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World Journal Control Science and Engineering

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Article

Controllers Tuning through Multi-objective Non-Dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithms

1Department of Computer Science, University of Sciences and Technology USTO’MB, El Mnouar, Algeria


World Journal Control Science and Engineering. 2013, 1(1), 15-24
DOI: 10.12691/wjcse-1-1-3
Copyright © 2013 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
CHOURAQUI Samira, BENZATER Habiba. Controllers Tuning through Multi-objective Non-Dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithms. World Journal Control Science and Engineering. 2013; 1(1):15-24. doi: 10.12691/wjcse-1-1-3.

Correspondence to: CHOURAQUI  Samira, Department of Computer Science, University of Sciences and Technology USTO’MB, El Mnouar, Algeria. Email: s_chouraqui@yahoo.fr

Abstract

In control system design there are often a number of design objectives to be considered. The objectives are sometimes connecting and no design exists which can be considered best with respect to all objectives. Hence, there is an inevitable tradeoff between design objectives, for example, between and output performance objective and stability robustness. These considerations have led to the study of multi objective optimization methods for control systems. In this paper a multi-objective Non-Dominated sorting genetic Algorithms NSGA-II is used to tuning of Proportional Derivative (PD) controller of a six freedom arm manipulator PUMA560. The NSGAII algorithm searches for the controller PD gains so that the six values of Integral Absolute Error (IAE) in joint space are minimized. Simulation numerical results of multivariable PD control and convergence of the NSGA-II are presented and discussed.

Keywords

References

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[2]  Whidborne, J. F., I. Postlethwaite and D.-W. Gu A mixed optimization approach to multi-objective computer-aided control system design, In Proc. IEEE Symp. on Comp. Aided Contr. Syst. Design (CACSD'96). Dearborn, Michigan: pp. 309-314, 1996.
 
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Article

Cost Optimization of Maintenance Scheduling for Wind Turbine Gearbox Components with Assured Reliability

1Automotive Engineering Department, Helwan University, Cairo, Egypt


World Journal Control Science and Engineering. 2013, 1(1), 25-34
DOI: 10.12691/wjcse-1-1-4
Copyright © 2013 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Shawki A. Abouel-seoud, Mohamed I. Khalil. Cost Optimization of Maintenance Scheduling for Wind Turbine Gearbox Components with Assured Reliability. World Journal Control Science and Engineering. 2013; 1(1):25-34. doi: 10.12691/wjcse-1-1-4.

Correspondence to: Mohamed  I. Khalil, Automotive Engineering Department, Helwan University, Cairo, Egypt. Email: mohamedibrahim71@yahoo.com

Abstract

The operation of a particular component in deteriorating condition will lead to a high machine downtime. This is due to the failure of component at unexpected time. As a result it will increase cost of maintenance and production lost. One of the solutions to this matter is to use Preventive Replacement (PR). PR is one of the maintenance optimization strategies that can balance the failure cost in unexpected time (maintenance and production lost) and maintenance benefits (minimize downtime) for a deteriorating component. Therefore, the objective of this paper is to introduce the PR strategy for determining an optimal replacement time for component that deteriorates over time. The models are used for the cost per unit time based on the stochastic behavior of the assumed system. The model reflects the cost of storing a spare as well as the cost of system downtime. The minimum-cost (optimum) policy time is calculated with the consideration of availability. It is noted that all maintenance cost results converge to the optimal value of the age replacement policy which has the same configuration when inspection interval increases.

Keywords

References

[1]  Wang, W. “A model to determine the optimal critical level and the monitoring intervals in condition-based maintenance,” International. Journal of Production Research, Vol. 38, No. 6, pp. 1425-1436, 2000.
 
[2]  Yang, Y. and Klutke, G.-A. “Lifetime-characteristics and inspections schemes for Lévy degradation processes,” IEEE Trans. Reliability, Vol. 49, pp. 377-382, Dec. 2000.
 
[3]  Lin, D., Wiseman, M., Banjevic, D. and Jardine, A. S. " An approach to signal processing and condition-based maintenance for gearboxes subject to tooth failure" Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing 18, pp. 993-1007, 2004.
 
[4]  Tian, Z., Jin, T. Wu, B. and Ding, F. "Condition based maintenance optimization for wind wind power generation systems under continuous monitoring" Renewable Energy36, pp. 1502-1509, 2011.
 
[5]  Martinez, E., Sanz F and Pellegrini S. "Life cycle assessment of a multi-megawatt wind Turbine" Renewable Energy 2009 34(3), pp. 667-673, 2009.
 
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[6]  Biswas, A. and Sarkar, J. "Availability of a system maintained through several Imperfect repairs before a replacement or a perfect repair" Statistics and Probability Letters 50,pp. 105-114, 2000.
 
[7]  Klutke, G. A. and Yang, Y. J. "The availability of inspected systems subjected to shacks and graceful degradation" IEEE Transaction on Reliability" 51, pp. 423-430, 2002.
 
[8]  Stevens, B. "EXAKT reduces failures at Canadian Kraft Mill" (www.omdec.com) , 2006.
 
[9]  Abouel-seoud, S. A., Khalil, M. I. and El-morsy, M. S. "Optimization of gearbox replacement policy using vibration measurement data" International Journal of Vehicle Noise and Vibration, Vol. 8, No. 4, December 2012.
 
[10]  Abouel-Seoud, S. A., Elmorsy, M. and Ahmed Saad, A. " A Laboratory Apparatus for Investigation of Vibration Performance of Wind Turbine Planetary Gearbox" International Journal of Current Research,Vol. 3, Issue, 12, pp.214-219, 2011.
 
[11]  El-morsy, M. S., Abouel-seoud, S. A. and Rabeih, A." Gearbox Damage Diagnosis using Wavelet Transform Technique" International Journal of Acoustics and Vibration, Vol. 16, No. 4, pp. 173-179, 2011.
 
[12]  Jardine, A.K.S., Lin,D. M. and Banjevic, D." A review on machinery diagnostics and prognostics implementing condition-based maintenance" Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing 20(7). Pp. 1483-14510, 2006.
 
[13]  Cammpbell, J. and Jardine, A.K." Maintenance Excellence" Marcel Dekker Inc., New York, USA, ISBN 0-8247-0497-5, 2001.
 
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[15]  Barringer, H. P. "Availability, Reliability, Maintainability and Capability" Triplex Chapter of the Vibrationa Institute, Hilton Hotel-Beaumont, Texas, February 18, 1997.
 
[16]  Grant, I. W., Clyde F. and Coombs, Jr., Richard Y. Moss " Handbook of Reliability Engineering and Management" 2nd edition, McGraw-Hill, 1996.
 
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Article

Automatic Speech Recognition for Tamazight Enchained Digits

1Laboratory of Modeling and Calculation, Faculty of Sciences and Technics, BeniMellal

2Team of Information Processing and Telecommunication, Faculty of Sciences and Technics, BeniMellal


World Journal Control Science and Engineering. 2014, 2(1), 1-5
DOI: 10.12691/wjcse-2-1-1
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
A. EL GHAZI, C. DAOUI, N. IDRISSI. Automatic Speech Recognition for Tamazight Enchained Digits. World Journal Control Science and Engineering. 2014; 2(1):1-5. doi: 10.12691/wjcse-2-1-1.

Correspondence to: A.  EL GHAZI, Laboratory of Modeling and Calculation, Faculty of Sciences and Technics, BeniMellal. Email: hmadgm@yahoo.fr

Abstract

The evolution of humane-machines dialogue involved the apparition of a new security management technique. For this reason, there are a lot of systems that uses voice stamps and signal processing. In this work, we have treated a first stage of a security system that consists on password validation devoted to Tamazight dialect. In this context, an automatic speech recognition system for Tamazight enchained digits is established. We have based on construction rules of these digits to minimize a training database and to avoid the overlap between different numbers to increase a recognition rate.

Keywords

References

[1]  AbedllahBoumalek, ’Variation syntaxique en Amazighe’, publication IRCAM, 2008.
 
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[19]  S. Jamoussi, "Méthodes statistiques pour la compréhension automatique de la parole", Ecole doctorale IAEM Lorraine, 2004.
 
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Article

Design and Development of an Automated Home Control System Using Mobile Phone

1Department of Electronic and Computer Engineering, Lagos State University, Epe Campus, Epe, Lagos, Nigeria


World Journal Control Science and Engineering. 2014, 2(1), 6-11
DOI: 10.12691/wjcse-2-1-2
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
L.A Akinyemi, O.O Shoewu, N.T Makanjuola, A.A Ajasa, C.O Folorunso. Design and Development of an Automated Home Control System Using Mobile Phone. World Journal Control Science and Engineering. 2014; 2(1):6-11. doi: 10.12691/wjcse-2-1-2.

Correspondence to: O.O  Shoewu, Department of Electronic and Computer Engineering, Lagos State University, Epe Campus, Epe, Lagos, Nigeria. Email: engrshoewu@yahoo.com

Abstract

This paper presents design and development of an Automated Home Control System (AHCS) using mobile phone. A cell (mobile) phone acts as a modem for the control of electrical home appliances. This is achieved when the mobile phone number is dialed and an appropriate command button is pressed. The paper demonstrates how to develop a system that aids the control of remote devices using mobile phones to enable devices without infrared though connected to power sources to be controlled and considering the possibility of users to monitor the status and usage of these devices. It makes use of a programmable interface controller (PIC) to control the switching of the output. This design is customized as a central device for four pieces of home appliances using relay to activate each of the respective electronic gadgets.

Keywords

References

[1]  Alkar, A. Z., & Buhur, U. (2005). An Internet Based Wireless Home Automation System for Multifunctional Devices. IEEE Consumer Electronics, 51(4), 1169-1174. Retrieved from http://www.thaieei.com/embedded/pdf/Automation/20022.pdf
 
[2]  Ciubotaru-Petrescu, B., Chiciudean, D., Cioarga, R., & Stanescu, D. (2006). Wireless Solutions for Telemetry in Civil Equipment and Infrastructure Monitoring. 3rd Romanian-Hungarian Joint Symposium on Applied Computational Intelligence (SA CI) May 25-26, 2006.
 
[3]  Conte, G., & Scaradozzi, D. (2003). Viewing home automation systems as multiple agents systems. RoboCUP2003, Padova, Italy. Retrieved from http://www.robosiri.it/ROBOCUP_2003/ROBOCUPSITOSIRI/articles/pdf/Conte.pdf
 
[4]  Delgado, A. R., Picking, R., & Grout, V. (2006) Remote-controlled home automation systems with different network technologies. Proceedings of the 6th International Network Conference (INC 2006), University of Plymouth, 11-14 July 2006, pp. 357-366.
 
[5]  Jawarkar, N. P., Ahmed, V., Ladhake, S. A. & Thakare, R. D. (2008). Micro-controller based Remote Monitoring using Mobile through Spoken Commands. Journal of Networks, 3(2), 58-63.
 
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Article

Using Clonal Selection Algorithm to Optimal Placement with Varying Number of Distributed Generation Units and Multi Objective Function

1Department of Engineering, Institute of Higher Education, Allameh Mohaddes Nouri, Nour, Iran

2Department of Engineering, Damghan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Damghan, Iran


World Journal Control Science and Engineering. 2014, 2(1), 12-17
DOI: 10.12691/wjcse-2-1-3
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Shahryar Tamandani, Majid Hosseina, Mohammad Rostami, Amir Khanjanzadeh. Using Clonal Selection Algorithm to Optimal Placement with Varying Number of Distributed Generation Units and Multi Objective Function. World Journal Control Science and Engineering. 2014; 2(1):12-17. doi: 10.12691/wjcse-2-1-3.

Correspondence to: Mohammad  Rostami, Department of Engineering, Damghan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Damghan, Iran. Email: tarrah.arman@yahoo.com

Abstract

In recent years, Clonal Selection Algorithm have gained a lot of attention from the optimization research community. In this paper, Clonal Selection algorithm is presented to an optimal placement method in order to sizing and sitting of distributed generation in IEEE 33 bus test system. The proposed objective function considers active power losses of the system and the voltage profile in nominal load of system. In order to use of Clonal Selection Algorithm, at first, placement problem is written as an optimization problem which includes the objective function and constraints, and then to achieve the most desirable results, Clonal Selection Algorithm is applied to solve the problem. High performance of the proposed algorithm in mention system is verified by simulations in MATLAB software and in order to illustrate of feasibility of proposed method this optimization in three cases – one DG unit, Two DG units, and Three DG units- will accomplish.

Keywords

References

[1]  H. Hedayati, S.A. Nabaviniaki, A. Akbarimajd, "A method for placement of DG units in distribution networks", IEEE Trans. on Power Delivery, 2008, 23, (3), pp. 1620-1628.
 
[2]  V.V. Thong, J. Driesen, and R. Belmans, “Transmission system operation concerns with high penetration level of distributed generation”, in Proc. of Inter. Universities Power Engineering Conference, Brighton, 2007, pp. 867-871.
 
[3]  M. Gandomkar, et al., Acombination of genetic algorithm and simulated annealing for optimal DG allocation in distribution networks, in: Proceedings of the IEEE Electrical and Computer Engineering, Canadian Conference, vols. 1-4, May, 2005, pp. 645-648.
 
[4]  D Zhu, et al., Impact of DG placement on reliability and efficiency with timevaryingloads, IEEE Transactions on Power Systems 21 (1) (February, 2006).
 
[5]  A. Keane, et al., Optimal distributed generation plant mix with novel loss adjustment factors, IEEE Power Engineering Society General Meeting 18-22 (June 2006) 6.
 
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[8]  Y.A. Katsigiannis and P.S. Georgilakis, “Optimal sizing of small isolated hybrid power systems using tabu search”, Journal of Optoelectronics and Advanced Materials, 2008, 10, (5), pp. 1241-1245.
 
[9]  M.P. Lalitha, V.C.V. Reddy, and V. Usha, “Optimal DG Placement for Minimum Real Power Loss in Radial Distribution Systems Using PSO”, Journal of Theoretical and Applied Information Technology, 2010, pp. 107-116.
 
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[11]  T. Gozel and M.H. Hocaoglu, "An analytical method for the sizing and siting of distributed generators in radial systems", Int. Journal of Electric Power System Research, 2009, 79, pp. 912-918.
 
[12]  L.F .Ochoa, A. Padilha-Feltrin and G.P. harrison, "Evaluating distributed generation impacts with a multiobjective index", IEEE Trans. on Power Delivery, 2006, 21, (3), pp. 1452-1458.
 
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Article

Studies of Contingencies in Power Systems through a Geometric Parameterization Technique, Part I: Mathematical Modeling

1Department of Biosystems Engineering, UNESP- São Paulo State University, Tupã, Brazil

2Department of Electrical Engineering, UNESP- São Paulo State University, Ilha Solteira, Brazil


World Journal Control Science and Engineering. 2014, 2(1), 18-24
DOI: 10.12691/wjcse-2-1-4
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Bonini Neto A., Alves D. A.. Studies of Contingencies in Power Systems through a Geometric Parameterization Technique, Part I: Mathematical Modeling. World Journal Control Science and Engineering. 2014; 2(1):18-24. doi: 10.12691/wjcse-2-1-4.

Correspondence to: Bonini  Neto A., Department of Biosystems Engineering, UNESP- São Paulo State University, Tupã, Brazil. Email: bonini@tupa.unesp.br

Abstract

An electrical power system is exposed to the occurrence of a large number of contingencies. However, only some of these are severe enough to cause significant damage (collapse voltage, for example) to the system. Thus, before the voltage stability analysis, is realized the selection and ordering of contingencies according to the impact this cause to the system, reducing the computational time of the analysis. This paper presents a geometric parameterization technique for the continuation power flow which allows the tracing complete of P-V curves and the calculation of the maximum loading point (MLP) of power systems without the ill-conditioning problems of Jacobian matrix (J). This occurs before and after a contingency, i.e., this technique provides all the P-V curve of the pre and post contingency with addition of a line in the λ-V and λ-θ plans. The results obtained with the methodology to the IEEE 14 and 30 bus systems show that the characteristics of the conventional method are improved and the convergence region around the singularity is enlarged. The goal is to present the method with simplicity and easy interpretation.

Keywords

References

[1]  WSCC-Reactive Power Reserve Work Group (RRWG), “Final Report: Voltage Stability Criteria, Undervoltage Load Shedding Strategy, and Reactive Power Reserve Monitoring Methodology”, 145 p. 1998.
 
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[7]  Chiang, H. D.; Flueck, A.; Shah, K.S.; Balu, N. CPFLOW: A Practical Tool for Tracing Power System Steady State Stationary Behavior Due to Load and Generation Variations. IEEE Trans. on Power Systems, v.10, n.2, p. 623-634, 1995.
 
[8]  Seydel, R. From Equilibrium to Chaos: Practical Bifurcation and Stability Analysis. 2ª ed. New York: Springer-Verlag, 407p, 1994.
 
[9]  Magalhães, E. M.; Bonini Neto, A.; Alves, D. A.. A Parameterization Technique for the Continuation Power Flow Developed from the Analysis of Power Flow Curves. Mathematical Problems in Engineering, v. 2012, p. 1-24, 2012.
 
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Article

Studies of Contingencies in Power Systems through a Geometric Parameterization Technique, Part II: Performance Evaluation

1Department of Biosystems Engineering, UNESP- São Paulo State University, Tupã, Brazil

2Department of Electrical Engineering, UNESP- São Paulo State University, Ilha Solteira, Brazil


World Journal Control Science and Engineering. 2014, 2(1), 25-34
DOI: 10.12691/wjcse-2-1-5
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Bonini Neto A., Alves D. A.. Studies of Contingencies in Power Systems through a Geometric Parameterization Technique, Part II: Performance Evaluation. World Journal Control Science and Engineering. 2014; 2(1):25-34. doi: 10.12691/wjcse-2-1-5.

Correspondence to: Bonini  Neto A., Department of Biosystems Engineering, UNESP- São Paulo State University, Tupã, Brazil. Email: bonini@tupa.unesp.br

Abstract

In the evaluation of voltage stability where must trace P-V and Q-V curves for each contingency, static analysis methods are used, as the method of load flow and continuation power flow, it should be efficient and reliable in order to meet the requirements needed for applications in the planning and operation stage in real-time. Geometric parameterization schemes have been proposed by the authors in Part I of this paper. In this part of the paper, the results are presented graphically and in terms of numbers of iterations, showing that the proposed methods obtains all P-V curves of the IEEE-14 and 30 buses systems (loading margin of pre-contingency N-0) and all loading margin post-contingency (N-1 simple contingency and N-2 severe contingency), both with a reduced number of iterations.

Keywords

References

[1]  Bonini Neto A., and Alves D. A. “Studies of Contingencies in Power Systems through a Geometric Parameterization Technique, Part I: Mathematical Modeling.” World Journal Control Science and Engineering 2.1 (2014): 18-24.
 
[2]  WSCC-Reactive Power Reserve Work Group (RRWG), “Final Report: Voltage Stability Criteria, Undervoltage Load Shedding Strategy, and Reactive Power Reserve Monitoring Methodology”, 145 p. 1998.
 
[3]  Xu, W.; Masour, Y. and Harrington, P. G. Planning Methodologies for Voltage Stability Limited Power Systems, Electric Power & Energy Systems, Vol. 15, No 4, pp.221-228, 1993.
 
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[7]  ESBI Alberta Limited. Assessment of Reactive Power Constraints and Deficiencies of the Alberta Interconnected Electric Transmission System, Project Report, University of Alberta, November, 1998.
 
[8]  Matarucco R. R., Bonini Neto A., Alves D. A. Assessment of branch outage contingencies using the continuation method. International Journal of Electrical Power & Energy Systems, v. 55, p. 74-81, 2014.
 
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Article

Technique for Continuation Power Flow Using the “Flat Start” and for Ill-Conditioned Systems

1Department of Biosystems Engineering, UNESP- São Paulo State University, Tupã, Brazil

2Votuporanga University Center - UNIFEV, Votuporanga, SP, Brazil

3Department of Electrical Engineering, UNESP- São Paulo State University, Ilha Solteira, Brazil


World Journal Control Science and Engineering. 2015, 3(1), 1-7
DOI: 10.12691/wjcse-3-1-1
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Bonini Neto A., Matarucco R. R., Alves D. A.. Technique for Continuation Power Flow Using the “Flat Start” and for Ill-Conditioned Systems. World Journal Control Science and Engineering. 2015; 3(1):1-7. doi: 10.12691/wjcse-3-1-1.

Correspondence to: Bonini  Neto A., Department of Biosystems Engineering, UNESP- São Paulo State University, Tupã, Brazil. Email: bonini@tupa.unesp.br

Abstract

This paper presents a geometric parameterization technique for the continuation power flow that allows the complete tracing of P-V curves and the calculation of the maximum loading point of power systems, without singularity problems of Jacobian matrix (J). The technique will be started from the “flat start”, i.e., the voltage magnitude of all the buses PQ are placed in 1.0 p.u. and the angle bus voltage of all the buses are placed at 0º (zero degree). To eliminate the singularity has been added to the equation of a line passing through a point in the plane determined by the variable load factor and the sum of all the bus voltage magnitudes. The results obtained with the technique to ill-conditioned systems (11 buses), IEEE test systems (300 buses) and the 638-bus system corresponding to part of South-Southeast Brazilian system, improve the characteristics of the conventional method and extend the convergence region around the singularity.

Keywords

References

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[3]  Matarucco R. R., Bonini Neto A., Alves D. A. Assessment of branch outage contingencies using the continuation method. International Journal of Electrical Power & Energy Systems, v. 55, p. 74-81, 2014.
 
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[13]  Bonini Neto A., and Alves D. A. “Studies of Contingencies in Power Systems through a Geometric Parameterization Technique, Part I: Mathematical Modeling.” World Journal Control Science and Engineering 2.1 (2014): 18-24.
 
[14]  Bonini Neto A., and Alves D. A. “Studies of Contingencies in Power Systems through a Geometric Parameterization Technique, Part II: Performance Evaluation.” World Journal Control Science and Engineering 2.1 (2014): 25-34.
 
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[18]  Garbelini E., Alves D. A., Bonini Neto A., Righeto E., Silva L. C. P., Castro C. A. An Efficient Geometric Parameterization Technique for the Continuation Power Flow. Electric Power Systems Research, v. 77, p. 71-82, EUA, 2007.
 
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Article

Effectiveness of Animation as a Learning Strategy in a Classical Control Theory Introductory Course

1Facultad Regional Rosario, Universidad Tecnológica Nacional, Rosario (2000), Argentina


World Journal Control Science and Engineering. 2015, 3(1), 8-12
DOI: 10.12691/wjcse-3-1-2
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Darío A. Weitz. Effectiveness of Animation as a Learning Strategy in a Classical Control Theory Introductory Course. World Journal Control Science and Engineering. 2015; 3(1):8-12. doi: 10.12691/wjcse-3-1-2.

Correspondence to: Darío  A. Weitz, Facultad Regional Rosario, Universidad Tecnológica Nacional, Rosario (2000), Argentina. Email: dar.wtz@gmail.com

Abstract

Classical Control Theory (CCT) is one of the general education courses for many university engineering curricula. Course contents usually have deep theoretical definitions, high level of abstraction, computationally intensive procedures and demand students with a solid mathematical background. In the present paper, we explore how animation has the potential to contribute to the learning and comprehension of several contents included in a CCT introductory course. Based on current theories of multimedia learning, we incorporated animation components in modules designed for teaching various educational contents. Animation is an efficient didactic tool for explaining theoretical definitions, underlying methodologies involved in diagrams construction and computational procedures described on a CCT introductory course. We recommend that animation should be included in every CCT educational software.

Keywords

References

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Article

Review of MPPT Techniques under Partial Shading Condition

1Electrical & Electronics Department, Northern India Engineering College, New Delhi, India


World Journal Control Science and Engineering. 2015, 3(1), 13-16
DOI: 10.12691/wjcse-3-1-3
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Kshitij Varshney, Vivek Pal, Anuradha Tomar. Review of MPPT Techniques under Partial Shading Condition. World Journal Control Science and Engineering. 2015; 3(1):13-16. doi: 10.12691/wjcse-3-1-3.

Correspondence to: Anuradha  Tomar, Electrical & Electronics Department, Northern India Engineering College, New Delhi, India. Email: tomar.anuradha19@gmail.com

Abstract

This paper briefs about partial shading condition and different methods in literature which can be used under partial shading condition. This will be helpful for all who want the idea of partial shading condition and also get a fair idea about different techniques available and also update themselves with current happenings about MPPT.

Keywords

References

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