World Journal of Agricultural Research

ISSN (Print): 2333-0643

ISSN (Online): 2333-0678

Website: http://www.sciepub.com/journal/WJAR

Article

Screening of Two Ocimum tenuiflorum L. (Lamiaceae) Morphotypes for their Morphological Characters, Essential Oil Composition and Fruit Fly Attractant Ability

1Industrial Technology Institute, 363, Bauddhaloka Mawatha, Colombo 7, Sri Lanka

2Faculty of Agriculture, University of Ruhuna, Kamburupitiya, Sri Lanka

3CIC Holdings, Colombo -2, Sri Lanka


World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2015, 3(1), 1-4
DOI: 10.12691/wjar-3-1-1
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
R.M. Dharmadasa, D.A.S. Siriwardhane, K. Samarasinghe, S.H.C.S. Rangana, L. Nugaliyadda, Indika Gunawardane, A.M.L. Aththanayake. Screening of Two Ocimum tenuiflorum L. (Lamiaceae) Morphotypes for their Morphological Characters, Essential Oil Composition and Fruit Fly Attractant Ability. World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2015; 3(1):1-4. doi: 10.12691/wjar-3-1-1.

Correspondence to: R.M.  Dharmadasa, Industrial Technology Institute, 363, Bauddhaloka Mawatha, Colombo 7, Sri Lanka. Email: dharmadasarm@gmail.com

Abstract

Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae) is the destructive pest of over 300 cultivated and wild fruits all over the world. Present study describes the morphology, essential oil content and composition and bioassay on fruit fly attractant ability of essential oil of two Ocimum tenuiflorum morphotypes (MT1 purple and MT2 purple-green) grown in Sri Lanka. Four months old, O. tenuiflorum aerial parts were hydro-distilled for 4 h. GC-MS analysis of essential oils and bio-assay for B. dorsalis attractant ability was performed using previously established methodologies. The yield of the essential oils of O. tenuiflorum MT1 and MT2 were 1.51±0.02% and 1.45±0.01% (v/w), respectively. Eighteen compounds were identified, which encountered over 97% of the oil constituents. The main constituents found in the oil of MT1 were methyl eugenol (72.50±1.03%) followed by β-caryophyllene (17.53±2.0%), germacrene D (1.55±0.10%), β-elemene (2.46±0.17%), while methyl eugenol (64.23±2.43%), β-caryophyllene (13.29±2.18%), β-elemene (6.94±1.41%), germacrene D (2.47±0.96%), were from extracted from MT2. Bioassays conducted on essential oils of MT1, MT2 and purified Methyl Eugenol demonstrated that the B. dorsalis attractant ability of essential oil MT1 (106±8.1), MT2 104±2 and commercial Methyl Eugenol (111±8.5) was not significantly different during the first week of the experiment. Results of our study open an avenue for use of essential oil of Ocimum tenuiflorum as potential natural para pheromone source for fruit fly control and monitoring in fruit industry in Sri Lanka.

Keywords

References

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Article

Screening of Kenyan Bread Wheat Varieties for Resistance to the Emerging Strains of Stem rust Fungi (Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici) Race Ug99

1Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology P.O Box 62000-00200 Nairobi, Kenya,

2Kenya Agricultural and Livestock Research Organisation, Food Crops Research Centre-Njoro P.O Box PRIVATE BAG-2107 Njoro, Kenya


World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2015, 3(1), 5-10
DOI: 10.12691/wjar-3-1-2
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Kimani N. C, Onguso J., Njau P.. Screening of Kenyan Bread Wheat Varieties for Resistance to the Emerging Strains of Stem rust Fungi (Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici) Race Ug99. World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2015; 3(1):5-10. doi: 10.12691/wjar-3-1-2.

Correspondence to: Kimani  N. C, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology P.O Box 62000-00200 Nairobi, Kenya,. Email: nkimanicyrus@gmail.com

Abstract

Stem rust disease of wheat caused by Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici is of major concern because of its devastating effects on wheat. It can cause yield loss of up to 100% in susceptible varieties. East Africa has been designated as a “hot spot” of the stem rust pathogen as evidenced by the emergence of a new race of stem rust designated as TTKSK or better known as Ug99 and several of its variants. This pathogen therefore poses a threat to wheat production and hence to food security in Kenya. The frequent use of fungicides to control the disease also poses a potential adverse effect on the environment. The objective of this study was to screen a core collection of Kenyan bread wheat varieties to determine those with natural resistance to stem rust disease hence reduce the risk posed to food security and the environment. Twenty Kenyan commercial bread wheat varieties were screened for stem rust resistance under artificial disease epidemic simulation in the International Stem Rust Screening Field at Kenya Agricultural and Livestock Research Organisation, Food Crops Research Centre-Njoro, Kenya. The disease notes were taken using the Modified Cobb’s Scale and the Area Under Disease Progress Curve (AUDPC) values computed. Thirteen random samples of stem rust fungi were collected from the trial plot and analyzed using Ug99 race group-specific Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) markers. The varieties fell in three disease categories of resistant, intermediate and susceptible, with the most susceptible being Pasa and Kenya Swara being the most resistant. The mean AUDPC computed showed that there was variation in the AUDPC values among the varieties with the variety K.Swara having the lowest AUDPC value of 78.33 and variety Pasa having the highest value of 478.67. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) showed that both AUDPC and disease scores had significant variation (P<0.0001) among the varieties. From the analysis of stem rust fungi samples two genotypes of stem rust race TTKSK (AF-001ad and AF-001aa) were detected indicating mutations within the same race variant. In conclusion there are Ug99 resistant Kenyan bread wheat varieties which hold a promise for food security. There is also evidence of further mutation within the TTKSK race variant and hence a possible increased virulence on the wheat genotypes.

Keywords

References

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Article

Isolation, Screening and Characterization of Effective Microbes with Potential for Biological Control of Fusarium wilt of Rock Melon

1Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of Agriculture, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia

2Department of Crop Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia


World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2015, 3(1), 11-16
DOI: 10.12691/wjar-3-1-3
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Salha Elmahdi, Jugah Kadir, Mahmud Tengku Muda Mohamed, Ganesan Vadamalai, Shamima Akter. Isolation, Screening and Characterization of Effective Microbes with Potential for Biological Control of Fusarium wilt of Rock Melon. World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2015; 3(1):11-16. doi: 10.12691/wjar-3-1-3.

Correspondence to: Jugah  Kadir, Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of Agriculture, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia. Email: kaju@upm.edu.my

Abstract

Effective microbes are a group of microorganisms that can be found in the rhizosphere, in association with plant roots which can suppress soil-borne plant pathogens directly or indirectly. A large number of bacteria including species of Alcaligenes, Arthrobacter, Bacillus, Pseudomonas, Rhizobium and Serratia have been reported to suppress the soil borne plant pathogens. In this study, Fusarium wilt symptomless Rock melon rhizospheric soil samples were collected from three locations (Malaysia). A total of seventy two effective bacteria were isolated by the dilution method. These isolates were firstly dually cultured in vitro on PDA medium with F. oxysporum f.s. melonis, the causal agent of Fusarium wilt of Rock melon. Isolates with inhibitory characteristics against the test fungus were selected for further screening by means of extracellular metabolite test. Seven isolates which showed >60% inhibition of the fungal growth was further identified on the basis of colony morphology, biochemical tests and Biolog® System. These isolates were identified as Pseudomonas sp., Bacillus sp., Serratia sp., only one isolate could not be identified. MKB04 and MKB10 gave the best suppression of Fom mycelial growth. Further molecular identification of these two isolates identified them as Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, and Alcaligenes faecalis respectively. Effective microbes are environmental friendly and in vitro antagonistic activities they manifested against F. oxysporium f. s. melonis in this study suggest that they can be used as an effective biological control agent.

Keywords

References

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[43]  Hyeon, N., Park, M. S., Kim, H. G., & Yoo, S. J. “Biological control of strawberry Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. fragariae using Bacillus velezensis BS87 and RK1 formulation”. Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, 19(5), 520-524. 2009.
 
[44]  Kaur, R., Singh, R., & Alabouvette, C. “Antagonistic activity of selected isolates of Fluorescent Pseudomonas against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceri. Asian Journal of Plant Sciences, 6, 446-454. 2007.
 
[45]  Pane, C., Villecco, D., Campanile, F., & Zaccardelli, M. “Novel strains of bacillus, isolated from compost and compost-amended soils, as biological control agents against soil-borne phytopathogenic fungi”. Biocontrol Science and Technology, 22(12), 1373-1388. 2012.
 
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Article

Estimating Aboveground Biomass of Oil Palm Trees by Using the Destructive Method

1Department of Geoinformation, University Technology Malaysia, Skudai Johor, Malaysia

2Department of Forestry, University of Hasanuddin, Makassar, Indonesia


World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2015, 3(1), 17-19
DOI: 10.12691/wjar-3-1-4
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Putri Ida Sunaryathy, Suhasman, Kasturi Devi Kanniah, Kian Pang Tan. Estimating Aboveground Biomass of Oil Palm Trees by Using the Destructive Method. World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2015; 3(1):17-19. doi: 10.12691/wjar-3-1-4.

Correspondence to: Putri  Ida Sunaryathy, Department of Geoinformation, University Technology Malaysia, Skudai Johor, Malaysia. Email: putri_idaw@yahoo.com

Abstract

Palm oil is one of the important commodities in Indonesia. Estimating the aboveground biomass of oil palms is one of the most important oil palm carbon studies. The objective of this study was to estimate the aboveground biomass of oil palm trees at plot scale for three age classes namely, class 1 (1 to 3 years), class 2 (4 to 10 years) and class 3 (11 to 20 years) in South Sulawesi, Indonesia using destructive method. The AGB for each age class: class 1, class 2, and class 3 they are 5.84 kg tree-1, 173.17 kg tree-1, 823.50 kg tree-1 respectively.

Keywords

References

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[15]  Corley, R. H. V. and Tinker, P.B. 2003. The Oil Palm. Oxford: Blackwell Science Ltd. 2003.
 
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[17]  Situmorang A.P. Pendugaankarbontersimpandenganpe modelanspasial data pengukuranlapangpadakebunkelapasawit Panai Jaya PTPN IV. Sekolah Pascasarjana. IPB Bogor. 2010.
 
[18]  Hairiah, K. Pengukuran Cadangan Karbon Dari Tingkat LahanKeBentangLahan. Word Agroforestry Centre ICRAF SEA Regional Office; Malang. 2011.
 
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Article

Determination of Sprout Control Treatment Using Seven Key Yam (Dioscorea spp.) Varieties of Farmers in Ghana

1Council for Scientific and Industrial Research-Food Research Institute, P. O. Box M20, Accra, Ghana


World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2015, 3(1), 20-23
DOI: 10.12691/wjar-3-1-5
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
C. Tortoe, S. Dowuona, N. T. Dziedzoave. Determination of Sprout Control Treatment Using Seven Key Yam (Dioscorea spp.) Varieties of Farmers in Ghana. World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2015; 3(1):20-23. doi: 10.12691/wjar-3-1-5.

Correspondence to: C.  Tortoe, Council for Scientific and Industrial Research-Food Research Institute, P. O. Box M20, Accra, Ghana. Email: ctortoe@yahoo.co.uk

Abstract

Yams (Dioscorea spp.) are an important economic crop in Ghana. The formation of buds and subsequent sprouting of yam tubers influences postharvest losses. Efforts to prolong dormancy and inhibit bud and sprouting are therefore laudable. Seven key yam varieties of farmers identified as Pona, Lariboko, Dente, Mutwumudoo, Serwah, Matches and Akaba in Ghana were subjected to plant extracts from cocoa pod (Theobroma cacao) potash, neem (Azachirata indica) seeds, neem (Azachirata indica) leaves, sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas) leaves to inhibit bud and sprout formation. The potash extracts suppressed bud formation in Mutwumudoo, Akaba and Matches compared to Lariboko and Serwah yam varieties. In a descending order of Lariboko, Matches, Mutwumudoo, Serwah, Pona, Dente and Akaba, neem seed extracts was able to suppress bud formation and subsequent sprouting. In neem leaves treatment, suppression of bud formation was highest in Lariboko, Dente, Mutwumudoo, Akaba, Matches, Serwah and Pona in a descending order. Sweetpotato leaves suppression of bud formation was highest in Serwah, Akaba, Mutwumudoo, Dente, Matches, Lariboko and Pona as the least. The control treatment showed higher number of buds formed in all the yam varieties in a descending order of Akaba, Serwah Mutwumudoo, Lariboko, Dente, Pona and Matches as compared to all the other treatments. The four plant extracts effect on bud formation and subsequent sprouting on the seven varieties of yam was comparable (p = 0.05). The control, sweetpotato and neem leaves plant extract performed poorly as compared to the potash and neem seed extracts. Interestingly, potash was the best bet plant extract in reducing bud formation and sprouting (0.26) while sweetpotato leaves was the least (0.42) and corresponding yam varieties was Mutwumudoo followed by Matches and Akaba.

Keywords

References

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Article

Sarcoptic Mange Infestation in West Africa Dwarf Goat Herd in Ibadan, South West Nigeria

1Department of Veterinary Microbiology and Parasitology, University of Ibadan, Ibadan

2Department of Veterinary Parasitology and Entomology, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Agriculture, Makurdi


World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2015, 3(1), 24-27
DOI: 10.12691/wjar-3-1-6
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Falohun Olufarati Oludunsin, Sadiq Nurudeen Ayinde, Onyiche Emmanuel ThankGod, Obebe Oluwasola Olaiya, Oke Philip Oladele. Sarcoptic Mange Infestation in West Africa Dwarf Goat Herd in Ibadan, South West Nigeria. World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2015; 3(1):24-27. doi: 10.12691/wjar-3-1-6.

Correspondence to: Falohun  Olufarati Oludunsin, Department of Veterinary Microbiology and Parasitology, University of Ibadan, Ibadan. Email: farry4real2k@yahoo.com

Abstract

An adult, Female West Africa Dwarf goat, the only surviving from a local goat herd comprising 31 goats, all reported to be dead was presented to the Small ruminant ward of Veterinary Teaching Hospital, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, South West Nigeria. Clinical examination revealed generalized wrinkling and thickening of the skin with heavy crust formation on the abdomen, forehead, ear, the limbs, inter-digital spaces, mammary gland and inner thigh. Skin biopsy, skin scrapings, whole blood and serum samples were collected respectively for histopathology, ectoparasite identification, hematology and biochemistry. Histomorphometric studies were also conducted for tunnel measurement. Parasite sections, tunnels, orthokeratosis, exocytosis, folliculitis, scarring, hyperkeratosis, sero-cellular exudate, pustule and acanthosis were observed with histological studies while several Sarcoptes scabie var caprae which have oval to round, dorsally convex tortoise-like body that is covered with spines and triangular scales with only the first two pairs of legs protruding beyond the body margin in both sexes were identified. There was severe anemia with very low PCV and erythrocyte count, leucocytosis, eosinophilia, hypoproteinemia, hypoalbuminemia and hypoglobulinaemia. Reduction in epidermal tunnel diameter ranges from 200 µm to 170 µm while tunnel height ranges from 220 µm to 180 µm. The goat died 15 days after presentation due to the fact that the goat was in the severe, advanced chronic stage of the disease which often terminate in mortality. It is very paramount to note that early diagnosis and treatment of Sarcoptic mange in goat should be made by a Veterinarian as a therapeutic efficacy of a combination of amitraz and ivermectin will provide an excellent result of complete recovery from generalized infestation of mange mite.

Keywords

References

[1]  Adejinmi J.O, Alayande M.O, Sadiq N.A, Adejinmi O.O. Clinical syndrome, Haematological and Biochemical parameters of goats naturally infested with Mange (Sarcoptes scabie). Tropical Animal Production Investment. 3: 29-34, 2000.
 
[2]  Aitken, I.D. Disease of Sheep, 4th edition. Black well Publishing, Edinburgh. pp: 326-330, 2007.
 
[3]  Akomas S.C., Obijuru O.C And Herbert U.: Hematologic And Serologic Changes Following Ivermectin Treatment In Mange Infested West African Dwarf Goats. Advances in Environmental Biology. 5 (9): 2557-2560, 2011.
 
[4]  Anderson, D.E., Rings, D.M., Pugh, D.G., Diseases of the integumentary system. In: Pugh DG, editor. Sheep and Goat Medicine. Philadelphia, Pa, USA: WB Saunders; pp. 197-222, 2002.
 
[5]  Bancroft, J.D., and Harry, C.C., Manual of Histological Techniques and their Diagnostic Application. 2nd Edn., Singapore. Longman Singapore Publisher, 1-4. 1994.
 
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[6]  Bayou, K., Control of Sheep and Goat Skin Disease. In: By Ian, B.C. and Bayou, B. (Eds.) Proceedings of control of sheep and goat skin diseases for improved quality of hide and skin, FAO, Addis Ababa, pp: 13-20, 1998.
 
[7]  Curtis, C F. Current trends in the treatment of Sarcoptes, Cheyletiella and Otodectes mite infestation in dogs and cats. Veterinary Dermatology. 15 (2): 108-114, 2004.
 
[8]  Falohun O.O., Onyiche,E.T., Adejinmi, J.O., Omonuwa, O.A., Awoyomi,O.J., Ogundare,S.T., Suleiman,S. Death of a four-year-old German shepherd dog due to Demodex canis in Ibadan, Southwest Nigeria:a case report. Research 1: 887-889, 2014.
 
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[10]  Hafeez, U. A., Zia-Ud-Din S.Z., Abdul Jabbar and Zahida T. Prevalence of Sheep Mange in District Dera Ghazi Khan (Pakistan) and Associated Hematological/Biochemical Disturbances. Int. J. Agri. Biol. Vol. 9: No. 6, 2007.
 
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[12]  León-Vizcaíno L., Cubero M.J., González-Capitel E. Experimental ivermectin treatment of sarcoptic mange and establishment of a mange-free population of Spanish ibex. Journal of Wildlife Diseases. 37 (4): 775-785, 2001.
 
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[14]  Nektarios D. G., Rania F., Nikilaos P., Elias P., Harilaos K. and Alaxander F. K. Moxidectin Efficiency in a Goat Herd with Chronic and Generalized Sarcoptic Mange. Vet Med int. 2011.
 
[15]  Nwoha, R. I. O.,A case report on scabies in a goat. Clinical Reviews and Opinions. Vol. 3 (5), pp. 51-54, 2011.
 
[16]  Oladeji, J.O. Socio-economic aspects of the management of mange disease by small ruminant farmers in Ido Local Government area of Oyo State, Nigeria. Journal of Agriculture, Forestry and the Social Sciences. Vol. 4 (1): 75-79, 2006.
 
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Article

Comparative Pharmacognostic Study of Different Parts of Withania somnifera and its Substitute Ruellia tuberosa

1Herbal Technology Section, Industrial Technology Institute, 363, Bauddhaloka Mawatha, Colombo 7, Sri Lanka


World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2015, 3(1), 28-33
DOI: 10.12691/wjar-3-1-7
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Luxmini. K.P.A.M.K, Dharmadasa. R.M, Samarasinghe, K. Muthukumarana. P.R.M. Comparative Pharmacognostic Study of Different Parts of Withania somnifera and its Substitute Ruellia tuberosa. World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2015; 3(1):28-33. doi: 10.12691/wjar-3-1-7.

Correspondence to: Dharmadasa.  R.M, Herbal Technology Section, Industrial Technology Institute, 363, Bauddhaloka Mawatha, Colombo 7, Sri Lanka. Email: dharmadasarm@gmail.com

Abstract

Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal. (Solanaceae) is a therapeutically important medicinal plant widely used in Ayurveda and traditional systems of medicine in all over the world. Since this valuable plant is not commercially cultivated in Sri Lanka, traditional practitioners use Ruellia tuberosa L. (Acanthaceae) as a substitute for Withania somnifera. However, use of R. tuberosa as a substitute without scientifically proven data on important quality standards might adversely affect on the therapeutic properties of herbal drugs. Present study investigates the important pharmacognostic aspects of W. somnifera and R. tuberosa. Comparative quality parameters on morphological, anatomical, powder microscopical, phytochemical, physicochemical and brine shrimp toxicity of different parts of (leaf, bark and roots) W. somnifera and R. tuberosa by using established protocols. Results demonstrated that all major phytochemical groups tested were present in leaves, bark and roots of both plants. Physicochemical analysis exhibited the higher total ash, water soluble ash and acid insoluble ash in all parts of R. tuberosa. However, TLC profiles exhibited the higher number of spots in all 3 parts for W. somnifera over R. tuberosa. Potent of brine shrimp toxicity was increased as leaf>bark>roots for R. tuberosa and bark>root>leaf for Withania somnifera. Therefore, W. somnifer acould be differentiated from R. tuberosaby comparing polymorphic macroscopic, microscopic, phytochemical, physicochemical characters either singularly or as a whole. The presence of certain similarities in major phytochemical groups, and in brine shrimp toxicity of W. somnifera and R. tuberosa partially justifies the use of R. tuberosa as a substitute for W. somnifera in traditional systems of medicine in Sri Lanka which needs to be confirmed after further clinical trials.

Keywords

References

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Article

Disease Management Practice on Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) in Ethiopia

1Samara University, School of Natural and Computational Sciences, Department of Applied Biology, Samara, Ethiopia


World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2015, 3(1), 34-42
DOI: 10.12691/wjar-3-1-8
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Ephrem Guchi. Disease Management Practice on Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) in Ethiopia. World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2015; 3(1):34-42. doi: 10.12691/wjar-3-1-8.

Correspondence to: Ephrem  Guchi, Samara University, School of Natural and Computational Sciences, Department of Applied Biology, Samara, Ethiopia. Email: ephremg21@gmail.com

Abstract

Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is the fourth major crop of the world after rice, wheat and maize. In Ethiopia, the yield per unit area of potato is very low compared to those of other countries. There are many factors that reduce the yield of the crop among which the diseases like late blight (Phytophthora infestans) and bacterial wilt (Ralstonia (Pseudomonas) solanacearum) which play an important role. Management of these diseases is therefore very essential. In Ethiopia, however, much research has not been done for the management of bacterial wilt disease except identification of bacteria and screening of biological control agents and use of resistant varieties. Late blight of potato can be managed using the following management (control) strategies: use of biological control agents, use of resistant varieties, intercropping, use of certified disease-free seed, use of selective fungicides and cultural practices such as destruction of cull piles by freezing or deep burying, destruction of volunteer potato plants in nearby fields throughout the season, destruction (desiccate, disc or flail and desiccate) of infected plants to avoid spread, reduction of periods of leaf wetness and high humidity within the crop canopy by appropriately timing irrigation, application of a recommended fungicide spray program (the program should start prior to the arrival of the pathogen) and desiccation of vines prior to harvest.

Keywords

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Article

Palm Oil Production as a Poverty Alleviation Strategy among Small-scale Farmers in Ekiti State, Nigeria

1Department of Crop, Soil and Environmental Sciences Ekiti State University, Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria

2Department of Agricultural Economics and Extension Services


World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2015, 3(2), 43-48
DOI: 10.12691/wjar-3-2-1
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Adebo. G.M., Ayodele. O.J., Olowokere. K.. Palm Oil Production as a Poverty Alleviation Strategy among Small-scale Farmers in Ekiti State, Nigeria. World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2015; 3(2):43-48. doi: 10.12691/wjar-3-2-1.

Correspondence to: Adebo.  G.M., Department of Crop, Soil and Environmental Sciences Ekiti State University, Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria. Email: grace.adebo@eksu.edu.ng

Abstract

Palm oil is one of the commodities produced in rural Nigeria whose consumption daily in the human diet and use as an industrial raw material have increased its potentials for income generation and poverty alleviation. This study examined the contribution of palm oil production to income generation among 120 small-scale farmers selected from the farming communities in Ekiti State, Nigeria. Responses to a structured interview schedule were analyzed using frequency counts and percentages while profitability was determined with data provided on costs and revenue. Palm oil producers were mainly middle-aged married females with low literacy level and operated on small-scale farms (< 2 ha) grown mainly to Dura variety of oil palm. Most farmers used modern processing methods (motorized hydraulic pressers and combined hydraulic pressers and nut crackers) and incurred ₦3,000 transportation cost and ₦5,000-10,000 labour cost per processing session. The Gross Margin averaged ₦69,600 between 2008 and 2012 while processing cost was ₦0.57 for every ₦1.00 return. The major challenges are labour shortage and yield variation due to climate change while high costs of labour and processing equipment affected profitability. Farmers should form cooperatives to: pool resources and acquire modern equipment so as to increase scale of operations, reduce extraction cost and enhance revenue; access credit; benefit from training on the use of modern processing machines and education on adaptation to climate change.

Keywords

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Article

Prevalence of Gastrointestinal Parasites of Goats in Ibadan, Southwest, Nigeria

1Federal College of Animal Health and Production Technology, Institute of Agricultural Research and Training, Ibadan

2Department of Microbiology and Parasitology, University of Ibadan


World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2015, 3(2), 49-51
DOI: 10.12691/wjar-3-2-2
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Adejinmi Olufunmilayo Olanike, Adejinmi Johnson Olayide, Falohun Olufarati Oludunsin, Aderoju Opeyemi Racheal, Dauda Wale Japhet. Prevalence of Gastrointestinal Parasites of Goats in Ibadan, Southwest, Nigeria. World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2015; 3(2):49-51. doi: 10.12691/wjar-3-2-2.

Correspondence to: Falohun  Olufarati Oludunsin, Department of Microbiology and Parasitology, University of Ibadan. Email: farry4real2k@yahoo.com

Abstract

A prevalence study on the gastro intestinal parasites of goats was carried out for six months from May to October, 2014 in Ibadan, South Western, Nigeria. Four hundred (400) goats’ faecal samples comprising of 103 West African Dwarf and 297 Red sokoto breeds were collected from goats in households, market places and abattoir. They were examined for intestinal helminth eggs and protozoan oocysts using direct microscopic examination and sodium chloride floatation technique. Out of the 400 faecal samples examined, 303(75.75%) were positive for gastrointestinal parasites. The Red sokoto breed had a higher prevalence of 217(54.25%) while West African dwarf breed had the lower prevalence of 86(21.5%). Male goat had a prevalence of 163(40.85%) while female had a prevalence of 140(35%). The gastro intestinal parasites observed were Strongyloides papiillosus, Monieza spp, Coccidia spp and Strongyle spp. Strongyle spp had the highest prevalence while Monieza spp had the lowest prevalence. Of the total 217(54.3%) Red sokoto breeds positive for helminths, 120(30%) had mixed parasitic gastro-intestinal infection while 74(18.5%) of the total 86 (21.5%) WAD goats positive for helminth also had mixed infection. We suggest good management practices, prompt diagnosis and treatment with anthelmintic and antiprotozoa drugs and education of animal owners on bio-security as panacea to reduce the risk of infection and increase productivity of the animals.

Keywords

References

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