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Article

Perceived Psychosocial Determinants of Female Criminality in South East Nigeria

1Department of psychology, Caritas University Enugu

2Department of Psychology, Enugu State University of Science and Technology, Enugu

3Department of Psychology, Imo State University Owerri


American Journal of Applied Psychology. 2014, 2(2), 33-36
DOI: 10.12691/ajap-2-2-1
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Tobias C. Obi, Barnabas E. Nwankwo, Victor C. Ohama, Solomon A. Agu, Ngozi Sydney-Agbor. Perceived Psychosocial Determinants of Female Criminality in South East Nigeria. American Journal of Applied Psychology. 2014; 2(2):33-36. doi: 10.12691/ajap-2-2-1.

Correspondence to: Barnabas  E. Nwankwo, Department of psychology, Caritas University Enugu. Email: banniewankwo@yahoo.com

Abstract

The study investigated perceived psychosocial determinants of female criminality. 150 respondents comprising 82 females and 68 males selected from the three (3) Metropolitan Local Governments in Enugu State were used as sample. The participants were within the age bracket of 25-55 years with a mean age of 35 years. A 15 item questionnaire designed to measure perceived psychosocial determinants of female criminality was used for data collection. Survey research design was adopted while Chi-square statistics was used for data analysis. Findings revealed that broken home was perceived as a determinant of female criminality X2= 126.84 P<.001. A significant outcome was also observed on poor parental monitoring as a perceived determinant of female criminality X2= 161.6 P<.001. Findings were discussed in relation with the literature reviewed and recommendations were also made.

Keywords

References

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[7]  Sutherland, E. H. (1947). Principles of Criminology. 3rd Edition. Philadelphia : J.B Lippincott.
 
[8]  Thomas, W.I. (1907). Sex and Society. 1st World Library, 2008 P.O. Box 2211 Fairfield, 1A 52556 www.1stWorldlibrary.com., First Edition.
 
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Article

Detection of Single Behavior Patterns from Software Sdis-Gseq

1Departament de Psicología Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Facultad de Estudios Superiores Iztacala


American Journal of Applied Psychology. 2014, 2(2), 37-41
DOI: 10.12691/ajap-2-2-2
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Edgardo Ruiz Carrillo. Detection of Single Behavior Patterns from Software Sdis-Gseq. American Journal of Applied Psychology. 2014; 2(2):37-41. doi: 10.12691/ajap-2-2-2.

Correspondence to: Edgardo  Ruiz Carrillo, Departament de Psicología Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Facultad de Estudios Superiores Iztacala. Email: edgardo@unam.mx

Abstract

The proposal of this work is to detect the existence of patterns of interactive sequential discursive behavior in three single woman Mexican adults from prospective analysis of the interview between them and the interviewer. The methodology used was observational. It was developed iteratively and thorough, a category system as an instrument of observation, and then it was underwent a recategorization process. The number of sessions observed were 3, of 3 hours duration each one. Intersessional sequential analysis was used through the SDIS-GSEQ software. Thus we first, in probability of occurrence, are the categories of Worry and Self determination, the next significant Uncomprehending, and Heterosatisfaction; followed in sequential occurrence order by: Myself, Hetero realization, Paradox, and Auto realization. Last in sequential inhibitory occurrence are: For others, and Incomprehending. Finally, the categories that are inhibitory occurrence probabilistically negative are: My self, self-understanding. Finding that these women are learning to live for themselves within a process of emancipation from their families and social structures.

Keywords

References

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Article

Classroom Environment and Self-Control Skills and Their Relationship with Adolescents Violence in the Arabic Community of Israel

1Educational Research and Development Authority, Al-Qasmie College, Baqa el Gharbieh, Israel

2Learning & Instruction Department, Al-Qasmie College, Baqa el Gharbieh, Israel


American Journal of Applied Psychology. 2014, 2(2), 42-52
DOI: 10.12691/ajap-2-2-3
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Qutaiba Agbaria, Almaza Atamna. Classroom Environment and Self-Control Skills and Their Relationship with Adolescents Violence in the Arabic Community of Israel. American Journal of Applied Psychology. 2014; 2(2):42-52. doi: 10.12691/ajap-2-2-3.

Correspondence to: Qutaiba  Agbaria, Educational Research and Development Authority, Al-Qasmie College, Baqa el Gharbieh, Israel. Email: Qutaiba100psych@yahoo.com

Abstract

This research aims to examine the relationship between classroom environment and self-control skills, and the prevalence of violence among Arab adolescents in Israel. The sample included 200 pupils with ages ranging between 13-15 from seventh to the ninth grade. Research hypotheses predicted that there was a statistically-significant inverse correlation between classroom environment and physical violence, and between self-control and physical violence; and that there is a statistically-significant positive correlation between age and self-control and between physical violence and classroom environment. Finally, the hypothesis predicted that there were statistically significant differences in physical violence, self-control and classroom environment that can be attributed to gender. The results of the research showed that there was an inverse correlation between the classroom environment and between self-control and violence. The more self-control pupils have, the lower the level of violence would be, which supports the hypothesis. The findings also revealed that there was no statistically-significant correlation between age, anger and physical violence. The results also reflected a positive correlation between age and classroom environment, and an inverse correlation between age and self-control, that is, growing in age leads to lowering the level of self-control, and these results supported the hypothesis on this regard. Finally, the research concluded a number of recommendations that will be discussed.

Keywords

References

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Article

Resilient Profile and Creative Personality in Middle and Late Adolescents: A Validation Study of the Italian-RASP

1Department of Educational Sciences, University of Catania, Sicily, Italy


American Journal of Applied Psychology. 2014, 2(2), 53-58
DOI: 10.12691/ajap-2-2-4
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Maria Elvira De Caroli, Elisabetta Sagone. Resilient Profile and Creative Personality in Middle and Late Adolescents: A Validation Study of the Italian-RASP. American Journal of Applied Psychology. 2014; 2(2):53-58. doi: 10.12691/ajap-2-2-4.

Correspondence to: Maria  Elvira De Caroli, Department of Educational Sciences, University of Catania, Sicily, Italy. Email: m.decaroli@unict.it

Abstract

This study analyzed the relationship between resilient profile and creative personality in a large sample of 749 Italian middle and late adolescents recruited from six Public High Schools in East Sicily (Italy). As corollary, it was investigated the validity of the Resiliency Attitudes and Skills Profile (Italian-RASP) by means of principal components factorial analysis (PCA) and its reliability by calculating Cronbach’s alpha. We administered, in a small group setting, the following measures: 1) the RASP (Hurtes & Allen, 2001) to explore the characteristics of resilient profile; 2) the Test of Creative Personality (Williams, 1994) to analyze the four factors of personality named curiosity, preference for complexity, willingness to risk taking, and imagination. The PCA revealed the five-components solution of Italian-RASP as the better one than the others (with the 41,67% of total explained variance), obtaining the following components: engagement (21,14% of variance), adaptability (6,26%), control (5,30%), competence (4,71%), and sense of humor (4,28%). Results indicated that the more the adolescents were engaged, adapted, and competent in front of adversity, the more they were likely to be curious, complexity-loving, willing to risk taking, and to use mental images; in addition, the more the adolescents practiced their control on surroundings and used their sense of humor, the more they were likely to be curious and complexity-loving, and prone to risk taking. Implications for future projects centered on the effects of creative resilience on the positive youth development will be discussed.

Keywords

References

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Article

A Corelational Study of Psychosocial & Spiritual Well Being and Death Anxiety among Advanced Stage Cancer Patients

1Barkatullah University, Bhopal, India

2Indian Institute of Forest Management, Bhopal, India


American Journal of Applied Psychology. 2014, 2(3), 59-65
DOI: 10.12691/ajap-2-3-1
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Pragya Shukla, Parul Rishi. A Corelational Study of Psychosocial & Spiritual Well Being and Death Anxiety among Advanced Stage Cancer Patients. American Journal of Applied Psychology. 2014; 2(3):59-65. doi: 10.12691/ajap-2-3-1.

Correspondence to: Pragya  Shukla, Barkatullah University, Bhopal, India. Email: ps.psychologist@gmail.com

Abstract

Present study investigated the relationships among psychosocial, spiritual well being and death anxiety among advance stage cancer patients in order to improve the prognosis and quality of life as well as reduce their sufferings. By studying various well beings and death anxiety, it would be possible to identify the psychological needs of cancer patients in order to help the treatment of cancer patients and make them mentally strong to cope with their disease. Data was collected from Sample of 80 advance stage cancer patients, from six exclusive cancer hospitals of western and central zones of India. Patients were identified as advance stage patients as per clinical details (treatment history, diagnostic profile & records) and diagnosis was done by treating doctors of the hospital. Results were analyzed to identify the psychological needs of cancer patients. Obtained results were analyzed using SPSS for descriptive and variance analysis followed by multiple correlation. Results revealed negative correlation between psychosocial well being and death anxiety and also same results were found between spiritual well being and death anxiety. It indicates that enhancing the psychosocial and spiritual well being of cancer patients can reduce their death anxiety and promote better quality of life. Palliative care and Cognitive Behaviour therapy can play a very important role in this regard.

Keywords

References

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Article

Assessment of Brain Function in Music Therapy

1Neuroscience Departments, Functional Neurosurgery Research Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences


American Journal of Applied Psychology. 2014, 2(3), 66-68
DOI: 10.12691/ajap-2-3-2
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Zarghi A, Zali A, Ashraf F, Moazezi S. Assessment of Brain Function in Music Therapy. American Journal of Applied Psychology. 2014; 2(3):66-68. doi: 10.12691/ajap-2-3-2.

Correspondence to: Zarghi  A, Neuroscience Departments, Functional Neurosurgery Research Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences. Email: Dr.a.zarghi@hotmail.com

Abstract

Background: Music therapy, due to the characteristics and potential therapeutic applications, increase efficiency and provide treatment for the mental and physical relaxation. In effective therapy are used from well trained music therapists for providing the voice, body language and facial expressions. Methods: this procedure is performed after examination and imaging tests and in addition to the requirements of a therapeutic relationship. By the music therapist is discussed a clear sense for shared purpose. Results: A recent comprehensive meta-analysis of research on music has been performed, the results of which were presented to support this argument. Conclusion: The empirical studies show that there are positive steps in the effort to build a solid and dependable structure of empirical research in the field of the method.

Keywords

References

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Article

The Influence of Art-Making on Negative Mood States in University Students

1Lake Superior State University


American Journal of Applied Psychology. 2014, 2(3), 69-72
DOI: 10.12691/ajap-2-3-3
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Crystal R. Drake, H. Russell Searight, Kristina Olson-Pupek. The Influence of Art-Making on Negative Mood States in University Students. American Journal of Applied Psychology. 2014; 2(3):69-72. doi: 10.12691/ajap-2-3-3.

Correspondence to: H.  Russell Searight, Lake Superior State University. Email: hsearight@lssu.edu

Abstract

This study examined the influence of art-making in a sample of 44 undergraduate students. Participants were randomly assigned to a control group or one of three art-making groups. Students in all groups completed the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and the Mini-POMS prior to and after a twenty minute participation in one of the four groups. Individuals in the art-making groups were randomly assigned to participate in coloring a pre-drawn mandala, a pre-drawn plaid design, or coloring free form on blank paper. There were significant reductions in negative mood states within each group, but there were no differences between the activities. In all of the groups, state anxiety declined significantly from pre- to post-test (p<.05). Participants in the plaid condition also exhibited significant reductions in depression (p<.03) and tension (p<.005). The findings suggest that coloring pre-drawn patterns may be useful as a stress reduction technique for university students.

Keywords

References

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[16]  Walsh, S. M., Chang, C. Y., Schmidt, L. A., &Yoepp, J. H. (2005).Lowering stress while teaching research: A creative arts intervention in the classroom. Journal of Nursing Education, 44 (7), 330-33
 
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Article

Assessing the Role of Community Care Coalition in Providing Psychosocial Support to HIV/AIDS Infected and Affected People

1Department of Psychology, College of Social Sciences and Languages, Mekelle University, Mekelle, Ethiopia


American Journal of Applied Psychology. 2014, 2(3), 73-81
DOI: 10.12691/ajap-2-3-4
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Binega Haileselassie. Assessing the Role of Community Care Coalition in Providing Psychosocial Support to HIV/AIDS Infected and Affected People. American Journal of Applied Psychology. 2014; 2(3):73-81. doi: 10.12691/ajap-2-3-4.

Correspondence to: Binega  Haileselassie, Department of Psychology, College of Social Sciences and Languages, Mekelle University, Mekelle, Ethiopia. Email: binegahh@yahoo.com

Abstract

Communities have their own means of managing crisis during time of difficulties and local networks like community care coalition plays prominent role in addressing basic needs of members of the community and HIV/AIDS infected people. HIV/AIDS affects all dimensions of person’s life and providing psychosocial support can help the infected people and their families to cope up effectively with each stage of the infection. In light of this, the main objective of this study was to examine and evaluate the role of Community Care Coalitions (CCCs) in providing psychosocial supports to people infected with and affected by HIV/AIDS. The research design employed was both qualitative and quantitative approaches. Participants were selected using both probability and non probability sampling techniques. Survey questionnaires, FGD, and key informant interviews were used. The reliability of the survey questions was checked with Cronbach’s alpha and measures of equivalence item analysis methods in pilot testing. The content validity of the items was also checked by the inter judge raters. Data obtained from survey questionnaires was analyzed quantitatively using descriptive and inferential statistics. Qualitative data was analyzed thematically in line with key elements of care and support to PLWHA and vulnerable groups. The finding indicates psychosocial support for PLWHA and their families is found to be very essential. The role of such community based care and support networks also play paramount significance in addressing the need of these target groups. The provision of psychosocial support as one separate care and support package within CCCs, create significant difference between beneficiaries level of service satisfaction, relationship between service providers and receivers for the t- value is less than the P, 0.05 with 95% CI. Therefore, the researcher believed that the care and support to PLWHA should be comprehensive enough.

Keywords

References

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Article

Psychosocial Problems and Coping Strategies of Female Sexually Abused Children: Issue for Policy Implication and Empowering the Victims

1Department of Psychology, College of Social Sciences and Languages, Mekelle, University,Mekelle, Ethiopia


American Journal of Applied Psychology. 2014, 2(4), 82-89
DOI: 10.12691/ajap-2-4-1
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Binega Haileselassie, Chalachew Wassie, Tsegazeab Kahsay, Yohannes Fisseha. Psychosocial Problems and Coping Strategies of Female Sexually Abused Children: Issue for Policy Implication and Empowering the Victims. American Journal of Applied Psychology. 2014; 2(4):82-89. doi: 10.12691/ajap-2-4-1.

Correspondence to: Binega  Haileselassie, Department of Psychology, College of Social Sciences and Languages, Mekelle, University,Mekelle, Ethiopia. Email: binegahh@yahoo.com

Abstract

The experience of child sexual abuse can leave a host of adverse behavioral, emotional, and psychological consequences. The objective of this study, therefore, is to investigate the major psychosocial problems of sexually abused children and their coping mechanisms in Hamlin Fistula Hospital and Mother Teresa Charity Missionary’s Children’s Home. Qualitative methods namely in-depth interviews, observation, FGD and document analysis were used to collect the required data. The data were presented, organized and analyzed by using thematic analysis. The research finding reveals that, the survivor children are suffering from a whole range of physical, behavioral, social and emotional problems which in turn affect their personal wellbeing and social relations. However, some of the cases have not experienced some of the problems which others faced. As the result indicates incest type of child sexual abuse is the common form of sexual abuse that children face. The research result also shows strategies such as destructive behaviors like smoking, drinking, chewing and using substances; engaging in prostitution, begging, theft; attending religious places, deviating from social interaction and hiding themselves under some issues) were adopted by these sexually abused children to cope up with the sexual abuse and its related problems. Cooperation of different initiatives is imperative to solve the problem of sexually abused children in a sustainable manner. Therefore, the researchers believe that the GOs, NGOs, the community and other actors should integrate and coordinate different activities undertaken in relation to the problem of sexually abused children. It is also believed that community based strategies and empowering the victim children were identified as pillar of halting the problem. Besides, interested researchers could host similar researches with related to the multifaceted problem of abused children.

Keywords

References

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Article

The “Critical Mass Hypothesis”: Morphosynatx Development among Typically Developing Child and a Child with Developmental Language Disorder

1Department of Psychology, Bahir Dar University, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia


American Journal of Applied Psychology. 2014, 2(4), 90-93
DOI: 10.12691/ajap-2-4-2
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Abiot Yenealem Derbie. The “Critical Mass Hypothesis”: Morphosynatx Development among Typically Developing Child and a Child with Developmental Language Disorder. American Journal of Applied Psychology. 2014; 2(4):90-93. doi: 10.12691/ajap-2-4-2.

Correspondence to: Abiot  Yenealem Derbie, Department of Psychology, Bahir Dar University, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia. Email: dabiyen@gmail.com, abioty@bdu.edu.et

Abstract

Mass Critical Hypothesis is a new concept in the study of child language and/or developmental language disorder. The hypothesis states that the morphosyntax of children can develop only if they have acquired (or can produce) a certain amount of different words. The goal of the present research was to test the generalizability and reliability of the hypothesis. For this, one typically developing child and one child with developmental language disorder from Child Language Data Exchange System/CHILDES (MacWhinney, 2000) were taken. The CHAT file was non-elicited and non-directed spontaneous speech. Computerized Language Analysis (CLAN) v.30 for Windows was employed to analyze the non-elicited spontaneous speech of the typically developing child and the child with developmental language disorder. For both cases, Mean Length of Utterance (MLU) and Pearson product moment correlation coefficient (r) were calculated. Based on observed range of number of types of morpheme produced, the present study supports the notion of ‘Mass Critical Hypothesis’ existence in both typically developing child and the child with developmental language disorder.

Keywords

References

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