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Article

Pharmacognostical investigation of Plectranthus hadiensis (Forssk.) Schweinf. ex Sprenger. and Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng

1Herbal Technology Section, Industrial Technology Institute, 363, Bauddhaloka Mawatha, Colombo 7, Sri Lanka


World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2014, 2(5), 240-246
DOI: 10.12691/wjar-2-5-7
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
R. Muthukumarana, R.M. Dharmadasa. Pharmacognostical investigation of Plectranthus hadiensis (Forssk.) Schweinf. ex Sprenger. and Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng. World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2014; 2(5):240-246. doi: 10.12691/wjar-2-5-7.

Correspondence to: R.M.  Dharmadasa, Herbal Technology Section, Industrial Technology Institute, 363, Bauddhaloka Mawatha, Colombo 7, Sri Lanka. Email: dharma@iti.lk, dharmadasarm@gmail.com

Abstract

Plectranthus hadiensis (Forssk.) Schweinf. ex Sprenger. and Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng. (Lamiaceae) are two medicinal plants with taxonomic ambiguity. Even though both plants are similar in appearance, their therapeutic properties are different. However, incorrectly use of these plants in herbal formulations might adversely effect on therapeutic properties of herbal drugs. Present study describes the comprehensive pharmacognostic aspects of P.hadiensis and P. amboinicus by means of physical and chemical yield parameters. Morphological, anatomical Thin Layer Chromatographic profiles, essential oil content and composition were carried out according to the established protocols. Plant fresh and dry weights of both species were increased with the maturity while dry fresh ratio was decreased. Physical and chemical yield parameters were optimum at fully matured stage. TLC finger print profiles exhibited nine spots for P. hadiensis while five spots for P. amboinicus and yellow green (Rf 0.73) spot was characteristic to P. hadiensis, while violet-blue (Rf 0.61) and brown- red (Rf 0.55) were characteristic spots for P. amboinicus. P-Cymene, Gerenyl acetate and geraniol were identified as common compounds for both species. Presence of higher chemical and physical parameters scientifically validates the traditional claims of harvesting of both plants at fully maturity stage. Results of the present study either singularly or as a whole could be incorporated for quality control and standardization of P. hadiensis and P. amboinicus.

Keywords

References

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Article

The Development of Diets to Induce Atherogenic Lipid Profiles for Cynomolgus Monkeys in Their Country of Origin

1Primate Research Center, Bogor Agricultural University, Bogor, Indonesia

2Department of Animal Nutrition Bogor Agricultural University, Bogor, Indonesia

3Centre for Comparative Medicine Research, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston Salem, NC. USA


World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2014, 2(5), 247-251
DOI: 10.12691/wjar-2-5-8
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Dewi Apri Astuti, Dondin Sajuthi, Irma Herawati Suparto, Jay Kaplan, Sue Appt, Thomas B. Clarkson. The Development of Diets to Induce Atherogenic Lipid Profiles for Cynomolgus Monkeys in Their Country of Origin. World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2014; 2(5):247-251. doi: 10.12691/wjar-2-5-8.

Correspondence to: Dewi  Apri Astuti, Primate Research Center, Bogor Agricultural University, Bogor, Indonesia. Email: dewiapriastitu86@gmail.com

Abstract

Understanding the process of atherosclerosis progress can be studied in laboratory animals, such as nonhuman primate (NHP). Investigators at Bogor Agricultural University Indonesia, Primate Research Center (IPB) reported to develop an atherogenic diet (IPB 1) by using fresh egg yolk and coconut oil as source of cholesterol and fat. The aims of the research were to correct nutritional inadequacy in the initial IPB 1 atherogenic diet by supplementation with corn oil (IPB 1+CO); to use dry powdered egg yolk (PEY) instead of fresh egg yolk (IPB 1+CO+PEY); to use concentrated source of protein (43%) pupae meal (PM) instead of soya meal (IPB 1+CO+PM) ; and to use crystalline cholesterol (CC) instead of egg yolk (IPB 1+CO+CC). Twenty four Macaca fascicularis were used as animal model for three months adaptation followed by 12 months for four diet treatments. Parameters measured such body weight, waist circumference, trunk length, adiposity index, nutrient utilization, and plasma lipid profile every three months. This experiment used Completely Randomized Design with four treatments and six replications. Result showed that there were no significant differences found in morphometric parameters among the diet groups compared to one another or change from baseline. The nutrient (protein, fat and carbohydrate) consumption and the absorption were essentially the same for all four diet groups. The IPB 1+CO diet, the IPB 1+CO+PM diet and the IPB 1+CO+CC induced a similar atherogenic plasma lipid profile, with marked increases in total plasma cholesterol concentrations.

Keywords

References

[1]  Astuti, D.A., Suparto, I.S., Sajuthi, D., Budiarsa, I.N. “Determination of nutrient digestibility of Cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis) fed with high starch diet: A preliminary study”, Hayati J. of Biosciences, 16 (4): 147-150, 2009.
 
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[9]  Stills, H. F.Jr., Clarkson, T.B. Atherosclerosis. In: Sponaneous Models of Human Disease (E. J. Andrews, B. C. Ward, N. H. Altman, Ed.), Academic Press, New York, 1979; 70-79.
 
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Article

Competitiveness of Gum Arabic Marketing System at Elobeid Crops Market, North Kordofan State, Sudan

1Department of Agricultural Economics and Rural Development, Faculty of Natural Resources and Environmental Studies, University of Kordofan, Elobeid, Sudan

2Department of Forestry Management, Faculty of Forestry, University of Khartoum, Sudan

3Department of Crop Sciences, Faculty of Natural Resources and Environmental Studies, University of Kordofan, Elobeid, Sudan


World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2014, 2(5), 252-256
DOI: 10.12691/wjar-2-5-9
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Tarig E. Mahmoud, Maruod E. Maruod, Manal A. Khiery, Ahmed M. El Naim, Moayad B. Zaied. Competitiveness of Gum Arabic Marketing System at Elobeid Crops Market, North Kordofan State, Sudan. World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2014; 2(5):252-256. doi: 10.12691/wjar-2-5-9.

Correspondence to: Ahmed  M. El Naim, Department of Crop Sciences, Faculty of Natural Resources and Environmental Studies, University of Kordofan, Elobeid, Sudan. Email: naim17amn@yahoo.com

Abstract

Gum Arabic (GA) subsector in Sudan is largely structured by performance of its marketing systems and prevailing policy intervention. The marketing systems of GA commodity are indicated by the rural traditional, the urban and the auction markets. The commodity has been exposed to different scenarios of policy innervations ranging from monopoly, concession, liberalization and oligopoly measures. The current paper is intended to describe and assess the competence of gum Arabic marketing system at Elobeid Crops Market (ECsM) under the prevailing policy measures. Investigations, in such respect, entail to identify of the active GA stakeholders, market infrastructures, administrative setups, marketing channels, forces of supply and demand, pricing mechanisms and quality control measures. The paper applied a composite of research methodologies including descriptive statistics and policy analysis matrix. The findings revealed that GA producers, as major stakeholders, do not often exist physically at ECsM. The gum Arabic companies do not show up directly at the auction market. Results emphasized varying comparative advantages and competiveness pertaining GA trade at the auction market. Additionally, the oligopoly nature of the market is still predominating despite the adopted liberalization measures. Having understood the nature and complexity of GA local marketing systems in the North Kordofan State, the current paper proposed some arguments for improving competence GA stakeholders in the market.

Keywords

References

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Article

Earthworms: 'Soil and Ecosystem Engineers' – a Review

1Adjunct. Assistant Professor, Department of soil Science Purwanchal University HICAST, Kalanki, Kathmandu, Nepal

2Technical Officer (soil Science) Agronomy Division, Nepal Agriculture Research Council Khunaltar, Lalitpur, Nepal


World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2014, 2(6), 257-260
DOI: 10.12691/wjar-2-6-1
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Roshan Babu Ojha, Deepa Devkota. Earthworms: 'Soil and Ecosystem Engineers' – a Review. World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2014; 2(6):257-260. doi: 10.12691/wjar-2-6-1.

Correspondence to: Roshan  Babu Ojha, Adjunct. Assistant Professor, Department of soil Science Purwanchal University HICAST, Kalanki, Kathmandu, Nepal. Email: roshanbachhan@gmail.com

Abstract

Earthworms can alter the soil environment by changing soil properties. They have great potentiality to enhance soil physical properties like bulk density, infiltrability, hydraulic conductivity, porosity, aggregate stability. Due to this ability they are only species which plays significant role in pedoturbation. Similarly, their role in nutrient cycling and organic matter breakdown is of unique interest. Earthworm cast fortified with the microbial population. Increasing microbial activity in soil, increases the nutrient mineralization and release. Earthworm activity enhances root distribution so that immobile macro nutrients like phosphorous and other micronutrients, which are absorbed by plant through root interception, are easily available to the plants. Hence, earthworms play important role in bioturbation, they are considered as 'soil engineer.' However, their activity differs with the agroecosystems. Their population density is more in reduced tillage system than conventional tillage system, aerobic condition than anaerobic conditions, grasslands than forest. Low population of earthworm was found in dry land agroecosystems. But earthworm presence in extreme environment is not studied well yet. So, this paper was reviewed to explore the role of earthworm as soil and ecosystem engineer. This was already established fact but main aim of this paper is to collect the related information and conclude the future research prospects to strengthen the earthworm role as soil and ecosystem engineer.

Keywords

References

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Article

Screening of Local and Introduced Varieties of Pogostemon heyneanus Benth. (Lamiaceae), for Superior Quality Physical, Chemical and Biological Parameters

1Herbal Technology Section, Industrial Technology Institute, Bauddhaloka Mawatha, Colombo 7, Sri Lanka

2Department of Plantation Management, Faculty of Agriculture and Plantation Management, Wayamba University of Sri Lanka, Makandura, Gonawila (NWP), Sri Lanka


World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2014, 2(6), 261-266
DOI: 10.12691/wjar-2-6-2
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
R.M. Dharmadasa, R.M.D.H. Rathnayake, D.C. Abeysinghe, S. A. N. Rashani, K. Samarasinghe, A.L.M Attanayake. Screening of Local and Introduced Varieties of Pogostemon heyneanus Benth. (Lamiaceae), for Superior Quality Physical, Chemical and Biological Parameters. World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2014; 2(6):261-266. doi: 10.12691/wjar-2-6-2.

Correspondence to: R.M.  Dharmadasa, Herbal Technology Section, Industrial Technology Institute, Bauddhaloka Mawatha, Colombo 7, Sri Lanka. Email: dharmadasarm@gmail.com, dharma@iti.lk

Abstract

Pogostemon heyneanus Benth. (Lamiaceae) is an aromatic, perfumery important, industrial crop widely cultivated in many Asian countries for its distinguished fragrance and other therapeutic purposes. However, commercial cultivation of P. heyneanus was hampered due to lack of high quality planting materials. Purpose of the present study is to explore superior quality P. heyneanus variety by means of physical (morphological), chemical (physico-chemical, phytochemical, essential oil content and composition) and biological [total antioxidant capacity (TAC)] parameters in order to establish commercial cultivation. Morphological, physico-chemical and phytochemical analysis were performed according to the methods described in WHO guidelines and other classical texts. The TAC was performed using Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP) assay. Essential oil was analyzed by gas chromatography Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS). Out of 26 morphological characters assessed, 5 characters were i.e. plant height, leaf margin, leaf apex, and leaf base and leaf shape polymorphic. All phytochemicals tested were identical to both varieties. However, presence of a prominent spots at Rf 0.12 (dark brown spot), 0.20 (rose colour spot), 0.45 (dark green spot) were characteristic for local variety. Significantly higher total ash content (12.32 %), oil content (0.52%), higher number of compounds in essential oil, patchouli alcohol content (57.0 %) and antioxidant capacity (108.53 ± 2.5 mg Trolox equivalent per g of extract) were reported in introduced variety. According to the results, introduced variety possesses superior quality physical, chemical and biological properties and therefore, introduced variety could be recommended for establishment of commercial cultivation.

Keywords

References

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Article

Performance Evaluation and Path Analysis Studies in Tomato (Solanumlycopersiconl.) Genotpes under Humera, Northern Ethiopia Condition

1Humera Agricultural Research Center, Tigray Agricultural Research Institute, P.O. Box 62, Humera, Ethiopia

2Jimma University College of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine, P. O. Box 307, Jimma, Ethiopia

3Department of Crop and Horticultural Sciences, Mekelle University, P.O. Box 231, Mekelle, Ethiopia


World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2014, 2(6), 267-271
DOI: 10.12691/wjar-2-6-3
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Shushay Chernet, Derbew Belew, Fetien Abay. Performance Evaluation and Path Analysis Studies in Tomato (Solanumlycopersiconl.) Genotpes under Humera, Northern Ethiopia Condition. World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2014; 2(6):267-271. doi: 10.12691/wjar-2-6-3.

Correspondence to: Shushay  Chernet, Humera Agricultural Research Center, Tigray Agricultural Research Institute, P.O. Box 62, Humera, Ethiopia. Email: shishaychernet@yahoo.com

Abstract

In order to evaluate performance of genotypes and study the direct and indirect effects of characters on fruit yield, thirty six tomato genotypes introduced from different countries were grown at Humera Agricultural Research Center during 2010/11 cropping season under irrigation condition. The trial was laid out in 6 x 6 simple lattice design in two replications. The maximum marketable yield was obtained from the genotype CLN-2037-A (49.20 tons ha-1) and the minimum with H-1350 (3.00 tons ha-1). Estimates of genotypic direct and indirect effects of various characters on fruit yield showed that number of matured fruits plant-1 (0.798) and average weight of fruits plant-1 (0.644) had highest positive direct contribution to fruit yield. This indicated direct selection based on these characters will improve fruit yield. On the contrary, fruit set percentage (-0.447) and fruit polar diameter (-0.392) exerted highest negative direct effect on fruit yield ha-1.

Keywords

References

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Article

Investigations on Leaf Blight Disease of Clove Incited by Cylindrocladiumquinqueseptatum Boedijn & Reitsma

1Vice principal, Agril-poly-technique Khanivali Dist. Thane, Maharashtra India

2Department of Plant Pathology, Dr.BalasahebSawant Konkan KrishiVidyapeethDapoli, Dist. Ratnagiri, Maharashtra India


World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2014, 2(6), 272-275
DOI: 10.12691/wjar-2-6-4
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Jitendra Khare, P. G. Borkar, Sudhir Navathe. Investigations on Leaf Blight Disease of Clove Incited by Cylindrocladiumquinqueseptatum Boedijn & Reitsma. World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2014; 2(6):272-275. doi: 10.12691/wjar-2-6-4.

Correspondence to: P.  G. Borkar, Department of Plant Pathology, Dr.BalasahebSawant Konkan KrishiVidyapeethDapoli, Dist. Ratnagiri, Maharashtra India. Email: pramodgb@gmail.com

Abstract

Clove (Syzygiumaromaticum) (L) Merr. & Perry is one of the tree spices noted for its flavor and medicinal values. It is an aromatic plant and imparts warming qualities when it is used as culinary spice. A severe leaf blight incidence was observed on the clove trees at the Horticultural Farm, College of Agriculture, Dapoli during the rainy season. The total severity of the disease resulted in rapid blightening and heavy defoliation. The causal organism of the disease was isolated and identified as Cylindrocladiumquinqueseptatum. The in vitro evaluation of different fungicides revealed that Carbendazim and Carbendazim + Mancozeb each at 0.1% concentration completely inhibited growth of the pathogen. While in the field trial on the clove trees, Carbendazim (0.1%) was the most effective in controlling the leaf blight disease.

Keywords

References

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Article

Economic Analysis and Production Techniques of Snail Farms in Southern Greece

1University of Thessaly, School of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Ichthyology and Aquatic Environment, Fytoko Street, N. Ionia Magnesia’s, Greece


World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2014, 2(6), 276-279
DOI: 10.12691/wjar-2-6-5
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Hatziioannou M., Issari A., Neofitou C., Aifadi S., Matsiori S.. Economic Analysis and Production Techniques of Snail Farms in Southern Greece. World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2014; 2(6):276-279. doi: 10.12691/wjar-2-6-5.

Correspondence to: Hatziioannou  M., University of Thessaly, School of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Ichthyology and Aquatic Environment, Fytoko Street, N. Ionia Magnesia’s, Greece. Email: mxatzi@uth.gr

Abstract

In the present study was examined the economic viability and the production techniques of commercial snail farms, grounded in Peloponnese (). The primary data were collected through personal interviews from a sample of nine snail farms, during the years of 2009 and 2010. The farms produce fresh snails Cornu aspersum, raised and reproduced in net covered greenhouses with vegetation and artificial food provision. The impact of the production cost and the selling price on the business profitability was examined. A comparative presentation of profits and expenses was conducted for the economic viability control and the Net Present Value criterion was applied, as an indication of potential profitability of the investment plan. The net cash flows were estimated for a time period of ten years and sensitivity analysis was applied for a variation rate of 20% (with 5% as the discounting interest rate). The initial investment was 19.478 €, 60% of this concerns expenses for the creation of the net covered greenhouse. The annual revenue was estimated to 20.028during an average year (3rd year) within the ten-year evaluation horizon. In the selling price of 5,3 €/kg the investment was deemed marginally economically viable. Problems which concerned mainly the design of the livestock installations but also the productions techniques were detected. Sensitivity analysis, demonstrated that the enterprise was sensitive to variations of the product's selling price (of fresh snails) and less sensitive to variations of feeding cost (of the green vegetables and artificial diet). Heliciculture has the potential to constitute an innovative and viable agricultural activity with economic, social and environmental benefits.

Keywords

References

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Article

Feeding Wild Sunflower (Tithonia Diversifolia Hemsl., A. Gray) to West African Dwarf Goats as a Dry Season Forage Supplement

1Department of Animal Sciences Obafemi Awolowo University Ile-Ife, Nigeria


World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2014, 2(6), 280-284
DOI: 10.12691/wjar-2-6-6
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Odedire J.A, Oloidi F.F. Feeding Wild Sunflower (Tithonia Diversifolia Hemsl., A. Gray) to West African Dwarf Goats as a Dry Season Forage Supplement. World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2014; 2(6):280-284. doi: 10.12691/wjar-2-6-6.

Correspondence to: Odedire  J.A, Department of Animal Sciences Obafemi Awolowo University Ile-Ife, Nigeria. Email: oadeolu1@gmail.com

Abstract

A study was conducted to investigate the nutritional response of West African Dwarf (WAD) goats offered a concentrate diet containing Wild sunflower leaf meal, as a dry season feed supplement. Twenty WAD goats with age range of 5 – 7 months, weighing approximately 6.94 ± 0.37 kg were randomly allotted to a concentrate diet containing graded levels of Wild sunflower leaf meal (WSLM) at 0, 10, 20 and 30% levels of inclusion, offered as supplement to a guinea grass basal diet, in a completely randomized design. The experiment, which lasted 16 weeks, measured the nutritional performance indices of the WAD goats such as Feed intake, Weight gain, Digestibility, Nitrogen utilization and Feed conversion ratio. Results obtained indicate no significant difference in the dry matter intake (DMI), weight gain and dry matter digestibility of the goats on the different diets. However, the crude protein digestibility and nitrogen utilization of goats on 0% and 10% WSFLM inclusion were higher than those on 20% and 30% WSLM diet. It was concluded that wild sunflower leaf meal can serve as a forage supplement to the WAD goats up to 30% level of inclusion without any deleterious effect.

Keywords

References

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Article

Control of Oryctes monoceros on Date Palm Field in Sudan-Savannah Vegetative Zone of Nigeria

1Nigerian Institute for Oil palm Research (NIFOR), Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria


World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2014, 2(6), 285-290
DOI: 10.12691/wjar-2-6-7
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Sanusi Mohammed Kabiru, Omokhudu Collins Abiodun, Yahaya Sadiq Abdul Rahman. Control of Oryctes monoceros on Date Palm Field in Sudan-Savannah Vegetative Zone of Nigeria. World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2014; 2(6):285-290. doi: 10.12691/wjar-2-6-7.

Correspondence to: Sanusi  Mohammed Kabiru, Nigerian Institute for Oil palm Research (NIFOR), Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria. Email: sanusimk2004@gmail.com

Abstract

Oryctes monoceros is a serious pest of Date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) and accounts for 40% of losses in production every year. Because of the seriousness of the damage caused by this pest much time, energy, labour, money and other resources are employed to control the pest throughout the year. In addition to these losses, when these resources are quantified, it reduces the income that accrued to the farmers thereby making the Date palm industry unattractive. This research was designed to determine the frequency and distribution of O. monoceros infection in a year, so that a better pest management practice can be put in place to arrest the situation and also reduce the resources used to control the pest thereby increasing the farmers’ income. The research was conducted in NIFOR, Date palm Sub-station, Dutse, Jigawa State, Nigeria. The result shows two peaks from April to June and the other from August to November with the crest occurring in October. With this kind of graph, the farmer can concentrate his/her energy and resources at these two peak periods and relaxed at other lower level of the graph that coincided with the period between December to March and the month of July every year. This will help the farmers to plan a better Oryctes monoceros management thereby reducing the damage caused by O. monoceros and at the same time reduce the cost of resources used on the Date palm farm, thereby increasing the yield and income for the farmers.

Keywords

References

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