World Journal of Agricultural Research

ISSN (Print): 2333-0643

ISSN (Online): 2333-0678

Website: http://www.sciepub.com/journal/WJAR

Article

Evaluating Grain Protectant Efficacy of Some Botanicals against Maize Weevil, Sitophilus zeamais M

1Research and Development Director and Lecturer, Agriculture Faculty, Woldia University, Woldia, Ethiopia


World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2015, 3(2), 66-69
DOI: 10.12691/wjar-3-2-5
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Gebeyaw Tilahun Yeshaneh. Evaluating Grain Protectant Efficacy of Some Botanicals against Maize Weevil, Sitophilus zeamais M. World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2015; 3(2):66-69. doi: 10.12691/wjar-3-2-5.

Correspondence to: Gebeyaw  Tilahun Yeshaneh, Research and Development Director and Lecturer, Agriculture Faculty, Woldia University, Woldia, Ethiopia. Email: gebeyaw2006@yahoo.com

Abstract

The production of sorghum is threatened by a wide range of pre-and post harvest pests like stalk borer, sorghum chafer, and Sitophilus spp. Three botanical plants (Tagitus minuta, Datura stramonium and Carissa schimperi) with five concentrations were tested for efficacy to control maize weevil (Sitophilus zeamais Mostch) on stored sorghum seeds under laboratory conditions. The objective was to study the efficacy of some locally available botanicals to control Sitophilus zeamais Mostch and to determine the length of period the grain could be protected by the different treatments. For comparison, two more treatments-standard check Malathion 5% dust plus control (untreated check) were included; and the experiment was replicated three times. The experiment was conducted under room temperature at 25-28C and relative humidity at 70±5% in Kombolcha Plant Health Clinic Laboratory. Powders of each plant component were then mixed thoroughly with 500 gram grains in plastic jars roofed with muslin cloth and tightened with rubber band. Thirty adult weevils were released in each plastic jars. Number of dead weevils was recorded every 21, 42 and 84 days after the treatments were applied. The data was transformed to arcsine scale prior to analysis. Corrected observations were subjected to statistical analysis, factorial ANOVA. All botanicals significantly affected weevil mortality compared to untreated check, but not as effective as synthetic insecticides (Malathion 5% dust). Carissa schimperi (merez) 5% was significantly more effective than the rest botanical rates and the control (P <0.05). In general the result shows that treatment Carissa schimperi (merez) 5% and Tagitus minuta (gimi) 5% can solve poor resources farmers’ problems by integrating them with other cultural measures. However further research are needed to fix the rate graph and the long term effect in large stores of farmers conditions.

Keywords

References

[1]  Adane Kassa and Abraham Tadese, 1995. Evaluation of some botanicals against maize weevils on stored sorghum at Bako. p.120-126. In: The Proceedings of the Third Conference of Crop Protection Society of Ethiopia, 18-19 May 1995, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
 
[2]  Adhanom Negassi and Abraham Tadese, 1986 A review of research on insect pests of maize and sorghum in Ethiopia. In: Tsedeke Abate (edt.) Review of Crop Protection Research in Ethiopia, p.7-19 ed. Proceeding of the First Ethiopia Crop Protection Symposium, IAR, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
 
[3]  Asmare Dejen, 2002. Evaluation of Some Botanicals Against Maize Weevil, Sitophuilus zeamais Motsch. Pest Management Journal of Ethiopia 6:73-78(ISSN 1928-0308).
 
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[5]  Chayengia, B., P. Patgiri, Z. Rahman & S. Sarma. 2010. Efficacy of different plant products against Sitophilus oryzae (Linn.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) infestation on stored rice. Journal of Biopesticides 3: 604-609.
 
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[7]  Mekuria Tadesse, 1995. Botanical insecticides to control stored grain insects with special reference to weevils on maize. In: Proceeding of the Third Annual Conference of Crop Protection Society of Ethiopia, p. 134-140. May 18-19 1995, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
 
[8]  Pest Management Journal of Ethiopia volume 3, number one and two, 1999 ISSN 1028-0308. Crop Protection Society of Ethiopia.
 
[9]  Save the children (UK), 2002. Survey on post harvest crop loss due to insect pests in North Wello Zone, Woldia, Ethiopia. 7 pp.
 
[10]  Schmutter H and KRS Ascher, 1987. Natural pesticides from the neem tree and other tropical plants. Proceeding of the 3rd International Neem Conference, 10-15 July 1986, Nairobi, Kenya, GTZ Eschborn, and Germany. 650 pp.
 
[11]  SSEAD Consultancy, 1997. Regional Crop Pest Survey Report ANRS Bureau of Agricultural Vol. II E.
 
[12]  Stoll, G., 1996. Natural crop protection: based on local farm resources in the tropics and sub-tropics. Margrafverlag. Weikersheim, Germany. 188 pp.
 
[13]  Stoll, G., 1998. Natural Crop Protection in Tropics, AGRECOL, Germany.188 pp.
 
[14]  Soll, G., 2000. Natural Crop Protection in Tropics, AGRECOL, Germany.
 
[15]  Yemane K., and Yilma H., 1989. Food and grain losses in traditional storage facilities in three areas of Ethiopia. IN: Proceeding of the National Workshop on Food Strategies for Ethiopia, p. 407-430.8-12 December 1986, AU, Alemaya, Ethiopia.
 
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Article

Assessment of Soil Phosphorus and Phosphorus Fixing Capacity of Three Vegetable Farms at Cabintan, Ormoc City, Leyte

1Institute of Tropical Ecology, College of Forestry and Environmental Science, Visayas State University, Baybay City Leyte, 6521-A Philippines

2Department of Pure and Applied Chemistry, College of Arts and Sciences, Visayas State University, Baybay City Leyte, 6521-A Philippines


World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2015, 3(2), 70-73
DOI: 10.12691/wjar-3-2-6
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Mary Chris P. Nierves, Felix M. Salas. Assessment of Soil Phosphorus and Phosphorus Fixing Capacity of Three Vegetable Farms at Cabintan, Ormoc City, Leyte. World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2015; 3(2):70-73. doi: 10.12691/wjar-3-2-6.

Correspondence to: Felix  M. Salas, Department of Pure and Applied Chemistry, College of Arts and Sciences, Visayas State University, Baybay City Leyte, 6521-A Philippines. Email: fmsalas_dopac@yahoo.com

Abstract

Three vegetable farms in Cabintan, Ormoc City – a primary source of vegetables in Leyte Province, Philippines were carefully and randomly selected for the principal concern of this study. It aimed to determine and investigate the Available Soil Phosphorus and Soil Phosphorus Fixing Capacity in vegetable farms located in a mountainous area which soil mainly developed from volcanic tuff, basaltic and andesite materials. Five hundred grams (500g) of aggregate soil sample were collected from each farm. Result revealed that soil samples had low pH values ranged from 5.24 to 5.79 and high organic matter (OM) content which ranged from 10.852% to 22.502%. The available soil phosphorus is low but the Phosphorus fixing capacity of the soil is very high (92.46%-99.15%).

Keywords

References

[1]  Asio, V.B., “Characteristics, Weathering, Formation and Degradation of Soils from Volcanic Rocks in Leyte, Philippines”, Hohenheimer BodenkundilicheHefte, vol.33, 209 pp., Stuttgart, Germany, (Published doctoral Thesis) 1996.
 
[2]  Barak, P., Essential Elements for Plant Growth, University of Wisconsin, 1999.
 
[3]  Beegle, D. and Durst, P., Agronomy Facts 13: Managing Phosphorus for Crop Production, College of Agricultural Sciences, 2013.
 
[4]  Busman, L., Lamb, J., Randall, G., Rehm, G. and Schmitt, M., The Nature of Phosphorous in Soil, Regents of the University of Minnesota, 2002. http://www.extension.umn.edu/distribution/cropsystems/dc695.html.
 
[5]  Duncan, M.R., Soil Acidity and P Deficiency: Management strategies for the northern tablelands of NSW, NSW Agriculture, 2002, Leaflet No. 9 of Acid Soil Management Series.
 
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[7]  Hopkins, B. and Ellsworth, J., “Phosphorus availability with alkaline/ calcareous soil,” in Proceedings of the Western Nutrient Management Conference., Salt Lake City, UT, Vol. 6.
 
[8]  Muralidhar, M., Gupta, B.P., and Jayanthi, M, Quantity-Intensity relationship and fixation of Phosphorus in soils from shrimp farming areas in coastal India, Central Institute of Brackishwater Aquaculture, India, 2005.
 
[9]  Nad, B.K., Goswami, N.N. and Leelavathi, C.R., “Some factors influencing the phosphorus fixing capacity of Indian soils,” Journal of Indian Society of Soil Science, 23: 319-327, 1975.
 
[10]  Oelkers, E.H. and Valsami-jones, E., “Phosphate mineral reactivity and global sustainability”, Elements 4: 83-87, 2008.
 
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[12]  Porazo, R., Nitrate Contents of Andisol grown to cabbage as affected by different levels of organic and inorganic fertilizers, Visayas State University, Baybay City, Leyte, 2013.
 
[13]  Salas, F.M., Chino, M., Goto, S., Masujima, H. and Kumasawa, K., “Phytoavailable Estimates and the Various Forms of Five Heavy Metals in Long Term Applied Andisal with Sewage Sludges,” Jour. Agric. Sci., 43 (2): 115-130, 1998.
 
[14]  Soinne, H., Extraction method in Soil Phosphorus: Limitations and Applications. Department of Applied Chemistry and Microbiology.University of Helsinki.Pro Terra No. 47. 2009
 
[15]  United States Department Of Agriculture-Natural Resources Conservation Services (USDA-NRCS). Soil Phosphorus Soil-Quality Kit.P1-6.
 
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Article

Yield and Economics of Maize (Zea mays) + Soybean (Glycin max L. Merrill) Intercropping System under Different Tillage Methods

1Nepal Agricultural Research Council, Regional Agriculture Research Station, Lumle, Kaski, Nepal

2Nepal Agricultural Research Council, National Maize Research Program, Rampur, Chitwan, Nepal

3Tribhuwan University, Institute of Agriculture and Animal Science, Kathmandu, Nepal


World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2015, 3(2), 74-77
DOI: 10.12691/wjar-3-2-7
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
B. Paudel, T. B. Karki, S.C. Shah, N. K. Chaudhary. Yield and Economics of Maize (Zea mays) + Soybean (Glycin max L. Merrill) Intercropping System under Different Tillage Methods. World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2015; 3(2):74-77. doi: 10.12691/wjar-3-2-7.

Correspondence to: B.  Paudel, Nepal Agricultural Research Council, Regional Agriculture Research Station, Lumle, Kaski, Nepal. Email: bipspau@gmail.com

Abstract

A study was conducted to determine the most profitable crop arrangements for maize and soybean intercropping system. The effect of tillage {conventional (CT) versus zero tillage (ZT)} and six crop arrangements (sole maize, sole soybean, maize+soybean intercropping at different row ratio arrangements) on grain yield and economics was investigated in Chitwan, Nepal during the summer of 2013. The grain yields of maize and soybean were not affected by tillage methods. However, crop arrangements significantly affect yield component and yield of both maize and soybean. Sole crop of maize and soybean recorded significantly higher grain yield than corresponding yields under intercropping systems. Planting maize+soybean at 1:1 ratio recorded highest maize grain yield (4.58 Mg ha-1) and 2:2 ratio recorded the highest soybean yield (1.70 Mg ha-1). Yield reduction due to intercropping ranged from 21.44% to 31.9% in maize and 22.3% to 53.88% in soybean as compared to their sole cropping. Remarkably higher net return was obtained in ZT (NPRs 110.4 thousands ha-1) than CT (NPRs 105.8 thousands ha-1). Intercropping of maize and soybean at 2:2 ratio recorded maximum benefit (NPRs 132.7 thousands ha-1), maize grain yield equivalent (8.74 Mg ha-1) and land equivalent ratio (1.47) than sole and intercropping treatments. It was found that paired rows of soybean between two rows of maize under ZT system could achieve higher productivity and profitability.

Keywords

References

[1]  MoAD., Stastistical information on Nepalese agriculture, Government of Nepal. Ministry of Agriculture and Development, Agribusiness Promotion and Stastistics Division, Singha Durbar, Kathmandu, Nepal. 2013.
 
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[3]  McGarry, D., Bridge, B.J. and Radford, B.J. “Contrasting soil physical properties after zero and traditional tillage of an alluvial soil in the semi-arid subtropics,” Soil and Tillage Research. 53(2). 105-115. 2000.
 
[4]  Sundermeier, A.P., Islam, K.R., Raut, Y., Reeder, R.C. and Dick, W.A. “Not-ill impacts of soil biophysical carbon sequestration,” Soil Science Society of America Journal. 75(5). 1779-1788. 2011.
 
[5]  Bennie, A.T.P., and Botha, F.J.P. “Effect of deep tillage and controlled traffic on root growth, water-use efficiency andyield of irrigated maize and wheat,” Soil and Tillage Research. 7(1-2). 85-95. 1986.
 
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[7]  Torbert, H.A., Potter, K.N. and Morrison, J.E., “Tillage system, fertilizer nitrogen rate and timing effect on corn yield in the taxes black land prairie,” Agronomy Journal. 93. 1119-1124. 2001.
 
[8]  Ofori, F. and Stern, W.R., “Cereal-legume intercropping systems,”. Advances in Agronomy. 41. 41-89. 1987
 
[9]  Okigbo, B.N. and Greenland, D.J., “Intercropping systems in tropical Africa ,” In: Papendick et al. (Eds). Multiple Cropping. Proceeding of a symposium held at Agriculture University, Hissar, Indian society of Agronomy and Indian Council of Agriculture Research, October 1976 pp. 63-101. 1976.
 
[10]  Yunusa, I.A.M., “Effects of planting density and plant arrangement pattern on growth and yields of maize (Zea mays L.) and soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) grown in mixtures,” Journal of Agricultural Science. (Camb.) 112. 1-8. 1989.
 
[11]  Giller, K.E. and Wilson, K.J., “Nitrogen Fixation in Tropical Cropping Systems,” CAB International, Wallingford, U. S. A. 1993.
 
[12]  Reddy, T. Y. and Reddi, G. H. Principles of agronomy. 2nd edition. Kalayani Publisher, New Delhi, India. 522 p. 2002.
 
[13]  Ennin, S.A., Clegg, M.O. and Francis, C.A., “Resource utilization in soybean/maize intercrops,” African Crop Science Journal. 10(73). 251-261. 2002.
 
[14]  Kumar, K.V., Reddy, M.D., Sivashankar, A. and Redddy, N.V., “Yield and economics of maize (Zea mays) and soybean (Glycine max) in intercropping under different row proportions” Indian Journal of Agricultural Science. 73(2). 69-71. 2003.
 
[15]  Meena, O.P., Gaur, B.L. and Singh, P., “Effect of row ratio and fertility levels on productivity, economics and nutrient uptake in maize (Zea mays) + soybean (Glycine max) intercropping system,” Indian Journal of Agronomy. 51(3). 178-182. 2006.
 
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[17]  Mudita, I.I., Chiduza, C., Rihchardson-Kageler, S. and Murungu, F.S., “Evaluation of different strategies of intercropping maize (Zea mays (L.) Merrill) under small-holder production in sub-humid Zimbabwe,” Journal of Agronomy. 7(3). 237-243. 2008.
 
[18]  Searle, P. G., Comudon, Y., Sheddon, D. and Nance, R. A., “Effect of maize and legume intercropping system and fertilizer nitrogen on crop yields and residual nitrogen,”. Field Crops Research, 4.133-45. 1981.
 
[19]  Siame, J., Willey, R.W. and More, S., “The response of maize/Phaseolus intercropping to applied nitrogen on Oxisols in northern Zambia,” Field Crops Research, 55. 73-81. 1998.
 
[20]  Quayyum, M.A., Akanda, M.E. and Karim, M.F., “Row spacing and number of rows of chickpea grown in association with maize (Zea mays L.),” Bangaladesh Journal of Agriculture. 12(4). 223-230. 1987.
 
[21]  Muoneke, C. O., Ogwuche, M. A. O. and kalu, B. A., “Effect of maize planting density on the performance of maize/soybean intercropping system in guinea savannah agroecosystem,”. African Jouuornal of Agricultural Research. 2 (12). 667-677. 2007.
 
[22]  Addo-Quaya, A.A., Darkwa A.A. and Ocloo G.K., “Yield and productivity of component crops in a maize-soybean intercropping system as affected by time of planting and spatial arrangement,” Journal of Agriculture and Biological Science. 6(9). 50-57. 2011.
 
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Article

Biological Yield and Harvest Index of Faba Bean (Vicia faba L.) as Affected by Different Agro-ecological Environments

1Agricultural Research Corporation, P. O. Box 126 Wad Medani, Sudan

2Department of Crops Sciences, Faculty of Natural Resources and Environmental Studies, University of Kordofan, Elobeid, Sudan

3Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Khartoum, 13314 Shambat, Sudan


World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2015, 3(2), 78-82
DOI: 10.12691/wjar-3-2-8
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Amna A. Abdalla, Ahmed M. El Naim, Mahmud F. Ahmed, Musa B. Taha. Biological Yield and Harvest Index of Faba Bean (Vicia faba L.) as Affected by Different Agro-ecological Environments. World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2015; 3(2):78-82. doi: 10.12691/wjar-3-2-8.

Correspondence to: Ahmed  M. El Naim, Department of Crops Sciences, Faculty of Natural Resources and Environmental Studies, University of Kordofan, Elobeid, Sudan. Email: naim17amn@yahoo.com

Abstract

The crop biological yield refers to the total dry matter accumulation of a plant system. Improved harvest index of the represents increased physiological capacity to mobilize photosynthates and translocate them into organs having economic yield. The economic yield is a fraction of dry matter produced; the harvest index forms a useful measure of crop yield potential. Accordingly, multi agro-ecological field experiments were conducted for three consecutive seasons (2005/06, 2006/07 and 2007/08), to investigate the effect of five agro-ecological environments on the biological yield and harvest index of Faba bean (Vicia faba L.). The selection based on different soil types and different climatic growing conditions. Six Faba bean lines were used; namely: H.72/7/1, Daba.1/1, Z B F.1/1, C.86, Triple White and Turki. The treatments were arranged in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three replications. The results showed that the environments had significant effect on the biological yield. The highest biological yield of faba bean crop was obtained from the lower terrace soil, Riverian (Al Salama location). However, the high terrace soils in Almatara location attained the lowest biological yield compared to other environments. The highest harvest index of faba bean crop was observed in the middle and lower terrace soils in Hudeiba and Al Salama environment. In all production environments tested in this study the line C.86 scored the highest biological yield and harvest index.

Keywords

References

[1]  Robertson, L.D., Singh, K.B., Erskine, W. and Ali M. Abd El Moneim. “Useful genetic diversity in germplasm collections of food and forage legumes from West Asia and North Africa”. Germplasm Resources and Crop Evolution, 43, 447-460, 1996.
 
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[16]  El Naim, A. M., Ahmed, M. F., Ibrahim, K. A., ‘Effect of Irrigation and Cultivar on Seed Yield, Yield’s Components and Harvest Index of Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.)’. Research Journal of Agriculture and Biological Sciences, 6(4): 492-497, 2010.
 
[17]  Osman, A. A.M., Yagoub, S. O., Tut, O. A. “Performance of Faba Beans (Vicia faba L) Cultivars Grown in New Agro-ecological Region of Sudan (Southern Sudan)”. Australian Journal of Basic & Applied Sciences, 4(11): 5516-5521, 2010.
 
[18]  Osman, A. A.M., Yagoub, S. O., Tut, O. A. “Seed Yielding of Faba Beans (Vicia faba L) Cultivars Grown in Southern Sudan Environment (Malakal Locality)”. Research Journal of Agriculture & Biological Sciences, 6 (6):1042-1046, 2010.
 
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Article

Seedling Quality and Morphology in Seed Sources and Seedling Type of Brutian Pine (Pinus brutia Ten.)

1Faculty of Forestry, Suleyman Demirel University, Isparta, Turkey

2Department of Forestry, Urmia University, Urmia, Iran


World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2015, 3(2), 83-85
DOI: 10.12691/wjar-3-2-9
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Merve Dilaver, Nasrin Seyedi, Nebi Bilir. Seedling Quality and Morphology in Seed Sources and Seedling Type of Brutian Pine (Pinus brutia Ten.). World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2015; 3(2):83-85. doi: 10.12691/wjar-3-2-9.

Correspondence to: Nebi  Bilir, Faculty of Forestry, Suleyman Demirel University, Isparta, Turkey. Email: nebibilir@sdu.edu.tr

Abstract

This study was carried out on 1+0 year containerized and bare root seedlings originated from a seed stand and a seed orchard of Brutian Pine (Pinus brutia Ten.) at Dursunbey Forest Nursery of Turkey. Findings of present investigation may contribute to better nursery practices, productive plantation establishment, and genetic improvement of the species. Seedling height and root-collar diameter were examined on 100 seedlings chosen randomly from each seed source and seedling type at the end of the growing period. Seedling quality and relation between the characteristics were also investigated. Averages of seedling height and root-collar diameter were 12.5 cm and 2.74 mm in the polled seed sources and seedling type, respectively. While containerized seedling showed better performance than bare root seedlings, seed stand was better than seed orchards for observed characters. There were significant differences (p≤0.05) among seedling type and seed source based on results of variance analysis. Distribution of seedlings changed for quality classes, characters, seed sources and seedling types. The both classification was suitable for the seedlings according to results of Discriminant analysis. There were positive and significant (p≤0.05) relations between the characters based on results of correlation analysis. Results of the study were discussed for nursery practice of the species. Results of the study could be combined by field performance.

Keywords

References

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[5]  Bilir, N, Nursery stage of provanence on lebanon cedar (Cedrus libani A.rich) in Eastern Black Sea Region, Graduate School of Natural and Applied Science, Black Sea Technical University, MSc. Thesis, Trabzon, Turkey, 1997.
 
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[12]  Bilir, N, Field stage of provenance trials on Taurus cedar (Cedrus libani a. rich.) in Eastern Black Sea region, Graduate School of Natural and Applied Science, Black Sea Technical University, PhD. Thesis, Trabzon, Turkey, 2002.
 
[13]  Gezer, A., Bilir, N., Gulcu, S, “Quality classification of Scotcs pine (P inus silvestris L.)”, Second Seedling Symposium, Ege University, 25-29 September, Izmir, Turkey, 2000.
 
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Article

Trading of Agricultural Products between Countries from Balkan Region

1State University of Tetovo, Faculty for bussines administration, Shkolla Fillore, “Kongresi Manastirit” Çair Shkup, Republic of Macedonia

2State University of Tetovo, Faculty of Economics Shkolla Fillore, “Kongresi Manastirit” Çair Shkup, Republic of Macedonia

3Agricultural University, Faculty for Economy and Agrobussines, UBT, Kodër-Komër Street n.n., 1000 Tirana, Republic of Albania


World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2015, 3(2), 86-90
DOI: 10.12691/wjar-3-2-10
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Ilaz Ameti, Naser Raimi, Oriola Vukaj. Trading of Agricultural Products between Countries from Balkan Region. World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2015; 3(2):86-90. doi: 10.12691/wjar-3-2-10.

Correspondence to: Ilaz  Ameti, State University of Tetovo, Faculty for bussines administration, Shkolla Fillore, “Kongresi Manastirit” Çair Shkup, Republic of Macedonia. Email: Ilaz.amet@hotmail.com

Abstract

Republic of Macedonia has solid trade relations with many countries in the world. The most important trade partners for Macedonia, when considering trading volume and value, are member states of EU and countries from Balkan region. Trade value of agro complex products is on average 556, 2 million $; 63, 9% goes to food; 15, 55% to beverages and 25, 7% to tobacco. Import value exceed export value by 721, 2 million $. In view of export value for both aforementioned values, goes to Serbia and the least to Moldova. In the same time, when considering export value per person of agro complex products first place goes to Kosovo, and last to Moldova while fruits and tobacco comes from Serbia, and the least from Romania. In general Macedonia´s most important trade partner in Balkan region is Serbia, second place Kosovo while trading with Moldova is nearly insignificant

Keywords

References

[1]  Anakiev B. Sekovska Blagica (2005): Macedonian imbalance between exports and imports of food. Proceedings: Access the products agro complex to external and internal market, 38-51, and MAFWE Skopje.
 
[2]  Ameti I. (2013): Organization of the market for agricultural products in the Balkan region. Doctoral dissertation, Ss, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences and Food, Skopje.
 
[3]  Blazhevski B. (1999): Removal restructuring agrokompleksot. Proceedings: Third Scientific Meeting of Agrarians of RM 87-96 16-17 April 1999, Bitola.
 
[4]  B. Vlahov, D. Tomiħ, Gorgeviħ M. (2011): Foreign trade of agro-industrial products Danube region countries. EP, no. 58, SB-1, 284-291, Belgrade.
 
[5]  Lampietti, J., Lugg, D., Van der Celen, P., Branczik, A. (2009): The Changing Face of Rural Space - Agriculture and Rural Development in the Western Balkans, World Bank, Washington, USA.
 
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[6]  Kazlauskiene, N., Meyers, W. H. (2004): Implications of EU Accession for Trade Regimes and Trade Flows of CEECs, Agricultural Sciences, Lithuanian Academy of Sciences,
 
[7]  Mizik, T. (2011): A Snapshot of Western Balkan’s Agriculture from the Perspective of EU Accession, Studies in Agricultural Economics.
 
[8]  Volk, T. (ed.), (2010): Agriculture in the Western Balkan Countries, Studies on the Agricultural and Food Sector in Central and Eastern Europe, Vol. 57, IAMO, Halle/Saale, Germany.
 
[9]  World Bank (2013): Albania. World Bank Group Partnership – Country Program, March, 2013, Washington D.C., USA.
 
[10]  Zeneli M., Melani P. (2012): Nxitja e produktiviteteit të agro-industrisë në Shqipëri. Konferencë shkencore ndërkomtare: Eficienca dhe konkurueshmëria e prodhimit në sipërmarjet e agrobiznesit, Tirana,Albania.
 
[11]  http://www.stat.gov.mk/
 
[12]  http://www.instat.gov.al/al/home.aspx
 
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Article

Correlation Study of Yield, Flowering Duration and Fruit Physico –chemical Characters of Guava (Psidium guajava L.)

1ICAR Research Complex for Eastern Region, Research Center, Ranchi, Jharkhand, India

2Department of CIHAB, Palli Siksha Bhavana, Sriniketan, Visva Bharati, India

3Program Co-ordinator, Rathindra KVK, PSB, Sriniketan, Visva Bharati, India


World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2015, 3(2), 91-93
DOI: 10.12691/wjar-3-2-11
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Bakulranjan Jana, Partha Sarathi Munsi, Dulal Chandra manna. Correlation Study of Yield, Flowering Duration and Fruit Physico –chemical Characters of Guava (Psidium guajava L.). World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2015; 3(2):91-93. doi: 10.12691/wjar-3-2-11.

Correspondence to: Bakulranjan  Jana, ICAR Research Complex for Eastern Region, Research Center, Ranchi, Jharkhand, India. Email: brjana.ars@gmail.com

Abstract

In guava significant correlations were observed between duration of flowering with their respective seasons and their yield and total yield. Duration of flowering was positively correlated with yield of respective seasons. Fruit weight was positively and significantly correlated with fruit size (r=0.860**) and fruit volume (r=0.981**). T.S.S. was positively and significantly correlated with reducing sugar (r=0.586**) and total sugar (r=0.683**). Acidity also positively and significantly correlated with reducing sugar (r=0.497**) and total sugar (r=0.417*). Reducing sugar was positively and significantly correlated with total sugar (r=0.888**). Yield was significantly and positively correlated with fruit size, weight and fruit volume (r=0.327*).

Keywords

References

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[5]  Padilla-Ramirez, J.S., Gonjalez-Gonia, E., Equivel-Villagrana, F., Mercado- Silva, E., Harnandez-Delgado, S. and Mayek-Perez, N., “Characterization of outstanding guava germplasm from the Calvillo-Canones Region, Mexico”. Revista Fitotecnia Mexicana. 25(4): 393-399. 2002.
 
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[8]  Ranganna, S., “Handbook of analysis and quality control for fruit and vegetable products”. Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Company, New Delhi. 1996.
 
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[10]  Thaipong, K and Boonprakob, U., “Repeatability, optimal sample size of measurement and phenotypic correlations of quantitative traits in guava. Kasetsart. J. Nat. Sci. 40(1): 11-19. 2006.
 
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Article

Evaluation of Permeability of Lake Mansar Waters for Irrigation Purposes

1Department of Zoology, Government Degree College (Boys) Anantnag, Kashmir, J&K, India


World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2015, 3(3), 94-101
DOI: 10.12691/wjar-3-3-1
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
S.M. Zuber. Evaluation of Permeability of Lake Mansar Waters for Irrigation Purposes. World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2015; 3(3):94-101. doi: 10.12691/wjar-3-3-1.

Correspondence to: S.M.  Zuber, Department of Zoology, Government Degree College (Boys) Anantnag, Kashmir, J&K, India. Email: zubairhuma@gmail.com

Abstract

Lake Mansar is a famous tourist destination in the suburbs of Jammu which is receiving on an average 5 lac tourists every year. Subsequently a number of structures like 11 Government offices, JKTDC Cafeteria, Tea Stalls, Dhabas, Grocery shops, Bathing ghats, boating points, cremation ground, wildlife park, Dak Bungalows etc have been erected in its catchment area which have exerted their deleterious effects on the ecology of the lake. The various parameters estimated for the present study revealed that conductivity values were below 250 µmhos, TDS values were less than 500mg/l, SAR values less than 10meq/l, RSC values between 1.159 meq/l to 2.379 meq/l, SSP values between 21.110meq/l to 44.877meq/l and DPI varying between 38.006 to 81.507 which indicates that the water of Lake Mansar is best suited for irrigation purposes as it belongs to Class II category as per DPI chart.

Keywords

References

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Article

Reduction in Intergeneration Time Interval in Selection of Sugarcane Varieties through Population Testing

1Sakthi Sugarcane Research and Consultants Pvt.Ltd, Sadananada Nagar, NGEF Layout, Bengaluru India

2R&D Center, E.I. D. Parry (India) Ltd, Bengaluru, India


World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2015, 3(3), 102-106
DOI: 10.12691/wjar-3-3-2
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
M. Krishnamurthi, K. Shanmugha sundaram, S. Rajeswari. Reduction in Intergeneration Time Interval in Selection of Sugarcane Varieties through Population Testing. World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2015; 3(3):102-106. doi: 10.12691/wjar-3-3-2.

Correspondence to: M.  Krishnamurthi, Sakthi Sugarcane Research and Consultants Pvt.Ltd, Sadananada Nagar, NGEF Layout, Bengaluru India. Email: krishnam_us@yahoo.com

Abstract

Traditionally, the variety testing scheme spans over a period of 13 to 15 years. In most countries all releases are based on small plot (i.e. seven stage) trials and small mill analysis. Rarely field planting and large mill tests are carried out with a crush of an hour which is the minimum time required. The current selection programme suffers from old concepts with sample testing and extrapolation of the data, which does not withstand the rigours of field conditions. The gap between the trial plots and field is large on both counts namely Pol% cane and yield. This paper discusses the population-testing concept to facilitate large mill testing and cutting down intergeneration time interval for releasing varieties. In the current scheme, the intergeneration time interval for releasing varieties is reduced from 13 years to 6 to 8 years. This was possible with a change in the variety testing concept. It was a population testing concept which includes early selection based on heritable characters like brix, fibre, pest and disease resistance and later 2.0 ha and more under field conditions. The best clones are taken for multiplication at three locations using single eye buds. The principle is that instead of using small plots, larger populations at three locations are used. The three varieties viz., PI 96-0151, PI 97-0843 and PI 97-1946 were multiplied along with Co 86-032. These varieties were tested in the large mill for their performance and behaviour under field conditions and compared with the standard variety Co 86-032. All the three varieties recorded higher yield and POCS% when compared with Co 86-032. The early and advance yield trial results are discussed and confirmed. We can release the varieties through large population test, much earlier as the system provides conclusive information on varietal performance under field conditions thus reducing the intergeneration time interval in selection of varieties for commercialization.

Keywords

References

[1]  Daniels, J. Horsely, D.R. Masilaca A.S., Miles K.G. Singh, H., Stevenson, N. and Wilson, B., The mass stool population technique of sugarcane selection. Proc. Int. Soc. Sugar Cane Technology 14:163-169, (1972).
 
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Article

Mutagenic Effects of Sodium Azide and Fast Neutron Irradiation on the Cytological Parameters of M2 Lagos Spinach (Celosia argentea var cristata L.)

1Department of Biological Sciences, Federal University of Technology, Minna, Nigeria

2Department of Science Laboratory Technology, Kwara State Polytechnic, Ilorin, Nigeria


World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2015, 3(3), 107-112
DOI: 10.12691/wjar-3-3-3
Copyright © 2015 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Abubakar A., Falusi A. O., Daudu O. A. Y., Oluwajobi A. O., Dangana M. C., Abejide D. R.. Mutagenic Effects of Sodium Azide and Fast Neutron Irradiation on the Cytological Parameters of M2 Lagos Spinach (Celosia argentea var cristata L.). World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2015; 3(3):107-112. doi: 10.12691/wjar-3-3-3.

Correspondence to: Abubakar  A., Department of Biological Sciences, Federal University of Technology, Minna, Nigeria. Email: abuakim2007@gmail.com

Abstract

The effects of fast neutron irradiation (FNI) and sodium azide (SA) on the pollen and cytological parameters of Celosia argentea was carried out. M1 seeds of treated C. argentea plant with fast neutron and sodium azide were collected from the seed bank of Department of Biological Sciences, Federal University of Technology, Minna, Nigeria and raised on the field to maturity stage. Young flower buds were collected from the plants for cytological studies. Cytological analysis of the plants revealed heterogeneous size of pollen grains, with three distinct variant of 29.12, 34.31 and 39.21 µm. The least average pollen diameters (32.66 µm) was recorded in 6.00 mM SA and the highest (37.58 µm) in 4.00 µS FNI. Significant variation (p≥0.05) in the numbers of pollen production per flower and anther were obtained. Lower percentage pollen fertilities were recorded in all the treated plants when compared with the control (94.15 %). However, these values were insignificance (p≤0.05), except for 8.00 mM which had the least of percentage pollen fertility of 71.62 %. The phenomenon of pollen restitution caused by abnormal meiotic division resulted in the formation of dyad, triad and tetrad in higher irradiated doses plants. Cytological analysis of the plant indicated that 8.00 µS had the highest mitotic index with metaphase (56.56) being the most frequent stage followed by telophase (28.40). Meiotic chromosomal counts revealed n = 18 at metaphase, with the formation of dyad and tetrad in most of the treated plants and the control. Abnormal meiotic division in 4.00 mM and 12.00 µS resulted in triad division. Observation from this study therefore, revealed that pollen restitution coupled with high mitotic index in 8 µS confer greater reproductive advantages to the plant.

Keywords

References

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