World Journal of Agricultural Research

ISSN (Print): 2333-0643

ISSN (Online): 2333-0678

Editor-in-Chief: Apply for this position




Farming Community Perceptions about Climate Change in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Pakistan

1Department of Rural Development, Amir Muhammad Khan Campus, Mardan, The University of Agriculture, Peshawar, Pakistan

2Department of Agriculture and Applied Economics, The University of Agriculture, Peshawar, Pakistan

3Department of Economics, University of Malakand, Chakdara, Dir Lower

4Department of Environmental Sciences, COMSATS Abbottabad

World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2016, 4(3), 70-76
doi: 10.12691/wjar-4-3-2
Copyright © 2016 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Muhammad Israr, Muhammad Faraz, Dawood Jan, Nafees Ahmad, Shakeel Ahmad. Farming Community Perceptions about Climate Change in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Pakistan. World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2016; 4(3):70-76. doi: 10.12691/wjar-4-3-2.

Correspondence to: Muhammad  Israr, Department of Rural Development, Amir Muhammad Khan Campus, Mardan, The University of Agriculture, Peshawar, Pakistan. Email:


This study was conducted in Swabi district of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa with the objectives to study the knowledge of small scale farmers about climate change and its impact on livelihood and to pinpoint about the climate changes and temperature during last five years in Swabi district. For this 08 Union Councils (UCs) were selected from 56 UCs of the district randomly, from which 200 respondents were drawn through sample random sampling methods. Primary data were collected at the field survey through interviews structure schedule and were analyzed by using descriptive statistics and Chi-square test. Findings revealed most of the respondents were owner cum tenant and having un-irrigated land. Maize, wheat and tobacco were the main growing crops of the area. Majority of the respondents did not grow any fruit trees due to lack of water and heavy frost. The finds also pointed that changes observed in increased or decreased in temperature and monsoon rain during last 5 years which having drastic affect on the production of crops in the area. Farmer’s adoptive and mitigative practices also change by bringing changes in the agronomic practices. The study as a whole concludes that climate change affecting the environment and agriculture sector. It was recommended that there is a need of awareness campaigns, farmer’s education, farmers training and skill development, developing high yielding heat, cold/drought tolerant and short duration verities of crop and the adoption of agro forestry for reducing the climate change in agriculture sector.



[1]  Ahmad, M., Siftain, H., and Iqbal, M. (2014). Impact of climate change on wheat productivity in Pakistan. A district level analysis: Pakistan institute of development economics.
[2]  Baig, J.A., Kazi, T. G., Shah, A. Q., Afridi, H. I., Khan, S., Kolachi, N. F., Kandhro, G. A. Wadhwa S. K., and Shah, F. (2011). Impact of climate change on wheat productivity in mixe cropping system of Punjab. Soil Science Society of Pakistan, 30(2), 110-114.
[3]  Benz, A. (2008). Vom Stadt-Umland-Verband zu ‘Regional Governance’ in Stadtregionen. Deutsche Zeitschrift für Kommunalwissenschaften, 40(2), 5571.
[4]  Cruz, M. J.B., K.L. Ricke and G. Wagner. (2015). The Economics of climate engineering. Opinion article, Geo-engineering our climate working paper and opinion article series. Available at:
[5]  Dessai, S. and Hulme, M. (2004). Does climate adaptation policy need probabilities. Climate policy: 4. 2-22.
Show More References
[6]  Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). (2009). Evaluation of the FAO response to the Pakistan earthquake. 1-90.
[7]  Fraiture, D., Smakhtin, C., V., Bossio, D., McCornick, P., Hoanh, C. T., Noble, A., Molden, D., Gichuki, F., Giordano, M., Finlayson, M., & Turral, H. (2007). Facing climate change by securing water for food, livelihoods and ecosystems. J. of semi-arid tropical agricultural research, 4(1), 12.
[8]  Huffman, M.A, Gotoh, S., Turner, L.A., Hamai, M., and Yoshida, K. (1997). Seasonal trends in intestinal nematode infection and medicinal plant use among chimpanzees in the Mahale Mountains, Tanzania. Primates 38:111-125.
[9]  Mansoor, S., I. Amin, S. Iram, M. Hussain, Y. Zafar, K.A. Malik and R.W. Briddon. (2007). The breakdown of resistance in cotton to cotton leaf curl disease in Pakistan. New Disease Report, 7: 9-18.
[10]  Malla, G., (2008). Climate change and its impact on Nepalese agriculture. The J. of Agri. and Env. Vol.9., pp. 62-71.
[11]  Mithofer, D., and Waibel, H. (2003). Income and labor productivity of collection and use of indigenous fruit tree products in Zimbabwe. Agro forestry systems. 59(3), 295-305.
[12]  Martin, K. (2012). Linking climate change with food security in high land of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa north-west Pakistan. Master thesis. Wurzburg University Germany. Retrieved from:, dated: 02/01/2016.
[13]  Morton, J.F. (2007). Climate change and food security special feature: the impact of climate change on smallholder and subsistence agriculture. Proceedings of the national academy of sciences, 104 (59), 19680-19685.
[14]  NASA, National Aeronautics and Space Administration. (2015). What's the Difference between weather and climate? Retrieved from:, dated: 02/01/2016.
[15]  OXFAM. (2009). Climate change, poverty and adaptation in Nepal. Published by Oxfam International, Nepal. Retrieved from
[16]  Rajeevan, M. Bhate, J. and A. K. Jaswal. (2008). Analysis of variability and trends of extreme rainfall events over India using 104 years of gridded daily rainfall data.
[17]  Scherr, S. J. (1995). Economic factors in farmer adoption of agro forestry: Patterns observed in Western Kenya.
[18]  Serreze, M.C. and Barry, R.G. (2011). Processes and impacts of Arctic amplification: A research synthesis. Global and planetary change. 77 (2011) 85-96.
[19]  Schewe, J. and Levermann, A. (2012). A statistically predictive model for future monsoon failure in India. Environ. Res. Lett. 7 (2012) 044023 (9pp).
[20]  UNDP. (2014). Human development report. Work for human development Briefing note for countries on the 2015 Human Development Report. Pp.1-7. World Bank (WB) (2011). World development report. Conflict security and development. 1-12.
[21]  Uprety, D.C. (1998). Rising atmospheric CO2 and crop productivity. Japan J. Crop Sci 67:394-395.
Show Less References


Evaluation of Herbicides on the Content and Yield of Raw Protein in Wheat (Triticum Aestivum L.)

1Dobrudzha Agricultural Institute – General Toshevo

World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2016, 4(3), 77-84
doi: 10.12691/wjar-4-3-3
Copyright © 2016 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Margarita Nankova, Zornitsa Petrova, Genoveva Bankova - Atanassova, Emil Penchev, Georgi Sabev. Evaluation of Herbicides on the Content and Yield of Raw Protein in Wheat (Triticum Aestivum L.). World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2016; 4(3):77-84. doi: 10.12691/wjar-4-3-3.

Correspondence to: Margarita  Nankova, Dobrudzha Agricultural Institute – General Toshevo. Email:


The investigation was carried out at Dobrudzha Agricultural Institute – General Toshevo during 2012 – 2014 in four-field crop rotation (wheat-maize-wheat-sunflower). Cultivars Aglika and Enola were sown at two dates – optimal (1st – 15th October) and late (after 20th November). The following set of herbicides was tested: Derby super VG – 3,3 g/da; Palace 75WG + oil – 25+100 g/ml/da; Granstar 75DF – 1,5 g/da; Lintur 70VG – 15 g/da; Husar Max ОD – 100 ml/da; Secator ОD – 10 ml/da and Mustang 306,25СК – 80 ml/da. The herbicides were applied at three dates: 1st date А – stage 29 according to Zadoks (Tillering stage); 2nd date B – stage 32 according to Zadoks (Stem elongation) and 3rd date С – stage 37 according to Zadoks (Emergence of flag leave). The experiment included two control variants К1 – weed-free control (manually weeded from the emergence of the first weeds till heading of wheat), and К2 (nil) – a control variant infested till harvesting of the crop. A high level of significance of the tested herbicides on the values of raw protein in grain and protein yield from the investigated cultivars was determined under the conditions of the experiment. The years of investigation had highest effect on the values of the tested characteristics. Best results were obtained in 2012. The two cultivars formed grain with the highest raw protein content in 2014. Regardless the sowing data the grain of cultivar Enola reached the maximum content of raw protein at the tillering stage of herbicides application, on the contrary of cultivar Aglika. The grain of cultivar Enola contained raw protein 9.33% more then cultivar Aglika average for the trail. The auxin type herbicide Lintur 70 VG cased the increasing the raw protein content in maximum degree in comparison the other herbicides. The exceeding to the weed-free control was 16.67% average for the years. At the late date of herbicide application, the amount of protein decreased in both cultivars. Averaged for the investigated period, the size of protein yield of cultivar Enola was with 18.7 % higher than the yield of cultivar Aglika. Cultivar Aglika has well expressed tolerance to the stages of herbicide application in comparison with cultivar Enola. Aglika’s raw protein yield was higher at the stem elongation stage (32 Zadoks) of herbicides applicaton. Cultivar Enola differ from cultivar Aglika with the greatest raw protein yield at the tillering stage (29 Zadoks) of herbicides application. In all three years of the investigation, highest yield of raw protein was obtained from the manually weed-free control (К1) and lowest – from the infested control (К2). Averaged for the tested variants of the trial, only after the application of the herbicides Derby super VG and Secator OD the raw protein yield remained at the level of the weed-free control (К1). There was a strong positive correlation of grain yield with raw protein yield. Averaged for the period of investigation, the sowing date of cultivar Aglika did not show significant effect on the values of the correlation coefficients. In cultivar Enola, the late sowing date lead to high increase of the correlation. This tendency was best expressed in harvest year 2014 (r=,875**). The regression models obtained for the investigated years once again confirmed the high proportional correlation of grain yield with protein.



[1]  Pierre D., 1869. Recherches experimentale sur le development dub le. Mem. Soc. Linneene du Normandie, 15 : 220.
[2]  Smika D. E., B. W. Greb, 1973. Protein Content of Winter Wheat Grain as Related to Soi land Climatic Factors in the Cemiarid Central Great Plains, Agronomy Journal, vol. 65, 433-436.
[3]  Hance R. J., 1981. Effects of pesticides on plant nutrition, Residue Reviwes, 78, 13-41
[4]  Martin D. A., S. D. Miller, H. P. Alley, 1990. Spring wheat response to herbicides applied at three growth stages. Agron. J., 82, 7-95.
[5]  Pederson R. N., I. D. Black, C. B. Dyson, R. J. Hannam, 1994. Effects of the herbicides metsulfuron-methyl on root length, nutrient levels, grain protein and yield of barley. Aust. J. Exp. Agric., 34, 499-504.
Show More References
[6]  Kumar S., 2012. Effect of herbicides on carbohydrate, protein and electrophoretic protein bands content in Triticum aestivum L. International Journal of Food, Agriculture and Veterinary Science ISSN: 2277-209X (Online), Vol.2(1), pp 13-25.
[7]  Kalinova S., 2002. Control of weeds in cereal crops sown on a whole area – problem number 1. Plant breeding, Vol. 1,12 - 13 (Bg).
[8]  Heard, M., C. Hawes, C. Chanpion, 2003. Weeds in fields with contrasting conventional and genetically modified herbicide tolerant crops. Philosophical transactions of the royal society of London Series Biological science, 358 (1439) 1833-1846.
[9]  Lyubenov, Y. 1996 а., Differentiated “reading” of weed control in cereals. Plant breeding, No 2, 25-27 (Bg).
[10]  Lyubenov, Y. 1996 b. Differentiated “reading” of weed control in cereals. Plant breeding, No 1, 13-16 (Bg)
[11]  Stoynev, S. 2004. Ecological and technological aspects of contemporary agriculture, Sofia. (Bg)
[12]  Nankov, N., M. Tityanov, G. Sabev, M. Nankova, 2005. Agronomic and economic evaluation of the threshold of harmfulness of some weeds in wheat. In: Research communications of Agrarian University - Plovdiv, Vol. L, No 4, 355-358 (Bg).
[13]  Delchev G., I. Petrova, 2012. Effect of some herbicide mixtures between stimulators and grass herbicides on durum wheat grain yield and quality. Field crop studies 2012, Vol. VIII – 1, 129-134 (Bg).
[14]  Delchev, G., М. Deneva, 2001. Effect of some herbicides on the quality indices of grain from durum wheat. Plant breeding sciences, 38 (3-4): 139-142 (Bg)
[15]  Delchev, G., 2009. EFFECT OF SOME HERBICIDE MIXTURES ON DURUM WHEAT GRAIN YIELD AND QUALITY. International Science Conference, 4th – 5th June 2009, Stara Zagora, BULGARIA "Economics and Society Development on the Base of Knowledge" Volume I 345 Agricultural science. Plant studies, 345-349 (Bg).
[16]  Kolev T., N. Tahsin, L. Koleva, K. Ivanov, H. Dzhugalov, M. Mangova, G. Delchev, 2011. Cultivar impact on the chemical content and grain technological qualities of some durum wheat cultivars. Journal of Central European Agriculture, 2011, 12(3), p.467-476.
[17]  Liu, S., A. Hsiao, W. Quick, 1994. Interaction between imazamethabenz and fenoxapropethylin wild oat control and crop tolerance. Crop Protection, 13 (7) 525-530.
[18]  Mungova М., S. Kalinova, А. Hristoskov, 2013. Effect of some herbicides and fertilizers for foliar treatment on grain quality of common winter wheat. Plant breeding sciences. vol. L, 1, 63-65 (Bg)
[19]  Zadoks J. C., T. T. Chang, C. F. Konzak, 1974. A decimal code for the growth stage of cereals. Weed Res., 14, 415-421.
[20]  Peltzer S. C., D. G. Bowran, 1996. What are the effects of herbicides and weedson wheat protein levels. Eleventh Australian Weeds Conference Proceedings, 141-143.
[21]  Singh, Santosh Kr and Verma, Alok Kumar, 2015. EVALUATION OF ISOPROTURON ON PROTEIN & CHLOROPHYLL CONTENT IN LATE SHOWN WHEAT (TRITICUM ASTIVUM) CIBTech Journal of Biotechnology ISSN: 2319-3859 (Online) An Open Access, Online International Journal Available at 2015 Vol. 4 (2) April-June, pp.43-48/Singh and Verma
Show Less References


Evaluation of Quality and Safety Parameters of Poultry Meat Products Sold In Hyderabad Market, Pakistan

1Institute of Food and Technology, Faculty of Crop Production, Sindh Agriculture University Tandojam, Pakistan

2Department of Bioinformatics and Biotechnology, International Islamic University, H-10, Islamabad, Pakistan

World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2016, 4(3), 85-93
doi: 10.12691/wjar-4-3-4
Copyright © 2016 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Pasdar Hussain, Aijaz Hussain Somoro, Adil Hussain, Muhammad Waqar Arshad. Evaluation of Quality and Safety Parameters of Poultry Meat Products Sold In Hyderabad Market, Pakistan. World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2016; 4(3):85-93. doi: 10.12691/wjar-4-3-4.

Correspondence to: Adil  Hussain, Department of Bioinformatics and Biotechnology, International Islamic University, H-10, Islamabad, Pakistan. Email:


30 Samples of five poultry meat products including chicken nuggets (S1), chicken fillets (S2), chicken burgers (S3), chicken meatballs (S4) and chicken kababs (S5) were collected from various retailers from Hyderabad market to evaluate quality and safety parameters. All the samples were investigated for pH, water holding capacity (WHC), moisture, ash, fat, protein content, total volatile base (TVB), total viable count (TVC) and coliform count (CC). Results revealed that chicken nuggets, fillets, burgers, meatballs and kababs varied significantly (P≤0.05) for pH, WHC, moisture, ash, fat, protein contents, TVB and CC, and non-significantly (P>0.05) for TVC. Highest pH (6.05) was recorded for meatballs, while lowest pH value (4.90) was recorded for chicken fillets. Among the investigated chicken products meatballs showed highest WHC (48.18%), while lowest was recorded in chicken kababs (27.72%). Moisture content was highest (70%) in meatballs, and lowest in chicken nuggets (62.45%). Maximum ash content (3.13%) was recorded in kababs, and lowest (1.27%) was confirmed in fillets. Fat content was maximum (10.78%) in meatballs, while minimum was recorded in kababs (4.97%). Highest protein level (20.25%) was found in kababs, while meatballs displayed lowest protein level (12.53%). Highest TVB (69.50 mg/100 g) was noted for fillets, while lowest in kababs (17.14 mg/100 g). In the microbiological examination of chicken products Total viable count (TVC) was highest in (7433.33 cfu/g) fillets, while lowest was noted in meatballs (6.43x103cfu/g). The Coliform count (CC) was highest (6.3x103cfu/g) in meatballs, while lowest values were verified in burgers (3.05x103 cfu/g). Total volatile base (TVB) and Total viable count (TVC) was greater in chicken fillets as compared to other products. This clearly indicates unhygienic circumstances at certain stages during manufacturing, processing, handling and storage of chicken meat products.



[1]  Assis, K., Komilus, C. F., Bonaventure, B., and Mohd Shahrol Ridzal, O. Consumption Patterns of Chicken, Beef and Mutton: A Study among Consumers in Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia. Global Journal of Advanced Research. Vol-2, Issue-1 PP. 279-286. 2015.
[2]  Smith, D.M. Functional properties of muscle proteins in processes poultry products. In: Sams, A.R. (Ed.), Poul. Meat Processing. CRC Press, 2001. p. 186.
[3]  Mielnik, M.B., Aaby, K., Rolfsen, K., Ellekjær, R.M., and Nilsson, A. Quality of comminute sausages formulated from mechanically deboned poultry meat. Meat Sci., 61: 73-84. 2002.
[4]  Ismed, I., Huda, N., Noryati, I. Physicochemical and sensory properties of commercial chicken nuggets. Asian J. Food Agro-Indus., 2 (2): 171-180. 2009.
[5]  GOP. 2012. Economic Survey of Pakistan, 2011-2012. Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Livestock, Government of Pakistan, Finance Division (Livestock Wing), Islamabad.
Show More References
[6]  Altabari, G., AL-Dughaym, A.M. The role of sanitary inspection of meat in relation of food poisoning. The second Annual Scientific Meeting for environment hygiene (meat hygiene), Riyadh. 2000. 180- 203.
[7]  Asghar, A, Gray, J.L., Buckley, A.M., Pearson, A.M., Booren, A.M. Perspectives on warmed-over flavor. Food Technol., 42:102-108. 1988.
[8]  Fautsman, C., Cassens, R.G., Schaefer, D.M., Buege, D.R., Williams, S.N., Scheller, K.K. Improvement of pigment and lipid stability in Holstein steer beef by dietary supplementation with vitamin E. J. Food Sci., 54: 858-862. 1989.
[9]  Gray, J.I., Pearson, A. Rancidity and warmed-over flavour. In. Advances in Meat Research, Vol. 3: Restructured Meat and Poultry Products (Eds. A.M. Pearson and T.R. Dutson). Van Nostrand Reinhold Co. NY. Pp. 221-269. 1987.
[10]  Persson, U., Jendteg, S. The Economic Impact of Poultry-Borne Salmonellosis: how much should be spend on prophylaxis? International journal of food Microbiology, 15:207-213. 1992.
[11]  Onibi, G.E., Atibioke, O.O. Influence of dietary oils and cold storage conditions on oxidative stability of pork. J. Anim. Vet. Adv., 3(1): 1-8. 2004.
[12]  Raharjo, S., Sofos, J.N. Methodology for measuring malonaldehyde as a product of lipid peroxidation in muscle tissues: A review. Meat Sci., 35: 145-169. 1993.
[13]  Shahidi, F. Flavor of meat and meat products. London: 1997. BAP.
[14]  Townsend, W.E., Ackerman, S.A., Witnauer, L.P., palm, W.E. and Swift, C.E. Effects of types and levels of fat and rates and temperatures of comminution on the processing and characteristics of frankfurters. J. Food Sci. 36:261-265. 1971.
[15]  Waldroup, A.L. Contamination of raw poultry with pathogen. World Poul. Sci., 52: 7-25. 1996.
[16]  Goncalves, A.C., Almeida, R.C.C., Alves, M.A.O., and Almeida, P.F. Quantitative investigation on the effect of chemical treatments in reducing Listeria monocytogenes populations on chicken breast meat. Food control. In press. 2004.
[17]  Codex Alimentarius Commission, Committee on Food Hygiene (1991). Draft principles and application of the Hazard analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) System. : Alinorm 93/13 Appendix VI Food and Agriculture Organisation World Health Organisation.
[18]  United State Department of Agriculture, Food Safety and Inspection Service. 2000. Focus on Chicken. Retrieved August 19, 2005, from United State Department of Agriculture, Food Safety and Inspection
[19]  Tompkin, R.B. Indicator organisms in meat and poultry products. Food Technol., 37 (6): 107-110. 1983.
[20]  Altabari, G., Al-Dughaym, A.M. The role of sanitary inspection of meat in relation of food poisoning. In: The Second Annual Scientific Meeting for Environment Hygiene (Meat Hygiene), Riyadh, 2002; pp. 180-203.
[21]  Kozačinski, L., Hadžiosmanović, M., and Zdolec, N. Microbiological quality of poultry meat on the Croatian market. Veterinarski Arhiv, 76 (4), 305-313, 2006
[22]  Mulder, R.W. Decontamination of broiler carcasses. Misset World Poult. 11 (3), 39-40. 1995.
[23]  Aulik, J.H., Mourer, A.J. Lactic acid bacteria in poultry products. Poult. Avian Biol. Rev. 6 (3), 1415-1418. 1995.
[24]  Murugkar, H.V., Sherikar, A.T., Paturkar, A.M., Tarwate, B.G. Studies on the Microbiological Quality of Meat Products with Special Reference to the Bacterial Flora of Public Health Implications. J. Appl. Anim. Res., 4 (2): 91-97. 1993.
[25]  Perlo, F., Bonato, P., Teira, G., Fabre, R., Kueider, S. Physicochemical and sensory properties of chicken nuggets with washed mechanically deboned chicken meat: Research note. Meat Sci. 72 (4):785-788. 2005.
[26]  AL-Dughaym, A.M., and Altabari, G.F. Safety and quality of some chicken meat products in Al-Ahsa markets-Saudi Arabia. Saudi J Biol Sci. 17(1): 37-42. 2009.
[27]  Mohammed, N.H. Study of some chemical, physical, sensory and bacteriology characteristics of canned chicken meat imported to Sulaymaniyah markets, Iraq. International Journal of nutrition and Metabolism. Vol. 5(7), pp. 128-133. 2013.
[28]  Tománková, J., Bořilová, J., Steinhauserová, I., Gallas, L. Volatile organic compounds as biomarkers of the freshness of poultry meat packaged in a modified atmosphere. Czech J. Food Sci., 30: 395-403.2012.
[29]  Ockerman, H.W. Quality control of Post-Mortem Muscle Tissue Dept of Animal Sciences. The Ohio State University; Columbus, OH, USA. 1985.
[30]  Wardlaw, F.B., Mccaskill, L.H., and Acton, J.C. Effect of postmortem muscle changes on poultry meat loaf properties. J. Food Sci., 38: 421-423. 1973.
[31]  AOAC. Meat and Meat Products. In: Official Methods of Analysis. 17th ed Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Gaithersburg, Arlington, VA. 2000.
[32]  Kirk, R.S., and Sawyer. R. Pearson’s Composition and Analysis of foods. Longman Scientific and Technical. Harllow. Essex. 1991.
[33]  IDF. 1991. Enumeration of microorganism in milk and milk products. Colony counts at 300C. In: International Dairy Federation, Brussels (Belgium).
[34]  Karna, B.K.L., Emata O.C., Barraquio, V.L. Lactic acid and probiotic bacteria from fermented and probiotic dairy products. Science Diliman, 19(2): 23-24. 2007.
[35]  Duncan, D.B. (1955).Multiple range and multiple “F” test. Biometrics, 11: 1-12.
[36]  Barbut, S. Problem of pale soft exudative meat in broiler chickens. Br. poult. Science, 38:355-358. 1997.
[37]  Zhuang, H., Bowker, B.C., Buhr, R.J., Bourassa, D.V., and Kiepper, B.H. Effects of broiler carcass scalding and chilling methods on quality of early deboned breast fillets. Poult. Science, 92 (5): 1393-1399. 2013.
[38]  Thomsen, H.H., and Zeuthen, P. The influence of mechanically deboned meat and pH on the water-holding capacity and texture of emulsion type meat products. Meat Sci. 22 (3): 189-201. 1988.
[39]  Mittal, G.S., and Barbut, S. Effects of carrageenans and xanthan gum on the texture and acceptability of low fat frankfurters. J. Food. Pro and Pre. 18: 201-216. 1994.
[40]  Kumar, P.R., and Rani, S.M. Chemical composition of chicken of various commercial brands available in market. IOSR Journal of Agriculture and Veterinary Science. Volume 7, Issue 7 Ver. III, PP 22-26 2014.
[41]  Ngadi, M., Li, Y., Oluka, S. Quality changes in chicken nuggets fried in oils with different degrees of hydrogenatation. LWT, 40. 1784-1791. 2007.
[42]  Boulianne, M., and King, A.J. Biochemical and color characteristics of skinless and boneless pale chicken breast. Poultry Science, 74:1693- 1698. 1995.
[43]  Xiong, Y.L., Ho, C.T, Shahidi, F. Quality characteristics of muscle foods. In: (eds.). Quality Attributes of Muscle Foods. Pp. 1-10. Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, NY. 1999.
[44]  Rey, F.J., Martínez, L.C., Urrea, A. Comparative study of the physicochemical characteristics of an economic Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) meat product and an economic Beef (Bos indicus) meat product with incorporation of bovine hemoglobin in powder in both formulations. Procedia Food Science. 1, 1589-1592. 2011.
[45]  Field, R.A. Mechanically deboned red meat: properties, problems and utilization of mechanically deboned muscle tissue. Food Technology. 30(9): 38. 1976.
[46]  Valsta, L.M., Tapanainen, H., and Mannisto, S. Meat fats in nutrition, In. Meat Sci, Vol.70: p 525-530. 2005.
[47]  Swierczewska, A.E., Niemiec, J., Mroczek, J.,Siennicka, A. Grzybowska, A., and Grochalska, D. Zesz. Nauk, PTZ Chow I hodaowla Drobiu, Vol 49: p 365-375. 2000.
[48]  Castellini, C., Mugnai, C., and Dal Bosco, A. Effect of organic production system on broiler carcass and meat quality. S. Afr. j. anim. science, vol.42 no. 4. 2012.
[49]  Giese, J. Fats, oils and fat replacers. Food Technology. 50(4): 78-83. 1996.
[50]  Jimenez, C.F. Technologies for developing low-fat meat products. Trends in Food Science and Technology.7:41 48. 1996.
[51]  Bogosavljevic-Boskovic, S., Mitrovic, S., Djokovic, R., Doskovic, V., Djermanovic, V. Chemical composition of chicken meat produced in extensive indoor and free range rearing system. Afr. J. Biotechnol. 10(20):9069-9075. 2010.
[52]  Barteczkso, O., and Lasek, O. Effect of varied protein and energy contents in mixture on meat quality of broiler chicken. Slovak J.Anim.Science, 41(4):173-178. 2008.
[53]  Romans, J.R., Ziegler, P.T. The Meat We Eat. The Interstate Printers & Publishers, Inc. 1977; U.S.A.
[54]  Thomas, S., Corden, M. Metric Tables of Composition of Australian Foods. Government Publishing Service. Canberra. Pages1-14. 1977.
[55]  Kenawi, A.M., Abdel-Aal, A.H., Abbas, M.H. Effect of Packaging Materials and Treatments on the Shelf Life of Chicken Breast Treated With Antimicrobial Agents and Stored Under Refrigerated Condition. Biotechnology in Animal Husbandry. 23 (5-6), p 141-154, 2007.
[56]  Vinci, G. and Antonelli, L.M. Biogenic amines: quality index of freshness in red and white meat. Food Control. 13:519-524. 2002.
[57]  Jay, J.M. Modern Food microbiology. 4th Ed. Pp.199-233. 1992; Van Nostrand Reinhold, NY.
[58]  Byun, J. S., Min, S.J., Kim, S.I., Kim, W.J., Chung, S.M., and Lee, M. Comparison of indicators of microbial quality of meat during aerobic cold storage. J. Food Prot. 66:1733-1737. 2003.
[59]  Altabari, G. Enterotoxigenic Characteristics of Strains of Staphylococcus aureus Isolated from Food Sources Influence of Specific Factors on Survival and Growth. Doctoral dissertation, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Sarajevo University. 1984.
[60]  EL-Khateib, T., Abd El-Rahman, H., Hamdy, M., Lotfi, A. Poultry meat products in Egypt ‘‘Proximal chemical composition and microbiological quality. Fleisch wirtsch 68 (6), 756-757. 1988.
[61]  Ismail, S.A.S., Deak, T., Abd El-Rahman, H.A.M., Yassien, A.M., Beuchat, L.R.. Presence and changes in populations of yeasts on raw and processed poultry products stored at refrigeration temperature. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 62, 113-121. 2000.
[62]  Sengupta, R., Das, R., Ganguly, S., and Mukhopadhayay, K.S. Survey on microbial quality of chicken meat in Kolkata, India. International Journal of Research in Pure and Applied Microbiology.1 (3): 32-33. 2011.
[63]  Sharaf, M.E., and Sabra, M.S. Microbiological Loads for Some Types of Cooked Chicken Meat Products at Al-Taif Governorate, KSA. World Applied Sciences Journal. 17 (5): 593-597, 2012.
Show Less References