World Journal of Agricultural Research

ISSN (Print): 2333-0643

ISSN (Online): 2333-0678

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Assessment of Farmers Maize Production Practices and Effect of Triple-Layer Hermetic Storage on the Population of Fusarium Spp. and Fumonisin Contamination

1School of Biological Sciences, University of Nairobi, Nairobi, Kenya

2Department of Plant Science and Crop Protection, University of Nairobi, Nairobi, Kenya

3Department of Botany and Plant Pathology, Purdue University West Lafayette, IN, United States

World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2017, 5(1), 21-30
doi: 10.12691/wjar-5-1-4
Copyright © 2016 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Angeline W. Maina, John M. Wagacha, F.B. Mwaura, James W. Muthomi, Charles P. Woloshuk. Assessment of Farmers Maize Production Practices and Effect of Triple-Layer Hermetic Storage on the Population of Fusarium Spp. and Fumonisin Contamination. World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2017; 5(1):21-30. doi: 10.12691/wjar-5-1-4.

Correspondence to: Angeline  W. Maina, School of Biological Sciences, University of Nairobi, Nairobi, Kenya. Email:


Fumonisin contamination of maize by Fusarium spp. is a major risk in food security, human and animal health. A study was carried out in Kaiti District, Makueni County in Kenya, to assess the effectiveness of triple-layer hermetic (PICS™) bags in the management of Fusarium spp. and fumonisin contamination of stored maize grains. Maize production practices including scale of production, methods of land preparation, variety grown and storage methods were obtained with a questionnaire. Fusarium spp. in soil and maize were isolated by dilution-plating method and fumonisin content in maize was measured. Majority (86.7%) of the farmers were smallholders who mostly stored maize in polypropylene (PP) bags. Fusarium proliferatum was predominant in soil (1.4 x 103 CFU/g of soil) and stored grain (2.7 x 103 CFU/g of maize) while F. oxysporum was predominant in freshly harvested grain (1.4 x103 CFU/g of maize). The population of Fusarium spp. was 74.6% higher in PP than in PICS bags after three months of storage. Total fumonisin in maize grains sampled at harvest and after three-months storage ranged from < 2 to 6.0 ppm and was 57.1% lower in PICS bags than in PP bags. The population of Fusarium spp. in maize was positively correlated with fumonisin levels. The findings of this study demonstrate that PICS bags can effectively manage the population of Fusarium spp. and accumulation of fumonisin in stored maize.



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Screening of Maize Genotypes against Southern Leaf Blight (Bipolaris maydis) during Summer Season in Nepal

1Institute of Agriculture and Animal Science (IAAS), Tribhuwan University, Paklihawa Campus, Paklihawa, Nepal

2Grain Legumes Research Program, Nepal Agriculture Research Council, Khajura, Banke, Nepal

World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2017, 5(1), 31-41
doi: 10.12691/wjar-5-1-5
Copyright © 2017 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Rishi Ram Bhandari, Laxman Aryal, Suman Sharma, Milan Acharya, Ambika Pokhrel, Apar G.C., Salina Kaphle, Sahadev K.C., Bhagarathi Shahi, Kamal Bhattarai, Arjun Chhetri, Sunita Panthi. Screening of Maize Genotypes against Southern Leaf Blight (Bipolaris maydis) during Summer Season in Nepal. World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2017; 5(1):31-41. doi: 10.12691/wjar-5-1-5.

Correspondence to: Rishi  Ram Bhandari, Institute of Agriculture and Animal Science (IAAS), Tribhuwan University, Paklihawa Campus, Paklihawa, Nepal. Email:


A study was conducted from 29 March 2014 to 27 July 2014 at the Institute of Agriculture and Animal Science, Paklihawa, Rupandehi with the objective of screening 13 maize genotypes against southern leaf blight caused by Bipolaris maydis. Field experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block design with three replications. Disease scoring was done as percentage of leaf area infected on individual plant at 5 days intervals starting from 63 days after sowing, for 3 times, and disease severity and mean AUDPC were calculated and yield was recorded. Among the tested genotypes, disease severity varies significantly. Disease symptoms appeared first in Yellow Popcorn, 64.00 days after sowing (DAS) with the highest severity and at last in RML-32/RML-17 (79.00 DAS) with the least score in field. The 13 genotypes differed significantly in mean AUDPC values. RML-32/RML-17 (AUDPC value 5.90) appeared most resistant, followed by RML-4/RML-17 (AUDPC value 11.50), while Yellow Popcorn (AUDPC value 71.99) was most susceptible among the tested genotypes. Highest maize yield (3.43 metric ton ha-1) was also recorded on RML-32/RML-17 and least (0.75 metric ton ha-1) on Yellow Popcorn. Maximum SPAD value above cob was recorded in RML-4/RML-17 (45.62) followed by S03TLYQ-AB-01 (44.88) while minimum in Yellow popcorn (30.60). So, Yellow popcorn has the highest (3.16) and RML-32/RML-17 (0.08) lowest total AUDPC above cob. Similarly maximum SPAD value below cob was recorded in RML-4/RML-17 (44.37), while minimum in Yellow popcorn (28.82). So, Yellow popcorn has the highest (8.75) and RML-32/RML-17 (0.41) has lowest total AUDPC below cob. The genotypes RML-4/RML-17 and RML-32/RML-17 appeared resistant to SLB with maximum yield. These genotypes could be used as the sources of resistance in breeding program and could be developed to resistant varieties grown under tropical and subtropical climatic conditions during summer season. The genotype Yellow popcorn being highly susceptible to SLB with a maximum mean AUDPC and minimum yield, can be used as susceptible check for breeding purpose and different varietal screening.



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Silicon Induces Resistance to Bacterial Blight by Altering the Physiology and Antioxidant Enzyme Activities in Cassava

1School of Biological Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 30197-00100, Nairobi, Kenya

2Department of Biochemistry, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 30197-00100, Nairobi, Kenya

World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2017, 5(1), 42-51
doi: 10.12691/wjar-5-1-6
Copyright © 2017 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
K. W. Njenga, E. Nyaboga, J. M. Wagacha, F. B. Mwaura. Silicon Induces Resistance to Bacterial Blight by Altering the Physiology and Antioxidant Enzyme Activities in Cassava. World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2017; 5(1):42-51. doi: 10.12691/wjar-5-1-6.

Correspondence to: K.  W. Njenga, School of Biological Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 30197-00100, Nairobi, Kenya. Email:


Cassava bacterial blight (CBB), caused by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. manihotis (Xam) is a devastating disease limiting cassava production. The potential effect of Si application on the physiological and biochemical mechanisms attributed to Si-mediated resistance of cassava to Xam was evaluated. The optimal concentration of Si in enhancing resistance to CBB without detrimental effects on plant growth was determined using cultivars TME14 and TMS60444 known for their susceptibility to Xam. Varied concentrations of Si (0.7 to 2.1 mM) were administered by watering the plants three times per week before and after Xam inoculation. The optimized Si concentration was used to evaluate the effect of Si supplementation on resistance to CBB disease using eight farmer-preferred cassava cultivars. The population of Xam, cultivar resistance, chlorophyll content, lipid peroxidation, H2O2 content, activity of antioxidant enzymes and total Si content in cassava cultivars were quantified 21 days post inoculation. Silicon concentration of 1.4 mM was optimal in enhancing cassava resistance to Xam. Silicon-treated plants of all cassava cultivars showed significantly (P ≤ 0.05) lower Xam population ranging from 5% to 26.7% compared to non-Si treated control plants. Activities of antioxidant enzymes, malondialdehyde, H2O2 and chlorophyll contents were significantly (P ≤ 0.05) higher in Si treated plants than non-Si treated plants. Silicon accumulation in leaves of Si treated plants was higher compared to non-Si treated control plants.



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