World Journal of Agricultural Research

ISSN (Print): 2333-0643

ISSN (Online): 2333-0678

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Occurrence of Fusarium Head Blight of Wheat and Associated Mycotoxins in Narok and Nakuru Counties, Kenya

1School of Biological Sciences, University of Nairobi, Nairobi, Kenya

2Department of Plant Science and Crop Protection, University of Nairobi, Nairobi, Kenya

3International Institute of Tropical Agriculture, Nairobi, Kenya

World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2016, 4(4), 119-127
doi: 10.12691/wjar-4-4-4
Copyright © 2016 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
John Maina Wagacha, Nancy Karimi Njeru, Oliver Otieno Okumu, James Wanjohi Muthomi, Charity Kawira Mutegi. Occurrence of Fusarium Head Blight of Wheat and Associated Mycotoxins in Narok and Nakuru Counties, Kenya. World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2016; 4(4):119-127. doi: 10.12691/wjar-4-4-4.

Correspondence to: John  Maina Wagacha, School of Biological Sciences, University of Nairobi, Nairobi, Kenya. Email:


Fusarium head blight (FHB) is an important disease of small grain cereals. This study assessed the incidence and severity of FHB of wheat at hard dough stage, and levels of deoxynivalenol and T2-toxin at harvest by direct competitive enzyme linked immuno-sorbent assay. Wheat ears were randomly sampled from 51 farms in Narok County and 51 farms in Nakuru County at hard dough stage while wheat kernels were sampled at harvest. Prevalence of FHB in both Counties was 100%. The mean incidence of FHB was 28.4% and 20.5% in Narok and Nakuru Counties, respectively with 16.9% and 11.7% corresponding severity. Over 14 Fusarium spp. were isolated from wheat ears and kernels with F. avenaceum, F. poae and F. graminearum being isolated in the highest incidence. Levels of DON in the kernels ranged from below limit of detection ( LOD) to 623 µg/kg while the concentration of T-2 toxin ranged from LOD to 69 µg/kg. The levels of DON and T2-toxin in wheat kernels in the two Counties were within the limits set by the European Commission and the United States Food and Drug Administration. The relatively low incidence and severity of FHB correlated with the low levels of DON and T-2 toxin in harvested wheat grains. There is however need to continuously monitor occurrence of FHB and toxin levels in wheat which varies among seasons due to variability in climatic conditions.



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Management of Ginger Rhizome Fly (Calobata sp.) and Associated Rhizome Rot (Pythium sp.)

1National Ginger Research Program, Nepal Agricultural Research Council, Kapurkot, Salyan, Nepal

2Entomology Division, National Agriculture Research Institute, Nepal Agricultural Research Council, P.O.Box 976, Kathmandu Nepal

World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2016, 4(4), 128-131
doi: 10.12691/wjar-4-4-5
Copyright © 2016 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Janarjan Gautam, Ram Prasad Mainali. Management of Ginger Rhizome Fly (Calobata sp.) and Associated Rhizome Rot (Pythium sp.). World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2016; 4(4):128-131. doi: 10.12691/wjar-4-4-5.

Correspondence to: Ram  Prasad Mainali, Entomology Division, National Agriculture Research Institute, Nepal Agricultural Research Council, P.O.Box 976, Kathmandu Nepal. Email:


Rhizome fly (Calobata spp.) is a major insect pest of ginger associated with rhizome rot. A field experiment was conducted at Ginger Research Program (GRP), Salyan (1520 masl) during the year 2013 - 2014 to develop rhizome fly and associated rhizome rot (Pythium sp.) management technology. One insecticide (Chloropyrifos 20 EC) and two fungicides [Diathane M-45 (Mancozeb 80 WP) and Bavistin (Carbendazim 50 DF)] including untreated check (control) were tested solely or in combination against rhizome fly and associated rhizome rot in RCBD with three replications. The overall result revealed that the two-stage application (seed rhizome treatment and soil drenching) and treatments having more combinations of options was found to be better than treatment with single application or having less combinations of options. The combined use of 4 ml Chloropyrifos + 2.5 g DM-45 + 1 g Bavistin per liter of water in two stage i.e. seed rhizome treatment before planting and soil drenching one month after ginger germination, recorded significantly lowest (0.32 mt/ha) rhizome fly infected rhizome and the highest fresh rhizome yield (20.89 mt/ha). It is therefore, recommended that this combination, being efficient to provide maximum protection, can be utilized as a valuable chemical integration in rhizome fly and associated rhizome rot management in ginger.



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Effect of Fermented Rice Bran and Cassava Waste on Growth Performance and Meat Quality of Crossbred Pigs

1Faculty of Animal Science, Hue University of Agriculture and Forestry, Hue University, Vietnam

2Faculty of Engineering and Post-Harvest Technology, Hue University of Agriculture and Forestry, Hue University, Vietnam

3Department of Animal Nutrition and Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden

World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2016, 4(5), 132-138
doi: 10.12691/wjar-4-5-1
Copyright © 2016 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Tran Thi Thu Hong, Le Van An, Phan Thi Be, Jan Erik Lindberg. Effect of Fermented Rice Bran and Cassava Waste on Growth Performance and Meat Quality of Crossbred Pigs. World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2016; 4(5):132-138. doi: 10.12691/wjar-4-5-1.

Correspondence to: Le  Van An, Faculty of Animal Science, Hue University of Agriculture and Forestry, Hue University, Vietnam. Email:


Different levels of rice bran and cassava waste fermented with Trichoderma longibrachiatum, Aspergillus niger, Pichia kudriavzevii and Lactobacillus buchneri were used in diets for crossbred (Landrace x Yorkshire) pigs. Thirty-five pigs were randomly allocated to seven treatments: CO, control diet without fermented by-products; RBF1, RBF2 and RBF3 with 15, 20 and 25% fermented rice bran in the growing period and 30, 35 and 40% fermented rice bran in finishing period, respectively, and CWF1, CWF2 and CWF3 with 15, 20 and 25% fermented cassava waste in the growing period and 30, 35 and 40% fermented cassava waste in finishing period, respectively. The average daily feed intake (ADFI) was higher (p<0.01) on diets with RBF than with CWF in the growing and finishing periods and overall. There was no difference in average daily gain (ADG) between diets with fermented by-products in the growing period, while the ADG was higher (p<0.01) on diets with RBF than with CWF in the finishing period and overall. The feed conversion ratio was lower on diets with CWF than with RBF in the growing and finishing periods and overall (p<0.01). Inclusion of fermented by-products resulted in reduced ADFI (p<0.01) in the growing and finishing periods and overall, and lower ADG (p<0.01) in the finishing period and overall compared with the control diet. There were no differences (p>0.05) among treatments in carcass and meat quality traits. Inclusion of fermented rice bran and cassava waste reduced feed cost per kg ADG.



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