World Journal of Agricultural Research

ISSN (Print): 2333-0643

ISSN (Online): 2333-0678

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Website: http://www.sciepub.com/journal/WJAR

   

Article

Efficiency of Single and Multiple Traits Selection for Yield and Its Components in Varietal Maintenance of Giza 90 Egyptian Cotton Variety

1Cotton research institute, Agricultural Research Center (ARC), Cairo, Egypt

2Agronomy Department, College of Agriculture, Assiut University, 71526 Assiut, Egypt


World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2016, 4(6), 166-172
doi: 10.12691/wjar-4-6-3
Copyright © 2016 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Nour Ibrahim, Salah F. Abou-Elwafa, Hamdi Mahrous, Abdel-Azeem A. Ismail, Ezzat E. Mahdy. Efficiency of Single and Multiple Traits Selection for Yield and Its Components in Varietal Maintenance of Giza 90 Egyptian Cotton Variety. World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2016; 4(6):166-172. doi: 10.12691/wjar-4-6-3.

Correspondence to: Salah  F. Abou-Elwafa, Agronomy Department, College of Agriculture, Assiut University, 71526 Assiut, Egypt. Email: elwafa75@aun.edu.eg

Abstract

Cotton is an important commercial crop of Egypt. The present study was carried out to study the possibility of selection of elite high yielding plants characterized by the same fiber properties of the superior cultivar Giza 90. To attain this goal two cycles of selection for single trait selection for lint yield/plant and 14 selection indices (desired genetic gain index) were achieved. Average observed genetic gain of the ten selected families after two cycles of selection indicated that LY/P ranged from insignificant (16.57%) for index 2 (LY/P and BW) to 21.63% (P ≤0.01) for index 7 (NB/P and NS/B). Index 2 increased BW by 9.27% (p ≤ 0.05) and UHM length by 2.23% (p ≤ 0.01). Index 7 showed significant genetic gain of 20.26, 21.63, 3.16, 5.44 and 2.785 for SCY/P, LY/P, SI, PI, and UHM length, respectively. Index 3 showed significant genetic gain of 19.71, 21.36, 3.61, 7.82, and 2.65% for SCY/P, LY/P, SI, PI and UHM length, respectively. Index 13 gave significant genetic gain 18.46, 20.55 and 5.76% for SCY/P, LY/P and PI, respectively. Single trait selection for LY/P showed significant genetic gain of 19.75, 20.30 and 14.01% for SCY/P, LY/P and NB/P, respectively. The results indicated that selection index was better than single trait selection in detecting the superior families in LY/P. Generally, it could be concluded that the present program for maintenance and renewing Egyptian cotton varieties is a precise and perfect program to preserve the fiber quality, but, not suitable for improving yielding ability. In consequence, this program should be modified to allow the isolation of superior high yielding off types from the breeding nursery characterized by improvement in one or more fiber quality.

Keywords

References

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Article

Nutritional, Rheological and Organoleptic Properties of Whole Meal Flour Prepared from Stem Rust Resistant Wheat Varieties Released in Kenya

1Egerton University, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, P.O Box 536-20115, Egerton, Kenya

2Kenya Agricultural and Livestock Research Organization, Food Crops Research Centre Njoro, Kenya

3Highland Agri-consult Services Limited, P.O Box 470-20107, Njoro, Kenya


World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2016, 4(6), 173-182
doi: 10.12691/wjar-4-6-4
Copyright © 2016 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Kariithi Samuel Ngure, Abwao Stephen Indieka, Ndung’u John, Njau Peter. Nutritional, Rheological and Organoleptic Properties of Whole Meal Flour Prepared from Stem Rust Resistant Wheat Varieties Released in Kenya. World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2016; 4(6):173-182. doi: 10.12691/wjar-4-6-4.

Correspondence to: Kariithi  Samuel Ngure, Egerton University, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, P.O Box 536-20115, Egerton, Kenya. Email: sammy_re@yahoo.com

Abstract

Wheat is an important cereal crop in most diets thus its nutritional content is crucial in addressing microelement deficiencies. This study focused on Zn, Fe, phytic acid and resistant starch content and their effect on rheological and organoleptic properties for whole meal flour from Kenyan wheat varieties. Zn and Fe levels ranged from111 to 305 ppm and 26 to 91 ppm, whereas phytic acid and resistant starch levels ranged from 2.66 to 5.05 ppm and 0.37 to 6.03%. Variety and site significantly (p<0.05) influenced iron and resistant starch content, whereas variety and variety × site influenced zinc and phytic acid. Protein and gluten levels ranged between 11.96 to 14.53% and 7.81% to 19.60% respectively. All the varieties recorded high water absorption levels ranging from 72.2% to 80.8%, while DDT ranged from 4.00 to 9.83 minutes. P and L values ranged between 21 to 79 and 16 to 51 mm, external loaf characteristics ranged between 2.2 to 4.3 and 2.13 to 3.70 for taste and aroma. Zinc and protein positively correlated (r=0.69, p<0.05), stability and P (r=0.69 p<0.05) and DDT and stability (0.71 p<0.05). Phytic acid and crust colour (r=0.66 p<0.05), zinc and shape (r=0.78 p<0.05), zinc and acceptability (r=0.77 p<0.05), DDT and shape (r=0.74 p<0.05), aroma and shape (r=0.67 p<0.05) were positively correlated. The results obtained indicate varieties tested contained considerable levels of zinc, iron, resistant starch, low levels of phytic acid and they had no adverse effect on rheological and organoleptic parameters of whole meal flour.

Keywords

References

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Article

Fosphite 53 SL (Monopotassium + dipotassium 530g/L) fungicide on the Development of Stem Rust (Puccinia graminis Pers f.sp tritici) Infection on Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

1Department of Crops, Horticulture and Soils, Egerton University, P. O Box 536, Egerton, Kenya

2Kenya Agricultural and Livestock Research Organization, Food Crops Research Centre Njoro, P.O. Private Bag, Njoro 20107, Kenya

3Department of Biological Sciences, Egerton University, P. O Box 536, Egerton, Kenya


World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2016, 4(6), 183-187
doi: 10.12691/wjar-4-6-5
Copyright © 2016 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Miseda Victoria Onyango, Wanyera Ruth, Muthamia Japhet, Owuoche James. Fosphite 53 SL (Monopotassium + dipotassium 530g/L) fungicide on the Development of Stem Rust (Puccinia graminis Pers f.sp tritici) Infection on Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2016; 4(6):183-187. doi: 10.12691/wjar-4-6-5.

Correspondence to: Miseda  Victoria Onyango, Department of Crops, Horticulture and Soils, Egerton University, P. O Box 536, Egerton, Kenya. Email: misedavi@gmail.com

Abstract

Stem rust (Puccinia graminis f.sp tritici) of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is a major threat to wheat production. The objective of the study was to determine the effects of fungicide on the development of stem rust infection. Kwale cultivar was grown in the field at KALRO-Njoro in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) split-plot arrangement for main-rain (June to November, 2014) and off-rain season (February to May, 2015) by applying three treatments of Fosphite 53 SL (Monopotassium + dipotassium 530 g a.i. L-1) (5L ha-1, 7.5L ha-1, 10L ha-1), untreated plot and a standard check (Folicur 25 EW at 2.5L ha-1) at three different growth stages of the wheat cultivar Kwale. Evaluation of disease severity was based on the modified Cobbs scale and expressed in terms of Area Under Disease Progress Curve (AUDPC). Data on yield and yield components were taken at harvest and analyzed using Statistical Analysis System (SAS) and the mean comparisons based on Least Significant Difference (LSD) at 5% probability for the separation of season, growth stage and fungicide rates. There was significant (P≤0.05) effect (season × crop stage) for AUDPC-YR and (P≤0.001) for plant height. Main-rain season, 2014 had higher values for AUDPC-SR and AUDPC-YR at 40.579% and 36.777% and lower values for plant height, tillers, spike length, spikelet per spike, TKW, biomass and yield by 17.127%, 36.874%, 19.543%, 1.27%, 3.26%,39.263%, and 40.148%, respectively compared to off-rain season, 2015. Tillering stage had lower values for AUDPC-SR and AUDPC-YR by 3.41% and 17.617% and high yield and grain weight as compared to stem elongation and heading stage. Of all the tested rates of Fosphite 53 SL (Monopotassium + dipotassium 530 g a.i. L-1) only the rate of 0.5L ha-1 showed significant reduction in the disease pressure and positive influence in the yield and grain weight. The results suggest that spraying of Fosphite 53 SL at 0.5L ha-1 at tillering stage is effective in controlling stem rust hence, the adoption of effective fungicides to control stem rust pathogen and their application at the right stage of the crop can be used in reducing stem rust severity and increase yield of susceptible wheat cultivars in stem rust occurring areas.

Keywords

References

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