ISSN (Print): 2328-3947

ISSN (Online): 2328-3955

Editor-in-Chief: Hari K. Koul




Effects of Selenium Treatment on Healing of Acetic Acid Induced Gastric Ulcer in Albino Wistar Rats

1Department of Human Physiology, College of Health Sciences, Kogi State University, Anyigba. Post code: 272102, Nigeria

2Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Kogi State University, Anyigba. Post code: 272102, Nigeria

American Journal of Biomedical Research. 2016, 4(1), 18-22
doi: 10.12691/ajbr-4-1-4
Copyright © 2016 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Adeniyi Olasupo Stephen, Omale James, Egwuje Rita Ikoojo, Ajayi Olugbenga Sunday. Effects of Selenium Treatment on Healing of Acetic Acid Induced Gastric Ulcer in Albino Wistar Rats. American Journal of Biomedical Research. 2016; 4(1):18-22. doi: 10.12691/ajbr-4-1-4.

Correspondence to: Adeniyi  Olasupo Stephen, Department of Human Physiology, College of Health Sciences, Kogi State University, Anyigba. Post code: 272102, Nigeria. Email:


The effects of selenium on healing of acetic acid induced gastric ulcer investigated in albino Wistar rats and the results were compared with that of a standard drug omeprazole. Animals were anesthetized with 50mg/kg sodium thiopental, laparotomy was performed and gastric ulcer was induced by application of 80% acetic acid to the serosal surface of stomach. Animals were then divided into three groups. Group 1 was treated with 1 ml/kg/day normal saline (NS) (p.o), group 2; 100µg/kg/day selenium (p.o) and group 3; 20mg/kg/day omeprazole (p.o). Treatment period was 10 days post ulcer induction. Assessment of ulcer healing was done on days 3, 7 and 10 respectively by measurement of ulcer area, lipid peroxidation, catalase activity and mucus secretion. Result showed that by day 7 and 10, the reduction in ulcer area was more significant in selenium and omeprazole treated (p< 0.05, 0.05) respectively. By day 7 and 10, lipid peroxidation was significantly lower in selenium and omeprazole treated as compared with NS treated (p<0.05, 0.05). Furthermore by day 3, 7 and 10, catalase activity was significantly higher (p < 0.05) in selenium treated as compared with NS treated. Result also showed that mucus secretion was significantly higher in selenium and omeprazole treated (p < 0.001, 0.001) compared with NS by day 7. However, by day 10, secretion in both selenium and omeprazole treated had started to decline. In conclusion, selenium accelerated ulcer healing by facilitating mucosal regeneration, reducing lipid peroxidation, increasing antioxidant activity and by altering mucus secretion response.



[1]  Tarnawski, A. Molecular mechanism of ulcer healing. Drug News Perspect. 13:158-168. 2000.
[2]  Sonnenberg, A. Geographical and temporal variations in the occurrence of peptic ulcer disease. Scand. J. Gastroenterol. Suppl. 110: 11. 1996.
[3]  Shristi, B., Neha, J., Indu, B.P. and Rajesh G. A review on some Indian medicinal plants for antiulcer activity. J. Sci. Res. Pharm. 1: 6-9. 2012.
[4]  Groenen, M.J., Kuipers, E.J., Hansen, B.E. and Ouwendijk, R.J. Incidence of duodenal ulcers and gastric ulcers in a Western population: back to where it started. Can. J. Gastroenterol. 23: 604-608. 2009.
[5]  Dong, W.G., Cheng, C.S., Liu, S.P and Yu J.P. Epidemiology of peptic ulcer disease in Wuhan area of China from 1997 to 2002. World J. Gastroenterol. 10: 3377-3379. 2004.
Show More References
[6]  Li, Z., Zou, D., Ma, X., Chen, J., Shi, X., Gong, Y., Man, X., Gao, L., Zhao, Y., Wang, R., Yan, X., Dent, J., Sung, J.J., Wernersson, B., Johansson, S., Liu, W. and He, J. Epidemiology of peptic ulcer disease: endoscopic results of the systematic investigation of gastrointestinal disease in China. Am. J. Gastroenterol. 105: 2570-2577. 2010.
[7]  Fujino, S., Suzuki, Y. and Tanaka, T. Cost-benefit analysis of medicinal treatment for gastric ulcers. Long-term model including healing and recurrence. Health Policy. 5: 45-72. 1985.
[8]  Bright-Asare, P., Habte, T., Yirgou, B. and Benjamin, J. Prostaglandins, H2-receptor antagonists and peptic ulcer disease. Drugs. 35 (3): 1-9. 1988.
[9]  Xiao, Y.L., Nie, Y.Q., Hou, X.H., Xie, P.Y., Fang, J.Y., Yuan, Y.Z., Zhou, L.Y., Zhao, N.Q. and Chen, M.H. The efficacy, safety and cost-effectiveness of hydrotalcite versus esomeprazole in on-demand therapy of NERD: A multicenter, randomized, open-label study in China. J. Dig. Dis. 14: 463-468. 2013.
[10]  Banerjee, D., Maity, B., Bandivdeker, A.H., Bandyopadhyay, S.K. and Chattopadhyay, S. Angiogenic and cell proliferating action of the natural diarylnonanoids, malabaricone B and malabaricone C during healing of indomethacin-induced gastric ulceration. Pharm. Res. 25:1601-1609. 2008.
[11]  Bhattacharya, S., Banerjee, D., Bauri, A.K., Chattopadhyay, S. and Bandyopadhyay, S.K. Healing property of the Piper betel phenol, allylpyrocatechol against indomethacin-induced stomach ulceration and mechanism of action. World J. Gastroenterol. 13:3705-3713. 2007.
[12]  Broome, C.S., McArdle, F., Kyle, J.A., Andrews, F., Lowe, N.M., Hart, C.A., Arthur, J.R. and Jackson, M.J. An increase in selenium intake improves immune function and poliovirus handling in adults with marginal selenium status. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 80:154-62. 2004.
[13]  Baum, M.K. and Campa, A. Role of selenium in HIV/AIDS. In: Hatfield DL, Berry MJ, Gladyshev VN, editors. Selenium – its molecular biology and role in human health, New York: Springer; 299-310. 2006.
[14]  Duffield-Lillico, A.J., Reid, M.E., Turnbull, B.W., Combs, G.F., Jr, Slate, E.H., Fischbach, L.A., Marshall, J.R. and Clark, L.C. Baseline characteristics and the effect of selenium supplementation on cancer incidence in a randomized clinical trial A summary report of the nutritional prevention of cancer trial. Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev. 11, 630-639. 2002.
[15]  Tapiero, H., Townsend, D.M. and Tew, K.D. The antioxidant role of selenium and seleno-compounds. Biomed Pharm 57:134-44. 2003.
[16]  Kim, J., Byung-Woo, K.., Hyun-Ju, K.. and Soo-Wan, N. Curative Effect of Selenium against Indomethacin-Induced Gastric Ulcers in Rats. J. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 21(4), 400-404. 2011.
[17]  Klotz, L.O., Kroncke, K.D., Buchczyk, D.P. and Sies, H. Role of copper, zinc, selenium, tellurium in the cellular defense against oxidative and nitrosative stress. J. Nutr. 133:1448S-51S. 2003.
[18]  Valko, M., Rhodes, C.J., Moncol, J., Izakovic, M. and Mazur, M. Free radicals, metals, antioxidants in oxidative stress-induced cancer. Chem. Biol. Interact. 160:1-40. 2006.
[19]  Bajpai, S., Mishra, M., Kumar, H., Tripathi, K., Singh, S.K., Pandey, H.P. and Singh, R.K. Effect of selenium on connexin expression, angiogenesis, and antioxidant status in diabetic wound healing. Biol. Trace Elem. Res. 144(1-3):327-38. 2011.
[20]  Sadau, Y., Adelaiye, A.B., Magaji, R.A., Ayo, J.O., Mabrouk, M.A. and Isa, A.I. Role of Selenium and Vitamin E on Gastric Mucosal Damage Induced By Water-Immersion Restraint Stress in Wistar Rats. IOSR J. Pharm. Biol. Sci. 10: (1); 34-39. 2015.
[21]  Takagi, K., Okabe, S. and Saziki, R. A new method for the production of chronic gastric ulcer in rats. Jpn. J. Pharmacol. 19: 418-426. 1969.
[22]  Wang, J.Y., Yamasaki, S., Takeuchi, K. and Okabe, S. Delayed healing of acetic acid-induced gastric ulcers in rats by indomethacin. Gastroenterol. 96: 393-402. 1989.
[23]  Varshney, R. and Kale, R.K. Effects of Calmodulin Antagonists on Radiation-induced Lipid Peroxidation in Microsomes. Int. J. Rad. Biol. 58: 733-743. 1990.
[24]  Sinha, K.A. Colorimetric assay of catalase. Anal. Biochem. 47: 389-394. 1972.
[25]  Corne, S.J., Morrissey, S.M. and Woods, R.J. A method for the quantitative estimation of gastric barrier mucous. J. Physiol. 242: 116P-117P. 1974.
[26]  Okabe, S. and Amagase, K. An Overview of Acetic Acid Ulcer Models - The History and State of the Art of Peptic Ulcer Research. Biol. Pharm. Bull. 28 (8) 1321-1341. 2005.
[27]  Adeniyi, O.S., Emikpe, B.E. and Olaleye, S.B. Gastric mucosa re-epithelisation, oxidative stress and apoptosis during healing of acetic acid induced ulceration in thyroxine treatment and thyroidectomy on rats. J. Af. Ass. Physiol. Sci. 2 (1): 57-66. 2014.
[28]  Olaleye, S.B., Adaramoye, O.O., Erigbali, P.P. and Adeniyi, O.S. Lead exposure increases oxidative stress in HCl/ethanol exposed rats gastric mucosa. World J. Gastroenterol. 13 (38):5121-6. 2007.
[29]  Rotruck, J.T., Pope, A.L., Ganther, H.E., Swanson, A.B., Hafeman, D.G. and Hoekstra, W.G. Selenium: Biochemical role as a component of glutathione peroxidase. Science 179: 588-590. 1973.
[30]  Fridovich, I. Biological effects of superoxide radical. Arch. Biochem. Biophy. 247: 1-11. 1986.
[31]  Salim, A.S. “A possible new approach to the problem of refractory peptic ulceration. A role for free radical scavengers?” Scot. Med. J. 36 (1): 19-20. 1991.
[32]  Lichtenberger, L.M. Gastroduodenal mucosal defense. Curr. Opin. Gastroenterol. 15 (6): 463-472. 1999.
[33]  Allen, A., and Flemström, G. Gastroduodenal mucus bicarbonate barrier: protection against acid and pepsin. Am. J. Physiol. Cell Physiol. 288 (1): C1-C19. 2005.
[34]  Ma, L., Wang, W.P., Chow, J.Y., Yuen, S.T. and Cho, C.H. Reduction of EGF is associated with the delay of ulcer healing by cigarette smoking. Am. J. Physiol. Gastrointest. Liver Physiol. 278: G10-G17. 2000.
[35]  Wallace, J.L. and Granger, D.N. The cellular and molecular basis of gastric mucosal defense. FASEB. J. 10: 731-740. 1996.
[36]  Szabo, S. and Hollander, D. Pathways of gastrointestinal protection and repair: mechanisms of action of sucralfate. Am. J. Med. 86: 23-31. 1989.
Show Less References


The Effects of Crude Extracts and Fractions of Alchemilla abyssinica on Smooth Muscle of Guinea-pig Ileum: An in Vitro Study

1Unit of Human Physiology, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Hawassa University, Hawassa, Ethiopia

2Department of Biology, College of Natural Sciences, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

3Department of Human Physiology, College of Medicine and Health Sciences Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

American Journal of Biomedical Research. 2016, 4(1), 23-26
doi: 10.12691/ajbr-4-1-5
Copyright © 2016 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
A. Esaiyas, Y. Mekonnen, T. Tolessa. The Effects of Crude Extracts and Fractions of Alchemilla abyssinica on Smooth Muscle of Guinea-pig Ileum: An in Vitro Study. American Journal of Biomedical Research. 2016; 4(1):23-26. doi: 10.12691/ajbr-4-1-5.

Correspondence to: A.  Esaiyas, Unit of Human Physiology, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Hawassa University, Hawassa, Ethiopia. Email:


Background: Alchemilla abyssinica is a plant widely used in traditional medicine. Its wide use among the community plus already established scientific evidences for medicinal values of other Alchemilla species provided good ground for this investigation. Methods: In this research, CHCl3/EtoAc 1:1 extract of dried aerial parts of Alchemilla abyssinica, methanolic extract of the CHCl3/ EtoAc residue and fractions of the methanolic extract were tested on isolated guinea-pig ileum (GPI) for possible presence of spasmogenic or spasmolytic effects. Concentrations of each extract and fraction ranging from 20-600 μg/ml final organ bath concentration were tested. The effects of these test samples on the basal rhythmic contractions of the GPI as well as on its contraction elicited using the agonist, histamine, were determined. The antagonist, Papaverine, was also used as a control smooth muscle relaxant. Results: While the CHCl3/EtoAc 1:1 extract showed neither spasmogenic nor spasmolytic result, the methanolic extract showed marked spasmolytic effect. This methanolic extract was fractionated using column chromatography and the fraction eluted using Hexane/EtoAc 1:2 gave greatest spasmolytic result. This fraction produced significant (P<0.05) dose-dependent spasmolytic effects on the agonist induced contractions of the GPI to 95.7% at 20 μg/ml, 43.6% at 70 μg/ml and 14.2% at 120 μg/ml in the organ bath. Conclusions: The results of the present study showed that Alchemilla abyssinica possesses spasmolytic property. The oral acute toxicity study showed Alchemilla abyssinica exhibited no toxicity up to doses of 1,000 mg/kg body weight in Swiss albino mice. Further chemical work to identify the compound(s) responsible for the activity is recommended.



[1]  World Health Organization (WHO), Geneva (2000). General Guidelines for Methodologies on Research and Evaluation traditional medicine. pp. 1-10.
[2]  Cortés A., Gutiérrez L. I. and Aoki M. K. (1998). Effect of Backebergia militaris Cactus Extract on Intestinal Smooth Muscle Contractility. Phytotherapy Research Vol. 12: 480 - 483.
[3]  Manigaunha A., Ganesh N and Kharya M. D. (2010). Morning glory: A new thirst in-search of de-novo therapeutic approach, International Journal of Phytomedicine 2, 18-21
[4]  Hedberg I. and Edwards S. (1989). Flora of Ethiopia. Vol. 3. The National Herbarium, AAU pp.40.
[5]  Dagne E. (2009). Natural Database for Africa, Version 1.0, Database prepared in CD.
Show More References
[6]  Gashaw M. (1991). The use and value of wild plants to the people of Bale. Walia 13: 21-28.
[7]  Shrivastava R. and John G. W. (2006). Treatment of aphtous stomatitis with Topical Alchimella vulgaris in glycerine. Naturveda – Vitro-Bio Research Inistitute, ZAC de Lavaur, Issoire, Fr. Clinical Drug Investigation, 26(10), 567-573.
[8]  Said O., Khalil K., Fulder S., Marie1 Y., Kassis E. and Saad B. (2010). A Double Blinded – Randomized Clinical Study with “Weighlevel”, a Combination of Four Medicinal Plants Used in Traditional Greco-Arab and Islamic Medicine. The Open Complementary Medicine Journal (2) 1-6.
[9]  Mekonnen Y. (1999). Effects of ethanol extract of M. stenopetala leaves on guinea-pig and mouse smooth muscle. Phytotherapy Research 13(5): 442-444.
[10]  Jyothi Y., Kamath J. V., and Asad M., (2006), Effect of hexane extract of Boswellia serrate Oleo-Gum resin on Chemically induced liver damage, Pak. J. Pharm. Sci., Vol. 19(2) pp. 129-133.
[11]  Gaylord Chemical Company. (2005). Technical Bulletin – Reaction Solvent Dimethyl Sulphoxide (DMSO). pp. 90-91.
[12]  OECD, Organization for Economic co-operation and development. (2001). Guideline for testing of Chemicals.
[13]  Ghayur M.N., Gilani A.H., (2006), Radish seed extract mediates its cardiovascular inhibitory effects via muscarinic receptor activation. Fundamen. and Clinic. Pharmacol 20(1) pp. 57-63.
[14]  Tolessa T. Lordal M. and Hellstrom P. M. (1996). Contractile responses of rat duodenum caused by transmural nerve stimulation: interaction between tachykininergic and cholinergic mechanisms. Acta Physiol Scand, 158, 135-142.
[15]  Saad B., Azaizeh H., Abu-Hijleh G. and Said O. (2006). Review - Safety of Traditional Arab Herbal Medicine, Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine; 3(4) 433- 439.
[16]  Hodge H. C. and Sterner J. H. (1949). 'Tabulation of Toxicity Classes', American Industrial Hygiene Association Quarterly, 10: 4, 93-96.
[17]  Duke J. A. (2002). Handbook of medicinal herbs. 2nd ed. CRC Press pp. 448.
[18]  Yarnell E. and Abascal K., (2009), Multiphasic Herbal Prescribing for Menstruating Women, Alternative and complementary therapies, (15):3 pp. 126-134.
[19]  Ivancheva S., Nikolova M. and Tsvetkova R. (2006). Pharmacological activities and biologically active compounds of Bulgarian medicinal plants, Phytochemistry:Advances in Research, 87-103.
[20]  Lans C., Turner N., Khan T., Brauer G. and Boepple W., (2007), Ethnoveterinary medicines used for ruminants in British Columbia, Canada. Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine 2007, 3:11.
[21]  Jonadet M., Meunier M.T., Villie F., Bastide J.P., Lamaison J.L. (1986). [Flavonoids extracted from Ribes nigrum L. and Alchemilla vulgaris L.: In vitro inhibitory activities on elastase, trypsin and hymotrypsin. 2. Angioprotective activities compared in vivo]. [Article in French]. J Pharmacol; 17(1): 21-7.
Show Less References


Formulation Development and In-vitro Evaluation of Minoxidil Bearing Glycerosomes

1S.D. College of Pharmacy & Voc. Studies, Muzaffarnagar, (U.P.), India

2R.K.S.D College of Pharmacy, Kaithal (Haryana), India

American Journal of Biomedical Research. 2016, 4(2), 27-37
doi: 10.12691/ajbr-4-2-1
Copyright © 2016 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Deepika Rani, Chhater Singh, Arvind Kumar, Vinit Kr. Sharma. Formulation Development and In-vitro Evaluation of Minoxidil Bearing Glycerosomes. American Journal of Biomedical Research. 2016; 4(2):27-37. doi: 10.12691/ajbr-4-2-1.

Correspondence to: Chhater  Singh, S.D. College of Pharmacy & Voc. Studies, Muzaffarnagar, (U.P.), India. Email:


Present study was undertaken to assess the potential of Glycerosomes as a novel drug delivery system for topical application of Minoxidil. Pre-formulation studies were done for identification of drug as well as for determination of its physiochemical properties. Spectra of various mixtures of drug and excipients do not show any additional peak thus, indicating compatibility with each other. Glycerosomes was prepared by using lipid thin film hydration method. Prepared formulations were evaluated in terms of particle size, surface analysis, zeta potential, entrapment efficiency and in-vitro drug release. The formulated Glycerosomes were found to have better surface characteristics and entrapment efficiency. The in vitro drug dissolution study was carried out using egg membrane on modified franz diffusion cell and the release mechanisms were explored. The release data was incorporated into various mathematical models and the formulation follows Higuchi as well as Fickian diffusion. Results study proved that Glycerosomes containing Minoxidil can be an excellent therapy for Alopecia.



[1]  Dash, T.R., Verma, P, “Matrix Tablets. An Approach towards Oral Extended Release Drug Delivery,” International Journal of Pharma Research & Review, 2(2), 12-24. 2013.
[2]  Parashar, T., Soniya., Singh, V., Singh, G., Tyagi, S., Patel, C., Gupta, A, “Novel oral sustained release technology: A concise review,” International Journal of Research and Development in Pharmacy and Life Sciences, 2(2), 262-269. 2013.
[3]  Kushwaha, S.K.S., Rastogi, A., Rai, A.K., Singh, S, “Novel drug delivery system for anticancer drug: A review,” International Journal of Pharmtech Research, 4(2), 542-553. 2012-31. 2012.
[4]  Bhowmik, D., Gopinath, H., Kumar, B.P., Duraivel, S., Kumar K.P.S, “Recent advances in novel topical drug delivery system”, The Pharma Innovation, 1(9), 12-31.2012.
[5]  Abdallah, M.H, “Transferosomes as a transdermal drug delivery system for enhancement the antifungal activity of Nystatin.” International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 5(4), 560-567. 2013.
Show More References
[6]  Walve, J.R., Bakliwal, S.R., Rane, B.R., Pawar, S.P, “Transferosomes: A surrogated carrier for the transdermal drug delivery system,” International Journal of Applied Biology and Pharmaceutical Technology,2(1), 204-213. 2011.
[7]  Kumar, R., Singh, M., Bala, R., Seth, N., Rana, A.C, “Transferosomes: A novel approach for transdermal drug delivery,” International Research Journal of Pharmacy, 3(1), 20-24. 2012.
[8]  Kamboj, S., Saini, V., Magon, N., Bala, S., Jhawat, V. “Vesicular drug delivery systems: A novel approach for drug targeting,” International Journal of Drug Delivery, 5(2), 121-130. 2013.
[9]  Kumar, R., Kumar, S., Jha, S.S., Jha, A,K, “Vesicular System-Carrier for Drug Delivery,” Der Pharmacia Sinica, 2(4), 192-202. 2011.
[10]  Sachan, R., Parashar, T., Soniya, Singh, V., Singh, G., Tyagi, S., Patel, C., Gupta, A, “Drug carrier Transferosomes: A novel tool for transdermal drug delivery system,” International Journal of Research and Development in Pharmacy and Life Sciences, 2(2), 309-316. 2013.
[11]  Manca, M.L., Zaru, M., Manconi, M., Lai, F., Valenti, D., Sinico, C., Fadda, A.M, “Glycerosomes: A new tool for effective dermal and transdermal drug Delivery,” International Journal of Pharmacy, 455, 66-74. 2013.
[12]  Zaru, M., Manca, M.L., Fadda, M., Orsini, G,“Glycerosomes and thereof use in pharmaceutical and cosmetic preparation for topical application,”. US2012/0141565, 2012, Jun 7.
[13]  Indian Pharmacopoeia. Delhi, India. The Indian Pharmacopoeia Commission, 2010, volume 2,p-1697.
[14]  Engelmann, F.M., Rocha, S.V., Henrique, E.T., Koiti, A., Baptista, S.B, “Determination of n-Octanol/water partition and membrane binding of cationic porphyrins,” International Journal of Pharmaceutics, 329, 12-18. 2007.
[15]  Abu, T.M.S., Ajit, B.T., Rabin, N.G., Micheal, G.F., Sunanda, A.R., Kenneth, R.M, “Selection of solid dosage from composition through drug excipient compatibility testing,” Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 88(7), 696-704. 1999.
[16]  Laxmi, V., Zafaruddin., Kuchana, V, “Design and characterization of transferosome gel of Repaglinide,” International Research Journal of Pharmacy, 6(1), 38-42. 2015.
Show Less References