World Journal of Agricultural Research

ISSN (Print): 2333-0643

ISSN (Online): 2333-0678

Website: http://www.sciepub.com/journal/WJAR

Article

Soil Organic Carbon Sequestration in Rice-Wheat System under Conservation and Conventional Agriculture in Western Chitwan, Nepal

1Agro Enterprise Centre, Federation of Nepalese Chambers of Commerce and Industries, Dadeldhura, Nepal

2Department of Agronomy, Agriculture and Forestry University, Rampur, Chitwan, Nepal

3CIMMYT, South Asia Regional Office, Kathmandu, Nepal

4Institute of Agriculture and Animal Science, Tribhuvan University, Kathmandu, Nepal


World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2014, 2(6A), 1-5
DOI: 10.12691/wjar-2-6A-1
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Madhab Paudel, Shrawan Kumar Sah, Andrew McDonald, Narendra Kumar Chaudhary. Soil Organic Carbon Sequestration in Rice-Wheat System under Conservation and Conventional Agriculture in Western Chitwan, Nepal. World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2014; 2(6A):1-5. doi: 10.12691/wjar-2-6A-1.

Correspondence to: Madhab  Paudel, Agro Enterprise Centre, Federation of Nepalese Chambers of Commerce and Industries, Dadeldhura, Nepal. Email: paudel.madhab@gmail.com

Abstract

Soil organic carbon plays the crucial role in maintaining soil quality. The impact and rate of SOC sequestration in CA and conventional agriculture is still in investigation in this environment. A field experiment was initiated in 2011/12 and continued up to 2012/13 to compare the organic carbon buildup in the soil due to conservation and conventional agriculture. The soil organic carbon data represents the cumulative after five crop cycle. The treatments consisted conventionally tilled direct seeded rice followed by zero tilled wheat, conventionally tilled transplanted rice followed by conventionally tilled wheat, zero tilled direct seeded rice followed by zero tilled direct seeded wheat without residue retention, zero tilled direct seeded rice followed by direct seeded wheat with residue retention, permanent raised bed of rice followed by wheat without residue retention and permanent raised bed of rice followed by wheat with residue retention in randomized complete block design with three replications. About 4 t ha-1 of standing rice and wheat crop and about 70% residue of moongbean was retained for succeeding crop in retained treatments. Soil samples from each treatments were collected from two soil depths (0-20 and 20-40cm) and analyzed. Result showed that, soil organic carbon buildup was affected significantly by tillage and residue level in upper depth of 0-20 cm but not in lower depth of 20-40 cm. Higher SOC content of 19.44 g kg-1 of soil was found in zero tilled residue retained plots followed by 18.53 g kg-1 in permanently raised bed with residue retained plots. Whereas, the lowest level of SOC content of 15.86 g kg-1 of soil were found in puddled transplanted rice followed by wheat planted under conventionally tilled plots. Zero tilled residue retained plots sequestrated 0.91 g kg-1 yr-1 SOC in the year 2012/13 which was 22.63% higher over the conventionally tilled residue removed plots after five seasons of experimentation. Therefore, CA in rice-wheat system can help directly in building–up of soil organic carbon and improve the fertility status of soil.

Keywords

References

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Article

Productivity and Economic Assessment of Maize and Soybean Intercropping under Various Tillage and Residue Levels in Chitwan, Nepal

1Institute of Agriculture and Animal Science, Rampur, Chitwan, Nepal

2Nepal Agricultural Research Council, National Maize Research Program, Rampur, Chitwan, Nepal


World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2014, 2(6A), 6-12
DOI: 10.12691/wjar-2-6A-2
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
N. Khatri, K.R. Dahal, L.P. Amgain, T.B. Karki. Productivity and Economic Assessment of Maize and Soybean Intercropping under Various Tillage and Residue Levels in Chitwan, Nepal. World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2014; 2(6A):6-12. doi: 10.12691/wjar-2-6A-2.

Correspondence to: N.  Khatri, Institute of Agriculture and Animal Science, Rampur, Chitwan, Nepal. Email: narayan.iaas068@gmail.com

Abstract

A field experiment was conducted at National Maize Research Program (NMRP) in Rampur, Chitwan, Nepal during May-Nov 2013. The experiment was laid out in strip- split design with twelve treatments and three replications. Treatments consisted of two different tillage methods namely conventional tillage (CT) and zero tillage (ZT) as vertical factor, two different levels of residue (residue kept and residue removed) as horizontal factor and three different levels of cropping systems namely sole maize, sole soybean and maize + soybean intercropping system as sub plot factor. Manakamana-3 and Puja were the variety of maize and soybean used for the experiment respectively. The results revealed that the grain yield and yield attributing components of maize and soybean was significantly influenced by cropping systems but not by tillage methods and residue levels. The grain yield of maize obtained under sole cropping (4.76 t ha-1) was significantly higher than maize + soybean intercropping system (4.27 t ha-1). Similarly, the grain yield of sole soybean was significantly higher (1.99 t ha-1) than that of maize + soybean intercropping system (1.26 t ha-1). Moreover, the total grain yield equivalent of 6.45 t ha-1 obtained from sole soybean system was significantly higher and was followed by maize and soybean intercropping system with 4.99 t ha-1. Whereas, sole maize produced significantly the lowest maize grain yield equivalent of 3.47 t ha-1. Significantly, higher LER (1.38) was recorded with maize and soybean intercropping system over sole system (1.0). Tillage and residue levels did not affect the gross and net return and B: C ratio but the effect was found obvious due to intercropping system. Significantly higher net return (NRs.140.49 thousands ha-1) was recorded in intercropping of maize with soybean as compared to sole soybean (NRs. 89.85 thousands ha-1) which was at par with sole maize system (NRs. 80.91 thousands ha-1). Maize and soybean intercropping system produced significantly the higher (2.47) B: C ratio than sole soybean (2.28) and was at par with sole maize (2.18).

Keywords

References

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Article

Maize Production under No-Tillage System in Nepal

1Nepal Agricultural Research Council, National Maize Research Program, Rampur, Chitwan, Nepal


World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2014, 2(6A), 13-17
DOI: 10.12691/wjar-2-6A-3
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Tika Bahadur Karki, Jiban Shrestha. Maize Production under No-Tillage System in Nepal. World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2014; 2(6A):13-17. doi: 10.12691/wjar-2-6A-3.

Correspondence to: Tika  Bahadur Karki, Nepal Agricultural Research Council, National Maize Research Program, Rampur, Chitwan, Nepal. Email: tbkarki2003@gmail.com

Abstract

Maize (Zea mays L.) is the second most important staple food crop after rice in Nepal. In Nepal, maize is grown under intensive tillage ssystem of 2-3 ploughings for land preparation and atleast two intercultural operations for weeding and earthling-up operation. Alternative to conventional tillage system, no-till system is a specialized type of conservation tillage consisting of a one-pass planting and fertilizer operation in which the soil and the surface residues are minimally disturbed. No-tillage maize production conserves soil and water and reduces capital investment in machinery for land preparations and intercultural operations, but most important to many producers, no-tillage can improve maize yields. However, very limited works have been done so far in Nepal. Therefore, an attempt has been made in this article to highlight the importance of no till in maize in the hills of Nepal and some of the practical tips to adopt the no- till maize production system in Nepal.

Keywords

References

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Article

Conservation Agriculture as an Alternative for Soil Erosion Control and Crop Production in Steep-slopes Regions Cultivated by Small-scale Farmers in Motozintla, Mexico

1International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT), Apdo. Postal 6-641, 06600 Mexico, D.F., Mexico

2Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Celestijnenlaan 200 E, 3001 Leuven, Belgium

3ETHZurich, Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Eschikon 33, 8315 Lindau (ZH), Switzerland


World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2014, 2(6A), 18-24
DOI: 10.12691/wjar-2-6A-4
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
R. ROMERO-PEREZGROVAS, S. CHEESMAN. Conservation Agriculture as an Alternative for Soil Erosion Control and Crop Production in Steep-slopes Regions Cultivated by Small-scale Farmers in Motozintla, Mexico. World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2014; 2(6A):18-24. doi: 10.12691/wjar-2-6A-4.

Correspondence to: R.  ROMERO-PEREZGROVAS, International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT), Apdo. Postal 6-641, 06600 Mexico, D.F., Mexico. Email: rromeropg@gmail.com

Abstract

Agricultural activities in steep-slope regions of the world have been increasing in recent years. When annual crops are produced in these regions, high soil erosion rates become a constant threat. An extended body of literature proposes reforestation or plantations with perennial crops as potential solutions. However, such approaches fail to meet the needs of the small-scale farmers who rely on annual crops to produce the lion’s share of their food. Another commonly used measure to tackle erosion is the construction of physical barriers – a solution that demands substantial investment, for both implementation and maintenance. Analternative solution is conservation agriculture (CA), which is a cropping system based on three principles: 1) minimal soil disturbance; 2) crop rotations and/or intercropping, and 3) permanent soil cover through crop residue management. Using longitudinal statistical analysis this research – based on survey data (154 observations) collected in 1994 and 2008 within two ejidos of Motozintla in the state of Chiapas, Mexico – found that under CA, maize (Zea mays) and bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) yields remained at minimum consistent, and in some cases increased over time. Maize yields reached 3.3 ton ha-1, whilst bean reached 262 kg ha-1. Maize yields were also consistently higher than the long-term state's average (1987-2012) of 2.3 ton ha-1. Moreover, 90% of the farmers perceived that CA improved soil fertility and 99% observed that CA effectively controlled erosion. The traditional system in these two ejidos presented a number of enabling characteristics for facilitating CA implementation: no mechanisation was being utilized, intercropping was already a common practice, and the main competitor for crop residue use (ruminants) could eventually be substituted for other livestock such as pigs. This research provides evidence to demonstrate that long-term adoption of CA in a steep-slope region can help to control soil erosion whilst allowing farmers to produce their staple crops.

Keywords

References

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[23]  SEMARNAT. (2012), Los Suelos de Mexico. SEMARNAT
 
[24]  Stevenson, J. R., Serraj, R., & Cassman, K. G. (2014). Evaluating conservation agriculture for small-scale farmers in Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, 187, 1-10.
 
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Article

Conservation Agriculture Based Practices Affect the Weed Dynamics in Spring Maize

1Tribhuwan University, Institute of Agriculture and Animal Science, Rampur, Chitwan, Nepal

2Nepal Agricultural Research Council, National Maize Research Program, Rampur, Chitwan, Nepal


World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2014, 2(6A), 25-33
DOI: 10.12691/wjar-2-6A-5
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Saugat Dahal, Tika Bahadur Karki. Conservation Agriculture Based Practices Affect the Weed Dynamics in Spring Maize. World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2014; 2(6A):25-33. doi: 10.12691/wjar-2-6A-5.

Correspondence to: Saugat  Dahal, Tribhuwan University, Institute of Agriculture and Animal Science, Rampur, Chitwan, Nepal. Email: saugatdhl11@gmail.com

Abstract

In order to find out the alternative methods for the weed management in spring maize (Zea mays L.) in Terai Nepal, a study was carried out in conservation agriculture under maize-rice cropping system in Rampur, Nepal during 2013. The weeds number and dry weight were compared in tillage methods viz. conventional and no tillage; residue management viz. residue kept and removed; fertilizer doses viz. research recommended doses and farmer dose; and weed management viz. herbicide use and manual weeding. No tillage, residue kept and atrazine applied @ 1.5 kg a.i ha-1 as pre-emergence had significantly lower number and lower dry weight of grasses and broadleaf weeds as compared to conventional tillage, residue removed and manual weeding at an interval of one month. While the number and dry weight of sedges was not significantly influenced by tillage, residue and fertilizer management. Manual weeding had significantly less number and weight of sedges over atrazine use. The total number and dry weight of weeds were less in no tillage, residue retention and atrazine use over the conventional tillage, residue removed and manual weeding. It is concluded that no tillage, residue retention and atrazine use can be the alternative technologies for weed management.

Keywords

References

[1]  Patel, V.J, Upadhyay, P.N, Patel, J.B. and Meisuriya, M.I, “Effect of herbicide mixture on weeds in kharif maize (Zea mays L.) under middle Gujrat conditions”. Indian journal of Weed science. 38 (1 and 2): 54-57. 2006.
 
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Article

Screening of Two Ocimum tenuiflorum L. (Lamiaceae) Morphotypes for their Morphological Characters, Essential Oil Composition and Fruit Fly Attractant Ability

1Industrial Technology Institute, 363, Bauddhaloka Mawatha, Colombo 7, Sri Lanka

2Faculty of Agriculture, University of Ruhuna, Kamburupitiya, Sri Lanka

3CIC Holdings, Colombo -2, Sri Lanka


World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2015, 3(1), 1-4
DOI: 10.12691/wjar-3-1-1
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
R.M. Dharmadasa, D.A.S. Siriwardhane, K. Samarasinghe, S.H.C.S. Rangana, L. Nugaliyadda, Indika Gunawardane, A.M.L. Aththanayake. Screening of Two Ocimum tenuiflorum L. (Lamiaceae) Morphotypes for their Morphological Characters, Essential Oil Composition and Fruit Fly Attractant Ability. World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2015; 3(1):1-4. doi: 10.12691/wjar-3-1-1.

Correspondence to: R.M.  Dharmadasa, Industrial Technology Institute, 363, Bauddhaloka Mawatha, Colombo 7, Sri Lanka. Email: dharmadasarm@gmail.com

Abstract

Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae) is the destructive pest of over 300 cultivated and wild fruits all over the world. Present study describes the morphology, essential oil content and composition and bioassay on fruit fly attractant ability of essential oil of two Ocimum tenuiflorum morphotypes (MT1 purple and MT2 purple-green) grown in Sri Lanka. Four months old, O. tenuiflorum aerial parts were hydro-distilled for 4 h. GC-MS analysis of essential oils and bio-assay for B. dorsalis attractant ability was performed using previously established methodologies. The yield of the essential oils of O. tenuiflorum MT1 and MT2 were 1.51±0.02% and 1.45±0.01% (v/w), respectively. Eighteen compounds were identified, which encountered over 97% of the oil constituents. The main constituents found in the oil of MT1 were methyl eugenol (72.50±1.03%) followed by β-caryophyllene (17.53±2.0%), germacrene D (1.55±0.10%), β-elemene (2.46±0.17%), while methyl eugenol (64.23±2.43%), β-caryophyllene (13.29±2.18%), β-elemene (6.94±1.41%), germacrene D (2.47±0.96%), were from extracted from MT2. Bioassays conducted on essential oils of MT1, MT2 and purified Methyl Eugenol demonstrated that the B. dorsalis attractant ability of essential oil MT1 (106±8.1), MT2 104±2 and commercial Methyl Eugenol (111±8.5) was not significantly different during the first week of the experiment. Results of our study open an avenue for use of essential oil of Ocimum tenuiflorum as potential natural para pheromone source for fruit fly control and monitoring in fruit industry in Sri Lanka.

Keywords

References

[1]  Hui, Y., Jianhong, L., Population dynamics of oriental fruit fly Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Xishuangbanna, Yunnan Province, China. Frontiers of Agriculture in China. 1, 76-80. 2007.
 
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Article

Screening of Kenyan Bread Wheat Varieties for Resistance to the Emerging Strains of Stem rust Fungi (Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici) Race Ug99

1Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology P.O Box 62000-00200 Nairobi, Kenya,

2Kenya Agricultural and Livestock Research Organisation, Food Crops Research Centre-Njoro P.O Box PRIVATE BAG-2107 Njoro, Kenya


World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2015, 3(1), 5-10
DOI: 10.12691/wjar-3-1-2
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Kimani N. C, Onguso J., Njau P.. Screening of Kenyan Bread Wheat Varieties for Resistance to the Emerging Strains of Stem rust Fungi (Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici) Race Ug99. World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2015; 3(1):5-10. doi: 10.12691/wjar-3-1-2.

Correspondence to: Kimani  N. C, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology P.O Box 62000-00200 Nairobi, Kenya,. Email: nkimanicyrus@gmail.com

Abstract

Stem rust disease of wheat caused by Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici is of major concern because of its devastating effects on wheat. It can cause yield loss of up to 100% in susceptible varieties. East Africa has been designated as a “hot spot” of the stem rust pathogen as evidenced by the emergence of a new race of stem rust designated as TTKSK or better known as Ug99 and several of its variants. This pathogen therefore poses a threat to wheat production and hence to food security in Kenya. The frequent use of fungicides to control the disease also poses a potential adverse effect on the environment. The objective of this study was to screen a core collection of Kenyan bread wheat varieties to determine those with natural resistance to stem rust disease hence reduce the risk posed to food security and the environment. Twenty Kenyan commercial bread wheat varieties were screened for stem rust resistance under artificial disease epidemic simulation in the International Stem Rust Screening Field at Kenya Agricultural and Livestock Research Organisation, Food Crops Research Centre-Njoro, Kenya. The disease notes were taken using the Modified Cobb’s Scale and the Area Under Disease Progress Curve (AUDPC) values computed. Thirteen random samples of stem rust fungi were collected from the trial plot and analyzed using Ug99 race group-specific Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) markers. The varieties fell in three disease categories of resistant, intermediate and susceptible, with the most susceptible being Pasa and Kenya Swara being the most resistant. The mean AUDPC computed showed that there was variation in the AUDPC values among the varieties with the variety K.Swara having the lowest AUDPC value of 78.33 and variety Pasa having the highest value of 478.67. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) showed that both AUDPC and disease scores had significant variation (P<0.0001) among the varieties. From the analysis of stem rust fungi samples two genotypes of stem rust race TTKSK (AF-001ad and AF-001aa) were detected indicating mutations within the same race variant. In conclusion there are Ug99 resistant Kenyan bread wheat varieties which hold a promise for food security. There is also evidence of further mutation within the TTKSK race variant and hence a possible increased virulence on the wheat genotypes.

Keywords

References

[1]  Dyck P.L. and Kerber E.R., “Resistance of the race-specific type.” In: A.P. Roelfs & W.R. Bushnell (Eds). ‘The Cereal Rusts, Vol II’ pp 469-500. Academic Press, London. 1985.
 
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[6]  Kenya Institute for Public Policy Research and Analysis (KIPPRA), “Kenya Economic Report 2013, Creating an Enabling Environment for Stimulating Investment for Competitiveand Sustainable Counties” Nairobi, Kenya p 74. 2013.
 
[7]  Kota, R., Spielmeyer, W., McIntosh, R. A., and Lagudah, E. S., “Fine genetic mapping fails to dissociate durable stem rust resistance gene Sr2 from pseudo-black chaff in common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)”. Theor. Appl. Genet. 112:492-499. 2005.
 
[8]  Mahbubjon Rahmatov. “Introductory Paper at the Faculty of Landscape Planning, Horticulture and Agricultural Science Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences 2013: 3 Alnarp, December, 2013.
 
[9]  Njau P.N., R. Wanyera, G. K. Macharia, J. Macharia, R. Singh and B. Keller, “Resistance in Kenyan bread wheat to recent eastern African isolate of stem rust, Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici, Ug99” Journal of Plant Breeding and Crop Science, 1 (2): pp. 022-027. 2009.
 
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[12]  Pretorius Z.A, Szabo L. J., Boshoff W. H. P., Herselman L., Visser B., “First report of a new TTKSF race of wheat stem rust (Puccinia graminis f. sp. Tritici) in South Africa and Zimbabwe.” Plant Diseases; 96: 590. 2012.
 
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[14]  Singh Ravi P, Hodson David P, Huerta-Espino Julio, Jin Yuen, Bhavani Sridhar; Njau Peter; Herrera-Foessel Sybil, Singh Pawan K, Singh Sukhwinder, Velu Govindan, “The Emmergence of Ug99 Races of the Stem Rust Fungus is a Threat to World Wheat Production.”, Annu. Rev. Phytopathol 49: 465-481. 2011.
 
[15]  Singh R.P, D.P. Hodson, J. Huerta-Espino, Y. Jin, P. Njau, R. Wanyera, S.A. Herrera-Foessel, S. Bhavani, D. Singh and P.K. Singh (2008). “Global Status of Ug99 Spread and Efforts to Mitigate the Threat”, In: Preceding of International Conference on Wheat Stem Rust Ug99-A Threat to Food Security; (Eds.), GP Singh, K V Prabhu and Anju M Singh, Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi, India pp 85.
 
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Article

Isolation, Screening and Characterization of Effective Microbes with Potential for Biological Control of Fusarium wilt of Rock Melon

1Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of Agriculture, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia

2Department of Crop Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia


World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2015, 3(1), 11-16
DOI: 10.12691/wjar-3-1-3
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Salha Elmahdi, Jugah Kadir, Mahmud Tengku Muda Mohamed, Ganesan Vadamalai, Shamima Akter. Isolation, Screening and Characterization of Effective Microbes with Potential for Biological Control of Fusarium wilt of Rock Melon. World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2015; 3(1):11-16. doi: 10.12691/wjar-3-1-3.

Correspondence to: Jugah  Kadir, Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of Agriculture, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia. Email: kaju@upm.edu.my

Abstract

Effective microbes are a group of microorganisms that can be found in the rhizosphere, in association with plant roots which can suppress soil-borne plant pathogens directly or indirectly. A large number of bacteria including species of Alcaligenes, Arthrobacter, Bacillus, Pseudomonas, Rhizobium and Serratia have been reported to suppress the soil borne plant pathogens. In this study, Fusarium wilt symptomless Rock melon rhizospheric soil samples were collected from three locations (Malaysia). A total of seventy two effective bacteria were isolated by the dilution method. These isolates were firstly dually cultured in vitro on PDA medium with F. oxysporum f.s. melonis, the causal agent of Fusarium wilt of Rock melon. Isolates with inhibitory characteristics against the test fungus were selected for further screening by means of extracellular metabolite test. Seven isolates which showed >60% inhibition of the fungal growth was further identified on the basis of colony morphology, biochemical tests and Biolog® System. These isolates were identified as Pseudomonas sp., Bacillus sp., Serratia sp., only one isolate could not be identified. MKB04 and MKB10 gave the best suppression of Fom mycelial growth. Further molecular identification of these two isolates identified them as Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, and Alcaligenes faecalis respectively. Effective microbes are environmental friendly and in vitro antagonistic activities they manifested against F. oxysporium f. s. melonis in this study suggest that they can be used as an effective biological control agent.

Keywords

References

[1]  Wehner, T.C. and Maynar, D.N. Cucurbitaceae (Vine crops). 2003. Available at: http://cuke.hort.ncsu.edu/cucurbit/wehner/articles/book14.pdf. [ Accessed 2011].
 
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Article

Estimating Aboveground Biomass of Oil Palm Trees by Using the Destructive Method

1Department of Geoinformation, University Technology Malaysia, Skudai Johor, Malaysia

2Department of Forestry, University of Hasanuddin, Makassar, Indonesia


World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2015, 3(1), 17-19
DOI: 10.12691/wjar-3-1-4
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Putri Ida Sunaryathy, Suhasman, Kasturi Devi Kanniah, Kian Pang Tan. Estimating Aboveground Biomass of Oil Palm Trees by Using the Destructive Method. World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2015; 3(1):17-19. doi: 10.12691/wjar-3-1-4.

Correspondence to: Putri  Ida Sunaryathy, Department of Geoinformation, University Technology Malaysia, Skudai Johor, Malaysia. Email: putri_idaw@yahoo.com

Abstract

Palm oil is one of the important commodities in Indonesia. Estimating the aboveground biomass of oil palms is one of the most important oil palm carbon studies. The objective of this study was to estimate the aboveground biomass of oil palm trees at plot scale for three age classes namely, class 1 (1 to 3 years), class 2 (4 to 10 years) and class 3 (11 to 20 years) in South Sulawesi, Indonesia using destructive method. The AGB for each age class: class 1, class 2, and class 3 they are 5.84 kg tree-1, 173.17 kg tree-1, 823.50 kg tree-1 respectively.

Keywords

References

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Article

Determination of Sprout Control Treatment Using Seven Key Yam (Dioscorea spp.) Varieties of Farmers in Ghana

1Council for Scientific and Industrial Research-Food Research Institute, P. O. Box M20, Accra, Ghana


World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2015, 3(1), 20-23
DOI: 10.12691/wjar-3-1-5
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
C. Tortoe, S. Dowuona, N. T. Dziedzoave. Determination of Sprout Control Treatment Using Seven Key Yam (Dioscorea spp.) Varieties of Farmers in Ghana. World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2015; 3(1):20-23. doi: 10.12691/wjar-3-1-5.

Correspondence to: C.  Tortoe, Council for Scientific and Industrial Research-Food Research Institute, P. O. Box M20, Accra, Ghana. Email: ctortoe@yahoo.co.uk

Abstract

Yams (Dioscorea spp.) are an important economic crop in Ghana. The formation of buds and subsequent sprouting of yam tubers influences postharvest losses. Efforts to prolong dormancy and inhibit bud and sprouting are therefore laudable. Seven key yam varieties of farmers identified as Pona, Lariboko, Dente, Mutwumudoo, Serwah, Matches and Akaba in Ghana were subjected to plant extracts from cocoa pod (Theobroma cacao) potash, neem (Azachirata indica) seeds, neem (Azachirata indica) leaves, sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas) leaves to inhibit bud and sprout formation. The potash extracts suppressed bud formation in Mutwumudoo, Akaba and Matches compared to Lariboko and Serwah yam varieties. In a descending order of Lariboko, Matches, Mutwumudoo, Serwah, Pona, Dente and Akaba, neem seed extracts was able to suppress bud formation and subsequent sprouting. In neem leaves treatment, suppression of bud formation was highest in Lariboko, Dente, Mutwumudoo, Akaba, Matches, Serwah and Pona in a descending order. Sweetpotato leaves suppression of bud formation was highest in Serwah, Akaba, Mutwumudoo, Dente, Matches, Lariboko and Pona as the least. The control treatment showed higher number of buds formed in all the yam varieties in a descending order of Akaba, Serwah Mutwumudoo, Lariboko, Dente, Pona and Matches as compared to all the other treatments. The four plant extracts effect on bud formation and subsequent sprouting on the seven varieties of yam was comparable (p = 0.05). The control, sweetpotato and neem leaves plant extract performed poorly as compared to the potash and neem seed extracts. Interestingly, potash was the best bet plant extract in reducing bud formation and sprouting (0.26) while sweetpotato leaves was the least (0.42) and corresponding yam varieties was Mutwumudoo followed by Matches and Akaba.

Keywords

References

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