American Journal of Biomedical Research

ISSN (Print): 2328-3947

ISSN (Online): 2328-3955



Prevalence of Life Style Drugs Usage and Perceived Effects among University Students in Dar es Salaam

1Department of Pharmaceutical Microbiology, Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences (MUHAS), Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

American Journal of Biomedical Research. 2014, 2(2), 29-35
DOI: 10.12691/ajbr-2-2-3
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Kennedy D. Mwambete, Theresia Shemsika. Prevalence of Life Style Drugs Usage and Perceived Effects among University Students in Dar es Salaam. American Journal of Biomedical Research. 2014; 2(2):29-35. doi: 10.12691/ajbr-2-2-3.

Correspondence to: Kennedy  D. Mwambete, Department of Pharmaceutical Microbiology, Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences (MUHAS), Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Email:


This was a cross-sectional study involving randomly selected university students from University of Dar es Salaam (UDSM) and Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences (MUHAS). Each respondent filled in a consent form prior to an interview. Awareness and prevalence of LSD usage, perceived effects and personal opinions on LSD usefulness were investigated. A total of 310 students (222 males and 88 females) aged between 21 and 35 years were interviewed. About 56.5% (n=175) were non-medical students from UDSM while 135 (43.5%) were medical students from MUHAS. Majority (92%) of the students was aware of LSDs, though only 29.3% of them had used one of 10 tracer LSDs, while 18 (5.8 %) students were uncertain whether they had ever used LSDs or not. Over 81% of LSD users had used alcohols and 43% of those admitted to have been propelled by peer pressure. Euphoria and “good sleep” were the mentioned by 27% of LSDs users as motive for consuming them, while 32.5% said LSDs usage added an extra-financial burden. This is the first study on the prevalence of LDS usage in universities.



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The Effect of Nutritional Lipid Supplementation on Serum Lipid Levels and Effectiveness of Antitubercular Chemotherapy

1Department of Medical Biochemistry, College of Medicine, Ambrose Alli University, Ekpoma, Nigeria

2Department of Internal Medicine, Irrua Specialist Teaching Hospital, Irrua, Nigeria

3Department of Medical Physiology Ambrose Alli University, Ekpoma, Nigeria

4Department of Chemical Pathology, Ambrose Alli University, Ekpoma Nigeria

5Department of Medical Laboratory Science, College of Medicine, Ambrose Alli University, Ekpoma

6Department of Histopathology, College of Medicine, Ambrose Alli University, Ekpoma, Nigeria

7Department of Nursing Science, Ambrose Alli University, Ekpoma, Nigeria

8Department of Community Health, Irrua Specialist Teaching Hospital, Irrua Nigeria

American Journal of Biomedical Research. 2014, 2(2), 36-41
DOI: 10.12691/ajbr-2-2-4
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Iyamu O.A., Ugheoke J.E, Ozor M.O., Airhomwanbor K.O., Eidangbe A.P., Idehen I.C., Okhiai O., Akpede N. The Effect of Nutritional Lipid Supplementation on Serum Lipid Levels and Effectiveness of Antitubercular Chemotherapy. American Journal of Biomedical Research. 2014; 2(2):36-41. doi: 10.12691/ajbr-2-2-4.

Correspondence to: Iyamu  O.A., Department of Medical Biochemistry, College of Medicine, Ambrose Alli University, Ekpoma, Nigeria. Email:


The effect of serum lipid levels on the incidence and management of tuberculosis has recently been brought to the fore. The aim was to see the effect of nutritional supplementation on susceptibility of organisms of the mycobacterium tuberculosis complex to some known antitubercular drugs via effect on serum lipid levels. Blood samples were collected for baseline estimation of serum lipids from 250 tuberculosis patients who were then allocated into four groups including: those taking drugs for tuberculosis(antitubercular drugs) treatment only, those on antitubercular drugs and one boiled egg daily, those on antitubercular drugs and fish oil (1000 IU/day), and those on antitubercular drugs and both egg and fish oil daily, all for a three month duration, at the end of which blood samples were collected for estimation of serum triglycerides, total cholesterol (TC), high density lipoprotein (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), very low density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C), and Phospholipids, using appropriate methods. Results shows that though treatment with antitubercular drugs and supplementation with fish oil led to increases in serum lipid levels which were ab initio lower in tuberculosis patients than Healthy controls, supplementation with boiled egg led to a higher increase in serum lipid levels. Supplementation with fish oil also led to the greatest decreases in antitubercular drug resistance. It is thus suggested that supplementation with lipid rich foods in tuberculosis treatment will decrease anti tuberculosis drug resistance and help the global campaign on tuberculosis eradication.



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Gender Difference on Stress Induced by Malaria Parasite Infection and Effect of Anti-malaria Drug on Stress Index

1Department of Haematology and Blood Transfusion Science, Federal Medical Centre, Ido-Ekiti Ekiti State

2Croydon Grace Diagnostic Cenre, Igando, Lagos State

American Journal of Biomedical Research. 2014, 2(3), 42-46
DOI: 10.12691/ajbr-2-3-1
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
ESAN A. J, OMISAKIN C.T, TITILAYO O. E, FASAKIN K. A. Gender Difference on Stress Induced by Malaria Parasite Infection and Effect of Anti-malaria Drug on Stress Index. American Journal of Biomedical Research. 2014; 2(3):42-46. doi: 10.12691/ajbr-2-3-1.

Correspondence to: ESAN  A. J, Department of Haematology and Blood Transfusion Science, Federal Medical Centre, Ido-Ekiti Ekiti State. Email:


Malaria is a serious public health problem in most countries of the tropics. Oxidative stress is related to the severity of malaria, oxidative stress in malaria may originate from several sources including intracellular parasitized erythrocytes and extra-erythrocytes as a result of haemolysis and host response. The aim of this study therefore is to determine the gender difference on stress induced by malaria parasite infection and effect of anti-malaria drug on stress index. 202 confirmed malaria infected patients were recruited for the study between the ages of 15 – 64 years of both sexes at the general outpatient clinic of the Federal Medical Centre, Ido-Ekiti, Nigeria. 129(63.9%) were males and 73(36.1%) were females. The mean ± SD of MDA, MPC and WBC in male were significantly (P < 0.05) higher compared to female in pre, post anti-malaria drug treatment. Stress induced by malaria parasite was observed higher in male compared to female; gender norms and values that influence the division of labour, leisure patterns, and sleeping arrangements can influence different patterns of exposure to mosquitoes for men and women which responsible for differences in stress induced by malaria parasite among the gender; during malaria treatment, the level of stress induced by malaria parasite was decline due to the effect of anti-malaria drug used.



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The Pattern of Parasite Density, Plasma Total Bile Acids and Lactate Dehydrogenase in Plasmodium Infected Patients in Rural Community

1Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Achievers University, Owo, Ondo state –Nigeria

American Journal of Biomedical Research. 2014, 2(3), 47-51
DOI: 10.12691/ajbr-2-3-2
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Mathew Folaranmi OLANIYAN, Elizabeth Moyinoluwa BABATUNDE. The Pattern of Parasite Density, Plasma Total Bile Acids and Lactate Dehydrogenase in Plasmodium Infected Patients in Rural Community. American Journal of Biomedical Research. 2014; 2(3):47-51. doi: 10.12691/ajbr-2-3-2.

Correspondence to: Mathew  Folaranmi OLANIYAN, Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Achievers University, Owo, Ondo state –Nigeria. Email:


Background to the study: Pathophysiology of Plasmodium (vivax, ovale, falciparum and malariae) infection involves liver. Liver dysfunction and destruction of tissues could be indicated by the plasma level of Total Bile Acid (TBA) and Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH). Aim and Objective: This work was designed to evaluate the pattern of parasite density, plasma total bile acids, and Lactate dehydrogenase in Plasmodium infected patients in rural community. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out in Kishi, the Headquarter of Irepo Local government area of Oyo state - Nigeria. Seven hundred and nine (709) subjects (Female: n=403: male: n=306) aged 5 to 68 years were tested for Plasmodium infection using Giemsa- thick film technique. The overall prevalence of Plasmodium infection among the seven hundred and nine subjects screened was found to be 29.1% (206) including 12.97% (92) HIV, HBsAg and anti-HCV seronagative patients and 16.1% (114) HIV, HBsAg or anti-HCV seropositive patients. Ninety two (92 (12.97%)) that were HIV, HBsAg and anti-HCV seronagative(female-58 (63.0%); male-34 (37%)) were recruited out of 206 (29.1%) that were found to be infected with plasmodium spp for the study. None of the subject was jaundiced as at the time of sample collection. Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and anti-HCV tests were carried out by Enzyme Linked Immunozorbent Assay (ELIZA). HIV screening and confirmation were carried out by immuno-chromatographic and Immunobloting (Western blot) assays respectively. Fasting Plasma Total Bile Acids (TBA) and Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH) were analyzed in the patients biochemically by spectrophotometry. Result: The result obtained showed an overall prevalence of Plasmodium infection as 29.1% (206) (female: 107 (52%); male: 99 (48%)) including 12.97% (92) (Female: 58 (63.0%) Male: 34 (37%)) that were HIV, HBsAg and anti-HCV seronagative and 16.1% (114) (Female: 61 (53.5%); Male: 53 (46.5%)) were co-infected with at least one of HIV, HBV or HCV. The plasmodium infected subjects were grouped into three based on the parasite density such as: patients with parasite density of 50-499; 500-999 and ≥1000. The mean value of the parasite density of each group was correlated with the plasma level of LDH and TBA. In all groups there was a strong positive correlation(R=1; R2 =1) between the plasma TBA, LDH and plasmodium parasite density. The pattern of parasite density obtained in the rural community studied include 45.7% had a mean parasite density of 282±12.0; 43.5% (853±31.0) and 10.9% (1130±61.0). There was also a statistical significant increase in the mean value of LDH and TBA with increase in parasite density with p<0.05. Conclusion: This work showed an overall prevalence of 29.1% (206) plasmodium infection including 16.1% (114) of the patients co-infected with at least one of HIV, HBV or HCV. The plasma level of LDH and TBA was also found to be positively correlated and directly proportional to the parasite density. Evaluation of these parameters is therefore recommended for effective control and management.



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Effect of Sitagliptin and Glimepiride on Glucose Homeostasis and cAMP Levels in Peripheral Tissues of HFD/STZ Diabetic Rats

1Department of Biochemistry, Medical Research Institute, Alexandria University, Egypt

2Department of Pharmacology, Medical Research Institute, Alexandria University, Egypt

American Journal of Biomedical Research. 2014, 2(3), 52-60
DOI: 10.12691/ajbr-2-3-3
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Mohamed I Saad, Maher A Kamel, Mervat Y Hanafi, Madiha H Helmy, Rowaida R Shehata. Effect of Sitagliptin and Glimepiride on Glucose Homeostasis and cAMP Levels in Peripheral Tissues of HFD/STZ Diabetic Rats. American Journal of Biomedical Research. 2014; 2(3):52-60. doi: 10.12691/ajbr-2-3-3.

Correspondence to: Mohamed  I Saad, Department of Biochemistry, Medical Research Institute, Alexandria University, Egypt. Email:


Introduction: T2DM is a group of metabolic disorders manifested by hyperglycemia as a result of insulin insufficiency and/or resistance. The main goal of antidiabetic therapies is to lower glucose levels, and therefore prevent development of diabetes complications. DPP-4 inhibitors (e.g. sitagliptin) are relatively new antidiabetic drugs which inhibit the activity of DPP-4 enzyme and therefore prevent rapid degradation of incretin hormones. Objective: We investigated effects of sitagliptin on glucose homeostasis, lipid profile, and insulin signaling by determination of cAMP levels in peripheral tissues of HFD/STZ diabetic rats, compared to glimepiride. Methods: The experimental rats were divided into five groups, each group comprising 10 rats. Group (1) served as the normal control rats and administered DMSO (without treatments) as the vehicle. The rest of the groups were rendered diabetic by feeding HFD containing 40% fats for 4 weeks, followed by a single I.P. injection of STZ (45 mg/kg of body weight). One week after STZ injection, the rats with FBG level of ≥ 200 mg/dl were considered diabetic. Group (2) served as the diabetic untreated rats and administered DMSO (without treatments) as the vehicle. Group (3) served as diabetic rats treated with glimepiride (0.1 mg/kg of body weight). Group (4) and group (5) served as diabetic rats treated with sitagliptin (10 and 30 mg/kg of body weight, respectively). Treatments were dissolved in DMSO and were given orally for 4 weeks. At the end of the treatment period, the blood, liver and adipose tissues (White and brown) were collected for biochemical analysis. Results: In normal control rats, the highest content of cAMP was observed in BAT. Diabetic rats showed an elevation in cAMP levels of liver and WAT to be 1.3 and 3.9 fold control values, respectively, while in BAT, cAMP level decreased to be 0.4 fold control value. Sitagliptin and glimepiride significantly decreased cAMP levels in liver and WAT. Conclusion: We conclude that sitagliptin and glimepiride have comparable effects on glucose homeostasis. Both drugs have cAMP-lowering effect which may suggest their potential protecting effect against vascular complications of diabetes.



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Hepatotoxicity of Methanol Seed Extract of Aframomum melegueta [Roscoe] K. Schum. (Grains of paradise) in Sprague-Dawley Rats

1Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Calabar, P.M.B. 1115 Calabar, Nigeria

2Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Calabar, P.M.B. 1115 Calabar, Nigeria

3Department of Veterinary Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Abuja, Nigeria

4Department of Veterinary Parasitology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Abuja, Nigeria

American Journal of Biomedical Research. 2014, 2(4), 61-66
DOI: 10.12691/ajbr-2-4-1
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Nwaehujor Chinaka O., Eban Linus K., Ode Julius O., Ejiofor Charles E., Igile Godwin O.. Hepatotoxicity of Methanol Seed Extract of Aframomum melegueta [Roscoe] K. Schum. (Grains of paradise) in Sprague-Dawley Rats. American Journal of Biomedical Research. 2014; 2(4):61-66. doi: 10.12691/ajbr-2-4-1.

Correspondence to: Nwaehujor  Chinaka O., Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Calabar, P.M.B. 1115 Calabar, Nigeria. Email:


The hepatotoxic effects of the seeds of Aframomum melegueta (Grains of paradise), a spice were studied in Sprague-Dawley rats. Individual rat groups received sub-chronic exposure of the methanol seed extract at 300 mg/kg for 7, 14 and 21 days respectively. Liver toxicity was evaluated with assay of circulating serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransaminase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), albumin, total bilirubin concentrations and histopathology of the liver of treated experimental rats. Serum levels of AST significantly (p<0.05) increased progressively in extract-treated rats compared to the control from day 7 till the termination of the study (day 21). However, serum ALT, ALP and total bilirubin levels of test rats were only significantly (p<0.05) elevated relative to the normal on days 14 and 21 of the investigation. The dose (300 mg/kg) of extract produced AST value of 55.8±3 µL-1 while the control was 32.2±1.9 µL-1; and ALT value became 16.8±1.1 µL-1 when control was 8.6±1.1 µL-1 on day 21; Total bilirubin was 1.4±0.1 mgdL-1 relative to control value of 0.5±0.2 mgdL-1. The serum albumin levels of extract-treated rats were however, comparable with that of the normal rats throughout the study period. Histopathology of the rat livers revealed mild focal necrosis of hepatocytes at day 7, moderate multifocal areas of hepatic necrosis at day 14 and severe, diffused necrosis of hepatocytes at day 21 of treatment with the extract. The results demonstrated that the methanol seed extract of A. melegueta was potent in inducing liver toxicity at the tested dose (300 mg/kg). Maximal caution should therefore be imbibed in prolonged excessive use of the plant seeds as spice in delicacies.



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Impedance of Results Using Lithium Heparin to Plain Tubes for Ionized Calcium

1Department of Biochemistry, HOD lab in-charge, Apollo Reach Hospital, Karimnagar, Andhra Pradesh, India

2Department of Biochemistry, Chalmeda Anadrao Institute of Medical Sciences, Karimnagar, India

3Department of Biochemistry, Prathima Institute of Medical Sciences, Karimnagar, India

4Department of Microbiology, Prathima Institute of Medical Sciences, Karimnagar, India

American Journal of Biomedical Research. 2014, 2(4), 67-69
DOI: 10.12691/ajbr-2-4-2
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
T Sudhakar, Sabitha Kandi, B venugopal, K. Bhagwan Reddy, Md. Rafi, Raj kumar, K. V. Ramana. Impedance of Results Using Lithium Heparin to Plain Tubes for Ionized Calcium. American Journal of Biomedical Research. 2014; 2(4):67-69. doi: 10.12691/ajbr-2-4-2.

Correspondence to: K.  V. Ramana, Department of Microbiology, Prathima Institute of Medical Sciences, Karimnagar, India. Email:


The study was conducted to evaluate the differences in results obtained for assays of ionized calcium (iCa+2) by plain and heparinised blood sample and observe for any errors in values done by ion selective electrode (ISE) method and to determine which of the collection methods could be ideal and reliable. 49 samples of heparinised and 31 plain blood samples were analyzed at lab services, Apollo Reach hospital, Karimnagar, Telangana state for iCa+2 by ISE method using radiometer analyzer and the differences in data were documented statistically by calculating the mean and SD. The results of the study showed statistically significant difference in values of iCa+2 when blood was collected in plain tube (4.7±0.2) and with heparinised collection (4.4±0.3). It appears in the study that plain tube collection for the assay is ideal.



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Folic Acid Alleviates Oxidative Stress and Hyperhomocysteinemia Involved in Liver Dysfunction of Hypothyroid Rats

1Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, Tanta University, Egypt

2Department of medical Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Tanta University, Egypt

3Biochemistry Section, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Tanta University, Egypt

American Journal of Biomedical Research. 2014, 2(4), 70-76
DOI: 10.12691/ajbr-2-4-3
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Ehab Tousson, Wafaa Ibrahim, Afrah F. Salama, Wesam M. Hussein. Folic Acid Alleviates Oxidative Stress and Hyperhomocysteinemia Involved in Liver Dysfunction of Hypothyroid Rats. American Journal of Biomedical Research. 2014; 2(4):70-76. doi: 10.12691/ajbr-2-4-3.

Correspondence to: Ehab  Tousson, Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, Tanta University, Egypt. Email:


Thyroid hormones are essential for growth and development of the liver. This study evaluated some biochemical alterations in post-pubertal hypothyroidism and its impact on liver functions. Additionally, the ameliorating role of folic acid supplementation was investigated. Fifty male albino rats were randomly divided into five groups (group I, control; group II, folic acid; group III, 0.05% propylthiouracil-induced hypothyroid rats; group IV, Co-treatment; group V post-treatment). There was a significant decrease in plasma T3, body weight, fluid and food intakes, folic acid, ALT, total thiol and tFRAP in hypothyroid rats as compared to control group. On the other hand, a significant increase in TSH, relative liver weight, plasma of total homocysteine, serum total protein, AST, total serum bilirubin, cholesterol and tMDA in hypothyroid rats as compared to control group. This reflects hyperhomocysteinemia and oxidative stress associated with hypothyroid state. Folic acid supplemented after restoration of the euthyroid state presented better amelioration over its concurrent supplementation. If confirmed in human beings, our results could propose that folic acid can be used as an adjuvant therapy in hypothyroidism disorders with thyroxin replacement therapy.



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Possible Effect of Corn Silk Extracts on Selected Liver Markers and Plasma Glucose in Rabbit

1Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Achievers University, Owo – Nigeria

American Journal of Biomedical Research. 2014, 2(4), 77-82
DOI: 10.12691/ajbr-2-4-4
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Mathew Folaranmi OLANIYAN, Victoria. O. FADARE. Possible Effect of Corn Silk Extracts on Selected Liver Markers and Plasma Glucose in Rabbit. American Journal of Biomedical Research. 2014; 2(4):77-82. doi: 10.12691/ajbr-2-4-4.

Correspondence to: Mathew  Folaranmi OLANIYAN, Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Achievers University, Owo – Nigeria. Email:


Corn silk contains phytochemicals of medical benefits such as proteins, vitamins, carbohydrates, Ca, K, Mg and Na salts, fixed and volatile oils, steroids such as sitosterol and stigmasterol, alkaloids, saponins, tannins, and flavonoids. Extract of corn silk is being applied traditionally in the treatment of some medical conditions. This study therefore, aimed at the evaluation of the effect of corn silk extract on liver markers and plasma glucose. Fifteen rabbits of either sex divided into three experimental groups of 5 rabbits each were studied. The extract of the corn silk was obtained using in methanol and water. The control group (A) with average weight of 758 g were not ingested with the extract throughout the period of study. Group B with average weight of 1040 g were ingested with the water extract for 3 weeks while group C with average weight of 984 g were ingested with the methanolic extract for 3 weeks. Plasma LDH, GGT and Glucose were estimated in the rabbits biochemically by spectrophotometry. The rabbits were well kept and placed on normal diet throughout the period of study. There was a significantly lower mean value of plasma glucose in the rabbits ingested with methanol corn silk extract compared with the control subjects after one week of administration(p<0.05). There was also a significantly lower plasma glucose and a significantly higher LDH level in the rabbits administered with the methanolic extract than the given aqueous extract of corn silk (p<0.05).The results obtained also showed a significantly lower plasma GGT in the rabbits administered with the aqueous and methanolic extract of corn silk than the results obtained in the rabbits studied as control(p<0.05) after 3 weeks of administration. The result obtained showed a significantly lower mean value of glucose in the rabbit administered with the methanolic extract compared with those that were given aqueous extract for 4 weeks with p<0.05. The administration of methanolic and aqueous extract of corn silk has an hypoglycaemic and hepatoprotective effects on the rabbits. The methanolic extract was also found to increase plasma LDH. These parameters should therefore be estimated in the patients undergoing treatment with corn silk extract for effective clinical management. The results obtained also show a significant increase in weights of rabbits administered with the aqueous and methanolic extract of corn silk than the results obtained in the rabbits studied as control ‘p<0.005’.



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Impacts of Herbicide Exposure on Seminal Parameters among Oil Palm Plantation Workers in Lampung Province, Indonesia

1Department of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Lampung, Indonesia

2Department of Biology, Faculty of Mathematics and Sciences, University of Lampung, Indonesia

American Journal of Biomedical Research. 2014, 2(4), 83-87
DOI: 10.12691/ajbr-2-4-5
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Sutyarso, M. Kanedi. Impacts of Herbicide Exposure on Seminal Parameters among Oil Palm Plantation Workers in Lampung Province, Indonesia. American Journal of Biomedical Research. 2014; 2(4):83-87. doi: 10.12691/ajbr-2-4-5.

Correspondence to: M.  Kanedi, Department of Biology, Faculty of Mathematics and Sciences, University of Lampung, Indonesia. Email:


It is a cross-sectional study to evaluate semen quality of plantation workers that due their daily obligation make them susceptible to herbicide exposures. The research participants were male workers of oil palm plantations in the District of Lampung Tengah, Lampung Province, Indonesia. They were those who meet the criteria of having more than one year work experience with herbicide, married and having children. Semen samples were taken by asking the participants to masturbate after they were advised to abstain from sexual intercourse for 4-5 days. Semen quality parameters that examined are volume, pH, sperm count, sperm motility, normal morphology and HOS-test. Based on years of the work periods, there were three groups of participants obtained. Group-1 are the participants who worked less than 10 years; group-2 are those who have work periods of 10-20 years; while group-3 are those who have worked more than 20 years. All of the semen quality parameters, except pH, decreased significantly with the increase in work periods far beyond the maximum decrease in normal elderly male. In conclusion, the daily tasks of oil palm plantation workers which prompt them expose to herbicide, suspected to be the cause of the decrease in semen quality parameters.



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