World Journal of Agricultural Research

ISSN (Print): 2333-0643

ISSN (Online): 2333-0678

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Website: http://www.sciepub.com/journal/WJAR

   

Article

Farming Community Perceptions about Climate Change in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Pakistan

1Department of Rural Development, Amir Muhammad Khan Campus, Mardan, The University of Agriculture, Peshawar, Pakistan

2Department of Agriculture and Applied Economics, The University of Agriculture, Peshawar, Pakistan

3Department of Economics, University of Malakand, Chakdara, Dir Lower

4Department of Environmental Sciences, COMSATS Abbottabad


World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2016, 4(3), 70-76
doi: 10.12691/wjar-4-3-2
Copyright © 2016 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Muhammad Israr, Muhammad Faraz, Dawood Jan, Nafees Ahmad, Shakeel Ahmad. Farming Community Perceptions about Climate Change in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Pakistan. World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2016; 4(3):70-76. doi: 10.12691/wjar-4-3-2.

Correspondence to: Muhammad  Israr, Department of Rural Development, Amir Muhammad Khan Campus, Mardan, The University of Agriculture, Peshawar, Pakistan. Email: misrar@aup.edu.pk

Abstract

This study was conducted in Swabi district of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa with the objectives to study the knowledge of small scale farmers about climate change and its impact on livelihood and to pinpoint about the climate changes and temperature during last five years in Swabi district. For this 08 Union Councils (UCs) were selected from 56 UCs of the district randomly, from which 200 respondents were drawn through sample random sampling methods. Primary data were collected at the field survey through interviews structure schedule and were analyzed by using descriptive statistics and Chi-square test. Findings revealed most of the respondents were owner cum tenant and having un-irrigated land. Maize, wheat and tobacco were the main growing crops of the area. Majority of the respondents did not grow any fruit trees due to lack of water and heavy frost. The finds also pointed that changes observed in increased or decreased in temperature and monsoon rain during last 5 years which having drastic affect on the production of crops in the area. Farmer’s adoptive and mitigative practices also change by bringing changes in the agronomic practices. The study as a whole concludes that climate change affecting the environment and agriculture sector. It was recommended that there is a need of awareness campaigns, farmer’s education, farmers training and skill development, developing high yielding heat, cold/drought tolerant and short duration verities of crop and the adoption of agro forestry for reducing the climate change in agriculture sector.

Keywords

References

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Article

Evaluation of Herbicides on the Content and Yield of Raw Protein in Wheat (Triticum Aestivum L.)

1Dobrudzha Agricultural Institute – General Toshevo


World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2016, 4(3), 77-84
doi: 10.12691/wjar-4-3-3
Copyright © 2016 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Margarita Nankova, Zornitsa Petrova, Genoveva Bankova - Atanassova, Emil Penchev, Georgi Sabev. Evaluation of Herbicides on the Content and Yield of Raw Protein in Wheat (Triticum Aestivum L.). World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2016; 4(3):77-84. doi: 10.12691/wjar-4-3-3.

Correspondence to: Margarita  Nankova, Dobrudzha Agricultural Institute – General Toshevo. Email: nankova_margo@abv.bg

Abstract

The investigation was carried out at Dobrudzha Agricultural Institute – General Toshevo during 2012 – 2014 in four-field crop rotation (wheat-maize-wheat-sunflower). Cultivars Aglika and Enola were sown at two dates – optimal (1st – 15th October) and late (after 20th November). The following set of herbicides was tested: Derby super VG – 3,3 g/da; Palace 75WG + oil – 25+100 g/ml/da; Granstar 75DF – 1,5 g/da; Lintur 70VG – 15 g/da; Husar Max ОD – 100 ml/da; Secator ОD – 10 ml/da and Mustang 306,25СК – 80 ml/da. The herbicides were applied at three dates: 1st date А – stage 29 according to Zadoks (Tillering stage); 2nd date B – stage 32 according to Zadoks (Stem elongation) and 3rd date С – stage 37 according to Zadoks (Emergence of flag leave). The experiment included two control variants К1 – weed-free control (manually weeded from the emergence of the first weeds till heading of wheat), and К2 (nil) – a control variant infested till harvesting of the crop. A high level of significance of the tested herbicides on the values of raw protein in grain and protein yield from the investigated cultivars was determined under the conditions of the experiment. The years of investigation had highest effect on the values of the tested characteristics. Best results were obtained in 2012. The two cultivars formed grain with the highest raw protein content in 2014. Regardless the sowing data the grain of cultivar Enola reached the maximum content of raw protein at the tillering stage of herbicides application, on the contrary of cultivar Aglika. The grain of cultivar Enola contained raw protein 9.33% more then cultivar Aglika average for the trail. The auxin type herbicide Lintur 70 VG cased the increasing the raw protein content in maximum degree in comparison the other herbicides. The exceeding to the weed-free control was 16.67% average for the years. At the late date of herbicide application, the amount of protein decreased in both cultivars. Averaged for the investigated period, the size of protein yield of cultivar Enola was with 18.7 % higher than the yield of cultivar Aglika. Cultivar Aglika has well expressed tolerance to the stages of herbicide application in comparison with cultivar Enola. Aglika’s raw protein yield was higher at the stem elongation stage (32 Zadoks) of herbicides applicaton. Cultivar Enola differ from cultivar Aglika with the greatest raw protein yield at the tillering stage (29 Zadoks) of herbicides application. In all three years of the investigation, highest yield of raw protein was obtained from the manually weed-free control (К1) and lowest – from the infested control (К2). Averaged for the tested variants of the trial, only after the application of the herbicides Derby super VG and Secator OD the raw protein yield remained at the level of the weed-free control (К1). There was a strong positive correlation of grain yield with raw protein yield. Averaged for the period of investigation, the sowing date of cultivar Aglika did not show significant effect on the values of the correlation coefficients. In cultivar Enola, the late sowing date lead to high increase of the correlation. This tendency was best expressed in harvest year 2014 (r=,875**). The regression models obtained for the investigated years once again confirmed the high proportional correlation of grain yield with protein.

Keywords

References

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Article

Evaluation of Quality and Safety Parameters of Poultry Meat Products Sold In Hyderabad Market, Pakistan

1Institute of Food and Technology, Faculty of Crop Production, Sindh Agriculture University Tandojam, Pakistan

2Department of Bioinformatics and Biotechnology, International Islamic University, H-10, Islamabad, Pakistan


World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2016, 4(3), 85-93
doi: 10.12691/wjar-4-3-4
Copyright © 2016 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Pasdar Hussain, Aijaz Hussain Somoro, Adil Hussain, Muhammad Waqar Arshad. Evaluation of Quality and Safety Parameters of Poultry Meat Products Sold In Hyderabad Market, Pakistan. World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2016; 4(3):85-93. doi: 10.12691/wjar-4-3-4.

Correspondence to: Adil  Hussain, Department of Bioinformatics and Biotechnology, International Islamic University, H-10, Islamabad, Pakistan. Email: aadil.iiu07@gmail.com

Abstract

30 Samples of five poultry meat products including chicken nuggets (S1), chicken fillets (S2), chicken burgers (S3), chicken meatballs (S4) and chicken kababs (S5) were collected from various retailers from Hyderabad market to evaluate quality and safety parameters. All the samples were investigated for pH, water holding capacity (WHC), moisture, ash, fat, protein content, total volatile base (TVB), total viable count (TVC) and coliform count (CC). Results revealed that chicken nuggets, fillets, burgers, meatballs and kababs varied significantly (P≤0.05) for pH, WHC, moisture, ash, fat, protein contents, TVB and CC, and non-significantly (P>0.05) for TVC. Highest pH (6.05) was recorded for meatballs, while lowest pH value (4.90) was recorded for chicken fillets. Among the investigated chicken products meatballs showed highest WHC (48.18%), while lowest was recorded in chicken kababs (27.72%). Moisture content was highest (70%) in meatballs, and lowest in chicken nuggets (62.45%). Maximum ash content (3.13%) was recorded in kababs, and lowest (1.27%) was confirmed in fillets. Fat content was maximum (10.78%) in meatballs, while minimum was recorded in kababs (4.97%). Highest protein level (20.25%) was found in kababs, while meatballs displayed lowest protein level (12.53%). Highest TVB (69.50 mg/100 g) was noted for fillets, while lowest in kababs (17.14 mg/100 g). In the microbiological examination of chicken products Total viable count (TVC) was highest in (7433.33 cfu/g) fillets, while lowest was noted in meatballs (6.43x103cfu/g). The Coliform count (CC) was highest (6.3x103cfu/g) in meatballs, while lowest values were verified in burgers (3.05x103 cfu/g). Total volatile base (TVB) and Total viable count (TVC) was greater in chicken fillets as compared to other products. This clearly indicates unhygienic circumstances at certain stages during manufacturing, processing, handling and storage of chicken meat products.

Keywords

References

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