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American Journal of Applied Psychology

ISSN (Print): 2333-472X

ISSN (Online): 2333-4738

Website: http://www.sciepub.com/journal/AJAP

Article

Measuring Motives for Cultural Consumption: A Review of the Literature

1Department of Journalism and Mass Media Communication, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece


American Journal of Applied Psychology. 2015, 3(1), 1-5
DOI: 10.12691/ajap-3-1-1
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Maria Manolika, Alexandros Baltzis, Nikolaos Tsigilis. Measuring Motives for Cultural Consumption: A Review of the Literature. American Journal of Applied Psychology. 2015; 3(1):1-5. doi: 10.12691/ajap-3-1-1.

Correspondence to: Maria  Manolika, Department of Journalism and Mass Media Communication, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece. Email: maria.manolika@yahoo.gr

Abstract

Motives are the driving force behind all human behaviors and act as an internal factor that arouses, directs and integrates a person’s activity. In the cultural consumption domain the crucial role of motivation in people’s behavior has not been examined thoroughly. The present study reviews the research findings regarding the scales using to identify the main motives for cultural consumption and explores the theories used to explain cultural consumer motivations. The nature of cultural studies is examined by comparing and analyzing a large scale literature review of 94 research articles published in the English language scholarly press. The conclusions of this paper serve as a reference guide to current cultural motivation research. It is recommended that a universal scale for measuring consumer motivation be created with the adoption of quantitative and qualitative instruments. Methodological limitations and recommendations for future research are discussed.

Keywords

References

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Article

Discoveries in physics Can Explain our Thoughts and acts

1A.V.Zirmunsky Institute of Marine Biology, Far Eastern Branch, Russian academy of science, Vladivostok, Russia


American Journal of Applied Psychology. 2015, 3(1), 6-10
DOI: 10.12691/ajap-3-1-2
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Delik D. Gabaev. Discoveries in physics Can Explain our Thoughts and acts. American Journal of Applied Psychology. 2015; 3(1):6-10. doi: 10.12691/ajap-3-1-2.

Correspondence to: Delik  D. Gabaev, A.V.Zirmunsky Institute of Marine Biology, Far Eastern Branch, Russian academy of science, Vladivostok, Russia. Email: gabaevdd11@outlook.com

Abstract

A good knowledge of mechanisms of operation of such a complex machine as human brain became urgently demanded for solving many problems in medicine and engineering. Nevertheless, modern metering instruments allow observing only blood flows and activation in certain regions of the brain, whereas the way in which thoughts and acts are formed in it remains a closely guarded secret. In the present article, I used the long-term psychological observation and members of my family, and also results of experiments with the metal conductors covered with various materials and including of bone glue, promoting decrease of resistance to an electric current. The received results allow using discoveries in physics to explain mechanisms of intuition and unconscious behavior; these findings can be probably applied for constructing of devices that would save many human lives. The level of modern engineering may facilitate and accelerate introduction of these appliances in everyday life.

Keywords

References

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Article

Risky Behaviors and Stress Indicators between Novice and Experienced Drivers

1DATS (Development and Advising in Traffic Safety), INTRAS (Research Institute on Traffic and Road Safety), University of Valencia, Valencia, Spain

2Department of Psychology, Universidad Nacional de Colombia. Bogotá, Colombia


American Journal of Applied Psychology. 2015, 3(1), 11-14
DOI: 10.12691/ajap-3-1-3
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Sergio Useche, Andrea Serge, Francisco Alonso. Risky Behaviors and Stress Indicators between Novice and Experienced Drivers. American Journal of Applied Psychology. 2015; 3(1):11-14. doi: 10.12691/ajap-3-1-3.

Correspondence to: Francisco  Alonso, DATS (Development and Advising in Traffic Safety), INTRAS (Research Institute on Traffic and Road Safety), University of Valencia, Valencia, Spain. Email: francisco.alonso@uv.es

Abstract

Background: Road accidents are a serious public health problem and one of the leading causes of unnatural death. This study aimed to compare the incidence of physiological and representational indicators of stress and risky behaviors while driving, in a sample of drivers in an advanced stage of the learning process in driving schools, with respect to the indicators presented by a group of experienced drivers. Methods: It was used a sample of 120 drivers of Bogotá (Colombia), divided in two groups: drivers in learning process and drivers with one or more years of experience driving any vehicle, who answered to four self-report scales: Driving Behavior Questionnaire (DBQ) including subscale for positive behaviors; Global Scale of Perceived Stress (EPGE); Driver Social Desirability Scale (DSDS) and a complementary questionnaire about physical symptoms of stress. Results: Comparative analysis showed that the drivers with more driving experience had more self-reported risky behaviors while driving, lapses, aggressive violations and violations of traffic regulations. Additionally, significant associations between measures of positive driving behaviors, social desirability and perceived stress were found, as well as stress indicators shows a positive and significant association with driving errors and violations. Conclusions: The protective role of driving experience seems to be relative regarding to risky and positive behaviors while driving, taking into account that some of the risk factors that have been evaluated have a higher prevalence among the most experienced drivers. It is appropriate to emphasize on the need to raise the inclusion of components directed to the promotion of mental health and recognition/coping with risk factors such as stress and risky behaviors in the programs designed for driver training.

Keywords

References

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Article

Gender Role Perception among the Awra Amba Community

1Department of Psychology, College of Social Sciences and Languages, Mekelle University, Mekelle, Ethiopia


American Journal of Applied Psychology. 2015, 3(1), 15-21
DOI: 10.12691/ajap-3-1-4
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Seid Ebrie. Gender Role Perception among the Awra Amba Community. American Journal of Applied Psychology. 2015; 3(1):15-21. doi: 10.12691/ajap-3-1-4.

Correspondence to: Seid  Ebrie, Department of Psychology, College of Social Sciences and Languages, Mekelle University, Mekelle, Ethiopia. Email: seayoo60@yahoo.com

Abstract

The objective of this study was to discover the influence of age and sex on gender role perception of the Awra Amba community. For this purpose, a total of 180 participants (from 403 total Awra Amba population), 60 from three age groups (children, adolescents and adults), 30 from two sex groups (male and female) were selected by using stratified random sampling method. Two different instruments (Personal Attribute Questionnaire and Social Role Questionnaire) were adapted and pilot tested. For data analysis, descriptive statistics, One-Way ANOVA and independent t-test were employed. In relation to the major findings, there is a statistically significant difference in gender role perception among the Awra Amba children, adolescents and adults. While children hold stereotypic and traditional gender role perception, adolescents and adults demonstrate androgynous and egalitarian gender role perception. Besides, egalitarian and non-traditional gender role perception increases with age in the Awra Amba community when one grows older from childhood to adolescence and adulthood. Finally, there was no statistically significant difference between the Awra Amba males and females in gender role perception. Both males’ and females’ gender role perception is androgynous and egalitarian or non-traditional.

Keywords

References

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Article

Comparison of Continuous Anxiety Level of Some Individual Fight Athletes

1Gazi University, School of Physical Education and Sports, Ankara, Turkey

2Marmara University, School of Physical Education and Sports, İstanbul, Turkey

3Kocaeli University, School of Physical Education and Sports, İzmit/Kocaeli, Turkey

4Mehmet Akif Ersoy, University, School of Physical Education and Sports, Burdur, Turkey


American Journal of Applied Psychology. 2015, 3(1), 22-26
DOI: 10.12691/ajap-3-1-5
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Ünsal Tazegül, Veysel Küçük, Gökhan Tuna, Mehmet Haşim Akgül. Comparison of Continuous Anxiety Level of Some Individual Fight Athletes. American Journal of Applied Psychology. 2015; 3(1):22-26. doi: 10.12691/ajap-3-1-5.

Correspondence to: Ünsal  Tazegül, Gazi University, School of Physical Education and Sports, Ankara, Turkey. Email: unsaltazegul@hotmail.com

Abstract

Aim of this study is to specify and compare the continuous anxiety level of athletes dealing with sports branches such as boxing, weight lifting, kickboxing and wrestling. There are a lot of factors negatively affecting athletes' performance. One of them is high anxiety. As long as anxiety levels of athletes increase, they can not put in performance that they wish. In order to determine continuous anxiety status of athletes, continuous anxiety inventory was used by Spielberger and his friends (1970) who developed it. Samples of research was formed with 55 male boxer, 72 male wrestler, 56 male weight lifter, 61 male kickboxer who joined to Turkey Championship in 2012 and were chosen by random sample method. In data analysis, SPSS 15 package software was used and “Kolmogorov-Smirnov” test was used to determine whether datas had normal distribution, ''Anova-Homogenety of variance” test was used to determine homogeneity and it was determined that datas had homogeneous and normal distribution. In analysis of datas, descriptive statistics, one-way analysis of variance for determining difference between variables which was more than 2 and tukey test for determining relationship between variables were carried out. At the end of the study, it was specified that anxiety level of wrestlers are less than other athletes. In terms of branches, as a result of continuous anxiety scores comparing, wrestle and kickboxing, a significant difference was found between wrestling and weight lifting, wrestling and boxing statistically significant (p<0,05).

Keywords

References

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[11]  Gümüş M.Profesyonel Futbol Takımlarında Puan Sıralamasına Göre Durumluk Kaygı Düzeylerinin İncelenmesi, Sakarya Üniversitesi, Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü, Yüksek Lisans Tezi, Sakarya, 2002.
 
[12]  Güney, S., Davranış Bilimleri ve Yönetim Psikolojisi Terimler Sözlüğü, Ankara, 1998.
 
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[14]  Hançerlioğlu, O., Ruhbilim Sözlüğü. 2, baskı. Remzi Kitapevi, İstanbul, 1993.
 
[15]  Ziyalar A., Psikiyatri lügati İstanbul Üniversitesi Cerrahpaşa Tıp Fakültesi Psikiyatri kıl iniği vakıf yayınları, İstanbul 1981.
 
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Article

Farewell to Fido: Pet Owners’ Commitment and Relinquishment of Companion Animals

1Department of Psychology, Marian University, Indianapolis, USA


American Journal of Applied Psychology. 2015, 3(2), 27-33
DOI: 10.12691/ajap-3-2-1
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Brian Collisson. Farewell to Fido: Pet Owners’ Commitment and Relinquishment of Companion Animals. American Journal of Applied Psychology. 2015; 3(2):27-33. doi: 10.12691/ajap-3-2-1.

Correspondence to: Brian  Collisson, Department of Psychology, Marian University, Indianapolis, USA. Email: bcollisson@marian.edu

Abstract

The current research predicts commitment and relinquishment of companion animals by applying psychological theory on close relationships. In this novel application to pet owners in general (Study 1) and dog owners specifically (Study 2), commitment and relinquishment intentions were predicted to be a function of owner satisfaction, investment size, and quality of alternative animals. In both studies, pet owners reported their commitment to their animal, satisfaction, investment size, quality of alternative animals, as well as relinquishment intentions. Study 1 revealed that commitment was related to satisfaction and investment size, but not quality of alternative animals. Study 2 revealed that dog owners’ commitment and relinquishment intentions were related to satisfaction, investment size, and quality of alternatives. Implications for animal welfare are discussed.

Keywords

References

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Article

Perceived Causes of Mental Illness and Treatment Seeking Behaviors among People with Mental Health Problems in Gebremenfes Kidus Holy Water Site

1Psychology Department, College of Social Sciences and Languages, Mekelle University, Mekelle, Ethiopia


American Journal of Applied Psychology. 2015, 3(2), 34-42
DOI: 10.12691/ajap-3-2-2
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Kahsay Weldeslasie Hailemariam. Perceived Causes of Mental Illness and Treatment Seeking Behaviors among People with Mental Health Problems in Gebremenfes Kidus Holy Water Site. American Journal of Applied Psychology. 2015; 3(2):34-42. doi: 10.12691/ajap-3-2-2.

Correspondence to: Kahsay  Weldeslasie Hailemariam, Psychology Department, College of Social Sciences and Languages, Mekelle University, Mekelle, Ethiopia. Email: kasweld@gmail.com, kaspsyc@yahoo.com

Abstract

This study assesses the perceived causes of mental illnesses and treatment seeking behaviors among patients who attended the holy water sprinkling religious practice in the holy site of Gebremenfes Kidus holy water around Axum town. The data were collected from 25 participants who were sprinkled by the holy water at the time. A case study method was employed in order to collect detail and in-depth information from the target participants of the study. The researcher used available sampling method and collected the data using semi-structured interview from the patients and their caregivers. The participants were with full of insight about their health problems. Most patients in the holy water attributed the mental illness to different social evil practices and traditional beliefs as well as to the punishing hands of the God as a result of disobeying to the religious principles and social taboos. The treatment seeking preference of most patients was spiritual practices like, holy water sprinkling, praying and other traditional healing techniques such as herbal medicines with no dose limit and no scientific proof for the effectiveness of the medicine. Generally, participants had negative attitude towards the effectiveness of the modern medicine or professional help to the illness. A research conducted in Uganda revealed the same result. In some Ugandan communities, help is mostly sought from traditional healers initially, whereas western form of care is usually considered as a last resort. The factors found to influence help seeking behavior within the community include: beliefs about the causes of mental illness and the people’s lack of awareness about the scientific cause and treatment approaches to the illness [1].

Keywords

References

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[2]  Deribew, A., &Shiferaw, Y. How are mental health problems perceived by a community in Agaro town? Ethiopian Journal of Health Development, Addis Ababahttp://www.ajol.info/index.php/ejhd/a. 19(2), 153-159. 2005.
 
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Article

The Four Isomorphic Couplets Passive Mind/Active Mind, Definition/Syllogism, Tasawwur/Tasdiq and Perception/Thinking

1Environmental and Occupational Medicine Department, National Research Center, Dokki, Giza, Egypt


American Journal of Applied Psychology. 2015, 3(2), 43-46
DOI: 10.12691/ajap-3-2-3
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Mai Sabry Saleh. The Four Isomorphic Couplets Passive Mind/Active Mind, Definition/Syllogism, Tasawwur/Tasdiq and Perception/Thinking. American Journal of Applied Psychology. 2015; 3(2):43-46. doi: 10.12691/ajap-3-2-3.

Correspondence to: Mai  Sabry Saleh, Environmental and Occupational Medicine Department, National Research Center, Dokki, Giza, Egypt. Email: nouranomer@gmail.com

Abstract

Interchangeable terms in philosophy and psychology -as introduced in this article- are supposed to help in clarifying one another in order to provide a better understanding of human intellect. The two intellectual functions of learning; perception and thinking -as illustrated- are capable of describing the process of conceptual learning through which a multi-component image schema or a meaningful whole (gestalt) is constructed in our consciousness. Aristotelian logic, Aristotle mind, definition and syllogism as well as tasawwur and tasdiq can provide features of the frame within which perception/thinking couplet is assumed to fulfill its function. The aim of this mini-review is to highlight the way in which the Intellectual style Inventory (ISI) and the Integrated Model of Mind (IMM) are supposed to introduce the detailed description of how perception/thinking dichotomy actually behaves guided by the latest findings of the scientific research in the different fields dedicated for the study of the human mind.

Keywords

References

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[10]  Saleh, M.S. (2014). IMM: A Multisystem Memory Model for Conceptual learning. American Journal of Psychology, 127(4), 477-488.
 
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Article

Assessment of Causes, Prevalence and Consequences of Alcohol and Drug Abuse among Mekelle University, CSSL 2nd Year Students

1Department of Psychology, Mekelle University, Mekelle, Ethiopia


American Journal of Applied Psychology. 2015, 3(3), 47-56
DOI: 10.12691/ajap-3-3-1
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Shimelis Keno Tulu, Wosen Keskis. Assessment of Causes, Prevalence and Consequences of Alcohol and Drug Abuse among Mekelle University, CSSL 2nd Year Students. American Journal of Applied Psychology. 2015; 3(3):47-56. doi: 10.12691/ajap-3-3-1.

Correspondence to: Shimelis  Keno Tulu, Department of Psychology, Mekelle University, Mekelle, Ethiopia. Email: shimeliskeno8@gmail.com

Abstract

The findings of different study show that, alcohol and drug abuse among university students is increasing from time to time and becoming the major problem that many governments are facing currently. The case is not different for Ethiopian university and college [1]. Therefore, the focus of this study is to investigate the major causes, prevalence and consequences of alcohol and drug abuse (specifically, drinking alcohol, smoking cigarette, and chewing Khat) among Mekelle University, College of Social Sciences and Languages (CSSL), 2nd year students. Out of 690 total students found in 10 departments, Standardized screening test called (Drug Abuse Screening test (DAST) was administered to a total of 329 purposefully selected students to screen out alcohol and drug abusers. As per the result of the score, 200(29%) of the total students or [60% of those who are purposefully selected for screening test] were found to be alcohol and drug abusers. Hence, 200 participants met the criterion to be the participants of the study. Among the selected 200 total participants, 170(85%) were male and 30(15%) were female. All 200 participants were filled 3 questionnaires namely; questionnaire to assess causes of drug abuse, Inventory of Drug Use Consequences (InDUC-2L) and Questionnaire to assess the prevalence of Drug Abuse. Results show that, the major causes of alcohol and drug abuse are peer pressure, psychological factors, academic factors and social factors. The findings also show that, the prevalence of alcohol and drug abuse is high among Mekelle University College of Social Sciences and Languages (CSSL) 2nd year students. According to the findings, the major consequences of alcohol and drug abuse are behavioral, academic, physical, economic, health, psychological and social. Therefore, it is awfully recommendable that further comprehensively studies are conducted regarding the causes, prevalence and consequences of drinking alcohol, chewing Khat and smoking cigarette among university students. Moreover, appropriate prevention, intervention and treatment/psychotherapy mechanisms are also expected to be formulated to at least reduce rapidly increasing and the far reaching problems of alcohol and drug abuse among University and College students in Ethiopia.

Keywords

References

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Article

The Attitudes of the Police towards Persons with Mental Illness: A Cross-sectional Study from Benin City, Nigeria

1Department of Clinical Services, Federal Neuropsychiatric Hospital, Uselu, Benin City, Nigeria

2Medicals, Nigeria Police, Benin City, Nigeria


American Journal of Applied Psychology. 2015, 3(3), 57-61
DOI: 10.12691/ajap-3-3-2
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Joyce O Omoaregba, Bawo O James, Nosa G Igbinowanhia, Wilson O Akhiwu. The Attitudes of the Police towards Persons with Mental Illness: A Cross-sectional Study from Benin City, Nigeria. American Journal of Applied Psychology. 2015; 3(3):57-61. doi: 10.12691/ajap-3-3-2.

Correspondence to: Joyce  O Omoaregba, Department of Clinical Services, Federal Neuropsychiatric Hospital, Uselu, Benin City, Nigeria. Email: jomoaregba@yahoo.com

Abstract

In developing countries, the police are often required to intervene in matters relating to the mentally ill. They also constitute an important point in pathways to care. Negative attitudes towards the mentally ill limit the effectiveness of the police in facilitating care. This study sought to determine the attitudes of police officers and men towards individuals with mental illness as a way of guiding the development of appropriate anti-stigma interventions. A cross sectional study of police officers and men (n=219) was undertaken between July and August 2012 in Benin- City, Nigeria, using the self-administered Community Attitudes towards Mental Illness (CAMI) questionnaire. Negative attitudes were prevalent among the police surveyed. They were authoritarian and less benevolent in their views regarding mental illness and the mentally ill. They were also majorly against ideas to incorporate mental health care in the community. Married policemen and those with greater than 12 years of formal education were found to be more benevolent in their attitudes towards the mentally ill. Clearly, anti-stigma campaigns involving educational sessions are needed in the Police force.

Keywords

References

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