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Article

Cultivation of Calocybe indica (P & C) in Konkan Region of Maharashtra, India

1Department of Plant Pathology, Dr. Balasaheb Sawant Konkan Krishi Vidyapeeth Dapoli, Dist. Ratnagiri, Maharashtra India


World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2014, 2(4), 187-191
DOI: 10.12691/wjar-2-4-9
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Sudhir Navathe, P. G. Borkar, J.J. Kadam. Cultivation of Calocybe indica (P & C) in Konkan Region of Maharashtra, India. World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2014; 2(4):187-191. doi: 10.12691/wjar-2-4-9.

Correspondence to: Sudhir  Navathe, Department of Plant Pathology, Dr. Balasaheb Sawant Konkan Krishi Vidyapeeth Dapoli, Dist. Ratnagiri, Maharashtra India. Email: sudhir.agro123@gmail.com

Abstract

Considering suitability of climatic conditions and economic aspects in Konkan region of Maharashtra, cultivation of Calocybe indica was undertaken with locally available substrates viz. paddy straw, horse gram waste, wild grass (Themeda quadrivolvis), bamboo leaves and different casing materials such as vermicompost, sand + soil (1:1 v/v), dried biogas spent slurry and combination of sand +soil +dried biogas spent slurry (1:1:1 v/v). Among the four substrates evaluated for cultivation of milky mushroom, paddy straw was the best with 81.05 per cent biological efficiency followed by horse gram waste (BE 50 %) and bamboo leaves (BE 40.62 %), but wild grass (Themeda quadrivolvis) was the poorest substrate. The biological efficiency of Calocybe indica was doubled by using a combination of sand +soil +dried biogas spent slurry (BE 180.32%) or vermicompost (BE 176.28 %) as casing material. Use of dried biogas spent slurry alone also recorded 130 per cent biological efficiency but combination of sand + soil (BE 79.94 %) was inferior. From the present study it was concluded that the maximum biological efficiency of Calocybe indica (P & C) in Konkan conditions can be obtained by using paddy straw as a substrate encased with sand +soil +dried biogas spent slurry (1:1:1 v/v) or Vermicompost during summer season.

Keywords

References

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Article

The Evolution of Income Distribution in Brazil in the Agricultural and the Non-agricultural Sectors

1Department of Economics, Administration and Sociology, University of São Paulo – ESALQ, Piracicaba, São Paulo, Brazil

2Ministry of Agrarian Development, Brasília, Federal District, Brazil


World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2014, 2(5), 192-204
DOI: 10.12691/wjar-2-5-1
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Rodolfo Hoffmann, Régis B. de Oliveira. The Evolution of Income Distribution in Brazil in the Agricultural and the Non-agricultural Sectors. World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2014; 2(5):192-204. doi: 10.12691/wjar-2-5-1.

Correspondence to: Rodolfo  Hoffmann, Department of Economics, Administration and Sociology, University of São Paulo – ESALQ, Piracicaba, São Paulo, Brazil. Email: hoffmannr@usp.br

Abstract

The paper analyzes the characteristics and evolution of income distribution in the Brazilian agricultural sector, comparing it with the overall distribution or with the non-agricultural sector, considering two dimensions: the per capita household income and the income of occupied persons. The main data source is the National Household Sample Survey (PNAD). In order to fulfill this purpose, the per capita household income was divided into nine components (for Brazil and considering only the agricultural households) to evaluate their contributions to the decrease in inequality. In the second part, the paper analyzes the characteristics of occupied persons and the determining factors of their income, always comparing the agricultural and non-agricultural sectors. The estimated effects were analyzed over the period 1992-2012, adjusting one earnings equation for each year. In both cases (per capita household income and earnings of occupied persons), the agricultural sector showed a markedly different behavior. Regarding the per capita household income, though from 2001 to 2009 the rate of reduction in inequality among agricultural households is similar to the one observed in Brazil as a whole, the determinants associated with this reduction are clearly different in the agricultural sector. Concerning the income of occupied persons, the reduction in inequality is less intense and more irregular in the agricultural sector. The various factors that determine the income of occupied persons also presented distinct behaviors for the agricultural and non-agricultural sectors.

Keywords

References

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Article

An Evaluation of Adaptation Options to Climate Pressure on Highland Robusta Coffee Production, Daklak Province, Vietnam

1Center for Agricultural Resource System Research, Faculty of Agriculture, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand

2Department of Economic, Faculty of Economic, Nong Lam University, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam

3Department of Agricultural Economics and Extension, Faculty of Agriculture, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand


World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2014, 2(5), 205-215
DOI: 10.12691/wjar-2-5-2
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Thuyen Pham Thi, Yaovarate Chaovanapoonphol. An Evaluation of Adaptation Options to Climate Pressure on Highland Robusta Coffee Production, Daklak Province, Vietnam. World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2014; 2(5):205-215. doi: 10.12691/wjar-2-5-2.

Correspondence to: Thuyen  Pham Thi, Center for Agricultural Resource System Research, Faculty of Agriculture, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand. Email: phamthuyen@hcmuaf.edu.vn

Abstract

Adaptation to changes of temperature and rainfall is a two-stage process, which initially hinges on the farmers’ perception of climate variability and then responding to changes through adaptation strategies. Adaptation evaluation is considered as part of a planned policy coping with consciously planned, primarily anticipatory adaptation initiatives undertaken by decision makers, specifically individual farmers. An evaluation goes beyond the identification, characterization of adaptation approaches and with regards to an adaptation option’s relative merit, superiority or implement-ability. Evaluative criteria do not only mention on principally economic dimension, but also relate to the different considerations. The objectives of this study (1) undertakes an evaluation of adaptation options in level of coffee farms by five alternatives involving in effectiveness, economic efficiency, flexibility, farmer implement-ability and independent benefits and (2) analyzes the determining factors impacting on the farmers’ adaptation level. The study uses data from structured interviews with 176 coffee farmers in Ea H’leo District, Daklak Province, Vietnam. The multiple criteria evaluation, unity based normalization and weighted sum methods are employed to assess the farmers’ adaptation options. The Ordered logit model is also used to estimate the relationship between the farmers’ adaptation level and their demographic and socio-economic characteristics. The result of multiple criteria evaluation indicated that amongst five evaluative criteria, the economic efficiency and effectiveness were assessed with the highest weights about importance level. The outcome of weighted sum of adaptation options highlighted that the level of adaptation was not positive relationship with the number of adaptation options which the farmers adapted to climate pressure for their coffee farm. It depended on the adaptation’s multiple considerations. The findings of regression model also revealed that factors related to the households’ socio-economic characteristics had statistically significant impacted to choosing the adaptation level at significant level 1%, 5%.

Keywords

References

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[42]  Pattanayak, S.K., Mercer, D.E., Sills E. and Jui-Chen, Y., “Taking Stock of Agroforestry Adoption Studies”, Agroforestry System, 57 (3), 173-186, 2003.
 
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Article

Grain Legumes in Nepal: Present Scenario and Future Prospects

1Grain Legumes Research program, Rampur, Chitwan, Nepal

2South Asia and China Regional Program, International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas (ICARDA), New Delhi, India

3North Africa Platform, ICARDA, Rabat, Morocco


World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2014, 2(5), 216-222
DOI: 10.12691/wjar-2-5-3
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Gharti DB, Darai R., Subedi S, Sarker A., Shiv Kumar. Grain Legumes in Nepal: Present Scenario and Future Prospects. World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2014; 2(5):216-222. doi: 10.12691/wjar-2-5-3.

Correspondence to: Gharti  DB, Grain Legumes Research program, Rampur, Chitwan, Nepal. Email: dhana_gharti@yahoo.com

Abstract

Grain legumes play an important role in Nepalese agriculture contributing towards food and nutritional security, nitrogen economy, crop intensification, diversification and sustainable farming systems and rank fourth in terms of area and fifth in agricultural production. Grain Legumes Research program (GLRP) of Nepal in collaboration with CGIAR centers works for genetic improvement of lentil, chickpea, pigeonpea, soybean, mungbean, blackgram, and cowpea, resulting in development of 35 improved varieties and a dozen of production technologies for different agro-ecological domains. This has led to substantial increase (142%) in grain legumes production, mainly because of 47% area increase and 65% yield increase during the last two and a half decades. The current estimates for area, production and productivity of grain legumes in Nepal are 334,323 ha, 319,770 metric tons and 956 kg ha-1, respectively. Lentil is the major grain legume and accounts for 62% of area and 65% production of total grain legumes in Nepal and has emerged as an important export commodity. A number of micro-nutrient rich (iron, zinc and selenium) lentil lines have been identified in collaboration with ICARDA and scaled out under the Harvest Plus Challenge Program. Further efforts are underway for expanding area under lentil, chickpea, fieldpea, and lathyrus in rice-fallow through Village based seed enterprise under OFID/ICARDA program. There is further scope for increase in area, production and productivity of grain legumes in Nepal through development and popularization of suitable varieties and technologies, streamlining community based seed production system, addressing climate change issues and policy reforms for the promotion of legumes.

Keywords

References

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[5]  MoAD 2013. Statistical information on Nepalese Agriculture 2012/13. Agri-Business Promotion and Statistics Division, Ministry of Agriculture Development, Kathmandu, Nepal
 
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[6]  NARC (2007) Released and Registered Crop Varietites in Nepal (1960-2007). Communication, Publication and Documentation Division (CPDD), Nepal Agricultural Research Council.
 
[7]  Neupane et al (2011). The effect of seed priming, rhizobium inoculation and nutrient loading on seed yields and nodulation of mungbean. Results form on-farm trials 2010 FORWARD Nepal (unpublished).
 
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Article

Racy Nature-A Sun Technology towards Quantum Agriculture

1Central Soil and Water Conservation Research and Training Institute, Research Centre Agra, U.P., India

2International Scientific Research and Welfare Organization, New Delhi, India


World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2014, 2(5), 223-227
DOI: 10.12691/wjar-2-5-4
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
R. C. Yadav, M. P. Chaudhary. Racy Nature-A Sun Technology towards Quantum Agriculture. World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2014; 2(5):223-227. doi: 10.12691/wjar-2-5-4.

Correspondence to: R.  C. Yadav, Central Soil and Water Conservation Research and Training Institute, Research Centre Agra, U.P., India. Email: ramcyadav@rediffmail.com

Abstract

An alive, smart and enthusiastic (racy) agriculture technology developed based on innovative application of scientific facts and assembled convergence package capsule of best practices derived from the past researches is named as racy nature agriculture. It uses concept of quantum mechanics and produces technologies of generation I (1G), even without conducting experiment and completes research needs by optimisation for bringing world agriculture to generation II (2G). This unique green Sun technology is universally applicable to enlighten all ecosystems, soils, crops, both rainfed and irrigated agriculture, together with eliminate the global worries of sustainable food production and protection of environment.

Keywords

References

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[3]  Yadav, R.C.: Journal of Energy and Environment-Photon, 2014 in press.
 
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[5]  Yadav, R.C.: Hydrology- Current Research, 2012.
 
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[7]  Yadav, R.C.: Middle East Journal of Scientific Research, 2013.
 
[8]  Kenneth, D. Sayer: Encyclopedia of Soil Science, 2006.
 
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[12]  Yadav, R.C. et al.: Int. J. Agronomy and Plant Production, U.K., 4 (12), 2013.
 
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Article

Sites Regression GGE Biplot Analysis of Haricot Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Genotypes in three Contrasting Environments

1Ethiopian Institute of Agricultural Research, Kulumsa Agricultural Research Center, Asella, Ethiopia


World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2014, 2(5), 228-236
DOI: 10.12691/wjar-2-5-5
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Tamene T. Tolessa, Tadese S. Gela. Sites Regression GGE Biplot Analysis of Haricot Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Genotypes in three Contrasting Environments. World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2014; 2(5):228-236. doi: 10.12691/wjar-2-5-5.

Correspondence to: Tamene  T. Tolessa, Ethiopian Institute of Agricultural Research, Kulumsa Agricultural Research Center, Asella, Ethiopia. Email: tt.tolassa@gmail.com

Abstract

Fourteen haricot bean genotypes were evaluated at three contrasting environments in Ethiopia during 2007-2009 main cropping seasons. The objective of the study was to determine the magnitude and pattern of G × E interaction and yield stability, and to determine the best performing varieties for selection environments. The study was conducted using a randomized complete block design with 4 replications. G × E interaction and yield stability were estimated using the sites regression genotype plus G × E interaction biplot. Pooled analysis of variance for grain yield showed significant (p ≤ 0.001) differences among the genotypes, environments and for G × E interaction effects. This indicated that the genotypes differentially responded to the changes in the test environments or the test environments differentially discriminated the genotypes or both. Environment accounted for 50.2% of the total yield variation, genotype for 29.1% and G × E interaction for 18.3%, indicating the necessity for testing haricot bean varieties at multi-locations and over years. The first two multiplicative component terms sum of squares of the GGE biplot explained 85.76% of the interaction sum of squares. There were no single genotypes that showed generally superior performance across all the test environments but genotype 213-FOT-15 followed by other three better performing genotypes including 551-SEQ-1024, BAYOMADERO-75 and ZEBRA, were ranked first in 78% and 67% of the nine test environments, respectively and identified as stable based on GGE analysis. Generally, the application of sites regression GGE biplots facilitated the visual comparison and identification of superior genotypes, thereby supporting decisions on haricot bean variety selection and recommendation in different environments.

Keywords

References

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Article

Evaluation of Maize Variety for Northern Leaf Blight (Trichometasphaeria turcica) in South Omo zone

1Jinka Agricultural Research Centre, South Agricultural Research Institute, Jinka, Ethiopia


World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2014, 2(5), 237-239
DOI: 10.12691/wjar-2-5-6
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Misgana Mitiku, Yesuf Eshte, Wondewosen Shiferaw. Evaluation of Maize Variety for Northern Leaf Blight (Trichometasphaeria turcica) in South Omo zone. World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2014; 2(5):237-239. doi: 10.12691/wjar-2-5-6.

Correspondence to: Wondewosen  Shiferaw, Jinka Agricultural Research Centre, South Agricultural Research Institute, Jinka, Ethiopia. Email: manyawqal@gmail.com

Abstract

Maize is a staple food crop which plays a role in food security in . It is affected by many diseases that reduces yield. The majour control methods are chemical and cultural. However , such options are unsustainable to the smallholder resource poor. An experiment conducted on station in evaluated 12 improved maize varieties and one local check using Randomized Complete Block Design with three replications.The objective of the study was to select a maize variety or varieties resistant to northern leaf blight. The variety BH660 was highly resistant compare to the other tested varieties with the incidence of 13.7% and a grain yield of 3.7kg/plot. The variety BH543 was susceptible with the incidence of 52.3% and it gave grain yield of 3.4kg/plot.On the other hand BHQPY545 and local check were susceptible to northern leaf blight but their yields were 4.1kg/plot and 3.8kg/plot respectively. This indicates that the local check and BHQPY545 were able to tolerate high disease pressure. Therefore, the variety BHQPY545 is recommended for mid land maize production areas of South Omo zone.

Keywords

References

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[3]  Assefa, T, H., Mengistu. And H.G.Welz. 1996. Assessment of damage and grain yield loss in maize caused by northern leaf blight in western Ethiopia.J. of plant disease and protection 103:353-363.
 
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Article

Pharmacognostical investigation of Plectranthus hadiensis (Forssk.) Schweinf. ex Sprenger. and Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng

1Herbal Technology Section, Industrial Technology Institute, 363, Bauddhaloka Mawatha, Colombo 7, Sri Lanka


World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2014, 2(5), 240-246
DOI: 10.12691/wjar-2-5-7
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
R. Muthukumarana, R.M. Dharmadasa. Pharmacognostical investigation of Plectranthus hadiensis (Forssk.) Schweinf. ex Sprenger. and Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng. World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2014; 2(5):240-246. doi: 10.12691/wjar-2-5-7.

Correspondence to: R.M.  Dharmadasa, Herbal Technology Section, Industrial Technology Institute, 363, Bauddhaloka Mawatha, Colombo 7, Sri Lanka. Email: dharma@iti.lk, dharmadasarm@gmail.com

Abstract

Plectranthus hadiensis (Forssk.) Schweinf. ex Sprenger. and Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng. (Lamiaceae) are two medicinal plants with taxonomic ambiguity. Even though both plants are similar in appearance, their therapeutic properties are different. However, incorrectly use of these plants in herbal formulations might adversely effect on therapeutic properties of herbal drugs. Present study describes the comprehensive pharmacognostic aspects of P.hadiensis and P. amboinicus by means of physical and chemical yield parameters. Morphological, anatomical Thin Layer Chromatographic profiles, essential oil content and composition were carried out according to the established protocols. Plant fresh and dry weights of both species were increased with the maturity while dry fresh ratio was decreased. Physical and chemical yield parameters were optimum at fully matured stage. TLC finger print profiles exhibited nine spots for P. hadiensis while five spots for P. amboinicus and yellow green (Rf 0.73) spot was characteristic to P. hadiensis, while violet-blue (Rf 0.61) and brown- red (Rf 0.55) were characteristic spots for P. amboinicus. P-Cymene, Gerenyl acetate and geraniol were identified as common compounds for both species. Presence of higher chemical and physical parameters scientifically validates the traditional claims of harvesting of both plants at fully maturity stage. Results of the present study either singularly or as a whole could be incorporated for quality control and standardization of P. hadiensis and P. amboinicus.

Keywords

References

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Article

The Development of Diets to Induce Atherogenic Lipid Profiles for Cynomolgus Monkeys in Their Country of Origin

1Primate Research Center, Bogor Agricultural University, Bogor, Indonesia

2Department of Animal Nutrition Bogor Agricultural University, Bogor, Indonesia

3Centre for Comparative Medicine Research, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston Salem, NC. USA


World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2014, 2(5), 247-251
DOI: 10.12691/wjar-2-5-8
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Dewi Apri Astuti, Dondin Sajuthi, Irma Herawati Suparto, Jay Kaplan, Sue Appt, Thomas B. Clarkson. The Development of Diets to Induce Atherogenic Lipid Profiles for Cynomolgus Monkeys in Their Country of Origin. World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2014; 2(5):247-251. doi: 10.12691/wjar-2-5-8.

Correspondence to: Dewi  Apri Astuti, Primate Research Center, Bogor Agricultural University, Bogor, Indonesia. Email: dewiapriastitu86@gmail.com

Abstract

Understanding the process of atherosclerosis progress can be studied in laboratory animals, such as nonhuman primate (NHP). Investigators at Bogor Agricultural University Indonesia, Primate Research Center (IPB) reported to develop an atherogenic diet (IPB 1) by using fresh egg yolk and coconut oil as source of cholesterol and fat. The aims of the research were to correct nutritional inadequacy in the initial IPB 1 atherogenic diet by supplementation with corn oil (IPB 1+CO); to use dry powdered egg yolk (PEY) instead of fresh egg yolk (IPB 1+CO+PEY); to use concentrated source of protein (43%) pupae meal (PM) instead of soya meal (IPB 1+CO+PM) ; and to use crystalline cholesterol (CC) instead of egg yolk (IPB 1+CO+CC). Twenty four Macaca fascicularis were used as animal model for three months adaptation followed by 12 months for four diet treatments. Parameters measured such body weight, waist circumference, trunk length, adiposity index, nutrient utilization, and plasma lipid profile every three months. This experiment used Completely Randomized Design with four treatments and six replications. Result showed that there were no significant differences found in morphometric parameters among the diet groups compared to one another or change from baseline. The nutrient (protein, fat and carbohydrate) consumption and the absorption were essentially the same for all four diet groups. The IPB 1+CO diet, the IPB 1+CO+PM diet and the IPB 1+CO+CC induced a similar atherogenic plasma lipid profile, with marked increases in total plasma cholesterol concentrations.

Keywords

References

[1]  Astuti, D.A., Suparto, I.S., Sajuthi, D., Budiarsa, I.N. “Determination of nutrient digestibility of Cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis) fed with high starch diet: A preliminary study”, Hayati J. of Biosciences, 16 (4): 147-150, 2009.
 
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[6]  McDonald, P., Edwards, R.A., Greenhalgh, J.F.D. Animal Nutrition. 6th ed. Longman Scientific and Technical, New York, 2002: 200-210.
 
[7]  Mubiru,J.N., Forey, M.G., Higgins, P.B., Hemmat, P. and Rogers, J. “A Prelimanary report an the feeding of cynomolgus monkeys with a high sugar high fat diet for 33 weeks”. J Med. Primatol, 40 (5): 335-341, 2011
 
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[9]  Stills, H. F.Jr., Clarkson, T.B. Atherosclerosis. In: Sponaneous Models of Human Disease (E. J. Andrews, B. C. Ward, N. H. Altman, Ed.), Academic Press, New York, 1979; 70-79.
 
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Article

Competitiveness of Gum Arabic Marketing System at Elobeid Crops Market, North Kordofan State, Sudan

1Department of Agricultural Economics and Rural Development, Faculty of Natural Resources and Environmental Studies, University of Kordofan, Elobeid, Sudan

2Department of Forestry Management, Faculty of Forestry, University of Khartoum, Sudan

3Department of Crop Sciences, Faculty of Natural Resources and Environmental Studies, University of Kordofan, Elobeid, Sudan


World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2014, 2(5), 252-256
DOI: 10.12691/wjar-2-5-9
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Tarig E. Mahmoud, Maruod E. Maruod, Manal A. Khiery, Ahmed M. El Naim, Moayad B. Zaied. Competitiveness of Gum Arabic Marketing System at Elobeid Crops Market, North Kordofan State, Sudan. World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2014; 2(5):252-256. doi: 10.12691/wjar-2-5-9.

Correspondence to: Ahmed  M. El Naim, Department of Crop Sciences, Faculty of Natural Resources and Environmental Studies, University of Kordofan, Elobeid, Sudan. Email: naim17amn@yahoo.com

Abstract

Gum Arabic (GA) subsector in Sudan is largely structured by performance of its marketing systems and prevailing policy intervention. The marketing systems of GA commodity are indicated by the rural traditional, the urban and the auction markets. The commodity has been exposed to different scenarios of policy innervations ranging from monopoly, concession, liberalization and oligopoly measures. The current paper is intended to describe and assess the competence of gum Arabic marketing system at Elobeid Crops Market (ECsM) under the prevailing policy measures. Investigations, in such respect, entail to identify of the active GA stakeholders, market infrastructures, administrative setups, marketing channels, forces of supply and demand, pricing mechanisms and quality control measures. The paper applied a composite of research methodologies including descriptive statistics and policy analysis matrix. The findings revealed that GA producers, as major stakeholders, do not often exist physically at ECsM. The gum Arabic companies do not show up directly at the auction market. Results emphasized varying comparative advantages and competiveness pertaining GA trade at the auction market. Additionally, the oligopoly nature of the market is still predominating despite the adopted liberalization measures. Having understood the nature and complexity of GA local marketing systems in the North Kordofan State, the current paper proposed some arguments for improving competence GA stakeholders in the market.

Keywords

References

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