ISSN (Print): 2328-3947

ISSN (Online): 2328-3955

Editor-in-Chief: Hari K. Koul




The Effect of Giving Trigona Honey and Honey Propolis Trigona to the mRNA Foxp3 Expression in Mice Balb/c Strain Induced by Salmonella Typhi

1Department of Epidemiology, Health College of RSU Daya, Makassar, Indonesia

2Department of Nursing, Hasanuddin University, Makassar, Indonesia

3Department of Biochemistry, Hasanuddin University, Makassar, Indonesia

4Department of ENT, Faculty of Medicine, Hasanuddin University, Indonesia

5Department Molecular Biology and Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, Hasanuddin University, Makassar, Indonesia

6Department of Microbiology, Tadulako University, Palu, Indonesia

7Department of Clinical Pathology, Hasanuddin University, Makassar, Indonesia

8Department of Chemistry, Hasanuddin University, Makassar, Indonesia

9Department of Oncology, Hasanuddin University, Makassar, Indonesia

American Journal of Biomedical Research. 2016, 4(2), 42-45
doi: 10.12691/ajbr-4-2-3
Copyright © 2016 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Andi Nilawati Usman, Yuliana Syam, Rosdiana Natzir, Sutji Pratiwi Rahardjo, Mochammad Hatta, Ressy Dwiyanti, Yuyun Widaningsih, Ainurafiq, Prihantono. The Effect of Giving Trigona Honey and Honey Propolis Trigona to the mRNA Foxp3 Expression in Mice Balb/c Strain Induced by Salmonella Typhi. American Journal of Biomedical Research. 2016; 4(2):42-45. doi: 10.12691/ajbr-4-2-3.

Correspondence to: Mochammad  Hatta, Department Molecular Biology and Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, Hasanuddin University, Makassar, Indonesia. Email:


Immune balance during infection is important to support both the defense of body immune system and prevent excessive immune response. Protein Foxp3, a transcription factor of regulatory T cell has pivotal roles in balancing body immune system. Honey and Propolis have proved their effects to both the proinflamatory and anti inflammatory responses but their effects to the Foxp3 expression need to be investigated. This study was investigated the effect of giving Trigona honey and honey propolis Trigona to the mRNA Foxp3 expression in Balb/c mice induced Salmonella typhi. Results of the study indicated that honey propolis Trigona had the highest effect to the mRNA Foxp3 expression followed by Trigona honey. Both Trigona honey and honey propolis had immunomodulatory effects through the Foxp3 mRNA expression.



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Highly Conserved Epitopes of ZIKA Envelope Glycoprotein May Act as a Novel Peptide Vaccine with High Coverage: Immunoinformatics Approach

1Department of Biotechnology, Africa city of Technology- Khartoum, Sudan

2Al Neelain University, Faculty of Medical Laboratory Sciences

3Department of Microbiology, Soba University Hospital, Khartoum-Sudan

American Journal of Biomedical Research. 2016, 4(3), 46-60
doi: 10.12691/ajbr-4-3-1
Copyright © 2016 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Marwan Mustafa Badawi, Marwa Mohamed Osman, Afra AbdElhamid Fadl Alla, Ammar Mohammed Ahmedani, Mohamed hamed Abdalla, Mosab Mohamed Gasemelseed, Ahmed Abubakar Elsayed, Mohamed Ahmed Salih. Highly Conserved Epitopes of ZIKA Envelope Glycoprotein May Act as a Novel Peptide Vaccine with High Coverage: Immunoinformatics Approach. American Journal of Biomedical Research. 2016; 4(3):46-60. doi: 10.12691/ajbr-4-3-1.

Correspondence to: Marwan  Mustafa Badawi, Department of Biotechnology, Africa city of Technology- Khartoum, Sudan. Email:


Zika virus (ZIKV) is positive sense single stranded RNA of Flavivirus genus belonging to the Flaviviridae family. It has neither drug nor protective vaccine, and considered to be in relatedness to neurological abnormalities such as Guillain Barre Syndrome and microcephaly of neonates. The aim of this study is to analyze envelope glycoprotein E of all Zika strains using in silico approaches looking for conservancy, which is further studied to predict all potential epitopes that can be used after in vitro and in vivo confirmation as a therapeutic peptide vaccine. A total of 50 Zikavirusvariants’(include 12from South America) polyproteins retrieved from NCBI database were aligned, and the conserved regions of Envelope Glycoprotein-E were selected for epitopes prediction. IEDB analysis resource was used to predict B and T cell epitopes and to calculate the population coverage. Epitopes with high scores in both B cell and T cell epitopes predicting tools were suggested. Three epitopes were proposed for international therapeutic peptide vaccine for B cell (AQDKP, TPNSPRAE and TPHWNNK) and two other epitopes designed especially for South America strains (LDKQSDTQYV and EVQYAGTDGPCK). For T cell epitopes, MMLELDPPF epitope was highly recommended as therapeutic peptide vaccine to interact with MHC class I along with three other epitopes (MAVLGDTAW, KEWFHDIPL and DTAWDFGSV) which showed very good population coverage against the whole world population. Three epitopes showed high affinity to interact with MHC class II alleles (FKSLFGGMS, LITANPVIT and VHTALAGAL) with excellent population coverage throughout the world and South America region. Herd immunity protocols can be achieved in countries with low population coverage percentage to minimize the active transmission of the virus, especially among pregnant women and other groups at risk.We recommendin vitro and in vivo proving the effectiveness of these proposed epitopes as a vaccine, as well as to be used as a diagnostic screening test.



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Computational Analysis of Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNPs) in Human GRM4 Gene

1Department of Bioinformatics, Africa city of technology, Sudan

2Alneelain University Faculty of Medical Laboratory Sciences, Sudan

3Department of haeatology, Elnehoud teaching Hospital, Sudan

4Medical Lab Manager, Tyba Hospital, Sudan

5Institute of Endemic Diseases, Khartoum University, Sudan

6Head Department of Biotechnology, Biotechnology Park, Africa city of technology, Sudan

American Journal of Biomedical Research. 2016, 4(3), 61-73
doi: 10.12691/ajbr-4-3-2
Copyright © 2016 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Afra Abd Elhamid Fadlalla Elshaikh, Mosab Mohamed Ismaiel, Marwa Mohamed Osman, Samah Ahmed Ibrahim Shokri, Samia Othman massad, Nahid Ebrahim Merghani Fadl, Arafa Habiballa Ibrahim, Selma Shiekh Idris, Maab Mohamed Abdalla, Mohamed Ahmed Salih. Computational Analysis of Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNPs) in Human GRM4 Gene. American Journal of Biomedical Research. 2016; 4(3):61-73. doi: 10.12691/ajbr-4-3-2.

Correspondence to: Afra  Abd Elhamid Fadlalla Elshaikh, Department of Bioinformatics, Africa city of technology, Sudan. Email:


Background: L-glutamate is one of the most common amino acid in nature and it acts as excitatory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system. GRM4 is a large gene located in chromosome 6 and consists of 7217 bp (NCBI) divided into 10 exons. The location of GRM4 (chromosomal segment 6p21.3) is tentative susceptibility loci for Juvenile Myoclonic Epilepsy so many studies investigate the association of GRM4 polymorphism with myoclonic epilepsy juvenile. Design and methods: GRM4 gene was investigated in dbSNP/NCBI database NCBI and we used computational analysis approach. Deleterious nsSNPs were predicted by SIFT and Polyphen soft wares then the damaging nsSNPs were submitted to I mutant tool. Protein structural analysis of amino acid variants was performed by Chimera 1.8 and Project Hope. Results: We analyze 29854 SNPs from NCBI; 8561 of them found on homosapiens; of which 330 were missense, of which 208 were in the coding region, 334 were non-synonymous SNPs (nsSNPs), 232 were in the 3'un-translated region. These SNPs were analyzed using different soft wares; SIFT, Polyphen-2, Imutant3.0, PhD-SNP, PolymiRTs, Project Hope and GENEMAIA to investigate the effect of SNPs mutations on GRM4 protein structure and function. Conclusions: Computational tools were used to analyze deleterious SNPs in GRM4 gene. Out of 8561 SNPs, the SNPs (rs184636998), (rs199744441), (rs199744441), (rs149277708), (rs144660534), (rs139236496) were identified as highly damaging in coding region confirmed by using bioinformatics tools . In 3'un-translated region two SNPs (rs188406833) and (rs192860479) contained (C) allele had 4 miRSite as target binding site can be disrupts a conserved miRNA and one SNPs (rs77415386) contained (D) allele had 6 miRSite as derived allele that disrupts a conserved miRNA site. Further study must be done to detect the effect of these SNPs on the protein structure and function.



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