World Journal of Agricultural Research

ISSN (Print): 2333-0643

ISSN (Online): 2333-0678

Editor-in-Chief: Apply for this position

Website: http://www.sciepub.com/journal/WJAR

   

Article

Integrated Application of Mineral Nitrogen and Cattle Manure to Improve Nitrogen Use Efficiency and Grain Yield of Maize

1National Agriculture Research Institute (NARI), Serekunda, The Gambia

2Department of Crop and Soil Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana


World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2016, 4(5), 147-152
doi: 10.12691/wjar-4-5-4
Copyright © 2016 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Lamin B Sonko, Joseph Sarkodie-Addo, Vincent Logah. Integrated Application of Mineral Nitrogen and Cattle Manure to Improve Nitrogen Use Efficiency and Grain Yield of Maize. World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2016; 4(5):147-152. doi: 10.12691/wjar-4-5-4.

Correspondence to: Lamin  B Sonko, National Agriculture Research Institute (NARI), Serekunda, The Gambia. Email: sonkob2000@yahoo.co.uk

Abstract

Field experiments were conducted at the Plantation Crops Section of Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology in Kumasi, Ghana in 2014 major and minor seasons to study the effect of combining mineral nitrogen at different application times with cattle manure on nitrogen use efficiency and grain yield of maize. The experiments were factorial in randomized complete block design with four replications. The factors were cattle manure at the rates of 0, 2, 4 and 6 tons/ha; and nitrogen application times as follows: 50% N at 2 weeks after planting and 50% at 4 WAP (NT1), 50% N at 2 WAP and 50% at 6 WAP (NT2), 50% N at 2 WAP and 50% at 8 WAP (NT3) and a control (0 kg N/ha). Results showed that NT2 application increased the nitrogen use efficiency in major and minor seasons more than other application times. The nitrogen use efficiency increased with increase in manure rate, but at a diminishing return. Grain yield was also higher at NT2 and also increased with increase in manure rate. Application of mineral nitrogen at NT2 along with 6 tons/ha cattle manure rate was, therefore, considered best combination for increasing yield of maize in the country.

Keywords

References

[1]  Adu, S.V. 1992. Soils of the Kumasi Region, Ashanti Region, Ghana. Soil Research Institute Memoir 8: 73-98.
 
[2]  Aflakpui, G.K.S., Abdulai, M.S., Berchie, J.N., Ennin, S. and Sallah, P.Y.K. 2005. Maize production guide. Food Crops Development Project, MoFA, CSIR and SARI, 46.
 
[3]  Asare, D.K., Ayeh, E.O., Amoatey, H.M. and Frimpong, J.O. 2012. Biomass Production by Rain-fed Maize Cultivars in a Coastal Savannah Agro-Ecological Environment. World Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 8(3), 286-292.
 
[4]  Ayoola, O.T. and Makinde, E.M. 2007. Complementary Organic and Inorganic Fertilizer Application: Influence on Growth and Yield of Cassava/maize/melon Intercropped with a Relayed Cowpea. Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences, 1(3), 187-192.
 
[5]  Azeez, J.O. 2009. Effects of N Application and Weed Interference on Performance of Some Tropical Maize Genotypes in Nigeria. Pedosphere, 19(5), 654-662.
 
Show More References
[6]  Bandyopadhyay, K.K. and Sarkar, M.C. 2005. Nitrogen use efficiency, 15N balance, and nitrogen losses in flooded rice in an Inceptisol. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis, 36, 1661-1679.
 
[7]  Birch, C.J., Stephen, K., Mclean, G., Doherty, A., Hammer, G.L. and Robertson, M. J. 2008. Reliability of Production of Quick to Medium Maturity Maize in Areas of Variable Rainfall in North-East Australia. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture, 48, 326-334.
 
[8]  Erisman, J.W., Bleeker, A., Galloway, J. and Sutton, M. S. 2007. Reduced nitrogen in ecology and the environment. Environmental Pollution, 150, 140-149.
 
[9]  GenStat. 2009. GenStat for Windows, 12th Edition. VSN International, Hemel Hempstead, UK. Web page: GenStat.co.uk.
 
[10]  Khoshgoftarmanesh, A.H. and Eshghizadeh, H.R. 2011. Yield Response of Corn to Single and Combined Application of Cattle Manure and Urea. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis, 42, 1200-1208.
 
[11]  Kramer, A.W., Doane, T.A., Horwath, W.R. and Kessel, C. 2002. Combining fertilizer and organic inputs to synchronize N supply in alternative cropping systems in California. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 91, 233-243.
 
[12]  Morris, M., Tripp, R. and Dankyi, A.A. 1999. Adoption and Impact of Improved Maize Production Technologies. A Case Study of the Ghana Grains Development Project. Economics Program Paper 99-01. Mexico, D.F.: CIMMYT.
 
[13]  Mugwe, J., Mugendi, D., Kungu, J. and Mucheru-Muna, M. 2007. Effect of plant biomass, manure and inorganic fertilizer on maize yield in the central highlands of Kenya. Africa Crop Science Journal, 15(3), 111-126.
 
[14]  Najm, A.A., Hadi, M.R.H.S., Fazeli, F., Darzi, M.T. and Rahi, A. 2011. Effect of Integrated Management of Nitrogen Fertilizer and Cattle Manure on the Leaf Chlorophyll, Yield, and Tuber Glycoalkaloids of Agria Potato. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis, 43, 912-923.
 
[15]  Ncube, B., Dimes, J.P., Twomlow, S.J., Mupangwa, W. and Giller, K.E. 2006. Raising the productivity of smallholder farms under semi-arid conditions by use of small doses of manure & nitrogen: A case of participatory research. Nutrient Cycling in Agro-ecosystems, 77(1), 53-67.
 
[16]  Obeng-Bio, E., Bonsu, M., Obeng-Antwi, K. and Akromah, R. 2011. Greenhouse assessment of drought tolerance in maize (Zea mays L.) using some plant parameters. African Journal of Plant Science, 5(14), 823-828.
 
[17]  Oppong, A., Bedoya, C.A., Ewool, M.B., Asante, M.D., Thompson, R.N., Adu-Dapaah, H., Lamptey, J.N.L., Ofori, K., Offei, S.K. and Warburton, M.L. 2014. Bulk Genetic Characterization of Ghanaian Maize Landraces using Microsatellite Markers. Maydica, 59, 1-8.
 
[18]  Ragasa, C., Dankyi, A., Acheampong, P., Wiredu, A.N., Chapoto, A., Asamoah, M. and Tripp, R. 2013. Patterns of Adoption of Improved Maize Technologies in Ghana. Ghana strategy Support Program, working paper 36, 1-27.
 
[19]  Salvagiotti, F., Castellarin, J.M., Miralles, D.J. and Pedrol, H.M. 2009. Sulfur fertilization improves nitrogen use efficiency in wheat by increasing nitrogen uptake. Field Crops Research, 113, 170-177.
 
[20]  Sogbedji, J.M., van Es, H.M. and Agbeko, K.L. 2006. Cover Cropping and Nutrient Management Systems for Maize Production in Western Africa. Agronomy Journal, 98, 883-889.
 
[21]  Whalen, J.K., Chang, C., Clayton, G.W. and Carefoot, J.P. 2000. Cattle Manure Amendments Can Increase the pH of Acid Soils. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 64, 962-966.
 
[22]  Worku, M., Bänziger, M., Schulte auf’m Erley, G., Friesen, D., Diallo, A.O. and Horst, W.J. 2012. Nitrogen efficiency as related to dry matter partitioning and root system size in tropical mid-altitude maize hybrids under different levels of nitrogen stress. Field Crops Research, 130, 57-67.
 
Show Less References

Article

Yield and Yield Components of Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) as Influenced by Supplemental Irrigation under Semi-arid Region of Tunisia

1Regional Research Development Office of Agriculture in Semi Arid North West of Kef, Tunisia

2Field Crop’s Laboratory, National Institute for Agricultural Research of Tunisia, Ariana, Tunisia

3Biodiversity, Climate Change and Biotechnology’s Laboratory, Faculty of Sciences of Tunis, Tunis El Manar University, Tunisia

41Regional Research Development Office of Agriculture in Semi Arid North West of Kef, Tunisia


World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2016, 4(5), 153-157
doi: 10.12691/wjar-4-5-5
Copyright © 2016 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Ouji A., El-Bok S., Mouelhi M., Ben Younes M., Kharrat M.. Yield and Yield Components of Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) as Influenced by Supplemental Irrigation under Semi-arid Region of Tunisia. World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2016; 4(5):153-157. doi: 10.12691/wjar-4-5-5.

Correspondence to: Ouji  A., Regional Research Development Office of Agriculture in Semi Arid North West of Kef, Tunisia. Email: ali_ouji@yahoo.fr

Abstract

A field experiment was conducted at the research station of Higher Agriculture School of Kef located in a semi-arid region of to study the effect of supplemental irrigation on yield and yield components of four Tunisian chickpea genotypes (Béja 1, Bouchra, Neyer and Kasseb). Two supplemental irrigations were applied at the flowering and pod formation stages. Results showed a significant effect of supplemental irrigation on biological yield (BY/P), seed number per plant (SN/P), grain yield per plant (GY/P), 100-seed weight (100 SW), grain yield per m2 (GY/m2), harvest index (HI) and number of days to maturity (NDM). Grain yields under supplemental irrigation varied from 62.3 to 140.4 g/m2, and varied from 28.1 to 94.3 g/ m2 under the drought condition. The average 100-seeds weight reduction due to drought condition was 19.3 %. Results showed also that under rainfed condition, Bouchra and Nayer genotypes required minimum number of days to maturity (145.7 and 144.7 respectively). Drought susceptibility index (DSI) values for grain yield ranged from 0.67 to 1.39. Nayer was relatively drought resistant (DSI values <1). This genotypes proved high yielding and drought tolerant and can be incorporated in stress breeding programme for the development of drought tolerant chickpea varieties.

Keywords

References

[1]  Al-Hamadany S.H, “The effects of supplemental Irrigation and Abscisic acid (ABA) spraying on growth and yield of some faba bean (Vicia faba L.) cultivars,” PhD Thesis, Mosul University, Mosul, Iraq, 2005.
 
[2]  Barrs H.D, “Determination of water deficits in plant tissue. In: KOZLOWSKI, T.T. (Ed) Water deficits and plant growth,” New York, Academic Press, 1968. v.1, p.235-368.
 
[3]  Bicer B., Narin K.A, Akar D.A, “The effect of irrigation on spring-sown chickpea. ”J. Agron. Asian Network Sci. Inform. 3: 154-158, 2004.
 
[4]  Boutraa T, “Effects of water stress on root growth, water use efficiency, leaf area and chlorophyll content in the desert shrubCalotropis procera,” J. Int. Environ. Appl. Sci., 5: 124-132, 2010.
 
[5]  Bruckner P. L. and Frohberg R. C, “Stress tolerance and adaptation in spring wheat,” Crop Sci., 27: 31-36, 1987.
 
Show More References
[6]  FAO, “Food and Agricultural Organization Statistical Database,” 2013. www.faostat.org.
 
[7]  Gan Y., Wang J., Angadi S.V., & Mcdonald C. L., “Response of chickpea to short periods of high temperature and water stress at different developmental stages,” 4th International Crop Science Congress, Brisbane, 2004.
 
[8]  Gunes A., Pilbeam D., Inal A., Coban S, “Influence of silicon on sunflower cultivars under drought stress, I: Growth, antioxidant mechanisms and lipid peroxidation,” Commun. Soil Science & Plant Nutrition, 39: 1885-1903, 2008.
 
[9]  Inoue T., Inanaga S., Sugimoto Y., An P. and Eneji A. E, “Effect of Drought on Ear and Flag Leaf Photosynthesis of Two Wheat Cultivars Differing in Drought Resistance,” Photosynthetica, 42(4): 559-565, 2004.
 
[10]  Kassie M., Shiferaw B., Asfaw S., Abate T., Muricho G., Ferede S., Eshete M., and Assefa K, “Current Situation and Future Outlooks of the Chickpea Sub-Sector in Ethiopia,” EIAR (Ethiopian Institute of Agricultural Research) and ICRISAT (International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid), India, 2009.
 
[11]  Labidi N., Mahmoudi H., Dorsaf M., Slama I., and Abdelly C, “Assessment of intervarietal differences in drought tolerance in chickpea using both nodule and plant traits as indicators,” Journal of Plant Breeding and Crop Science 1: 80-86, 2009.
 
[12]  Morgan J.M, “Osmoregulation and water stress in higher plants,” Ann. Rev. Plant Physiol . 35, 299-319, 1984.
 
[13]  Naim A.H., and Ahmed. F.E, “Interactive Effect of Temperature and Water Stress Induced by Polyethylene Glycol (PEG) on Germination and Recovery of Two Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) Cultivars,” Open Access Library Journal. 2, 2015.
 
[14]  Nam N.H., Chauhan Y.S. and Johansen C, “Effect of timing of drought stress on growth and grain yield of extra-short-duration pigeonpea lines,” J. Agric. Sci., 136: 179–189, 2001.
 
[15]  Nelson R.M, “Water relations of forest fuels. In ‘Forest fires: Behavior and Ecological Effects”. Eds EA Johnson, K Miyanishi, pp. 79-149, 2001.
 
[16]  Osakabe Y., Yamaguchi-Shinozaki K., Shinozaki K., Phan Tran L. S, “Sensing the environment: key roles of membrane-localized kinases in plant perception and response to abiotic stress,” J. Exp. Bot. 64 445-458, 2013b.
 
[17]  Parameshwarappa S.G. and Salimath P.M, “Field screening of chickpea genotypes for drought resistance,” Karnataka Journal of Agriculture Science 21: 113-114, 2008.
 
[18]  Rashid A., Saleem Q., Nazir A. and Kazim H.S, “Yield potential and stability of nine wheat varieties under water stress conditions,” International Journal of Agricultural Biology 5:7-9, 2003.
 
[19]  Reddy A.R., Chaitanya K.V., Vivekanandan M, “Drought-induced responses of photosynthesis and antioxidant metabolism in higher plants,” J. Plant Physiol., 161: 1189-1202, 2004.
 
[20]  Romteke S.D., Chetti M.B., Salimath M, “Seasonal variation in yield and yield components in gram (cicer arietinum L.),” Indian J. Agric. Sci. 68: 251-254, 1998.
 
[21]  Saxena N.P., Krishnamurthy L. and Johansen C, “Registration to a drought resistant chickpea germplasm (En.),” Crop Sci., 33(6): 14-24, 1993.
 
[22]  Shao H.B., Chu L.Y., Jaleel C.A., Manivannan P., Panneerselvam R., Shao M.A, “Understanding water deficit stress-induced changes in the basic metabolism of higher plants-biotechnologically and sustainably improving agriculture and the ecoenvironment in arid regions of the globe,” Crit. Rev. Biotechnol., 29: 131-151, 2009.
 
[23]  Siddique B.M.R., Hamid A. and Islam M. S, “Drought stress effect on water relation of wheat,” Bot. Bull. Acad. 41: 35-39, 2000.
 
[24]  Silim S.N. and Saxena M.C., “Adaptation of spring sown chickpea to Mediterranean basin. II. Factors influencing drought,” Field Crop Res., 34(2): 137-146, 1993.
 
[25]  Singh N., Luthra R., Sangwan R.S, “Mobilization of starch and essential oil biogenesis during leaf ontogeny of lemongrass (Cvmbupogon fiexuosus),” Plant Cell Physiology 32: 803-811, 1991.
 
[26]  Stolf-Moreira R., Lemos E., Carareto-Alves L., Marcondes J., Pereira S., Rolla A., Pereira R., Neumaier N., Binneck E., Abdelnoor R., et al., “Transcriptional profiles of roots of different soybean genotypes subjected to drought stress,” Plant Mol Biol Rep., 29: 19-34, 2011.
 
[27]  Stoyanov Z.Z, “Effect of water stress on leaf water relations of young bean,” J. Cent. Eur. Agric., 6: 5-14, 2005.
 
[28]  Summer-field R.T. and Roberts E.H, “Grain legume crops, Mackys of Chatham, ” Kent, London, 1986.
 
[29]  Terzi R, Kadioglu A, “Drought stress tolerance and the antioxidant enzyme system in Ctenanthe setose,” Acta Biol Cracov Botan 48: 89-96, 2006.
 
[30]  Toker C., Cagirgan M, “Assessment of response to drought stress of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) lines under rain field conditions,” Turkish J Agr Forestry 22:615-621, 1998.
 
[31]  Yadav V.K., Yadav N. and Singh R.D, “Metabolic changes and their impact on yield in chickpea under water stress,” Pl. Physiol. Biochem., 23: 49-52, 1996.
 
Show Less References

Article

Comparison of Phytochemicals Antioxidant Activity and Essential Oil Content of Pimenta dioica (L.) Merr. (Myrtaceae) with Four Selected Spice Crop Species

1Department of Plantation Management, Faculty of Agriculture and Plantation Management, Wayamba University of Sri Lanka, Makandura, Gonawila (NWP), Sri Lanka.

2Industrial Technology Institute, Bauddhaloka Mawatha, Colombo 07, Sri Lanka


World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2016, 4(6), 158-161
doi: 10.12691/wjar-4-6-1
Copyright © 2016 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
E.J.S. De Soysa, D.C. Abeysinghe, R.M. Dharmadasa. Comparison of Phytochemicals Antioxidant Activity and Essential Oil Content of Pimenta dioica (L.) Merr. (Myrtaceae) with Four Selected Spice Crop Species. World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2016; 4(6):158-161. doi: 10.12691/wjar-4-6-1.

Correspondence to: R.M.  Dharmadasa, Industrial Technology Institute, Bauddhaloka Mawatha, Colombo 07, Sri Lanka. Email: dharmadasarm@gmail.com

Abstract

Pimenta dioica (L.) Merr. (Myrtaceae) (Eng.Allspice) is an industrially and therapeutically important, evergreen aromatic spice plant widely used in food, perfumery and cosmetic industries around the globe. Allspice, which tastes like a blend of Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume, Elettaria cardamomum (L.) Maton, Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr. &L.M.Perry and Myristica fragrans Houtt. is a common flavoring compound in Asian, Middle Eastern and Jamaican cuisines. However, comparative essential oil content, total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and total phenolic content (TPC) of these similar taste spices is scattered. Therefore, the present study compares the qualitative phytochemical contents, essential oil contents, total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and total phenolic content (TPC) of C. zeylanicum, E. cardamomum, S. aromaticum and Myristica fragrans Houtt. with leaf extracts of Pimenta dioica using previously published protocols. Results revealed that all tested phytochemicals namely alkaloids, flavanoids, saponins, steroid glycosides and tannins are present in all selected spice species compared. The highest essential oil content was reported from clove buds followed by nutmeg mace, nutmeg seed, cardamom, allspice and cinnamon respectively. Leaf extracts of P. dioica exhibited significantly higher total antioxidant capacity (344.9 ± 4.2 mg TE/g DW) and total phenolic content (134.3 ± 7.6 mg GAE/g DW) compared to selected spices except clove. Presence of all tested phytochemicals, comparable amounts of essential oils, greater amount of total antioxidant capacity and total phenolic content undoubtedly demonstrate high potential of Pimenta dioica (allspice) as a spice crop for large scale cultivation in Sri Lanka.

Keywords

References

[1]  Jirovetz, L., Buchbauer, G., Stoilova, I., Krastanov, A., Stoyanova, A. and Schmidt, E. (2007). International project for a systematical investigation of the antioxidant properties of various aroma compounds, essential oils and plant extract. Nutrition, 31.
 
[2]  Marzouka, S.A.M., Moharramb, A.F., Mohamed, A.M., Gamal-Eldeend, M.A. and Aboutabl, A.E. (2007). Anticancer and Antioxidant Tannins from Pimenta dioica Leaves. Z. Naturforsch, 62, 526-536.
 
[3]  Zhang, L. andLokeshwar, B.L. (2012). Medicinal Properties of the Jamaican Pepper PlantPimenta dioicaand Allspice Curr Drug Targets. 13(14): 1900-1906.
 
[4]  Nakatani, N. (1994). Antioxidative and Antimicrobial Constituents of Herbs and Spices. in Spices, Herbs and Edible Fungi. ElsevierScience, 251-271.
 
[5]  Fransworth, N.R. (1966). Biological and phytochemical screening of plants. Journal of Pharmaceutical Science, 55, 225-276.
 
Show More References
[6]  Abeysinghe, D.C., Li, X., Sun, C., Zhang, W., Zhou, C. and Chen, K. (2007). Bioactive compounds and antioxidant capacities in different edible tissues of citrus fruits of four species. Food chemistry, 104, 1338-1344.
 
[7]  Benzie, I.F.F. and Strain, J.J. (1996). The ferric reducing ability of plasma as a measure of antioxidant power: The FRAP assay. Journal of analytical Biochemistry, 293, 70-76.
 
[8]  Anon, (2005). Herbs, spices and essential oils Post-harvest operations in developing countries. UNIDO Vienna, Austria.
 
[9]  Faria, L. R., Machado, R. D., Pimenta, P. H., Oliveira, L. de A. R., Peixoto, J. de C., de Paula, J. R., Ferri, P. H., & Marciano de Paula, J. A. (2014). Structural organization and phytochemical analysis of Pimenta dioica (L.) Merrill (Myrtaceae) leaves collected from Goiás State, Brazil. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research, 8(38), 1134-1147.
 
[10]  Dharmadasa R.M., Abeysinghe D.C., Dissanayake, D.M.N., Abeywardhane, K.W. and Fernando, N.S. (2015). Leaf Essential Oil Composition, Antioxidant Activity, Total Phenolic Content and Total Flavonoid Content of Pimenta dioica (L.) Merr (Myrtaceae): A Superior Quality Spice Grown in Sri Lanka. Universal Journal of Agricultural Research, 3(2), 49-52.
 
[11]  Politeo, O., Juki, M. and Milo, M. (2006). Original Scientific Chemical Composition and Antioxidant Activity of Essential Oils of Twelve Spice Plants. CROATICA CHEMICA ACTA, 79 (4), 545-552.
 
[12]  Nikam, P.H., Kareparamban, J., Jadhav, A. and Kadam, V. (2012) Future Trends in Standardization of Herbal Drugs. Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science, 2, 38-44.
 
[13]  Abeysiri, G.R.P.I., Dharmadasa, R.M., Abeysinghe, D.C. and Samarasinghe, K. (2013). Screening of phytochemical, physico-chemical and bioactivity of different parts of Acmella oleraceae Murr. (Asteraceae), a natural remedy for toothache. Industrial Crops and Products, 50, 852-856.
 
[14]  Dharmadasa, R.M., Siriwardana, A., Samarasinghe, K. and Adhihetty, P. (2013a). Standardization of Gyrinops walla Gaertn. (Thymalaeaceae): Newly discovered Fragrant Industrial Potential Endemic Plant from Sri Lanka. World journal of Agricultural research, 1, 101-103.
 
[15]  Dharmadasa R.M., Samarasinghe, K., Adhihetty, P. and Hettiarachchi, P.L. (2013b). Comparative Pharmacognostic Evaluation of Munronia pinnata (Wall.) Theob. (Meliaceae) and Its Substitute Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f.) Wall. Ex Nees (Acanthaceae). World Journal of Agricultural Research, 1, 77-81.
 
[16]  Shyamala, M.P., Venukumar, M.R. and Latha, M.S. (2003). Antioxidant potential of the Syzygium aromaticum (Gaertn.) Linn. (Cloves) in rats fed with high fat diet. Indian Journal of Pharmacology, 35, 99-103.
 
Show Less References