World Journal of Agricultural Research

ISSN (Print): 2333-0643

ISSN (Online): 2333-0678

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Distribution of Phytochemicals and Bioactivity in Different Parts and Leaf Positions of Stevia Rebaudiana (Bertoni) Bertoni- a Non-caloric, Natural Sweetener

1Department of Plantation Management, Faculty of Agriculture and Plantation Management, Wayamba University of Sri Lanka, Makandura, Gonawila (NWP), Sri Lanka

2Industrial Technology Institute, Bauddhaloka Mawatha, Colombo 07, 00700, Sri Lanka

World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2016, 4(6), 162-165
doi: 10.12691/wjar-4-6-2
Copyright © 2016 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
K.L.N.W. Kumari, D.C. Abeysinghe, R.M. Dharmadasa. Distribution of Phytochemicals and Bioactivity in Different Parts and Leaf Positions of Stevia Rebaudiana (Bertoni) Bertoni- a Non-caloric, Natural Sweetener. World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2016; 4(6):162-165. doi: 10.12691/wjar-4-6-2.

Correspondence to: R.M.  Dharmadasa, Industrial Technology Institute, Bauddhaloka Mawatha, Colombo 07, 00700, Sri Lanka. Email:


Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni) Bertoni (Asteraceae) is a small perennial herb which is widely cultivated for its sweet leaves and possesses 250-300 times the sweetness than sucrose due to the presence of steviol glycosides (mainly stevioside and rebaudioside). It is commonly known as candy leaf, sweet leaf and sugar leaf. Even though, this plant has been studied extensively for its sweetness, information on therapeutically important active components presence in stevia is scattered or lacking. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to determine the distribution of Total Phenolic Content (TPC), Total Flavonoid Content (TFC) and Total Antioxidant Capacity (TAC) of different parts and different leaf positions of S. rebaudiana. Leaf fresh weight, dry weight and leaf area at different leaf positions were recorded. The TAC, TPC and TFC were determined using Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power Assay (FRAP), modified Folin-Ciocalteu colorimetric method and calorimetric method respectively. Leaf fresh weight and leaf dry weight were increased with the maturity. All tested plant parts demonstrated the presence of TPC, TFC and TAC. The significantly higher TPC, TFC and TAC were reported in leaves than other parts of plant. The order of increase of active components was leaf>flower>stem>branch>root. TPC, TFC and TAC of different leaf positions revealed that TAC, was decreased gradually from immature to mature leaf (1st leaf>2nd leaf>3rd leaf>4th leaf>5th leaf). Moreover, all tested phytochemicals (phenolics and flavonoids) and antioxidant capacity were significantly higher in extracts prepared from the first leaf. Interestingly, a strong significant correlations were observed between TAC and tested secondary metabolites (TFC, R2=0.85). The results of the present study are vital important in cultivation, harvesting and quality control aspects of S. rebaudiana.



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Efficiency of Single and Multiple Traits Selection for Yield and Its Components in Varietal Maintenance of Giza 90 Egyptian Cotton Variety

1Cotton research institute, Agricultural Research Center (ARC), Cairo, Egypt

2Agronomy Department, College of Agriculture, Assiut University, 71526 Assiut, Egypt

World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2016, 4(6), 166-172
doi: 10.12691/wjar-4-6-3
Copyright © 2016 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Nour Ibrahim, Salah F. Abou-Elwafa, Hamdi Mahrous, Abdel-Azeem A. Ismail, Ezzat E. Mahdy. Efficiency of Single and Multiple Traits Selection for Yield and Its Components in Varietal Maintenance of Giza 90 Egyptian Cotton Variety. World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2016; 4(6):166-172. doi: 10.12691/wjar-4-6-3.

Correspondence to: Salah  F. Abou-Elwafa, Agronomy Department, College of Agriculture, Assiut University, 71526 Assiut, Egypt. Email:


Cotton is an important commercial crop of Egypt. The present study was carried out to study the possibility of selection of elite high yielding plants characterized by the same fiber properties of the superior cultivar Giza 90. To attain this goal two cycles of selection for single trait selection for lint yield/plant and 14 selection indices (desired genetic gain index) were achieved. Average observed genetic gain of the ten selected families after two cycles of selection indicated that LY/P ranged from insignificant (16.57%) for index 2 (LY/P and BW) to 21.63% (P ≤0.01) for index 7 (NB/P and NS/B). Index 2 increased BW by 9.27% (p ≤ 0.05) and UHM length by 2.23% (p ≤ 0.01). Index 7 showed significant genetic gain of 20.26, 21.63, 3.16, 5.44 and 2.785 for SCY/P, LY/P, SI, PI, and UHM length, respectively. Index 3 showed significant genetic gain of 19.71, 21.36, 3.61, 7.82, and 2.65% for SCY/P, LY/P, SI, PI and UHM length, respectively. Index 13 gave significant genetic gain 18.46, 20.55 and 5.76% for SCY/P, LY/P and PI, respectively. Single trait selection for LY/P showed significant genetic gain of 19.75, 20.30 and 14.01% for SCY/P, LY/P and NB/P, respectively. The results indicated that selection index was better than single trait selection in detecting the superior families in LY/P. Generally, it could be concluded that the present program for maintenance and renewing Egyptian cotton varieties is a precise and perfect program to preserve the fiber quality, but, not suitable for improving yielding ability. In consequence, this program should be modified to allow the isolation of superior high yielding off types from the breeding nursery characterized by improvement in one or more fiber quality.



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Nutritional, Rheological and Organoleptic Properties of Whole Meal Flour Prepared from Stem Rust Resistant Wheat Varieties Released in Kenya

1Egerton University, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, P.O Box 536-20115, Egerton, Kenya

2Kenya Agricultural and Livestock Research Organization, Food Crops Research Centre Njoro, Kenya

3Highland Agri-consult Services Limited, P.O Box 470-20107, Njoro, Kenya

World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2016, 4(6), 173-182
doi: 10.12691/wjar-4-6-4
Copyright © 2016 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Kariithi Samuel Ngure, Abwao Stephen Indieka, Ndung’u John, Njau Peter. Nutritional, Rheological and Organoleptic Properties of Whole Meal Flour Prepared from Stem Rust Resistant Wheat Varieties Released in Kenya. World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2016; 4(6):173-182. doi: 10.12691/wjar-4-6-4.

Correspondence to: Kariithi  Samuel Ngure, Egerton University, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, P.O Box 536-20115, Egerton, Kenya. Email:


Wheat is an important cereal crop in most diets thus its nutritional content is crucial in addressing microelement deficiencies. This study focused on Zn, Fe, phytic acid and resistant starch content and their effect on rheological and organoleptic properties for whole meal flour from Kenyan wheat varieties. Zn and Fe levels ranged from111 to 305 ppm and 26 to 91 ppm, whereas phytic acid and resistant starch levels ranged from 2.66 to 5.05 ppm and 0.37 to 6.03%. Variety and site significantly (p<0.05) influenced iron and resistant starch content, whereas variety and variety × site influenced zinc and phytic acid. Protein and gluten levels ranged between 11.96 to 14.53% and 7.81% to 19.60% respectively. All the varieties recorded high water absorption levels ranging from 72.2% to 80.8%, while DDT ranged from 4.00 to 9.83 minutes. P and L values ranged between 21 to 79 and 16 to 51 mm, external loaf characteristics ranged between 2.2 to 4.3 and 2.13 to 3.70 for taste and aroma. Zinc and protein positively correlated (r=0.69, p<0.05), stability and P (r=0.69 p<0.05) and DDT and stability (0.71 p<0.05). Phytic acid and crust colour (r=0.66 p<0.05), zinc and shape (r=0.78 p<0.05), zinc and acceptability (r=0.77 p<0.05), DDT and shape (r=0.74 p<0.05), aroma and shape (r=0.67 p<0.05) were positively correlated. The results obtained indicate varieties tested contained considerable levels of zinc, iron, resistant starch, low levels of phytic acid and they had no adverse effect on rheological and organoleptic parameters of whole meal flour.



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