World Journal of Agricultural Research

ISSN (Print): 2333-0643

ISSN (Online): 2333-0678

Website: http://www.sciepub.com/journal/WJAR

Article

Determination of Sprout Control Treatment Using Seven Key Yam (Dioscorea spp.) Varieties of Farmers in Ghana

1Council for Scientific and Industrial Research-Food Research Institute, P. O. Box M20, Accra, Ghana


World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2015, 3(1), 20-23
DOI: 10.12691/wjar-3-1-5
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
C. Tortoe, S. Dowuona, N. T. Dziedzoave. Determination of Sprout Control Treatment Using Seven Key Yam (Dioscorea spp.) Varieties of Farmers in Ghana. World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2015; 3(1):20-23. doi: 10.12691/wjar-3-1-5.

Correspondence to: C.  Tortoe, Council for Scientific and Industrial Research-Food Research Institute, P. O. Box M20, Accra, Ghana. Email: ctortoe@yahoo.co.uk

Abstract

Yams (Dioscorea spp.) are an important economic crop in Ghana. The formation of buds and subsequent sprouting of yam tubers influences postharvest losses. Efforts to prolong dormancy and inhibit bud and sprouting are therefore laudable. Seven key yam varieties of farmers identified as Pona, Lariboko, Dente, Mutwumudoo, Serwah, Matches and Akaba in Ghana were subjected to plant extracts from cocoa pod (Theobroma cacao) potash, neem (Azachirata indica) seeds, neem (Azachirata indica) leaves, sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas) leaves to inhibit bud and sprout formation. The potash extracts suppressed bud formation in Mutwumudoo, Akaba and Matches compared to Lariboko and Serwah yam varieties. In a descending order of Lariboko, Matches, Mutwumudoo, Serwah, Pona, Dente and Akaba, neem seed extracts was able to suppress bud formation and subsequent sprouting. In neem leaves treatment, suppression of bud formation was highest in Lariboko, Dente, Mutwumudoo, Akaba, Matches, Serwah and Pona in a descending order. Sweetpotato leaves suppression of bud formation was highest in Serwah, Akaba, Mutwumudoo, Dente, Matches, Lariboko and Pona as the least. The control treatment showed higher number of buds formed in all the yam varieties in a descending order of Akaba, Serwah Mutwumudoo, Lariboko, Dente, Pona and Matches as compared to all the other treatments. The four plant extracts effect on bud formation and subsequent sprouting on the seven varieties of yam was comparable (p = 0.05). The control, sweetpotato and neem leaves plant extract performed poorly as compared to the potash and neem seed extracts. Interestingly, potash was the best bet plant extract in reducing bud formation and sprouting (0.26) while sweetpotato leaves was the least (0.42) and corresponding yam varieties was Mutwumudoo followed by Matches and Akaba.

Keywords

References

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Article

Sarcoptic Mange Infestation in West Africa Dwarf Goat Herd in Ibadan, South West Nigeria

1Department of Veterinary Microbiology and Parasitology, University of Ibadan, Ibadan

2Department of Veterinary Parasitology and Entomology, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Agriculture, Makurdi


World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2015, 3(1), 24-27
DOI: 10.12691/wjar-3-1-6
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Falohun Olufarati Oludunsin, Sadiq Nurudeen Ayinde, Onyiche Emmanuel ThankGod, Obebe Oluwasola Olaiya, Oke Philip Oladele. Sarcoptic Mange Infestation in West Africa Dwarf Goat Herd in Ibadan, South West Nigeria. World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2015; 3(1):24-27. doi: 10.12691/wjar-3-1-6.

Correspondence to: Falohun  Olufarati Oludunsin, Department of Veterinary Microbiology and Parasitology, University of Ibadan, Ibadan. Email: farry4real2k@yahoo.com

Abstract

An adult, Female West Africa Dwarf goat, the only surviving from a local goat herd comprising 31 goats, all reported to be dead was presented to the Small ruminant ward of Veterinary Teaching Hospital, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, South West Nigeria. Clinical examination revealed generalized wrinkling and thickening of the skin with heavy crust formation on the abdomen, forehead, ear, the limbs, inter-digital spaces, mammary gland and inner thigh. Skin biopsy, skin scrapings, whole blood and serum samples were collected respectively for histopathology, ectoparasite identification, hematology and biochemistry. Histomorphometric studies were also conducted for tunnel measurement. Parasite sections, tunnels, orthokeratosis, exocytosis, folliculitis, scarring, hyperkeratosis, sero-cellular exudate, pustule and acanthosis were observed with histological studies while several Sarcoptes scabie var caprae which have oval to round, dorsally convex tortoise-like body that is covered with spines and triangular scales with only the first two pairs of legs protruding beyond the body margin in both sexes were identified. There was severe anemia with very low PCV and erythrocyte count, leucocytosis, eosinophilia, hypoproteinemia, hypoalbuminemia and hypoglobulinaemia. Reduction in epidermal tunnel diameter ranges from 200 µm to 170 µm while tunnel height ranges from 220 µm to 180 µm. The goat died 15 days after presentation due to the fact that the goat was in the severe, advanced chronic stage of the disease which often terminate in mortality. It is very paramount to note that early diagnosis and treatment of Sarcoptic mange in goat should be made by a Veterinarian as a therapeutic efficacy of a combination of amitraz and ivermectin will provide an excellent result of complete recovery from generalized infestation of mange mite.

Keywords

References

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Article

Comparative Pharmacognostic Study of Different Parts of Withania somnifera and its Substitute Ruellia tuberosa

1Herbal Technology Section, Industrial Technology Institute, 363, Bauddhaloka Mawatha, Colombo 7, Sri Lanka


World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2015, 3(1), 28-33
DOI: 10.12691/wjar-3-1-7
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Luxmini. K.P.A.M.K, Dharmadasa. R.M, Samarasinghe, K. Muthukumarana. P.R.M. Comparative Pharmacognostic Study of Different Parts of Withania somnifera and its Substitute Ruellia tuberosa. World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2015; 3(1):28-33. doi: 10.12691/wjar-3-1-7.

Correspondence to: Dharmadasa.  R.M, Herbal Technology Section, Industrial Technology Institute, 363, Bauddhaloka Mawatha, Colombo 7, Sri Lanka. Email: dharmadasarm@gmail.com

Abstract

Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal. (Solanaceae) is a therapeutically important medicinal plant widely used in Ayurveda and traditional systems of medicine in all over the world. Since this valuable plant is not commercially cultivated in Sri Lanka, traditional practitioners use Ruellia tuberosa L. (Acanthaceae) as a substitute for Withania somnifera. However, use of R. tuberosa as a substitute without scientifically proven data on important quality standards might adversely affect on the therapeutic properties of herbal drugs. Present study investigates the important pharmacognostic aspects of W. somnifera and R. tuberosa. Comparative quality parameters on morphological, anatomical, powder microscopical, phytochemical, physicochemical and brine shrimp toxicity of different parts of (leaf, bark and roots) W. somnifera and R. tuberosa by using established protocols. Results demonstrated that all major phytochemical groups tested were present in leaves, bark and roots of both plants. Physicochemical analysis exhibited the higher total ash, water soluble ash and acid insoluble ash in all parts of R. tuberosa. However, TLC profiles exhibited the higher number of spots in all 3 parts for W. somnifera over R. tuberosa. Potent of brine shrimp toxicity was increased as leaf>bark>roots for R. tuberosa and bark>root>leaf for Withania somnifera. Therefore, W. somnifer acould be differentiated from R. tuberosaby comparing polymorphic macroscopic, microscopic, phytochemical, physicochemical characters either singularly or as a whole. The presence of certain similarities in major phytochemical groups, and in brine shrimp toxicity of W. somnifera and R. tuberosa partially justifies the use of R. tuberosa as a substitute for W. somnifera in traditional systems of medicine in Sri Lanka which needs to be confirmed after further clinical trials.

Keywords

References

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Article

Disease Management Practice on Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) in Ethiopia

1Samara University, School of Natural and Computational Sciences, Department of Applied Biology, Samara, Ethiopia


World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2015, 3(1), 34-42
DOI: 10.12691/wjar-3-1-8
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Ephrem Guchi. Disease Management Practice on Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) in Ethiopia. World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2015; 3(1):34-42. doi: 10.12691/wjar-3-1-8.

Correspondence to: Ephrem  Guchi, Samara University, School of Natural and Computational Sciences, Department of Applied Biology, Samara, Ethiopia. Email: ephremg21@gmail.com

Abstract

Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is the fourth major crop of the world after rice, wheat and maize. In Ethiopia, the yield per unit area of potato is very low compared to those of other countries. There are many factors that reduce the yield of the crop among which the diseases like late blight (Phytophthora infestans) and bacterial wilt (Ralstonia (Pseudomonas) solanacearum) which play an important role. Management of these diseases is therefore very essential. In Ethiopia, however, much research has not been done for the management of bacterial wilt disease except identification of bacteria and screening of biological control agents and use of resistant varieties. Late blight of potato can be managed using the following management (control) strategies: use of biological control agents, use of resistant varieties, intercropping, use of certified disease-free seed, use of selective fungicides and cultural practices such as destruction of cull piles by freezing or deep burying, destruction of volunteer potato plants in nearby fields throughout the season, destruction (desiccate, disc or flail and desiccate) of infected plants to avoid spread, reduction of periods of leaf wetness and high humidity within the crop canopy by appropriately timing irrigation, application of a recommended fungicide spray program (the program should start prior to the arrival of the pathogen) and desiccation of vines prior to harvest.

Keywords

References

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Article

Palm Oil Production as a Poverty Alleviation Strategy among Small-scale Farmers in Ekiti State, Nigeria

1Department of Crop, Soil and Environmental Sciences Ekiti State University, Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria

2Department of Agricultural Economics and Extension Services


World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2015, 3(2), 43-48
DOI: 10.12691/wjar-3-2-1
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Adebo. G.M., Ayodele. O.J., Olowokere. K.. Palm Oil Production as a Poverty Alleviation Strategy among Small-scale Farmers in Ekiti State, Nigeria. World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2015; 3(2):43-48. doi: 10.12691/wjar-3-2-1.

Correspondence to: Adebo.  G.M., Department of Crop, Soil and Environmental Sciences Ekiti State University, Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria. Email: grace.adebo@eksu.edu.ng

Abstract

Palm oil is one of the commodities produced in rural Nigeria whose consumption daily in the human diet and use as an industrial raw material have increased its potentials for income generation and poverty alleviation. This study examined the contribution of palm oil production to income generation among 120 small-scale farmers selected from the farming communities in Ekiti State, Nigeria. Responses to a structured interview schedule were analyzed using frequency counts and percentages while profitability was determined with data provided on costs and revenue. Palm oil producers were mainly middle-aged married females with low literacy level and operated on small-scale farms (< 2 ha) grown mainly to Dura variety of oil palm. Most farmers used modern processing methods (motorized hydraulic pressers and combined hydraulic pressers and nut crackers) and incurred ₦3,000 transportation cost and ₦5,000-10,000 labour cost per processing session. The Gross Margin averaged ₦69,600 between 2008 and 2012 while processing cost was ₦0.57 for every ₦1.00 return. The major challenges are labour shortage and yield variation due to climate change while high costs of labour and processing equipment affected profitability. Farmers should form cooperatives to: pool resources and acquire modern equipment so as to increase scale of operations, reduce extraction cost and enhance revenue; access credit; benefit from training on the use of modern processing machines and education on adaptation to climate change.

Keywords

References

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Article

Prevalence of Gastrointestinal Parasites of Goats in Ibadan, Southwest, Nigeria

1Federal College of Animal Health and Production Technology, Institute of Agricultural Research and Training, Ibadan

2Department of Microbiology and Parasitology, University of Ibadan


World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2015, 3(2), 49-51
DOI: 10.12691/wjar-3-2-2
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Adejinmi Olufunmilayo Olanike, Adejinmi Johnson Olayide, Falohun Olufarati Oludunsin, Aderoju Opeyemi Racheal, Dauda Wale Japhet. Prevalence of Gastrointestinal Parasites of Goats in Ibadan, Southwest, Nigeria. World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2015; 3(2):49-51. doi: 10.12691/wjar-3-2-2.

Correspondence to: Falohun  Olufarati Oludunsin, Department of Microbiology and Parasitology, University of Ibadan. Email: farry4real2k@yahoo.com

Abstract

A prevalence study on the gastro intestinal parasites of goats was carried out for six months from May to October, 2014 in Ibadan, South Western, Nigeria. Four hundred (400) goats’ faecal samples comprising of 103 West African Dwarf and 297 Red sokoto breeds were collected from goats in households, market places and abattoir. They were examined for intestinal helminth eggs and protozoan oocysts using direct microscopic examination and sodium chloride floatation technique. Out of the 400 faecal samples examined, 303(75.75%) were positive for gastrointestinal parasites. The Red sokoto breed had a higher prevalence of 217(54.25%) while West African dwarf breed had the lower prevalence of 86(21.5%). Male goat had a prevalence of 163(40.85%) while female had a prevalence of 140(35%). The gastro intestinal parasites observed were Strongyloides papiillosus, Monieza spp, Coccidia spp and Strongyle spp. Strongyle spp had the highest prevalence while Monieza spp had the lowest prevalence. Of the total 217(54.3%) Red sokoto breeds positive for helminths, 120(30%) had mixed parasitic gastro-intestinal infection while 74(18.5%) of the total 86 (21.5%) WAD goats positive for helminth also had mixed infection. We suggest good management practices, prompt diagnosis and treatment with anthelmintic and antiprotozoa drugs and education of animal owners on bio-security as panacea to reduce the risk of infection and increase productivity of the animals.

Keywords

References

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Article

Climate Change Impacts on Net Revenues of Sorghum and Millet in North Kordofan Environment

1Department of Agricultural Economics and Rural Development, Faculty of Natural Resource and Environmental Studies, University of Kordofan, Elobeid, Sudan

2Department of Crops Science, Faculty of Natural Resource and Environmental Studies, University of Kordofan, Elobeid, Sudan


World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2015, 3(2), 52-56
DOI: 10.12691/wjar-3-2-3
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Mahmoud A. Amassaib, Ahmed M. El Naim, Mariam N. Adam. Climate Change Impacts on Net Revenues of Sorghum and Millet in North Kordofan Environment. World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2015; 3(2):52-56. doi: 10.12691/wjar-3-2-3.

Correspondence to: Ahmed  M. El Naim, Department of Crops Science, Faculty of Natural Resource and Environmental Studies, University of Kordofan, Elobeid, Sudan. Email: naim17amn@yahoo.com

Abstract

Climate change (global warming) is often influence temperature and rainfall, which will directly have effects on the productivity and hence the net revenues of crops. This study was carried out to assess the impacts of climate changes (rainfall and temperature) on the net revenue for sorghum and millet crops in North Kordofan state environment, Sudan, during the period 1990-2012 using the Ricardian model. The results revealed that the elasticities to change in maximum temperature, minimum temperature and standardized rainfall for sorghum net revenue are: -1349.37, -598.098, -60.8788 respectively and for millet net revenue are: 2602.7, 258.1875 and 207.0783 respectively. The net revenues for both crops decreasing at increasing rate when there are increasing in maximum temperature. In case of minimum temperature, millet net revenue increase at increasing rate where sorghum net revenue increase at decreasing rate.

Keywords

References

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Article

Expression Analysis of the ADH Genes in Arabidopsis Plants Exposed to PEG-induced Water Stress

1Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia


World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2015, 3(2), 57-65
DOI: 10.12691/wjar-3-2-4
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Thawda Myint, Sigit Ismawanto, Parameswari Namasivayam, Suhaimi Napis, Mohd Puad Abdulla. Expression Analysis of the ADH Genes in Arabidopsis Plants Exposed to PEG-induced Water Stress. World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2015; 3(2):57-65. doi: 10.12691/wjar-3-2-4.

Correspondence to: Thawda  Myint, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia. Email: thawda93@gmail.com

Abstract

In plants, ethanolic fermentation occurs during limited oxygen condition and under certain environmental stresses. Many of the observations reported on the ADH1 gene during environmental stress conditions were obtained from studies that used single isoforms of the gene ADH1 even though many isoforms of the genes are known to be operational in plants based the complete genome sequence of more than 20 different plant species. Here, the Arabidopsis plants were exposed to polyethylene glycol-induced drought stress and the whole set of ADH (EC.1.1.1.1) genes as well as the enzyme activity of ADH in response to PEG-induced water stress condition was presented and discussed. At enzyme levels, both the root and leaf NADH-ADH activities were increased 5.9 and 4.4 folds when treated with 5% (w/v) PEG-20,000. At gene level, the majority of the ADH1 gene AT1G77120 and two of the ADH-like genes (AT1G64710 and AT5G24760) were up-regulated in the leaf and root. The result suggests that ADH1 together with other two more ADH-likes genes were responsive in the leaf and root operating along side during the PEG-induced water stress and these evidences support the conclusion that the capacity of ethanolic fermentation was enhanced in response to drought.

Keywords

References

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Article

Evaluating Grain Protectant Efficacy of Some Botanicals against Maize Weevil, Sitophilus zeamais M

1Research and Development Director and Lecturer, Agriculture Faculty, Woldia University, Woldia, Ethiopia


World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2015, 3(2), 66-69
DOI: 10.12691/wjar-3-2-5
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Gebeyaw Tilahun Yeshaneh. Evaluating Grain Protectant Efficacy of Some Botanicals against Maize Weevil, Sitophilus zeamais M. World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2015; 3(2):66-69. doi: 10.12691/wjar-3-2-5.

Correspondence to: Gebeyaw  Tilahun Yeshaneh, Research and Development Director and Lecturer, Agriculture Faculty, Woldia University, Woldia, Ethiopia. Email: gebeyaw2006@yahoo.com

Abstract

The production of sorghum is threatened by a wide range of pre-and post harvest pests like stalk borer, sorghum chafer, and Sitophilus spp. Three botanical plants (Tagitus minuta, Datura stramonium and Carissa schimperi) with five concentrations were tested for efficacy to control maize weevil (Sitophilus zeamais Mostch) on stored sorghum seeds under laboratory conditions. The objective was to study the efficacy of some locally available botanicals to control Sitophilus zeamais Mostch and to determine the length of period the grain could be protected by the different treatments. For comparison, two more treatments-standard check Malathion 5% dust plus control (untreated check) were included; and the experiment was replicated three times. The experiment was conducted under room temperature at 25-28C and relative humidity at 70±5% in Kombolcha Plant Health Clinic Laboratory. Powders of each plant component were then mixed thoroughly with 500 gram grains in plastic jars roofed with muslin cloth and tightened with rubber band. Thirty adult weevils were released in each plastic jars. Number of dead weevils was recorded every 21, 42 and 84 days after the treatments were applied. The data was transformed to arcsine scale prior to analysis. Corrected observations were subjected to statistical analysis, factorial ANOVA. All botanicals significantly affected weevil mortality compared to untreated check, but not as effective as synthetic insecticides (Malathion 5% dust). Carissa schimperi (merez) 5% was significantly more effective than the rest botanical rates and the control (P <0.05). In general the result shows that treatment Carissa schimperi (merez) 5% and Tagitus minuta (gimi) 5% can solve poor resources farmers’ problems by integrating them with other cultural measures. However further research are needed to fix the rate graph and the long term effect in large stores of farmers conditions.

Keywords

References

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Article

Assessment of Soil Phosphorus and Phosphorus Fixing Capacity of Three Vegetable Farms at Cabintan, Ormoc City, Leyte

1Institute of Tropical Ecology, College of Forestry and Environmental Science, Visayas State University, Baybay City Leyte, 6521-A Philippines

2Department of Pure and Applied Chemistry, College of Arts and Sciences, Visayas State University, Baybay City Leyte, 6521-A Philippines


World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2015, 3(2), 70-73
DOI: 10.12691/wjar-3-2-6
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Mary Chris P. Nierves, Felix M. Salas. Assessment of Soil Phosphorus and Phosphorus Fixing Capacity of Three Vegetable Farms at Cabintan, Ormoc City, Leyte. World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2015; 3(2):70-73. doi: 10.12691/wjar-3-2-6.

Correspondence to: Felix  M. Salas, Department of Pure and Applied Chemistry, College of Arts and Sciences, Visayas State University, Baybay City Leyte, 6521-A Philippines. Email: fmsalas_dopac@yahoo.com

Abstract

Three vegetable farms in Cabintan, Ormoc City – a primary source of vegetables in Leyte Province, Philippines were carefully and randomly selected for the principal concern of this study. It aimed to determine and investigate the Available Soil Phosphorus and Soil Phosphorus Fixing Capacity in vegetable farms located in a mountainous area which soil mainly developed from volcanic tuff, basaltic and andesite materials. Five hundred grams (500g) of aggregate soil sample were collected from each farm. Result revealed that soil samples had low pH values ranged from 5.24 to 5.79 and high organic matter (OM) content which ranged from 10.852% to 22.502%. The available soil phosphorus is low but the Phosphorus fixing capacity of the soil is very high (92.46%-99.15%).

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References

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