ISSN (Print): 2328-3947

ISSN (Online): 2328-3955

Editor-in-Chief: Hari K. Koul




Serum Estrogen and Estrogen Receptor Beta Levels in Female and Male Patients with Vitiligo

1Medical Biochemistry Department, Suez Canal University, Ismailia, Egypt

2Dermatology & Venereology Department, Suez Canal University, Ismailia, Egypt

American Journal of Biomedical Research. 2015, 3(3), 53-57
doi: 10.12691/ajbr-3-3-4
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Nagwan A. Sabek, Moustafa M Eyada, Shiymaa M Abdel Aziz, Shimaa M Demerdash, Amal H. Goma, Shereen Fikry. Serum Estrogen and Estrogen Receptor Beta Levels in Female and Male Patients with Vitiligo. American Journal of Biomedical Research. 2015; 3(3):53-57. doi: 10.12691/ajbr-3-3-4.

Correspondence to: Nagwan  A. Sabek, Medical Biochemistry Department, Suez Canal University, Ismailia, Egypt. Email:


Background: Vitiligo is a common skin disease characterized by cutaneous white macules. The exact pathogenesis of vitiligo is not yet known. Estrogen receptor β (ERβ) was expressed in the melanocytes and has a possible role in pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases. Objective: This study aimed to assess serum estrogen and ERβ levels in female and male vitiligo patients and studied their association with the disease activity and severity; to our knowledge this study is the first one that assessed the serum level of estrogen and estrogen receptor β in patients with vitiligo. Subjects and Method: the study was conducted on 30 female and 30 male patients with vitiligo and 30 female and 30 male healthy controls. All patients were subjected to full history taking and clinical assessment; serum estrogen and ERβ were measured using enzyme linked immune-assay (ELISA) kits. Results: Our results showed that serum estrogen level was statistically significant higher in female vitiligo patients compared to controls (46.3± 42.0 vs 30.0±28.9, P=0.028 respectively). Serum ERβ level was statistically lower in vitiligo patients compared to controls (96.5±52.2 vs 118.2 ± 76.0, P=0.035, respectively), also there was significantly difference in serum ERβ levels among different pattern of vitiligo (P=0.049), also we found serum estrogen levels were significantly higher in male vitiligo patients compared to controls (30.3 ±17.9 pg/ml, 21.3±11pg/ml, p=0.022). There was statistically significant difference in serum estrogen level in patients with different disease pattern (P=0.003). Conclusions: In our study population, there was a statistically significant difference in serum estrogen and ERβ in vitiligo female and male patients compared to their controls, these results might be highlight their possible role in the pathogenesis of vitiligo.



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Computational Analysis of the Single nucleotide Polymorphisms that Affect Superoxide Dismutase Reveals Important Domain Related to Protein Function

1Daoud Research Group, University of Khartoum, Khartoum, Sudan

2Professor of Medicine, Senior Consultant Neurologist, University of Khartoum, Sudan

3Department of Bioinformatics, Africa City of Technology, Sudan University of Medical Science and Technology, Sudan;Division of Molecular Genetics, Institute of Human Genetics, University of Tubingen, Germany

American Journal of Biomedical Research. 2015, 3(4), 58-65
doi: 10.12691/ajbr-3-4-1
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Mohamed Dafaalla, Tarig Mabrouk, Omer Ali, Ibrahim Elkhidir, Mohamed Adel Taha, Mohamed A. Abdelrahim, Osman Arbab, Musaab M. alfaki, Abbashar M. Hussein, Mohamed A. Hassan. Computational Analysis of the Single nucleotide Polymorphisms that Affect Superoxide Dismutase Reveals Important Domain Related to Protein Function. American Journal of Biomedical Research. 2015; 3(4):58-65. doi: 10.12691/ajbr-3-4-1.

Correspondence to: Mohamed  Dafaalla, Daoud Research Group, University of Khartoum, Khartoum, Sudan. Email:


BACKGROUND: A major focus of neurodegeneration research involves the characterization of how the enzyme Cu, Zn superoxide dismutase is involved in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Despite a wealth of structural and biochemical knowledge, the mechanism by which SOD mutations promote ALS remains controversial.METHODS: GENEMANIA software was used to highlight genetic interactions of SOD1. SOD1 was investigated in dbSNP/NCBI database in May 2015. SOD1 had of 2123 SNPs; 622 were identified in human, of which 29 were in the coding region, 8 were non-synonymous SNPs (nsSNPs), 22 were in the 3'un-translated region, and 75 SNPs at 5'un-translated region. Only nsSNPs and 3'UTR SNPs were selected for analysis. Predictions of deleterious nsSNPs was performed by SIFT and Polyphen softwares. The functional impact of the deleterious SNPS was analyzed by project hope. Chimera and project hope softwares were used to highlight the changes occurred as a result of the deleterious SNPs at level of protein 3D structure. The SNPS at 3UTR region were analyzed by Polymirt software. RESULTS: Genamania revealed possible role for SoD1 in epidermal cell growth through interaction with NME2 (MIM 156491) and NCOA3 (MIM 601937) genes. Two SNPs were found to be deleterious in both SIFT and Polyphen, whereas one SNP was found deleterious in SIFT and not Polyphen. The SNPs predicted to be deleterious in both SIFT and Polyphen are rs11556621 and rs11556620. They cause change from the amino acid in position 29 from proline to glutamine, and in amino acid number 87 from asparagine to serine respectively. Both SNPs affect an amino acid at the interpro domain named "Superoxide dismutase, copper/zinc binding domain" (IPR001424) whose function is metal ion binding. The SNP rs1804450 effect was found to be a controversial that involves a change in amino acid in position 40 from threonine to isoleucine. Although this residue is part of the "Superoxide dismutase, copper/zinc binding domain" (IPR001424), its site is not conserved. Eight SNPs predicted to induce disruption or creation of mirRNA binding site. CONCLUSION: SNPs that affect metal binding domain of superoxide dismutase are the main SNPs that significantly affect enzyme structure and function.



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Potential Phytochemical, Analgesic and Anticancerous Activities of Cymbopogon citratus Leaf

1Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Science and Engineering, International Islamic University Chittagong, College Road, Chittagong, Bangladesh

2Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, North South University, Dhaka, Bangladesh

American Journal of Biomedical Research. 2015, 3(4), 66-70
doi: 10.12691/ajbr-3-4-2
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Md. Irfan Amin Chowdury, Mitali Debnath, Md. Foyez Ahmad, Mohammad Nazmul Alam, Arif Mohammad Saleh, Sudipta Chowdhury, Rajesh Barua, Muhammad Moin Uddin Mazumdar, Abu Hena Mustafa Kamal. Potential Phytochemical, Analgesic and Anticancerous Activities of Cymbopogon citratus Leaf. American Journal of Biomedical Research. 2015; 3(4):66-70. doi: 10.12691/ajbr-3-4-2.

Correspondence to: Mohammad  Nazmul Alam, Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Science and Engineering, International Islamic University Chittagong, College Road, Chittagong, Bangladesh. Email:


Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate phytochemical, analgesic and anticancerous activities of Cymbopogon citratus. Methods: Phytochemical screening, analgesic test and anticancerous activities were evaluated by the different chemical tests, writhing test and tail immersion test, brine shrimp lethality bioassay. Results: In the case of acetic acid induced writhing test, C. citratus showed highest percent of inhibition at 400 mg/kg, p.o. which is 49.01% whereas standard diclofenac sodium showed 73.76% at 10 mg/kg, i.p. In the case of tail immersion method, C. citratus exhibited its highest activity at 400 mg/kg, p.o. in 90 min which is 5.56±0.88 whereas diclofenac sodium showed 6.71±0.15 at 10 mg/kg, i.p. in 90 min. In the case of anticancerous activity, methanolic leaf extract of C. citratus demonstrated significant activity which is 113.74 µg/ml and standard vincristine sulphate showed 12.59 µg/ml. Conclusions: The result of phytochemical screening revealed that, methanolic leaf extract of Cymbopogon citratus contain alkaloids, steroids, flavonoids, tannins, saponins and carbohydrates. Methanolic leaf extracts of this plant possess moderate analgesic activity as well as exhibited significant anticancerous activity.



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