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Article

Determination of Optimum Maturity Stage for Ocimum sanctum L. Grown under Different Growing Systems in Terms of Therapeutically Active Secondary Metabolites

1Department of Plantation Management, Faculty of Agriculture and Plantation Management, Wayamba University of Sri Lanka, Makandura, Gonawila (NWP)

2Industrial Technology Institute, Baudhaloka Mawatha, Colombo, Sri Lanka


World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2014, 2(4), 159-162
DOI: 10.12691/wjar-2-4-4
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
K.W. ABEYWARDHANA, D.C. ABEYSINGHE, R.M. DHARMADASA, A.M.L ATHTHANAYAKE. Determination of Optimum Maturity Stage for Ocimum sanctum L. Grown under Different Growing Systems in Terms of Therapeutically Active Secondary Metabolites. World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2014; 2(4):159-162. doi: 10.12691/wjar-2-4-4.

Correspondence to: R.M.  DHARMADASA, Industrial Technology Institute, Baudhaloka Mawatha, Colombo, Sri Lanka. Email: dharma@iti.lk

Abstract

Ocimum sanctum L. (Lamiaceae) is therapeutically important medicinal plant used in traditional systems of medicine. Present study was undertaken to determine the optimum growth stage in terms of total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC) and antioxidant capacity (TAC) of leaf and bark extracts of hydroponically and field grown plants of O. sanctum in three different maturity stages. Alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, tannins and steroid glycosides were qualitatively screened through established protocols. TPC, TFC and TAC were determined by colorimetric Folin-Ciocalteu method, aluminum nitrate method and Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP) assay respectively. Leaf and bark extracts of O. sanctum grown under both field and hydroponic conditions, at all three maturity stages exhibited the presence of all phytochemicals tested. TPC, TFC and TAC were increased with the maturity. Significantly higher TPC (8.34 ± 0.14 mg GAE /g DW), TFC (132.29 ± 1.45 mg RE /g DW) and TAC (120.02 ± 4.06 mg TE /g DW) were observed in leaf extracts taken from field grown plants at fully maturity stage. The order of increase was just before flowering< just after flowering< fully maturity stage. Presence of higher content of TPC, TFC and TAC in O. sanctum leaves at fully maturity stage, scientifically validate the traditional claims of harvesting of O. sanctum leaves at fully maturity stage for better therapeutic value. Moreover, presence of all tested phytochemicals in hydroponically grown plants is positive sign of use of hydroponic system as an alternative growing system for O. sanctum.

Keywords

References

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Article

Secondary Metabolites Contents and Antioxidant Capacities of Acmella Oleraceae Grown under Different Growing Systems

1Department of Plantation Management, Faculty of Agriculture and Plantation Management, Wayamba University of Sri Lanka, Makandura, Gonawila (NWP)

2Industrial Technology Institute, Bawddhaloka Mawatha, Colombo, Sri Lanka


World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2014, 2(4), 163-167
DOI: 10.12691/wjar-2-4-5
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
D.C. Abeysinghe, S.M.N.K. Wijerathne, R.M. Dharmadasa. Secondary Metabolites Contents and Antioxidant Capacities of Acmella Oleraceae Grown under Different Growing Systems. World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2014; 2(4):163-167. doi: 10.12691/wjar-2-4-5.

Correspondence to: R.M.  Dharmadasa, Industrial Technology Institute, Bawddhaloka Mawatha, Colombo, Sri Lanka. Email: dharmadasarm@gmail.com

Abstract

Acmella oleraceae (L.) R.K. Jansen (Asteraceae) is a therapeutically important medicinal plant used in traditional systems of medicine. Present study was undertaken to compare the total phenolic contents (TPC), total flavonoid contents (TFC), total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) profiles of areal parts and callus extracts of A. oleraceae grown under different growing systems (field grown, hydroponically grown and callus culture. Callus established in Murasige and Skoog (MS) medium, areal parts of field grown and hydroponically grown plants were extracted in 80% methanol. TPC, TFC and TAC were carried out by using colorimetric Folin-Ciocalteu method, aluminum nitrate method and Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP) assay respectively. TLC profiles were developed using established protocol. The best callus growth and the highest mean callus weight were observed in leaf explants established in MS medium supplemented with 2 mg/L BA and 1 mg/L IBA. Comparatively higher TPC (11.45 ± 0.17), TFC (12.33 ± 0.92) and TAC (10.27 ± 0.28) were observed in hydroponically grown plants. Order of TPC, TFC and TAC were increased as callus<field grown plants< hydroponically grown plants. The presence of higher TPC, TFC and TAC in hydroponically grown plants opens a new window for use of hydroponic system for growing of A. oleraceae for better secondary metabolites content.

Keywords

References

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[8]  Abeysinghe, D.C., Li, X., Sun, C., Zhang, W., Zhou, C. and Chen, k., (2007). Bioactive compounds and antioxidant capacities in different edible tissues of citrus fruits of four species, Food Chemistry, 104, 1338-1344.
 
[9]  Abeysiri, G.R.P.I., Dharmadasa, R.M. and Abeysinghe, D.C, and K. Samarasinghe (2013).Screening of phytochemical, physico-chemical and bioactivity of different parts of Acmella oleraceae Murr. (Asteraceae), a natural remedy for toothache. Industrial Crops and Products, 50, 852-856.
 
[10]  Benzie IFF and Strain JJ (1996) The ferric reducing ability of plasma as a measure of antioxidant power: The FRAP assay. Journal of analytical Biochemistry, 293: 70-76.
 
[11]  Singh, M. and Chaturvedi, R. (2012). Screening and quantification of an antiseptic alkylamide, spilanthol from in vitro cell and tissue cultures of Spilanthes acmella Murr. Industrial Crops and Products, 321-328.
 
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[14]  Gontier, E., Clement, A., Tran, T.L.M., Gravot, A., Lievre, K., Guckert, A. and Bourgaud, F. (2002). Hydroponic combined with natural or forced root permeabilization: A promising technique for plant secondary metabolite production. Plant Science, 163, 723-732.
 
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Article

Effect of Conservation Agriculture on Growth and Productivity of Maize (Zea mays L.) in Terai Region of Nepal

1Nepal Agricultural Research Council, National Maize Research Program, Rampur, Chitwan, Nepal


World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2014, 2(4), 168-175
DOI: 10.12691/wjar-2-4-6
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Santa Bahadur BK, Jiban Shrestha. Effect of Conservation Agriculture on Growth and Productivity of Maize (Zea mays L.) in Terai Region of Nepal. World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2014; 2(4):168-175. doi: 10.12691/wjar-2-4-6.

Correspondence to: Santa  Bahadur BK, Nepal Agricultural Research Council, National Maize Research Program, Rampur, Chitwan, Nepal. Email: shanta2015@live.com

Abstract

In order to evaluate the performance of hybrid and open pollinated varieties of maize under various conservation agriculture based practices in terai, region of Nepal, a field experiment was conducted at the research farm of National Maize Research Program (NMRP), Rampur, Chitwan, Nepal from February, 2012 to June, 2012. Altogether 16 treatments consisting of four maize varieties namely; DMH-849, Rajkumar, Manakamana-3 and Rampur Composite, and two levels of tillage, (i.e., conventional and no tillage) and two levels of residues management (i.e. with or without residue) were tested in 3 replication under split-split plot design. The data was analyzed using MSTATC statistical package. The results revealed that higher number of ears/ha was found in Manakamana-3 (54013) followed by Rajkumar hybrid (53550). The number of grains per ear was higher for residue left plot (406.04). Rajkumar hybrid produced the highest grain and stover yields of 7182 and 9996 kg/ha followed by 6295.0 and 9825.62 kg/ha in Manakamana-3. Variation on leaf area index (LAI) was due to no tillage was found significant in 45 DAS. Where as, the effect of residues on LAI was found significant at 30, 45, 60 and 75 DAS. Genotypic effect on LAI was found significant only at 30 DAS, where Manakamana-3 had the highest LAI (0.066) followed by DMH849 (0.056) and Rampur Composite (0.055). The variation due to tillage, residue and variety was evident for plant height in all the time series. The effect of residue on dry matter at 45 DAS was highly significant, where higher amount of dry matter was recorded in residue removed plots than the residue left plots. However, the hybrids DMH-849 had more grain to stover ratio (0.75) followed by Rajkumar (0.74) as compare to Rampur Composite (0.69). The plot having residues took longer duration for silking compared to the plot having no residue. Among the genotypes, DMH-849 showed earlier in tasseling (76 days) and maturity (118 days) followed by Rampur Composite. Economic analysis depicted the highest net return in Rajkumar hybrid (Rs. 105617/ha) under no tilled with residue used condition followed by without residue condition (Rs. 92267/ha). Manakamana-3 produced the higher net return (Rs. 85349/ha) under no tillage with no residue used condition followed by conventional tillage with no residue (Rs.70766/ha). The high benefit cost ratio was found of 2.432 in plots having no tillage with residue followed by no tilled with no residue 2.382. Manakamana-3 had the highest benefit cost ratio of 2.351 in no residue plots followed by no tilled with no residue plots (2.072). Significant reduction of production cost due to conservation agriculture (CA) based practices over conventional agriculture was recorded. Therefore, the CA based crop management practices need to be further promoted in wider areas.

Keywords

References

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[7]  Pathik DS (2002). Maize research achievements and constraints. In:Rajbhandari, N.P., J.K. Ransom, K. Adhikari and A.F.E. Palmer (eds.) Sustainable maize production systems for Nepal: Proceedings of a maize sympodium held, December 3-5, 2001, Kathmandu, Nepal. Kathmandu: NARC and CIMMYT. pp 7-12.
 
[8]  Paudyal KR, Ransom JK (2001). Resource use efficiency and effective incentives of Nepalese maize farmers. In: N. P. Rajbhandari, J. K. Ransom, K. Adhhikari and A. E. F. Palmer (eds.) Sustainable Maize Production System for Nepal. Proceedings of a maize Symposium, December 3-5, 2001, Kathmandu, Nepal. pp. 239-245.
 
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Article

Aquaculture Monitoring and Control Systems for Seaweed and Fish Farming

1Department of Industrial Technology, Jordan College of Agricultural Sc and Technology, California State Univ., Fresno, USA

2Department of Information and Communication, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, Gwangju, Republic of Korea


World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2014, 2(4), 176-182
DOI: 10.12691/wjar-2-4-7
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Nitaigour Premchand Mahalik, Kiseon Kim. Aquaculture Monitoring and Control Systems for Seaweed and Fish Farming. World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2014; 2(4):176-182. doi: 10.12691/wjar-2-4-7.

Correspondence to: Nitaigour  Premchand Mahalik, Department of Industrial Technology, Jordan College of Agricultural Sc and Technology, California State Univ., Fresno, USA. Email: nmahalik@csufresno.edu

Abstract

This paper reviews aquaculture monitoring and control systems for seaweed and fish farming. Seaweeds farming play an important role in business and constantly growing. Seaweed is considered to be second largest freshwater farming industry in the world. Not only seaweeds are eaten raw, but through industrial process, some components are extracted to use in other foods. This paper provides 5 types of seaweed species and their aquaculture methods that are very popular. Also we have reviewed, the per capita fish consumption (region-wise), global annual fish production, global fish production in past 60 years, fish production in percentage by region, global seaweed production, seaweed value and important seaweeds for industrial use. Implication of technology such as the Recirculating Aquaculture System (RAS) integrated with sensors, pumping system and filtering mechanism to measure, control and eradicate parameters, variables, and wastes developed by academic institution that has already been demonstrated was reviewed. Typical specification of a 4-tank based RAS is given. The paper also provides an advanced monitoring and control architecture that can be capable of automating precise production processes. Details about the control hardware such as sensors, motors, pumps, electronics, computer and software are presented.

Keywords

References

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Article

Morphological and Biometrical Characterization of Seeds of Some Algerians Lentil Accessions: Quantitative and Qualitative Characters

1Department of Agriculture and Biotechnology, National Research Center for Biotechnology, Constantine, Algeria

2Department of Phytotchnie, National School for Agriculture, Algiers, Algeria


World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2014, 2(4), 183-186
DOI: 10.12691/wjar-2-4-8
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
GAAD D., Laouar M., Abdelguerfi A. Morphological and Biometrical Characterization of Seeds of Some Algerians Lentil Accessions: Quantitative and Qualitative Characters. World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2014; 2(4):183-186. doi: 10.12691/wjar-2-4-8.

Correspondence to: GAAD  D., Department of Agriculture and Biotechnology, National Research Center for Biotechnology, Constantine, Algeria. Email: d.gaad@crbt.org

Abstract

The preliminaries characterization of a collection of twenty three Algerians accessions of lentil (Lens culinaris M.) were done before sown. Seed thickness (STH), Seed diameter (SDM), thickness/diameter ratio (T/D) and Weight of 100 seeds (WHS), are a quantitative traits measured. Altitude and Rainfall of location of origin of accessions are considered as a supplement variables. Also, qualitative characters: Grain form (GFR), Ground color of seed testa (GCT), Pattern of testa (PAT), Cotyledons color (COC), were considered. From the result of Principal Component Analysis (PCA), axis 1 explains 65.08% of the variance in the qualitative character and it showed a strange negative correlation with seed diameter (SDM), Weight of 100 seeds (WHS) and altitude (ALT).Whereas, it was positively and significantly correlated with thickness/diameter ratio (T/D) variable. The second component, accounting for 23.58 % of the total variation, was correlated positively with seed thickness (STH). Hierarchical discriminate analysis revealed major differences between accessions from different regions. Three major regional groups were apparent: 1) a Western group characterized by accessions of the Macrosperma type, 2) a more Northern group of the Microsperma type and 3) A mixture group gathered all regions and the two types. Regarding qualitative traits, the application of Multiple Correspondence Analyses (MCA) showed that seeds with globular form (Microsperma) are two types: 1) Brown or green tasta with dotted seed coat pattern or note and yellow cotyledons and 2) Brown tasta with orange cotyledons. In addition, seeds with flat form (Macrosperma) are divided into two types: 1) Brown, Beige or Green tasta with yellow cotyledons, 2) Brown tasta with dotted seed coat pattern and yellow cotyledons.

Keywords

References

[1]  Abdelguerfi-Laouar,M., Hamdi N., Bouzid H., Zidouni F., Laib M. Bouzid L. and Zine F. “Les légumineuses alimentaires en Algérie : Situation, état des ressources phylogénétiques et cas du pois chiche à Bejaia”. in les actes des 3 èm journées scientifiques de l’INRAA sur l’agriculture de montagne : développement régional et régionalisation de la recherche, Bejaia les 11, 12,13, avril 2001, 171-189.
 
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Article

Cultivation of Calocybe indica (P & C) in Konkan Region of Maharashtra, India

1Department of Plant Pathology, Dr. Balasaheb Sawant Konkan Krishi Vidyapeeth Dapoli, Dist. Ratnagiri, Maharashtra India


World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2014, 2(4), 187-191
DOI: 10.12691/wjar-2-4-9
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Sudhir Navathe, P. G. Borkar, J.J. Kadam. Cultivation of Calocybe indica (P & C) in Konkan Region of Maharashtra, India. World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2014; 2(4):187-191. doi: 10.12691/wjar-2-4-9.

Correspondence to: Sudhir  Navathe, Department of Plant Pathology, Dr. Balasaheb Sawant Konkan Krishi Vidyapeeth Dapoli, Dist. Ratnagiri, Maharashtra India. Email: sudhir.agro123@gmail.com

Abstract

Considering suitability of climatic conditions and economic aspects in Konkan region of Maharashtra, cultivation of Calocybe indica was undertaken with locally available substrates viz. paddy straw, horse gram waste, wild grass (Themeda quadrivolvis), bamboo leaves and different casing materials such as vermicompost, sand + soil (1:1 v/v), dried biogas spent slurry and combination of sand +soil +dried biogas spent slurry (1:1:1 v/v). Among the four substrates evaluated for cultivation of milky mushroom, paddy straw was the best with 81.05 per cent biological efficiency followed by horse gram waste (BE 50 %) and bamboo leaves (BE 40.62 %), but wild grass (Themeda quadrivolvis) was the poorest substrate. The biological efficiency of Calocybe indica was doubled by using a combination of sand +soil +dried biogas spent slurry (BE 180.32%) or vermicompost (BE 176.28 %) as casing material. Use of dried biogas spent slurry alone also recorded 130 per cent biological efficiency but combination of sand + soil (BE 79.94 %) was inferior. From the present study it was concluded that the maximum biological efficiency of Calocybe indica (P & C) in Konkan conditions can be obtained by using paddy straw as a substrate encased with sand +soil +dried biogas spent slurry (1:1:1 v/v) or Vermicompost during summer season.

Keywords

References

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Article

The Evolution of Income Distribution in Brazil in the Agricultural and the Non-agricultural Sectors

1Department of Economics, Administration and Sociology, University of São Paulo – ESALQ, Piracicaba, São Paulo, Brazil

2Ministry of Agrarian Development, Brasília, Federal District, Brazil


World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2014, 2(5), 192-204
DOI: 10.12691/wjar-2-5-1
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Rodolfo Hoffmann, Régis B. de Oliveira. The Evolution of Income Distribution in Brazil in the Agricultural and the Non-agricultural Sectors. World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2014; 2(5):192-204. doi: 10.12691/wjar-2-5-1.

Correspondence to: Rodolfo  Hoffmann, Department of Economics, Administration and Sociology, University of São Paulo – ESALQ, Piracicaba, São Paulo, Brazil. Email: hoffmannr@usp.br

Abstract

The paper analyzes the characteristics and evolution of income distribution in the Brazilian agricultural sector, comparing it with the overall distribution or with the non-agricultural sector, considering two dimensions: the per capita household income and the income of occupied persons. The main data source is the National Household Sample Survey (PNAD). In order to fulfill this purpose, the per capita household income was divided into nine components (for Brazil and considering only the agricultural households) to evaluate their contributions to the decrease in inequality. In the second part, the paper analyzes the characteristics of occupied persons and the determining factors of their income, always comparing the agricultural and non-agricultural sectors. The estimated effects were analyzed over the period 1992-2012, adjusting one earnings equation for each year. In both cases (per capita household income and earnings of occupied persons), the agricultural sector showed a markedly different behavior. Regarding the per capita household income, though from 2001 to 2009 the rate of reduction in inequality among agricultural households is similar to the one observed in Brazil as a whole, the determinants associated with this reduction are clearly different in the agricultural sector. Concerning the income of occupied persons, the reduction in inequality is less intense and more irregular in the agricultural sector. The various factors that determine the income of occupied persons also presented distinct behaviors for the agricultural and non-agricultural sectors.

Keywords

References

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Article

An Evaluation of Adaptation Options to Climate Pressure on Highland Robusta Coffee Production, Daklak Province, Vietnam

1Center for Agricultural Resource System Research, Faculty of Agriculture, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand

2Department of Economic, Faculty of Economic, Nong Lam University, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam

3Department of Agricultural Economics and Extension, Faculty of Agriculture, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand


World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2014, 2(5), 205-215
DOI: 10.12691/wjar-2-5-2
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Thuyen Pham Thi, Yaovarate Chaovanapoonphol. An Evaluation of Adaptation Options to Climate Pressure on Highland Robusta Coffee Production, Daklak Province, Vietnam. World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2014; 2(5):205-215. doi: 10.12691/wjar-2-5-2.

Correspondence to: Thuyen  Pham Thi, Center for Agricultural Resource System Research, Faculty of Agriculture, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand. Email: phamthuyen@hcmuaf.edu.vn

Abstract

Adaptation to changes of temperature and rainfall is a two-stage process, which initially hinges on the farmers’ perception of climate variability and then responding to changes through adaptation strategies. Adaptation evaluation is considered as part of a planned policy coping with consciously planned, primarily anticipatory adaptation initiatives undertaken by decision makers, specifically individual farmers. An evaluation goes beyond the identification, characterization of adaptation approaches and with regards to an adaptation option’s relative merit, superiority or implement-ability. Evaluative criteria do not only mention on principally economic dimension, but also relate to the different considerations. The objectives of this study (1) undertakes an evaluation of adaptation options in level of coffee farms by five alternatives involving in effectiveness, economic efficiency, flexibility, farmer implement-ability and independent benefits and (2) analyzes the determining factors impacting on the farmers’ adaptation level. The study uses data from structured interviews with 176 coffee farmers in Ea H’leo District, Daklak Province, Vietnam. The multiple criteria evaluation, unity based normalization and weighted sum methods are employed to assess the farmers’ adaptation options. The Ordered logit model is also used to estimate the relationship between the farmers’ adaptation level and their demographic and socio-economic characteristics. The result of multiple criteria evaluation indicated that amongst five evaluative criteria, the economic efficiency and effectiveness were assessed with the highest weights about importance level. The outcome of weighted sum of adaptation options highlighted that the level of adaptation was not positive relationship with the number of adaptation options which the farmers adapted to climate pressure for their coffee farm. It depended on the adaptation’s multiple considerations. The findings of regression model also revealed that factors related to the households’ socio-economic characteristics had statistically significant impacted to choosing the adaptation level at significant level 1%, 5%.

Keywords

References

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Article

Grain Legumes in Nepal: Present Scenario and Future Prospects

1Grain Legumes Research program, Rampur, Chitwan, Nepal

2South Asia and China Regional Program, International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas (ICARDA), New Delhi, India

3North Africa Platform, ICARDA, Rabat, Morocco


World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2014, 2(5), 216-222
DOI: 10.12691/wjar-2-5-3
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Gharti DB, Darai R., Subedi S, Sarker A., Shiv Kumar. Grain Legumes in Nepal: Present Scenario and Future Prospects. World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2014; 2(5):216-222. doi: 10.12691/wjar-2-5-3.

Correspondence to: Gharti  DB, Grain Legumes Research program, Rampur, Chitwan, Nepal. Email: dhana_gharti@yahoo.com

Abstract

Grain legumes play an important role in Nepalese agriculture contributing towards food and nutritional security, nitrogen economy, crop intensification, diversification and sustainable farming systems and rank fourth in terms of area and fifth in agricultural production. Grain Legumes Research program (GLRP) of Nepal in collaboration with CGIAR centers works for genetic improvement of lentil, chickpea, pigeonpea, soybean, mungbean, blackgram, and cowpea, resulting in development of 35 improved varieties and a dozen of production technologies for different agro-ecological domains. This has led to substantial increase (142%) in grain legumes production, mainly because of 47% area increase and 65% yield increase during the last two and a half decades. The current estimates for area, production and productivity of grain legumes in Nepal are 334,323 ha, 319,770 metric tons and 956 kg ha-1, respectively. Lentil is the major grain legume and accounts for 62% of area and 65% production of total grain legumes in Nepal and has emerged as an important export commodity. A number of micro-nutrient rich (iron, zinc and selenium) lentil lines have been identified in collaboration with ICARDA and scaled out under the Harvest Plus Challenge Program. Further efforts are underway for expanding area under lentil, chickpea, fieldpea, and lathyrus in rice-fallow through Village based seed enterprise under OFID/ICARDA program. There is further scope for increase in area, production and productivity of grain legumes in Nepal through development and popularization of suitable varieties and technologies, streamlining community based seed production system, addressing climate change issues and policy reforms for the promotion of legumes.

Keywords

References

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Article

Racy Nature-A Sun Technology towards Quantum Agriculture

1Central Soil and Water Conservation Research and Training Institute, Research Centre Agra, U.P., India

2International Scientific Research and Welfare Organization, New Delhi, India


World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2014, 2(5), 223-227
DOI: 10.12691/wjar-2-5-4
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
R. C. Yadav, M. P. Chaudhary. Racy Nature-A Sun Technology towards Quantum Agriculture. World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2014; 2(5):223-227. doi: 10.12691/wjar-2-5-4.

Correspondence to: R.  C. Yadav, Central Soil and Water Conservation Research and Training Institute, Research Centre Agra, U.P., India. Email: ramcyadav@rediffmail.com

Abstract

An alive, smart and enthusiastic (racy) agriculture technology developed based on innovative application of scientific facts and assembled convergence package capsule of best practices derived from the past researches is named as racy nature agriculture. It uses concept of quantum mechanics and produces technologies of generation I (1G), even without conducting experiment and completes research needs by optimisation for bringing world agriculture to generation II (2G). This unique green Sun technology is universally applicable to enlighten all ecosystems, soils, crops, both rainfed and irrigated agriculture, together with eliminate the global worries of sustainable food production and protection of environment.

Keywords

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