World Journal of Agricultural Research

ISSN (Print): 2333-0643

ISSN (Online): 2333-0678

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Silicon Induces Resistance to Bacterial Blight by Altering the Physiology and Antioxidant Enzyme Activities in Cassava

1School of Biological Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 30197-00100, Nairobi, Kenya

2Department of Biochemistry, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 30197-00100, Nairobi, Kenya

World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2017, 5(1), 42-51
doi: 10.12691/wjar-5-1-6
Copyright © 2017 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
K. W. Njenga, E. Nyaboga, J. M. Wagacha, F. B. Mwaura. Silicon Induces Resistance to Bacterial Blight by Altering the Physiology and Antioxidant Enzyme Activities in Cassava. World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2017; 5(1):42-51. doi: 10.12691/wjar-5-1-6.

Correspondence to: K.  W. Njenga, School of Biological Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 30197-00100, Nairobi, Kenya. Email:


Cassava bacterial blight (CBB), caused by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. manihotis (Xam) is a devastating disease limiting cassava production. The potential effect of Si application on the physiological and biochemical mechanisms attributed to Si-mediated resistance of cassava to Xam was evaluated. The optimal concentration of Si in enhancing resistance to CBB without detrimental effects on plant growth was determined using cultivars TME14 and TMS60444 known for their susceptibility to Xam. Varied concentrations of Si (0.7 to 2.1 mM) were administered by watering the plants three times per week before and after Xam inoculation. The optimized Si concentration was used to evaluate the effect of Si supplementation on resistance to CBB disease using eight farmer-preferred cassava cultivars. The population of Xam, cultivar resistance, chlorophyll content, lipid peroxidation, H2O2 content, activity of antioxidant enzymes and total Si content in cassava cultivars were quantified 21 days post inoculation. Silicon concentration of 1.4 mM was optimal in enhancing cassava resistance to Xam. Silicon-treated plants of all cassava cultivars showed significantly (P ≤ 0.05) lower Xam population ranging from 5% to 26.7% compared to non-Si treated control plants. Activities of antioxidant enzymes, malondialdehyde, H2O2 and chlorophyll contents were significantly (P ≤ 0.05) higher in Si treated plants than non-Si treated plants. Silicon accumulation in leaves of Si treated plants was higher compared to non-Si treated control plants.



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Yield and Yield Components of Faba Bean (Vicia faba L.) as Influenced by Supplemental Irrigation under Semi-arid Region of Tunisia

1Regional Research Development Office of Agriculture in Semi-Arid North West of Kef, Tunisia

2Field Crop’s Laboratory, National Institute for Agricultural Research of Tunisia, Ariana, Tunisia

3Université de Tunis El Manar, Faculté des Sciences de Tunis, Unité de Génétique des Populations et Ressources Biologiques, 2092 Tunis, Tunisie

World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2017, 5(1), 52-57
doi: 10.12691/wjar-5-1-7
Copyright © 2017 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Ouji A., Naouari M., Mouelhi M., Ben Younes M.. Yield and Yield Components of Faba Bean (Vicia faba L.) as Influenced by Supplemental Irrigation under Semi-arid Region of Tunisia. World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2017; 5(1):52-57. doi: 10.12691/wjar-5-1-7.

Correspondence to: Ouji  A., Regional Research Development Office of Agriculture in Semi-Arid North West of Kef, Tunisia. Email:


A field experiment was conducted at the research station of Higher Agriculture School of Kef located in a semi-arid region of Tunisia to study the effect of supplemental irrigation on yield and yield components of four Tunisian faba bean genotypes (Bachaar, Badii, Chahbi and locale). Two supplemental irrigations were applied at the flowering and pod formation stages. Results showed a significant effect of supplemental irrigation on biological yield (BY/P), seed number per plant (SN/P), 100-seed weight (100 SW), grain yield (GY/m2), harvest index (HI) and number of days to maturity (NDM). Grain yields under supplemental irrigation varied from 83.9 to 208.7 g/m2, and they varied from 18.6 to 65.8 g/m2 under drought conditions. Average 100-seeds weight increment due to supplemental irrigation condition was 52.8%. Results showed also that under rain fed condition, Bachar genotypes required minimum number of days to maturity (134.3 days). Drought susceptibility index (DSI) values for grain yield ranged from 0.8 to 1.13. Chahbi was relatively drought resistant (DSI values <1). This genotype proved high yielding and drought tolerant and can be incorporated in stress breeding programme for the development of drought tolerant faba bean varieties.



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Gross Margin Analysis of Modern Groundnut Oil Extraction in Gombe Metropolis Gombe State, Nigeria

1Agricultural Economics and Extension Department, Federal University Kashere Gombe State

2Agricultural Economics and Extension Department, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University Bauchi

3Department of Vocational and Technology Education, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University Bauchi

World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2017, 5(2), 58-63
doi: 10.12691/wjar-5-2-1
Copyright © 2017 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Saleh Abdullahi, Kolo Abdulwahab, Garba Sadiq Abubakar. Gross Margin Analysis of Modern Groundnut Oil Extraction in Gombe Metropolis Gombe State, Nigeria. World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2017; 5(2):58-63. doi: 10.12691/wjar-5-2-1.

Correspondence to: Saleh  Abdullahi, Agricultural Economics and Extension Department, Federal University Kashere Gombe State. Email:


The study examined the profit and market efficiency of small-scale modern groundnut oil extraction of RMP-12 and Ex-dakar varieties in Gombe Metropolis Nigeria. A multi-stage sampling technique was used to select 90 small-scale groundnut oil processors. Data were collected using structured questionnaires and were analysed using farm budget, sherphered-futrel and paired t-test models. The results revealed that costs of shelled groundnut constituted the major (92.3% and 91.6%) components of processing costs for RMP-12 and Ex-dakar groundnut varieties respectively. The gross ratio and operating ratio were all < 1, meaning that the business was profitable. Also, the returns per naira of RMP-12 and Ex-dakar were ₦ 0.17 ($ 0.0006) and ₦ 0.25 ($0.0009) respectively. The marketing coefficient revealed Jekadafari markets (69.97%) to be most efficients in the case of Ex-dakar products. The results further revealed 82.29% and 74.83% of the gross margins of respective RMP-12 and Ex-dakar varieties were spent on marketing costs, with the remaining 17.71% and 25.17% were retained as the net profit and diffrence was significant (P<0.01). Despite the fact that RMP-12 variety gave higher gross income, the study concluded that the Ex-dakar variety performed better. Major impediments to profit and market efficiency were inadequate capital, high costs of shelled groundnut and transportation costs. It is therefore recommended that, the traders should have access to formal loans so as to improve productivity and efficiency.



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