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American Journal of Applied Psychology

ISSN (Print): 2333-472X

ISSN (Online): 2333-4738

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Machiavellianism and Perceived Parental Bonding: Different Socialization Pathways for Men and Women

1Institute of Behavioral Sciences, University of Pécs, H-7624 Pécs, Hungary

2Institute of Psychology, University of Pécs, H-7624 Pécs, Hungary

American Journal of Applied Psychology. 2015, 3(4), 109-112
doi: 10.12691/ajap-3-4-5
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Béla Birkás, András Láng, Tamás Bereczkei. Machiavellianism and Perceived Parental Bonding: Different Socialization Pathways for Men and Women. American Journal of Applied Psychology. 2015; 3(4):109-112. doi: 10.12691/ajap-3-4-5.

Correspondence to: Béla  Birkás, Institute of Behavioral Sciences, University of Pécs, H-7624 Pécs, Hungary. Email:


Machiavellianism can be seen as a personality indicator of fast life history strategy. Unpredictable, harsh environmental conditions tend to produce fast strategies which are associated with earlier maturation, more offspring, but less investment in them. Men tend to benefit more from fast strategy than women. We investigated, to what extent parental bonding characteristics play a role in developing high-Mach personality traits. According to gender differences we attempt to differentiate possible pathways of socialisation for men and women with Machiavellian attitudes. 175 participants (69 females) were asked to report Machiavellian attitudes (Mach-IV) and perceived parental rearing practices (Short-EMBU). For women, moderate negative correlation was found between level of Machiavellianism and level of parental (both paternal and maternal) warmth. For men on the other hand, Machiavellian attitudes correlated negatively with paternal rejection and paternal overprotection. Our results indicated that the development of Machiavellian attitudes followed different patterns in men and women. Considering the source of the above mentioned gender difference, we speculate that women could be more sensitive to emotional closeness of both their parents, whereas men tend to be more affected by paternal feedback or the lack of thereof. Consequently, there are gender differences in pathways that lead from family experiences to Machiavellian attitudes.



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Can I Solve the Problem?A Program Trail on Problem Solving Skill

1Department of Education Science, Education of Faculty, Erzincan University, Yalnızbağ Campus, Erzincan, Turkey

American Journal of Applied Psychology. 2016, 4(1), 1-10
doi: 10.12691/ajap-4-1-1
Copyright © 2016 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Yener ÖZEN. Can I Solve the Problem?A Program Trail on Problem Solving Skill. American Journal of Applied Psychology. 2016; 4(1):1-10. doi: 10.12691/ajap-4-1-1.

Correspondence to: Yener  ÖZEN, Department of Education Science, Education of Faculty, Erzincan University, Yalnızbağ Campus, Erzincan, Turkey. Email: yenerozen@erzincan.


In this study the effectiveness of a guidance program prepared to improve the problem solving skill, which is an important part of development in many areas, from academic life to daily life, is investigated. The research is a model of pre-test and post-test experiment with control group. The sample of this study is 20 students selected from 9. grade students of Erzincan Anatolian Vocational School for Trade and Commerce High School. Problem Solving Inventory which was adapted to Turkish by Şahin, Şahin and Heppner [37] was used in this study. To analyze the data, Non-Parametric Mann Whitney U and Non-Parametric Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test were used. According to the result of this study, it is found that significant difference in problem solving skills of students who attended the trainingprogram by the side of students not attending the program.



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An Investigation into the Influence of Adler-Based Training Approach to the Improvement of Social Problem-Solving Skills and the Reduction of Impulsiveness in Students with Mathematics Disorder

1Department of Educational Psychology, Tabriz University, Iran

American Journal of Applied Psychology. 2016, 4(1), 11-16
doi: 10.12691/ajap-4-1-2
Copyright © 2016 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Mojtaba Ashouri, Shahram Vahedi, Tooraj Hashemi. An Investigation into the Influence of Adler-Based Training Approach to the Improvement of Social Problem-Solving Skills and the Reduction of Impulsiveness in Students with Mathematics Disorder. American Journal of Applied Psychology. 2016; 4(1):11-16. doi: 10.12691/ajap-4-1-2.

Correspondence to: Mojtaba  Ashouri, Department of Educational Psychology, Tabriz University, Iran. Email:


The aim of this study was to investigate the Adler-based approach to the improvement of social problem-solving skills and the reduction of impulsiveness in students with mathematics disorder. This study is an experimental one including a pretest and a posttest on the control group. The study population included the male students afflicted with mathematics disorder in the city of Koohdasht, Iran in the school year 2012-2013. The participants were 40 parents whose children had mathematics disorder. They were selected randomly among the parents of children in 7 junior high schools and they were put in the experimental and control groups (15 people in each group). In order to collect the data two questionnaires were used namely social problem-solving and impulsiveness questionnaires. The results of covariance analysis (MANCOVA) showed that Adler-based approach to parents’ training had impact on reducing the impulsiveness and the improvement of social problem-solving skills (p<.01). It reduced the impulsiveness and improved the social problem-solving skills of students with mathematics disorder. We conclude that Adler-based therapy is an effective method in the improvement of the behavioral sings of students with mathematics disorder and it is necessary to examine its difference in other variables which are related to students afflicted with mathematics disorder.



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