You are here

American Journal of Applied Psychology

ISSN (Print): 2333-472X

ISSN (Online): 2333-4738

Editor-in-Chief: Apply for this position




An Investigation into the Influence of Adler-Based Training Approach to the Improvement of Social Problem-Solving Skills and the Reduction of Impulsiveness in Students with Mathematics Disorder

1Department of Educational Psychology, Tabriz University, Iran

American Journal of Applied Psychology. 2016, 4(1), 11-16
doi: 10.12691/ajap-4-1-2
Copyright © 2016 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Mojtaba Ashouri, Shahram Vahedi, Tooraj Hashemi. An Investigation into the Influence of Adler-Based Training Approach to the Improvement of Social Problem-Solving Skills and the Reduction of Impulsiveness in Students with Mathematics Disorder. American Journal of Applied Psychology. 2016; 4(1):11-16. doi: 10.12691/ajap-4-1-2.

Correspondence to: Mojtaba  Ashouri, Department of Educational Psychology, Tabriz University, Iran. Email:


The aim of this study was to investigate the Adler-based approach to the improvement of social problem-solving skills and the reduction of impulsiveness in students with mathematics disorder. This study is an experimental one including a pretest and a posttest on the control group. The study population included the male students afflicted with mathematics disorder in the city of Zanjan, Iran in the school year 2012-2013. The participants were 40 parents whose children had mathematics disorder. They were selected randomly among the parents of children in 7 junior high schools and they were put in the experimental and control groups (15 people in each group). In order to collect the data two questionnaires were used namely social problem-solving and impulsiveness questionnaires. The results of covariance analysis (MANCOVA) showed that Adler-based approach to parents’ training had impact on reducing the impulsiveness and the improvement of social problem-solving skills (p<.01). It reduced the impulsiveness and improved the social problem-solving skills of students with mathematics disorder. We conclude that Adler-based therapy is an effective method in the improvement of the behavioral sings of students with mathematics disorder and it is necessary to examine its difference in other variables which are related to students afflicted with mathematics disorder.



[1]  Ismaili Nasab, Maryam; Hamid, Ahadi, Hasan; Delavar, Ali & Eskandari, Hossein (2010). Comparing the effectiveness and parents’ education method with Adlerian and behavioral approach on reduction and conduct disorder signs in children. A research conducted in the field of exceptional children, 10 (3), 227-236.
[2]  Pourkord, Mehdi (2009). Investigating the relationship between self-effeciency, impulsiveness, activation-behavioral prohibition and social skills with drug abuse in students. A thesis submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for a degree of Master of Art. Ardabil: Faculty of Literature and Psychology, Mohaghegh Ardabili University.
[3]  Delavar, Ali (2011). The theoretical and practical basis of research in Human and Social sciences. Tehran: Roshd Pub.
[4]  Dozorilla & Nezu (1982). Translated to Persian by Abolghasemi, Abbas & Narimani, Mohammad (2005). The psychological tests, Ardabil, Bagh Rezvan Pub., First edition, 214-280.
[5]  Zanganeh, Sarah; Malekpour, Mokhtar &Abedi, Mohammad Reza (2010).The effect of teaching anger management skills on aggression control of mothers with elementary school deaf students. New results in psychology, 5(2), 82-92.
Show More References
[6]  Mohammad Ismail, Elahe & Hooman, Heydar Ali (2002). Accommodating and standardizing Keymath mathematical test. Tehran: The National Bureau of Education and Training Pub.
[7]  Mohammad Khani, Parvaneh; Jahani, Ali &Tamana’i far, Shahin (2005). Structural clinical interview for DSM disorders. Tehran, Faradid Pub.
[8]  Barratt, E.s. (1994). Impulsivity: integrating cognitive, behavioral. Biological and environmental data. IN W.B. Mccwn, J.L. John: Washington, D.C: American Psychological Association.
[9]  Besharat, M. A. (2007). Reliability and factorial validity of farsi version of the Impulsiveness Scale with a sample of Iranian students. Psychological Reports, 101(18), 209-222.
[10]  Bodenhausen, G. V. (1993). Emotions, arousal and stereotypic judgments: A heuristic model of affect and stereotyping. In D. M. Mackie & D. L. Hamilton (Eds.). Affect, cognition and stereotyping: Interactive processes in group perception (pp. 13-38). New York: Academic Press.
[11]  Bradley, S.J(2003). Affect Regulation and the Development of Psychopathology .New York .The Guilford press.
[12]  Chang, E. C., D ’Zurilla, T. J., & Sanna, L. J. (2004). Social problem solving: Theory research, and training. Washington, DC: American Psychol- logical Association.
[13]  Corey G. (2012). Theroy and practice of counseling and psychotherapy (7th Ed). New York: Cengage learning.
[14]  D zurilla, T.J., sheedy, C.F, (1992). Relation between social problem solving ability and subsequent level psychological stress in college students, Cognitiue therapy psycgology, 61 (5), 841-846.
[15]  D’Zurrila, T. G, Nezu, A. M & Maydeu –Olivares, A, (2002). SPSI-R, Social Problem Solving Inventory-Revised. United States & Canada, Multi Health System Inc.
[16]  Dagley, J. C, Camphell, L. F, Kulic, K. R & Dagley, P. L, (2008). “Identification of Subscales and Analysis of Reliability of an Encouragement Scale for Children,” The Journal of Individual Psychology 55(3): 355-364.
[17]  Dawe, S., Gullo, M.J., Loxton, N.J., (2012). Impulsivity and adolescent substance use: Rashly dismissed as ‘‘all-bad’’? Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 32(8), 1507-1518.
[18]  Doran, N., Mc Chargue, D., & Cohen, L. (2006). “Impulsivity and the reinforcing value of cigarette smoking”. Addictive Behaviors, 32(1):90-8.
[19]  Dugas, M. J & et al, (1998).Generalized Anxiety Disorder: A Preliminary Test of a Conceptual Model, Behavior Research and Therapy, 36(6), 215-226.
[20]  Evans, T, (2005). “The Tools of Encouragement,” The International Child and Youth Care Network 73.
[21]  Fossati, A., Barratt, E., S., Borroni, S., Villa, D., Grazioli, F., &Maffei,C.(2007b). “Impulsivity, aggressiveness, and DSM-IV personality disorders”. Psychiatry Research, 15; 149(1-3):157-67.
[22]  Gutierrez, S.R(2006). A comparison of two parent education programs on the reduction of parent – child stress in mother –child relationship of Hispanic migrant farmworkers .A dissertation for the degree of doctor of philosophy with a major in school psychology, .University of Arizon.
[23]  Hale, J. B., Fiorello, C. A., Bertin, M., & Sherman, R. (2003). Predicting math achievement through neuropsychological interpretation of WISC-III variance components. Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment, 21(3), 358-380.
[24]  Kazdin AE. (2009) Whitley MK. Treatment of parental stress to enhance therapeutic change among children referred for aggressive and antisocial behavior; 23(8), 504-15.
[25]  Kopp, R (2007). “Resolving Power Struggles in love and marriage”. Journal of Individual Psychology, 63(4), 3. 45 -68.
[26]  Lengua LJ, Honorado E, Bush NR. (2007). Contextual risk and parenting as predictors of effortful control and social competence in preschool children. Elsevier; 18(4), 40-55.
[27]  Liz Hartz, A & Lynette Thick, S, (2011). “Art Therapy Strategies to Raise Self- Esteem in Female Juvenile Offenders: A Comparison of Art Psychotherapy and Art as Therapy Approaches,” Art Therapy: Journal of the American Art Therapy Association, 22(2): 70-80.
[28]  Mcquillan, M.K., Coleman, G.A., Tucker, C. R., & Thompson, A. L. (2011). Guidelin for identifying children with learning disability. Connecticute State: Department of Education.
[29]  Mercer, K. L. (2004). Relation of self-efficacy to symptoms of depression and anxiety. Doctoral Thesis, University of British Columbia, Canada.
[30]  Messer, S.B. (2009). Reflection- impulsivity: A review. Psychological Bulletin, 83(8), 1026-52.
[31]  Montague, M. (2007). Self-regulation and mathematics instruction. Learning Disabilities Research & Practice, 22(1): 75-83.
[32]  Montague, M. (2010). Self-regulation strategies to improve mathematical problem solving for students with learning disabilities. Learning Disability Quarterly, 31(1): 37-44.
[33]  Mosak, H. Maniacci, M. (1999). A Primer of Adlerion Psychology. Brunner -Muzel Publishing.
[34]  Nezu, C.M, D’Zurilla, T. J &Nezu, A. M, (2005). Problem Solving Therapy, Theory, Practice and Application tosex Offenders. In McMurran, M, & McGuire, J.(Eds), Social Problem Solving and Offending, (103-123).Chichester, John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
[35]  Pedrotty, D. (2010). Math disability in children: An overview. Retrived: July 20, 2010, from http://www. schwablearning. org.
[36]  Ramaa, S., & Gowramma, I. P. (2002). A systematic procedure for identifying and classifying children with dyscalculia among primary school children in India. Dyslexia, 8(3), 67-85.
[37]  Ray Li, C., S., Chen, S., H., Lin, W., H., & Yang, Y., Y. (2009). “Attentional blink in adolescents with varying levels of impulsivity”. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 39(2): 197-205.
[38]  Shalev, R. S., Auerbach, J., Manor, O., & Gross- Tsur, V. (2000). Developmental dyscalculia: Prevalence and prognosis. European Child and Adolescent
[39]  Sloan, D. B. (1996). The effect of positive self-talk training on perceptions of self-efficacy in students with specific learning diabilities. Doctoral Thesis, Mississipi State University.
[40]  Stacey, K. (2008). The place of problem solving in contemporary mathematics curriculum documents. Journal of Mathematical Behavior, 24(3): 341-350.
[41]  Tisdelle, D.A & Lawrence, S. T, (1986). Interpersonal Problem-Solving Competency Review and Critique of the Literature, Clinical Psychology Review, 6(2), 337-356.
[42]  Watkins, E. D &Baracaia, S, (2002). Rumination and Social Problem-Solving in Depression, Behavior Research and Therapy, 40(7), 1179-1189.
[43]  Waxman, S.E., (2011).” A Systematic Review of Impulsivity in Eating Disorders.” Impulsivity in Eating Disorders, Rev, 17 (4), 408-425.
[44]  Webster-Stratton (2005). C. Aggression in young children: Services proven to be effective in reducing aggression. Rev ed. Tremblay RE, Barr RG, Peters RDeV, eds Encyclopedia on Early Childhood Development.
Show Less References


Influence of Trainee Teacher Philosophy about Teaching and Learning on Integration of Computer Technology into Future Teaching Practices

1Department of Educational Psychology, University of Eldoret, Eldoret City

2Department of Curriculum Instruction and Educational Media, Moi University, Eldoret City

American Journal of Applied Psychology. 2016, 4(1), 17-22
doi: 10.12691/ajap-4-1-3
Copyright © 2016 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Lilian C. Kimaiyo, Kisilu .M. Kitainge, Jackson Too. Influence of Trainee Teacher Philosophy about Teaching and Learning on Integration of Computer Technology into Future Teaching Practices. American Journal of Applied Psychology. 2016; 4(1):17-22. doi: 10.12691/ajap-4-1-3.

Correspondence to: Lilian  C. Kimaiyo, Department of Educational Psychology, University of Eldoret, Eldoret City. Email:


The study sought to establish the influence of trainee teacher philosophy about teaching and learning on integration of computer technology into future teaching practices. This was done in the light of the fact that the Kenya government has launched the national laptop project in public primary schools which is expected to run from July, 2016.It is expected that the teachers who are undertaking training in Primary school Teacher Training colleges are key to effective implementation of computer use. The study was carried out in five public Teacher Training Colleges in the Rift Valley Province, Kenya. This study employed a correlational research design. The research population for the study was all teacher trainees in pubic teacher training colleges in Rift Valley. The colleges have a total population of 5,075 student teachers. Using a table of random numbers, the researcher then selected proportional samples from each stratum in every Teacher Training College to ensure that there was uniform representation of the different groups. The total sample from the five TTCs was 357 trainee teachers. The primary data was collected using a questionnaire consisting of two scales. The study established that there was a statistically significant influence of trainee teachers’ philosophy about teaching and learning on prospective ICT integration. Trainee teachers who believed that learners construct their own knowledge with the teacher as a guide scored highly on intentions to integrate ICT in the classroom than those who believed that the teacher is the source of knowledge. Trainee teachers who intended to use child-centered teaching practices viewed ICT integration positively. It is therefore important that teacher trainers in TTCs emphasize learner-centered teaching methods in order to promote ICT integration.



[1]  Schwitzgebel, E. (2011). Belief. In E. N. Zalta (Ed.), The Stanford encyclopedia of philosophy.
[2]  Steyn, J., Van Greunen, D. (Eds). (2014). ICTs for inclusive communities in developing societies. Proceedings of the 8th International Development Informatics Association Conference, held in Port Elizabeth, South Africa. Retrieved from ISBN: 978-0-620-63498-4 Pages 241-261.
[3]  Chen, J. A. (2008). Comparative research on educational practice model of five countries. Curriculum, Teaching Material and Method, 5, 64-71.
[4]  Tinio,V.T.(2009). I C T in Education. United Nations Development Programme. Bureau for Development Policy, New York. N.Y.
[5]  Ngoma, S. (2010). ICT in Education: A catalyst for Economic Growth in the Congo Retrieved March 19, 2015 from
Show More References
[6]  UNESCO (2009). ICT in Education. Retrieved from
[7]  Government of Kenya (2010). The constitution of Kenya. Article 6, Devolution and Access to services. Government Printers.
[8]  Dede, C. 2009. Comparing frameworks for 21st century skills. [online]. Retrieved from http://watertown.k12. on 6th oct, 2014.
[9]  Koo, A. C (2008). Factors affecting teachers’ perceived readiness for online collaborative learning: A case study in Malaysia. Educational Technology & Society, 11, 266-278.
[10]  Mueller, J., Wood, E., Willoughby, T., Ross, C., & Specht, J. (2008).Identifying discriminating variables between teachers who fully integrate computers and teachers with limited integration. Computers and Education, 51, 1523-1537.
[11]  Ertmer, P. A. (1999). Addressing first- and second-order barriers to change: Strategies for technology integration. Educational Technology Research and Development, 47, 47-61.
[12]  Badia, A., Meneses, J. & Sigales, C. (2013). Teachers' perceptions of factors affecting the educational use of ICT in technology-rich classrooms. Electronic Journal of Research in Educational Psychology, 11 (3), 787-808.
[13]  Ertmer, P. A. (2005). Teacher pedagogical beliefs: The final frontier in our quest for technology integration? Educational Technology Research and Development, 53, 25-39.
[14]  Sang, G. Y., Valcke, M., van Braak, J., &Tondeur, J. (2010). Investigating teachers educational beliefs in Chinese primary schools: Socio-economical and geographical perspectives. Asia-pacific Journal of Teacher Education.
[15]  Baylor, A. L., & Ritchie, D. (2002). What factors facilitate teacher skill, teacher morale, and perceived student learning in technology-using classrooms? Computers and Education 39, 395-414.
[16]  Pelgrum, W. J. (2001). Obstacles to the integration of ICT in education: Results from a worldwide educational assessment. Computers and Education, 37, 163-178.
[17]  Teknikdelegationen, (2010) Framtidenslärande, i dagensskola [Elektroniskresurs]: internationellforskningsöversiktkring IKT ochskola [The future of learning in today’s schools [electronic resource]. Retrieved from
[18]  Tondeur, J., Van Keer, H., van Braak, J., &Valcke, M. (2008). ICT integration in the classroom: Challenging the potential of a school policy. Computers & Education, 51, 212-223.
[19]  Fraenkel,J.R & Wallen, N.E (2009). How to Design and Evaluate Research in Education (7th ed). New York. McGraw-hill
[20]  Cresswell.J. W. (2013). Research Design, Quantitative Qualitative and Mixed method approaches. (2nded). London. Sage Publications.
[21]  Krejcie, R.V., & Morgan, D.W. (1970). Determining Sample Size for Research Activities. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 30, 607-610
[22]  Kombo, K. D., & Tromp, L. A. (2006). Proposal thesis writing. Makuyu : Don Bosco Printers.
[23]  Hyde, J.S., & DeLamater, J. D (2000). Understanding human sexuality (7th ed).NY: McGraw Hill
[24]  Woolley, S. L., Benjamin, W-J.J., & Woolley, A. W. (2004). Construct validity of a self-report measure of teacher beliefs related to constructivist and traditional approaches to teaching and learning. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 64, 319-331.
[25]  Van Braak, J., Tondeur, J., &Valcke, M. (2004).Explaining different types of computer use among primary school teachers. European Journal of Educational Psychology, 19, 407-422.
Show Less References


Impact of Parenting Styles on the Intensity of Parental and Peer Attachment: Exploring the Gender Differences in Adolescents

1Applied Psychology, Lahore Garrison University, Lahore, Pakistan

American Journal of Applied Psychology. 2016, 4(2), 23-30
doi: 10.12691/ajap-4-2-1
Copyright © 2016 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Safina Safdar, Syeda Mehreen Zahrah. Impact of Parenting Styles on the Intensity of Parental and Peer Attachment: Exploring the Gender Differences in Adolescents. American Journal of Applied Psychology. 2016; 4(2):23-30. doi: 10.12691/ajap-4-2-1.

Correspondence to: Safina  Safdar, Applied Psychology, Lahore Garrison University, Lahore, Pakistan. Email:


The study investigates the gender differences in parenting styles on the intensity of parental and peer attachment. Urdu translated version of Parental Authority Questionnaire (Babree, 1997) and Inventory of Parental and Peer attachment, urdu version (Zafar, 2009) were used to collect the information from the participants. Sample recruited from different public schools comprised of adolescents (N=284) with equal boys and girls of age 13 to 16. It was hypothesized that: there would be a significant impact of parenting styles on the intensity of parental and peers attachment and there would be a significant gender difference on the intensity of parental and peer attachment. Multiple Regression analysis and independent sample t.test was applied to test the hypothesis of the study. Results indicated that parenting styles are a strong predictor of intensity of parental and peer attachment. However authoritative parenting style had a significant and positive impact on both of the variables (parental and peer attachment). Result showed the negative and significant impact of permissive and authoritarian parenting styles on parental and peer attachment. Gender differences indicted that girls show great intensity of parental attachment and boys show greater peer attachment. Current study is pretty insightful in understanding the role of parenting styles in developing the intensity of parental and peer attachment.



[1]  Ahmadpour, M. (2013). Assesment the relationship between parenting styles, parents attachment styles and social development among pre- school children. Journal of Basic and Applied Scientific Research,3(9), 97-103.
[2]  Ainsworth, M. D. S., Blehar, M.C., Waters, E., & Wall, S. (1978). Patterns of attachment. Hillsdale, N:J: Erlbaum.
[3]  Akhter, Z. (2012). The effect of parenting styles of parents on the attachment styles of undergraduates students. Language in India: Strength for Today and Bright Hope for Tomorrow, 12(1).
[4]  Albert, I., Trommsdorff, G., & Mishra, R. (2004). Parentig and adolescents attachment in India and Germany.
[5]  Ali, M. (2008). Impact of parental attachment on aggressive behaviour of adolescents (unpublished Msc. dissertation). National Institute of psychology,Quaid-i- AzamUniversity, Islamabad, Pakistan. In Imtiaz, S., & Naqvi, I. (2012). Parental attachment and identity styles among adolescents: Moderating role of gender. Pakistan Journal of Psychological Research, 27(2), 241-264.
Show More References
[6]  Alizadeh, S., Abu-Talib, M., Abdullah, R., & Mansoor, M. (2011). Relationship between parenting style and children's behavioural problems. Asian Social Science, (7)12.
[7]  Appleyard, K., Berlin, L.J. (2007). Supporting healthy relationship between young children and their parents. Center for child and family process: Duke.
[8]  Armsden, G. C., & Greenberg, M.T. (1987). The inventory of parental and peer attachment: Relationship to well being in adolescence. Journal of youth and adolescents, 16, 427-454.
[9]  Attili, G., Vemigli, P., & Antonia, R. (2011). Rearing styes, parents attachment mental state and children's social abilities: The link of peer acceptance. Child. Development Research.
[10]  Babree, S. (1997). Aggressive and non aggressive childrens perception of parental acceptance-rejection and control (Unpublished M. Phil dissertation). National institute of psychology, Quaid -i-Azam University, Islamabad.
[11]  Baumrind, D. (1991). The infulence of parenting styles on adolescents competence and substance use. Journal of Early Adolescent, 11(1), 56-95.
[12]  Baumrind, D. (1967). Child care practices anteceding three patterns of preschool behaviour. General Psychology Monograph, 75, 43-88.
[13]  Belsky, J. (1981). Early human experience: A family perspective. Developmental Psychology, 17, 2-23.
[14]  Bowlby, J. (1958). The nature of the child's tie to his mother. International Journal of Psychoanalysis, 39, 350-373.
[15]  Bowlby, J. (1959). Separation anxiety. International Journal of Psycho-Analyts, XLI.1-25. In Bretherton, I. (1992). The origins of attachment theory: John Bowlby and Mary Ainsworth. Developmental Psychology, 28, 759-775.
[16]  Bowlby, J. (1969). Attachment and loss: Attachment (Vol. 1). New York: Basic Books.
[17]  Bibi, F., Chahudary, A, G., Awan, E. A., & Tariq, B. (2013). Contribution of parenting styles in life domain of children. IOSR Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences, 12(2), 91-95.
[18]  Chen, X., Dong, Q., &Zhou, H. (1997). Authoritative and authoritarian parenting practices and social and school performance in Chinese children. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 21(4), 855-873.
[19]  Colarossi, L. G., & Eccles, J.S. (2003). Differential effects of support provides on adolescents' mental health. Social Work Research, 27, 19-30.
[20]  Collins, W. A., Maccoby, E. E., Steinberg, L., Hetherington, E. M.H. (2000). Contemporary research on parenting : the case for nature and nurture. American Psychologist, 55(2), 218-232. In kopko, K. (2007). Parenting styles and adolescents. Cornell cooperative extention.
[21]  Dawiry, M., Achoui, M., Abouserie, R., Farah, A., & Sakhleh, A. a. (2006). Parenting styls in Arab societies: A first cross regional study. Journal of cross- cultural psychology, 30(3), 230- 247.
[22]  Dekovic, M., & Meeus, W. (1997). Peer relations in adolescents: Effects of parenting and adolescent's self concept. The Journal of Adolescents 20(2) 163-176.
[23]  Egeland, B., & Srouf, L.A. (1981). Attachment and early maltreatment. Child Development, 52(1), 44-52.
[24]  Greenberg, M. T., Siegel, J. M., & Lietch, C.J.(1983). The nature and importance of attachment relationship to parents and peers during adolescence. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 12(5).
[25]  Heaven, P., & Ciarrochi, J. (2008). Parental style, gender and European Journal of Personality, 22, 707-724.
[26]  Heer, P. A. (2008). The relationship between college students' retrospective accounts of parenting styles and self reported adult attachment styles.
[27]  Helsen, M., Vollebergh W., & Meeus, W. (2000). Social Support from parents and friends and emotional problems in adolescence. Journal of youth and adolescence, 29(3), 319-335.
[28]  Hickman, G. P., & Crossland, G. L. (2005). The predictive nature og humour, authoritative parenting style and academic achievement on indices of initial adjustment and commitment to college among freshman. Journal of College Student Retention,6(2), 225-245.
[29]  Huebner, S. (2008). Attachment relationship and adolescent life satisfaction: Some relationship more matters to girls than boys. Psychology in the School, 45(2).
[30]  Imtiaz, S., & Naqvi, I. (2012). Parental attachment and identity styles among adolescents: Moderating role of gender. 27 (2), 241-264.
[31]  Kausar, R., & Shafique, N. (2008), Gender differences in perceived parenting styles and socioemotional adjustment of adolescents. Pakistan Journal of Psychological Research, 23, 93-105.
[32]  Karavasilis, L., Doyle, A. B., & Markiewicz, D. (2003). Association between parenting style and attachment to mother in middle childhood and adolescents. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 27(2), 153-164.
[33]  Lamb, M. E., Thompson, R. A., Gardner, W. P., Charnoy, E. L., & Estes, D. (1984). Security of infantile attachment as assessed in the "strange situation': Its study and biological interpretation. The Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 7, 127-171.
[34]  Mahasneh, A. M., AL-Zoubi, Z.H., Batayenh, O.T., Jawarneh, M.S. (2013), The relationship between parenting styles and adult attachment styles from Jordan university students. International Journal of Social Science, 3(6), 1431-1441.
[35]  Mounts, N. S., Steinberg, L. (1995). An ecological analysis of peer infulence on adolescent grade point average and drug use. Development Psychology. 915-922.
[36]  Muris, P., Meesters, C., & Berg, S. V. D. (2003). Internalizing and Externalizing Problems as correlates of self reported attachment style and perceived parental rearing in normal adolescents. Journal of Child and Family studies, 12(2), 171-183.
[37]  Nayrko, J. (2011). The influence of authoritative parenting style on adolescents' academic achievement. American Journal of Social and management sciences.
[38]  Neal, J., & Frick-Horbury, D. (2001). The effects of parenting styles and childhood attachment patterns on intimate relationships. Journal of Instructional Psychology, 28, 178-184.
[39]  Odubote, B. A. (2008). Parenting style, race and delinquency: A comparative study of European American, African American, Nigerian Families.
[40]  Parade, S. H. (2007). Attachment to parents and the close relationship of first semester college students.
[41]  Qazi, T. (2009). Parenting styles; Locus of control and self efficacy: A Correlational study. Revista Costarricense de Psicologia, 28(41), 75-84.
[42]  Rayan, K. O. (2010). Attachment relationship: Nurturing healthy bonds. Chicago.: Learning seed.
[43]  Rogoff, B. (2003). The cultural nature of human development. Oxford University Press, U.S.A.
[44]  Rossman, B. B. R., & Rea, J. G. (2005). The relation of parenting styles and inconsistencies adaptive functioning for children in conflictual and violent families. Journal of Family Violence, 20(5).
[45]  Sailor, D.H. (2010). Effects of parenting styles on children behavior. Retrieved from: Sarc, S. Parenting styles: How they affect children.
[46]  Steinberg, L. Elmen, J. D., & Mounts, N. S. (1989). Authoritative parenting psychosocial maturity, and academic success among adolescents. Child Development, 60(6).
[47]  Steinberg, L., Mounts, N. S., Lamborn, S.D., & Dornbuch, S. M. (1991). Authoritative parenting and adolescents adjustment across varied ecological Niches. Journal of Research on Adolescents, 1(1), 19-36.
[48]  Steinberg, L., Lamborn, S. D., Dornbusch, S. M., & Darling, N. (1992). Impact of parenting practices on adolescents achievement: authoritative parenting, school involvement and encouragement to succeed. Child development, 63(5), 126681.
[49]  Tafarodi, R. W., Wild, N., & Ho, C. (2010). Parental authority, nurturance, and two- dimensional self- esteem. Scandinavian Journal of psychology, 51(4), 294-303.
[50]  Tanti, C., Stukas, A., Halloran, M., & Foddy, M. (2010). Social identity change: Shifts in social identity during adolescence. Journal of Adolescence. 1-13.
[51]  Tronick, E. Z. (1989). Emotions and emotional communication in infants. American Psychologist, 44(2), 112-119.
[52]  Toro, D. M., & Taylor, T. (2012). The influence of parent- child attachment on romantic relationships.
[53]  Jabeen, F., Anis-ul-Haque, M., & Riaz, N. (2013). Parenting styles as predictor of emotion regulation among adolescents. 28(1). 85-105.
[54]  Jennifer, N., Frick-Horbury, D. (2001). The effects of parenting styles and childhood attachment patterns on intimate relationship. Journal of instructional Psychology, 28(3).
[55]  Zhou, Q., Eisenberg, N., Wang, Y., & Reiser, M. (2004). Chinese children's effortf control and dispositional anger/frustration: relations to parenting styles and children's social functioning. Devlopmental Psycholology, 40(3), 352-66.
Show Less References