-chichi D. Callinice, Alladagbin D. Jeanne, Brun Luc, Aguida Blanche, Agossou Komlan Vidéhouénou, Anagbla Toussain, Salmane Amidou, Xu Xiang-Xi, Sanni Ambaliou. Deficiency of GATA6 as a Molecular Tool to Assess the Risk for Cervical Cancer. American Journal of Biomedical Research. 2014; 2(1):1-6. doi: 10.12691/ajbr-2-1-1.

Correspondence to: Capo-chichi  D. Callinice, Faculty of Sciences and technology (FAST) / Laboratory of Biochemistry and molecular biology (LBBM), Institute of Biomedical Sciences and Applications (ISBA) / University Abomey-Calavi (UAC), Benin. Email: callinice.capochichi@gmail.com

Abstract

Introduction: GATA6 is a transcription factor which has role in the induction of cell differentiation genes and the maintenance of the differentiated state of epithelial cells. GATA6 expression is lost in neoplastic ovarian epithelia cells and in ovarian carcinoma leading to abnormal nuclear morphology characteristic of most cancer cells. We investigated the profile of GATA6 in cells collected from cervical-uterine smears (CUS) of women in the gynecologic service of three hospitals in Benin. Objective: To utilize GATA6 as molecular marker for the screening of women at risk of developing cervical carcinomas. Methods: CUS were collected from forty (40) women coming for regular checkup (a) at the National University Hospital (CNHU) in Cotonou and (b) from the local hospital of Mènontin (HZ) in Cotonou (south of Benin); (c) forty other (40) CUS were collected from women coming for treatment against HIV1 in the service of gynecology of the Departmental University Hospital (CHDU) of Borgouin Parakou (north of Benin). GATA6 was analyzed in cells isolated from 80 CUS totally by the immunoblotting techniques. Results: In women from Cotonou, GATA6waspresent in 17/40 (42%) CUS, lightly expressed in 10/40 (25%) CUS and totally absent in /40 (32.5%) CUS. In the HIV1 infected women under treatment in Parakou, GATA6 was present in 8/40 (20%) CUS, lightly expressed in 13/40 (32.5%) and totally lost in 19/40 (47.5%) CUS. Conclusion: Our study showed that the loss of GATA6 in CUS was significantly higher in the population of women infected with HIV1 than in women from regular population in Cotonou. Thus the deficiency in GATA6 expression maybe utilizedas diagnostic tools to identify women at risk for developing cervical carcinomas regardless the infectious status before the onset of neoplasia.

Keywords

References

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Article

Periodontically Accelerated Osteogenic Orthodontics-A Review

1Department of periodontics, pidc, Penang, Malaysia

2Department of orthodontics, pidc


American Journal of Biomedical Research. 2013, 1(4), 132-133
DOI: 10.12691/ajbr-1-4-9
Copyright © 2013 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
MN. Prabhu, J. Sabarinathan. Periodontically Accelerated Osteogenic Orthodontics-A Review. American Journal of Biomedical Research. 2013; 1(4):132-133. doi: 10.12691/ajbr-1-4-9.

Correspondence to: MN.  Prabhu, Department of periodontics, pidc, Penang, Malaysia. Email: prabhumds@rediffmail.com

Abstract

It is well known that most of the orthodontic treatments require more time for completion of the treatment. This technique literally accelerates the orthodontic corrections. The appliance is worn by the patient before the surgery. After the periodontal surgery, force is applied to the appliance which moves the tooth faster. In this technique Distraction osteogenesis & Regional Accelerated phenomenon are combined to produce a faster orthodontic correction as desired by the Orthodontist. The concept behind the technique, the pros and cons, and the technique as well are reviewed in this article.

Keywords

References

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Article

Combined Support-Vector-Machine-Based Virtual Screening and Docking Method for the Discovery of IMP-1 Metallo-β-Lactamase Inhibitors Supplementary Data

1School of Life Science and Technology, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing, P.R. China


American Journal of Biomedical Research. 2013, 1(4), 120-131
DOI: 10.12691/ajbr-1-4-8
Copyright © 2013 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Jiao Chen, Yifang Liu, Mi Fang, Hui Chen, Xingzhen Lao, Xiangdong Gao, Heng Zheng, Wenbing Yao. Combined Support-Vector-Machine-Based Virtual Screening and Docking Method for the Discovery of IMP-1 Metallo-β-Lactamase Inhibitors Supplementary Data. American Journal of Biomedical Research. 2013; 1(4):120-131. doi: 10.12691/ajbr-1-4-8.

Correspondence to: Heng  Zheng, School of Life Science and Technology, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing, P.R. China. Email: zhengh18@hotmail.com

Abstract

Metallo-β-lactamases can hydrolyze a broad range of β-lactam antibiotics and no effective inhibitors could be used in the clinic. Therefore, the discovery of metallo-β-lactamase inhibitors has attracted much attention in recent years. In this study, a support vector machine (SVM) that separates compounds into positives and negatives, combined with docking method was employed for virtual screening of IMP-1 metallo-β-lactamase inhibitors. Eight of the twenty five selected compounds were purchased for in vitro assays. Among them, four compounds show inhibitory potency against IMP-1. Two of them are found to have novel scaffolds, implying a good potential for further optimization.

Keywords

References

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Article

“Combinatorial Strategy”: A Highly Efficient Method for Cloning Different Vectors with Various Clone Sites

1Department of Medicine, Centre for Research in Neurodegenerative Diseases, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada

2Division of Nephrology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Charlestown, USA


American Journal of Biomedical Research. 2013, 1(4), 112-119
DOI: 10.12691/ajbr-1-4-7
Copyright © 2013 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Gang Zhang, Anurag Tandon. “Combinatorial Strategy”: A Highly Efficient Method for Cloning Different Vectors with Various Clone Sites. American Journal of Biomedical Research. 2013; 1(4):112-119. doi: 10.12691/ajbr-1-4-7.

Correspondence to: Gang  Zhang, Department of Medicine, Centre for Research in Neurodegenerative Diseases, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada. Email: gang.zhang@utoronto.ca; sdzbzhanggang@yahoo.com

Abstract

In this study, we generalized the “Combinatorial Strategy” for efficient cloning of different vectors with various clone sites. 1) Using originally existed clone sites from circular plasmids to prepare the inserts, if no appropriate sites available, performing SDM to create compatible sites, could achieve maximal correct digestion of the inserts. 2) Different vectors were digested with various restriction endonucleases, and then dephosphorylated after digestion. 3) Top10 competent cells were used for transformation to increase the transformant colonies. Our results showed that, when either blunt-sites or Xba I site was adopted for ligation, the percentages of positive clones were about 50%. Whereas, when different sites, including one blunt and another Pst I sites, Not I and Xho I sites, were used, the percentages of positive clones were nearly 100%. With this strategy, most vectors could be successfully cloned through “one ligation, one transformation, three to five minipreps”.

Keywords

References

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Article

A New Overview on the Old Topic: The Theoretical Analysis of “Combinatorial Strategy” for DNA Recombination

1Department of Cell & Systems Biology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada

2Department of Medicine, Centre for Research in Neurodegenerative Diseases, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada;Division of Nephrology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Harvard University, Charlestown, United States


American Journal of Biomedical Research. 2013, 1(4), 108-111
DOI: 10.12691/ajbr-1-4-6
Copyright © 2013 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Gang Zhang. A New Overview on the Old Topic: The Theoretical Analysis of “Combinatorial Strategy” for DNA Recombination. American Journal of Biomedical Research. 2013; 1(4):108-111. doi: 10.12691/ajbr-1-4-6.

Correspondence to: Gang  Zhang, Department of Cell & Systems Biology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada. Email: gang.zhang@utoronto.ca; sdzbzhanggang@yahoo.com

Abstract

To clone genes of interest into suitable vectors is the first step to investigate their functions in vitro and in vivo. At the genome era, the sequences of more and more genes were decoded and available gradually. Therefore, it is critical to develop high efficient strategies for cloning genes of interest into different vectors to facilitate the functional analyses of them. In our previous studies, we created “Combinatorial strategy” for DNA recombination. Here, I theoretically analyzed the procedure of DNA recombination, the mechanism of this strategy, and further gave suggestions and predictions for various ligation-dependent molecular cloning experiments.

Keywords

References

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Article

Switch the Tumor Off: From Genes to Amanita Therapy

1Independent Cancer Research, Im Amann, Uberlingen, Germany


American Journal of Biomedical Research. 2013, 1(4), 93-107
DOI: 10.12691/ajbr-1-4-5
Copyright © 2013 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Isolde Riede. Switch the Tumor Off: From Genes to Amanita Therapy. American Journal of Biomedical Research. 2013; 1(4):93-107. doi: 10.12691/ajbr-1-4-5.

Correspondence to: Isolde  Riede, Independent Cancer Research, Im Amann, Uberlingen, Germany. Email: riede@tumor-therapie.info

Abstract

Tumor formation is due to somatic mutations. Mutant oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes lead to destabilization of the differentiation pattern and to defect cell adhesion. Proliferative genes are the cause of tumor formation, allow replication and thereby shortcut the cell cycle. At least one proliferative mutation is present in every tumor cell. Biochemical characteristics for tumor cells are onset of replication, constitutive onset of the repair system, and cell death defects. A successful tumor therapy inhibits specifically tumor cell activity and not the immune response. Thereby, the immune system is able to recognize and to digest tumor cells. In search of the center of the tumor pathways, switch genes are identified, that influence in trans tumor cell activity. Switch genes are not mutant, but overexpressed in human tumor cells. All switch proteins are RNApolymeraseII transcription factors. Therefore in tumor cells RNApolymeraseII should be used to full extent. Amanita phalloides contains amanitin, inhibiting RNApolymeraseII. Applying Amanita phalloides dilutions lead to reduction of the tumor cell activity, and in cancer patients to stabilization of the disease state, or eventually to remission.

Keywords

References

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Article

Anticoagulant and Antioxidant Activities of Dracaena arborea Leaves (Wild.) Link

1Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Calabar, Calabar, Nigeria

2Department of Veterinary Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Abuja, Nigeria

3Department of Veterinary Microbiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria


American Journal of Biomedical Research. 2013, 1(4), 86-92
DOI: 10.12691/ajbr-1-4-4
Copyright © 2013 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Nwaehujor Chinaka O., Ode Julius O., Nwinyi Florence C., Madubuike Stella A.. Anticoagulant and Antioxidant Activities of Dracaena arborea Leaves (Wild.) Link. American Journal of Biomedical Research. 2013; 1(4):86-92. doi: 10.12691/ajbr-1-4-4.

Correspondence to: Nwaehujor  Chinaka O., Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Calabar, Calabar, Nigeria. Email: chinaka_n@yahoo.com

Abstract

The crude methanol extract of Dracaena arborea leaves induced significant (p<0.01) increase in the clotting times of 21 ± 0.54 sec and 25 ± 1.1 sec at 5% and 10% concentrations of the extract respectively compared to the baseline clotting time of 7 ± 0.63 sec for the blood sample. The extract also exhibited potent in vivo and in vitro anticoagulant activities. Increased doses (100 and 200 mg/kg) of the extract, heparin (0.75 and 1.5 mg/kg) and aspirin (1.0 and 2.0 mg/kg) were found to have significantly (p < 0.01) prolonged the mean bleeding times with respect to the baseline in rabbits. However, in thrombin-induced clotting assay, the extract demonstrated a reduced potency compared to heparin. DPPH (1, 1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) and FRAP (Ferric reducing/antioxidant power) spetrophotometric assays revealed that the crude leaf extract possesses appreciable high antioxidant potentials. Dracaena arborea leaves (Wild.) Link could be a source of novel anticoagulant and antioxidant compounds for the management of various hematological disorders.

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References

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Article

Socioeconomic, Disease, and Biochemical Factors in Adherence to Anti tuberculosis Treatment Regime in Benin City, Nigeria: A Comparative Study

1Department of Medical Biochemistry, College of medicine, Ambrose Alli University, Ekpoma, Nigeria

2Department of biochemistry, University of Benin, Benin City, Nigeria

3Department of Internal Medicine, Irrua Specialist Teaching Hospital, Irrua, Nigeria

4Department of Human Physiology, College of Medicine, Ambrose Alli University, Ekpoma, Nigeria

5Department of Community Health, Irrua Specialist Teaching Hospital, Irrua, Nigeria

6Department of Community Health, University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City, Nigeria


American Journal of Biomedical Research. 2013, 1(4), 80-84
DOI: 10.12691/ajbr-1-4-3
Copyright © 2013 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
A. O. Iyamu, Onyeneke E. C, J. E. Ugheoke, W. A. Adisa, N. Akpede O. Aigbe, G. Oko-Oboh. Socioeconomic, Disease, and Biochemical Factors in Adherence to Anti tuberculosis Treatment Regime in Benin City, Nigeria: A Comparative Study. American Journal of Biomedical Research. 2013; 1(4):80-84. doi: 10.12691/ajbr-1-4-3.

Correspondence to: W. A. Adisa, Department of Human Physiology, College of Medicine, Ambrose Alli University, Ekpoma, Nigeria. Email: williamsadewumi@yahoo.com

Abstract

Tuberculosis is a re-emergent disease of great epidemiological concern with the directly observed treatment short course (DOTS) recommended by the World Health Organization falling short of targeted expectations. The aim was to compare the impact of socioeconomic, disease, and biochemical factors on the decision of patients to return to (comply with) the six-month treatment schedule. Effects of education, age, occupational and marital (socioeconomic) and biochemical (drug side effects and values of biochemical indices of liver function) factors were compared between 52 SLR and 49 SNR patients. The results suggest that socioeconomic factors play a more prominent role than factors related to drug side effects in determining whether a patient returns to treatment after initial stoppage. A more integrated multi-disciplinary approach to DOTS administration with professional and social inputs is recommended.

Keywords

References

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Article

Evaluation of Acetaminophen Effect on Oxidative Stressed Mice by Peroxide Hydrogen

1Biochemistry and Molecular Biology laboratory, Ain Chock Faculty of Science Hassan II University, Casablanca, Morocco

2Microbiology pharmacology Biotechnology and Environment laboratory, Ain Chock Faculty of Science Hassan II University, Casablanca, Morocco


American Journal of Biomedical Research. 2013, 1(4), 75-79
DOI: 10.12691/ajbr-1-4-2
Copyright © 2013 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
BENKHASSI Zoubair, LAHLOU Fatima Azzahra, HMIMID Fouzia, LOUTFI Mohammed, BENAJI Brahim, BOURHIM Noureddine. Evaluation of Acetaminophen Effect on Oxidative Stressed Mice by Peroxide Hydrogen. American Journal of Biomedical Research. 2013; 1(4):75-79. doi: 10.12691/ajbr-1-4-2.

Correspondence to: LAHLOU Fatima Azzahra, Biochemistry and Molecular Biology laboratory, Ain Chock Faculty of Science Hassan II University, Casablanca, Morocco. Email: lahloufz@hotmail.fr

Abstract

Acetaminophen (Paracetamol) is among the most commonly used analgesic and antipyretic drugs worldwide, it’s often, but anomalously, classified as non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in textbooks of pharmacology . This study aims to evaluate if paracetamol has an antioxidant effect, relative to its analgesic antipyretic and weak anti-inflammatory activities, or it possesses a cytotoxic potential. Oxidative stress was induced by intraperetoneal injection of peroxide hydrogen (H2O2), and then a comparative study is made concerning the activities of the antioxidant enzymes SOD, CAT, and GR as well as lipid peroxidation levels in liver. An increase in SOD, CAT, GR activity and lipid peroxidation in mice treated with H2O2 accompanied by paracetamol; compared to the group treated by vitamin C + H2O2 showed that acetaminophen doesn’t show any antioxidant effect. Moreover this study has suggested that acetaminophen induced cytotoxicity in liver mediated by increased oxidative stress and altered redox metabolism.

Keywords

References

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Article

Success Rate of Free Flap Reconstructions in Elderly Patients

1Clinical Hospital Tuzla, Clinic for Plastic and Maxillofacial Surgery, Tuzla, Bosnia and Herzegovina

2Clinical Hospital Dubrava, Clinic for Maxillofacial Surgery, Zagreb, Croatia

3Clinical Hospital Dubrava, Clinic for Anesthesiology, Zagreb, Croatia


American Journal of Biomedical Research. 2013, 1(4), 71-74
DOI: 10.12691/ajbr-1-4-1
Copyright © 2013 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Merima Kasumović, Vedran Uglešić, Morena Milić. Success Rate of Free Flap Reconstructions in Elderly Patients. American Journal of Biomedical Research. 2013; 1(4):71-74. doi: 10.12691/ajbr-1-4-1.

Correspondence to: Morena Milić, Clinical Hospital Dubrava, Clinic for Anesthesiology, Zagreb, Croatia. Email: mkpuzzle2@gmail.com

Abstract

There is much evidence that microvascular free flaps are successfully used in the reconstruction of the head and neck defects in cancer patients. It has become evident that proportional with ageing population, there is an increase in the number of elderly patients requiring microvascular reconstruction after radical excision of tumors in the head and neck region. The aim of this study is to estimate the correlation between the application of a microvascular free flap for defect reconstruction in elderly patients based on ASA (American Society of Anesthesiology) classification and postoperative surgical and medical morbidity. Study included 31 patients older than 70 years hospitalized in the period from 1996 to 2010 at the Clinic for Maxillofacial Surgery, Zagreb, Croatia. Base of reference for every patient included data about: gender, age, date and length of surgical procedure, basic diagnosis, chronic illneses, ASA (American Society of Anesthesiology) clasiffication, type of surgical procedure, type of microvascular free flap, postoperative complications, length of hospitalization and treatment results. Based on the data analysis it is estimated that morbidity was significantly higher in the number of male patients than the number of female patients (61% : 38.7%). Average age was 76 years and the oldest patient was 87 years old. According to ASA clasiffication patients were mostly ASA III (60,87%) and then ASA II 26.08%. Overall, the success rate of microvascular free flap was 94%. Moreover, postoperative medical complications were in the correlation with ASA status 19.45%. The study shows that the successs rate of microvascular free flap reconstruction of cancer in the head and neck region with elderly patients is directly related to ASA and the length of surgical procedure, as significant predictors in postoperative surgical and medical morbidity.

Keywords

References

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Article

Solid Dispersion Incorporated Microcapsules: Predictive Tools for Improve the Half Life and Dissolution Rate of Pioglitazone Hydrochloride

1Shri Venkateshwara University Rajabpur, Gajraula/SVU, (U.P.) India

2S.D. College of Pharmacy & Vocational Studies, Muzaffarnagar, (U.P.) India


American Journal of Biomedical Research. 2013, 1(3), 57-70
DOI: 10.12691/ajbr-1-3-3
Copyright © 2013 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Singh Chhater, Kumar Praveen. Solid Dispersion Incorporated Microcapsules: Predictive Tools for Improve the Half Life and Dissolution Rate of Pioglitazone Hydrochloride. American Journal of Biomedical Research. 2013; 1(3):57-70. doi: 10.12691/ajbr-1-3-3.

Correspondence to: Singh Chhater, Shri Venkateshwara University Rajabpur, Gajraula/SVU, (U.P.) India. Email: pharma_pharm@yahoo.com

Abstract

The present study was aimed to formulate the solid dispersion incorporated microcapsule to improve the dissolution rate and half life of pioglitazone hydrochloride. The solvent evaporation method was used to formulate the solid dispersion resulted increased dissolution rate, bioavailability and stability. Finally increase the half life of the drug by employ the orifice ionic gelation method to formulate solid dispersion incorporated muco-adhesive microcapsule. The solubility of pioglitazone hydrochloride was increase by the preparation of its solid dispersion with polyvinyl pyrrolidone K30 using solvent evaporation methods. The microcapsules of pioglitazone hydrochloride were prepared by (orifice ionic gelation method) employing sodium alginate as a cell forming polymer and using a different bio-adhesive polymers as carbopol, HPMC and sodium CMC in a various ratios of 1:1, 3:1, 6:1 & 9:1, by orifice ion gelation method. FT-IR spectra revealed no chemical incompatibility between drug and polymers. Drug-polymer interactions were investigated using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Powder X-Ray Diffraction (PXRD). Scanning electron microscope photographs of samples revealed that all prepared microcapsules were almost spherical in shape and have a slightly smooth surface.

Keywords

References

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Article

Main Phenotype Subphases in Reprogramming Somatic Cells as a Model of Cellular Differentiation Process

1Health Attention Department, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana, México

2Institute of Ecology. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México

3Medical Ambulatory Attention Unit. Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, México


American Journal of Biomedical Research. 2013, 1(3), 48-56
DOI: 10.12691/ajbr-1-3-2
Copyright © 2013 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Victor Valdespino, Patricia M Valdespino, Victor Valdespino Junior. Main Phenotype Subphases in Reprogramming Somatic Cells as a Model of Cellular Differentiation Process. American Journal of Biomedical Research. 2013; 1(3):48-56. doi: 10.12691/ajbr-1-3-2.

Correspondence to: Victor Valdespino, Health Attention Department, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana, México. Email: vvaldespinog@yahoo.com.mx

Abstract

The cellular differentiation process involves complex genetic, epigenetic and signaling pathways systems. The analysis of a specific model of cellular differentiation may contribute to understand the global mechanisms. The cellular differentiation process based on the experimental reprogramming of somatic cells (terminally differentiated cells) to induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) can be used a study model of cellular differentiation. The cellular differentiation process includes constitutive changes in DNA damage response, chromatin remodeling, nuclear receptors, cell cycle regulation, apoptosis induction, cell adhesion and motility changes, immune recognition, metabolism routes, intercellular communication and in response to environment signals. It also includes the acquisition of changes into specialized cell subphenotypes as changes of shape, overproduction of organelles, suborganelles, control position of the mitotic spindle, preferential-transit signaling pathways and production of biomolecules with specialized functions. Different temporo-spatial genetic/epigenetic gene expression patterns and translational and posttranslational processes have been shown in the reprogramming of somatic cells. We analyze the main phenotype changes from fibroblast to iPSC (in cell cycle and cell adhesion/motility) to come after reprogramming, and use these changes as a model of cellular differentiation process.

Keywords

References

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Article

Coumarin, a Lead Compound of Warfarin, Inhibits Melanogenesis via Blocking Adenylyl Cyclase

1Department of Biomedical Laboratory Science, Gimcheon University, Gimcheon City, South Korea

2Institute for Physics, University of Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany

3School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, U.S.A


American Journal of Biomedical Research. 2013, 1(3), 43-47
DOI: 10.12691/ajbr-1-3-1
Copyright © 2013 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Dong-Chan Kim, Seong-Hwan Rho, Dongjin Kim, Sung In Kim, Chul-Soo Jang, Jae Ki Ryu, Byung Weon Kim, Chang Oh Kweon, Hyun-kyung Kim, Suk Jun Lee. Coumarin, a Lead Compound of Warfarin, Inhibits Melanogenesis via Blocking Adenylyl Cyclase. American Journal of Biomedical Research. 2013; 1(3):43-47. doi: 10.12691/ajbr-1-3-1.

Correspondence to: Dong-Chan Kim, Department of Biomedical Laboratory Science, Gimcheon University, Gimcheon City, South Korea. Email: jenokin@nate.com

Abstract

Due to Its multiple biological activities, coumarin (a main ingredient of Cinnamon extracts) has gained attention as potentially useful therapeutics for various diseases. However, the efficacy of coumarin for the use of dermatological health has not been fully explored. To clarify the action mechanism of the skin protecting property of coumarin, we firstly investigated the molecular docking property of coumarin on the mammalian adenylyl cyclase, which is the key enzyme of cAMP-induced melanogenesis in the skin cells. In binding study, the benzopyran moiety of coumarin occupies dual sites of the hydrophobic cleft at the interface of two subunits of adenylyl cyclase. We also examined the involvement of coumarin in alpha-MSH and forskolin induced cAMP signaling within a cell based assay. In addition, we inquired into the inhibitory effect of coumarin on melanogenesis and found that the pretreatment with coumarin inhibited the forskolin-induced melanin contents significantly without annihilating the cell viability. Our results strongly suggest that coumarin directly inhibits the activity of adenylyl cyclase, downregulates forskolin-induced cAMP-production pathway, consequently inhibiting melanogenesis. Thus, coumarin may also be used as an effective inhibitor of hyperpigmentation.

Keywords

References

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Article

Genomic-Epigenomic Signaling Pathways Changes in Cellular Differentiation Process


American Journal of Biomedical Research. 2013, 1(2), 35-42
DOI: 10.12691/ajbr-1-2-3
Copyright © 2013 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Victor Valdespino, Patricia M. Valdespino, Victor Valdespino Junior. Genomic-Epigenomic Signaling Pathways Changes in Cellular Differentiation Process. American Journal of Biomedical Research. 2013; 1(2):35-42. doi: 10.12691/ajbr-1-2-3.

Correspondence to: Victor Valdespino, . Email:

Abstract

Cellular differentiation is a highly complex process and we need a deeper understanding of their mechanisms. Reprogramming somatic cells follows the inverse order to the physiologic differentiation process. Reprogramming somatic cells may be used as a simplistic model to understand the cellular differentiation process. The generation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) requires going along through a complex network of genetic and epigenetic pathways. Dedifferentiation from somatic cells to iPSCs involves multiple genetic-epigenetic signaling pathways to obtain high levels of plasticity, self-renewal, motility and loss of specialized cellular functions. Eleven main signaling pathways have been involved in cell fate control and embryonic patterning. Extensive crosstalk among epigenetic pathways modifies DNA, histones and nucleosomes which make up the epigenetic mechanisms of gene regulation in differentiation and reprogramming processes.

Keywords

References

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Article

Subcomponents of Vitamine B Complex Regulate the Growth and Development of Human Brain Derived Cells


American Journal of Biomedical Research. 2013, 1(2), 28-34
DOI: 10.12691/ajbr-1-2-2
Copyright © 2013 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
K.E. Danielyan. Subcomponents of Vitamine B Complex Regulate the Growth and Development of Human Brain Derived Cells. American Journal of Biomedical Research. 2013; 1(2):28-34. doi: 10.12691/ajbr-1-2-2.

Correspondence to: K.E. Danielyan, . Email:

Abstract

The work is focused on the role of single components of Vitamin B complex: pyridoxine, riboflavin, thiamine, and nicotinamide in the processes of growth and development of the human brain derived cells. We, also, have assayed the activity of Xanthine Oxidase in the presence of above mentioned subcomponents to delineate the possible mechanism of their action. Results indicate that the all components of Vitamin B complex might be responsible for cells’ growth, maturation, proliferation. During early period of the cells’ growth the most important components were thiamine and Pyridoxine, initiating cells’ proliferation (number of the cells in one field: 2556, 17±355, 68, 2179,0±223,55, resp) vs control (1562,94±146,45), whereas during the late stages of maturation the most important components responsible for differentiation, were riboflavin and nicotinamide (3774.77± 188.41, 3558.82±152.90 resp. vs control 2905±263.75; p<0.035). In comparison with the all other subcomponents of Vitamin B complex only in pyridoxine containing samples, XO activity was specifically inhibited by allopurinol (percentile of inhibition 160,00±60,00 vs control 31,03±6,92, p<0,05). We have concluded that Pyridoxine might interact with XO and regulate its activity. All components of Vitamin B complex are able to initiate cells development and growth; however, they are supposed to be selectively utilized in time dependent manner to guarantee the highest efficiency of the cells development, maturation and proliferation

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References

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