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Article

Corrosion Behavior of Nanostructured Tialn and Alcrn Thin Coatings on ASTM-SA213-T-11 Boiler Steel in Simulated Salt Fog Conditions

1Director-Principal, D.A.V. College of Engineering & Technology, Kanina, India


Materials Science and Metallurgy Engineering. 2013, 1(2), 31-36
DOI: 10.12691/msme-1-2-4
Copyright © 2013 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Vikas Chawla. Corrosion Behavior of Nanostructured Tialn and Alcrn Thin Coatings on ASTM-SA213-T-11 Boiler Steel in Simulated Salt Fog Conditions. Materials Science and Metallurgy Engineering. 2013; 1(2):31-36. doi: 10.12691/msme-1-2-4.

Correspondence to: Vikas  Chawla, Director-Principal, D.A.V. College of Engineering & Technology, Kanina, India. Email: vikkydmt@gmail.com

Abstract

In this work, TiAlN and AlCrN coatings were deposited on ASTM-SA213-T-11 boiler steel using Balzer’s rapid coating system (RCS) machine (make Oerlikon Balzers, Swiss) under a reactive nitrogen atmosphere. The corrosion resistance of the substrate, TiAlN-coated and AlCrN-coated samples in a 5 wt% NaCl solution was evaluated and compared by salt fog (spray) test for 24 hrs, 48 hrs and 72 hrs. The weight loss per unit area increases with the duration of the test. The samples were monitored and analyzed by using Weight loss measurement, XRD and SEM/EDAX techniques. The weight loss per unit area in case of nanosructured thin TiAlN coating is less than as compared to the nanostructured AlCrN coating and uncoated boiler steel in all test conditions.

Keywords

References

[1]  B. Q. Wang, G. Q. Geng, A. V. Levy; Surface & Coating Technology; 1992; 54-55; 529-35.
 
[2]  Buta Singh Sidhu, S. Prakash; Wear; 2006; 260; 1035-1044.
 
[3]  M. A. Uusitalo, P. M. J. Vuoristo and T. A. Mantyla; Material Science Engineering A-Structure; 2003; 346; 168-177.
 
[4]  Li Liu, Ying Li and Fuhui Wang; Electrochimica Acta; 2007; 52; 2392-2400.
 
[5]  A. J. Jehn, M. E. Baumgartner; Surface & Coating Technology; 1992; 108; 54-55.
 
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[6]  L. A. Dobrzanski, Z. Brytan, M. Actis Grande, M. Rosso; Journal of Materials Processing Technology; 2007; 192-193; 443-448.
 
[7]  Sergiy Korablov, M. A. M. Ibrahim, Masahiro Yoshimura; Corrosion Science; 2005; 47; 1839-1854.
 
[8]  Bijayani Panda, R. Balasubramaniam, Gopal Dwivedi; Corrosion Science; 2008; 50; 1684-1692.
 
[9]  R. Vera, M. Villarroel, A. M. Carvajal, E. Vera, C. Ortiz; Materials Chemistry and Physics; 2009; 114; 467-474.
 
[10]  Z. B. Bao, Q. M. Wang, W. Z. Li, J. Gong, T. Y. Xiong, C. Sun; Corrosion Science; 2008; 50; 847-855.
 
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Article

Reliability Level of Welding Voltage Dependence of Heat Affected Zone (HAZ) Hardness of Selected Metallic Weldments Cooled in Groundnut Oil

1Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria

2Science Technical Vocation Schools Management Board

3Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Enugu State University of Science & Technology, Enugu, Nigeria


Materials Science and Metallurgy Engineering. 2013, 1(2), 37-41
DOI: 10.12691/msme-1-2-5
Copyright © 2013 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
C. I. Nwoye, C. C. Nwogbu, A. O. Agbo, J. U. Odo, S. O. Nwakpa. Reliability Level of Welding Voltage Dependence of Heat Affected Zone (HAZ) Hardness of Selected Metallic Weldments Cooled in Groundnut Oil. Materials Science and Metallurgy Engineering. 2013; 1(2):37-41. doi: 10.12691/msme-1-2-5.

Correspondence to: C.  I. Nwoye, Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria. Email: nwoyennike@gmail.com

Abstract

This paper showcases the reliability level associating welding voltage dependence of heat affected zone (HAZ) hardness of aluminium, cast iron and mild steel weldments cooled in groundnut oil. These materials were welded using shielded metal arc technique and the HAZ hardness of the various groundnut oil cooled weldments determined. Three models were derived and used as tools for the empirical analysis of the influence of welding voltage on the HAZ hardness of the weldments. The results of the analysis show that the HAZ hardness of weldments is significantly and reliably affected by the operational welding voltage. Results evaluations largely show that on welding aluminium, cast iron and mild steel, and similarly cooling their respective weldments in groundnut oil, the model: ξ=[(ηv/(η+v))((βaβm+βaβc)/βcβm)0.2396], empirically predicts aluminium weldment HAZ hardness as equivalent of HAZ hardness interaction between cast iron and mild steel. Aluminium weldment HAZ hardness was evaluated as a product of a multiplication operation between the general voltage product rule (GVPR) ((βa βm + βa βc)/ βc βm)0.2396 and the ratio; HAZ hardness product of cast iron and mild steel/ HAZ hardness sum of cast iron and mild steel (ην /( η + ν )). Predicted values of the HAZ hardness of cast iron and mild steel were comparatively analyzed and also found very reliably dependent on the GVPR which is a collective function of their respective welding voltage. The validity of the model was rooted on the core model expression; (βa c + βa/βm ) = (ζ /ν + ζ / η)4.1737 where both sides of the expression were correspondingly equal. Computational analysis of generated results shows that aluminium, cast iron & mild steel weldment HAZ hardness per unit welding voltage as evaluated from experiment and derived model were 1.4714, 4.1818 & 2.3318 (VHN)V-1 and 1.4714, 4.1821 & 2.3319 (VHN)V-1 respectively. Deviational analysis indicates that the maximum deviation of model-predicted HAZ hardness from the experimental results is less than 0.006%. This translates into over 99.99% operational confidence and reliability level for the derived models and over 0.9999 reliability coefficient for the welding voltage dependence of HAZ hardness.

Keywords

References

[1]  Stout, R.D. “Hardness as an index of the Weldability and Service Performance of Steel Weldments”, Welding Research Council (WRC) Bulletin 189, 345 East 47th St, New York, NY 10017.
 
[2]  Stout, R.D, Torr, S. S and Doan, G.E (1945) Weld. J. 24:6255.
 
[3]  Coe, F.R (1973) “Welding Steels without Hydrogen Cracking” (The Welding Institute, Abingdon, UK,).
 
[4]  Beckert, M and Holz, R (1973) Schweiss Technik 23:344.
 
[5]  Seyffarth, P. (1979) ibid. 27:58165.
 
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[6]  Bastien, P., Frollet, J. Maynier, PH. (1970) Metal Construct. Brit. Weld. J. 2:9.
 
[7]  Ararat, Y., Nishiguchi, K., Ohji, T and Koshai, N (1979). Trans. Jpn Weld. Res. Inst. 8:43.
 
[8]  Terasaki, T., (1981). J. Jpn Weld. Res. Inst. 16:145.
 
[9]  Yurioka, N., Ohsita S., and Tamehiro, H. (1981). “Study on Carbon Equivalents to Assess Cold Cracking Tendency and Hardness in Steel Welding”, Proceedings of The Specialist Symposium on Pipeline Welding in the 80s, Melbourne.
 
[10]  Nwoye, C. I.., Anyakwo, C. N., E. Obidiegwu., and N. E. Nwankwo (2011). Model for Assessment and Computational Analysis of Hardness of the Heat Affected Zone in Water Cooled Aluminium Weldment Journal of Mineral and Materials Characterization and Engineering. 10(8): 707-715.
 
[11]  Nwoye, C. I., (2008). Comparative Studies of the Cooling Ability of Hydrocarbon Based Media and their Effects on the Hardness of the Heat Affected Zone (HAZ) in Weldments. Journal of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, 3(1):7-13.
 
[12]  Nwoye, C. I.., and Mbuka, I. E. (2010). Models for Predicting HAZ Hardness in cast iron Weldment Cooled in Groundnut Oil in Relation to HAZ Hardness of Aluminum and Mild Steel Weldments Cooled in Same Media. Materials Research Innovation. 14(4):312-315.
 
[13]  Nwoye, C. I., Odumodu, U., Nwoye, C. C., Obasi, G. C., and Onyemaobi, O. O. (2009).Model for Predictive Analysis of Hardness of the Heat Affected Zone in Aluminum Weldment Cooled in Groundnut Oil Relative to HAZ Hardness of Mild Steel and Cast Iron Weldments Cooled in Same Media. New York Science Journal. 2(6):93-98.
 
[14]  Nwoye, C. I.. (2008). C-NIKBRAN; Data Analytical Memory (Software).
 
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Article

Reliability Level of Pb-Sb-Cu Alloy Electrical Resistance Dependence on Its Melting Temperature and Copper Input Concentration

1Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria

2Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Enugu State University of Science & Technology, Enugu, Nigeria

3Science Technical Vocation Schools Management Board, Enugu, Nigeria

4Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, University of Nigeria Nsukka, Nigeria


Materials Science and Metallurgy Engineering. 2013, 1(2), 42-49
DOI: 10.12691/msme-1-2-6
Copyright © 2013 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
C. I. Nwoye, A. O. Agbo, C. C. Nwogbu, S. Neife, E. M. Ameh. Reliability Level of Pb-Sb-Cu Alloy Electrical Resistance Dependence on Its Melting Temperature and Copper Input Concentration. Materials Science and Metallurgy Engineering. 2013; 1(2):42-49. doi: 10.12691/msme-1-2-6.

Correspondence to: C.  I. Nwoye, Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria. Email: nwoyennike@gmail.com

Abstract

This paper assesses the reliability level of Pb-Sb-Cu alloy electrical resistance dependence on its melting temperature and copper input concentration. The alloy was cast by pouring a stirred mixture of heated Pb-Sb alloy and powdered copper into a sand mould and then furnace cooled. Results of electrical test carried out indicate that the electrical resistance of the Pb-Sb-Cu alloy decreases with increase in the melting temperature of the Pb-Sb-Cu alloy. This invariably implied decrease in the electrical resistivity of the alloy. Increased copper addition (0.99-8.26 wt%) to the base alloy (Pb-Sb) also correspondingly decreased the electrical resistance. The experimental results were complement by results generated using a derived model. The validity of the two-factorial derived model expressed as: ξ = - 0.1248ɤ - 0.0398ϑ + 66.615 was rooted on the expression ξ - 66.615 = - 0.1248ɤ - 0.0398ϑ where both sides of the expression are correspondingly approximately equal. Statistical analysis of the experiment, derived model & regression model-predicted results shows that the standard errors incurred in predicting the Pb-Sb-Cu alloy electrical resistance for each value of the melting temperature and copper input were 0.1247, 0.1722 & 3.517 x 10-5 % and 0.4276, 0.1797 & 0.3593 % respectively. Evaluations indicate that Pb-Sb-Cu alloy electrical resistance per unit rise in the melting temperature and copper mass-input as obtained from experiment, derived model & regression model-predicted results were 0.2507, 0.2309 & 0.2496 Ω /°C and 0.094, 0.0866 & 0.0936 Ω / g respectively. Deviational analysis indicated that the maximum deviation of derived model-predicted electrical resistance from the experimental results was less than 3%. This translated into over 97% operational confidence and reliability level for the derived model and over 0.97 reliability coefficient for the Pb-Sb-Cu alloy electrical resistance dependence on the alloy melting temperature and copper input concentration.

Keywords

References

[1]  Blumenthal B. (1944). Effects of Silver on the Electrical Conductivity of Lead-Antimony Alloy, Trans. Amer. Inst. Min. Met, England. 149-156.
 
[2]  Rollason, E. C., and Hysel, V. B. (1940). Effect of Cadmium on the Electrical Conductivity of Lead-Antimony Alloy, J. Inst. Metals, London. 59-66.
 
[3]  Nwoye, C. I. (2000). Effect of Copper Powder Dispersion on the Electrical Conductivity of Lead-Antimony Alloy, M. Eng. Thesis, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka.
 
[4]  Ijomah, M. N. C. (1992).The Structure and Properties of Engineering Materials, Christon Publishers, Awka. pp 56-58.
 
[5]  Plevachuk,Yu., Sklyarchuk,V., Yakymovych, A., Svec, P., Janickovic, D. and Illekova, E. (2011). Electrical conductivity and viscosity of liquid Sn-Sb-Cu alloys. Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Electronics; 22(6):631
 
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[6]  www.ndt-ed.org/General Resources/Material Properties.
 
[7]  Okeke, P. C. (1987). Introduction to Physics, Gerek Publishers, Enugu. pp 85-93.
 
[8]  Nwoye, C. I. (2008). C-NIKBRAN; Data Analytical Memory.
 
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Article

Kinetics of Simultaneous Dissolution of Zinc and Manganese from Electrolyte Paste of Spent Zinc-Carbon Dry Cell Battery in Sulfuric Acid Solution

1Department of Materials and Metallurgical Engineering Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology, Dhaka, Bangladesh


Materials Science and Metallurgy Engineering. 2014, 2(1), 1-4
DOI: 10.12691/msme-2-1-1
Copyright © 2013 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Majharul Haque Khan, ASW Kurny. Kinetics of Simultaneous Dissolution of Zinc and Manganese from Electrolyte Paste of Spent Zinc-Carbon Dry Cell Battery in Sulfuric Acid Solution. Materials Science and Metallurgy Engineering. 2014; 2(1):1-4. doi: 10.12691/msme-2-1-1.

Correspondence to: ASW  Kurny, Department of Materials and Metallurgical Engineering Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology, Dhaka, Bangladesh. Email: aswkurny@mme.buet.ac.bd

Abstract

Manganese and zinc contained in the electrolyte paste of spent zinc-carbon dry cell batteries were leached in sulfuric acid in presence of hydrogen peroxide as a reducing agent. Kinetic parameters were established from the time versus extent of dissolution curves using temperature as variable and keeping the other parameters fixed. Three reactions models (i) Liquid film diffusion controlled, (ii) Diffusion controlled through the product layer and (iii) Chemical reaction controlled were considered for the selection of the appropriate reaction model for the dissolution of manganese and zinc. The kinetic data of leaching for both manganese and zinc were found to follow the chemical reaction controlled process, i..e., where, τ = time for complete disappearance of particles and X = fraction of reacted particles. Activation energy of manganese and zinc were found to be 46.27 KJ/mol and 52.39 KJ/mol respectively; which again justified the appropriateness of the model. At a leaching temperature of 60°C, the extent of dissolution, under the conditions investigated, reached up to 81% for manganese within 21 minutes of leaching and 75% for zinc within 30 minutes of leaching.

Keywords

References

[1]  Ferella, F., Michelis, I. De, Beolchini, F., Innocenzi, V., Veglio F., “Extraction of zinc and manganese from alkaline and zinc-carbon batteries by citric-sulfuric acid solution”, Int. J. of Chemical Engineering, Vol. 2010, Article ID 659434.
 
[2]  Zhang, W. and Cheng, C.Y., “Manganese metallurgy review. Part II: Manganese separation and recovery from solution”, Hydrometallurgy, 2007, 89, 160.
 
[3]  Avraamides, J., Senanayake, G., Clegg, R., “Sulfur dioxide leaching of spent zinc-carbon-battery scrap”, J. of Power Source, 2006, 159, 1488.
 
[4]  Baba, A. A., Adekola, A. F., Bale, R. B., “Development of a combined pyro- and hydro-metallurgical route to treat spent zinc-carbon batteries”, J. of Hazardous Materials, 2009, 171, 838.
 
[5]  Levenspiel, O., “Chemical reaction engineering”, 3rd edition, John Wiley & Sons. : New York, 1999.
 
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[6]  Ige, J., Akanni, M.S., Morakinyo, M. K., Owoyomi, O., “A kinetic study of the leaching of iron and manganese from Nigerian tantalite-columbite ore”, J. of Applied Science, 2005, 5(3), 496-502.
 
[7]  Adebayo, A.O., Ipinmoroti, K. O., Ajayi, O. O., “Leaching of sphalerite with hydrogen peroxide and nitric acid solutions”, J. of Minerals and Materials Characterization & Engineering, 2006, 5(2), 167.
 
[8]  Espiari, S., Rashchi, F., Sadrnezhaad, S. K., “Hydrometallurgical treatment of tailings with high zinc content”, Hydrometallurgy, 2006, 82, 54.
 
[9]  Ray, H. S., “Kinetics of Metallurgical Reactions”, Oxford & IBH Publishing: India, 1993.
 
[10]  Shin, S. M., Sohn, J. S., “The behavior of valuable metals from spent zinc-carbon batteries in sulfuric acid solution”, J. Korea Society of Waste Management, 2005, 10 (1), 25.
 
[11]  Espiari, S., Rashchi, F., Sadrnezhaad, S. K., “Hydrometallurgical treatment of tailings with high zinc content”, Hydrometallurgy, 2006, 82, 54.
 
[12]  Abdel-Aal, E.A., “Kinetics of sulfuric acid leaching of low grade zinc silicate ore”, Hydrometallurgy, 2000, 55, 247.
 
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Article

Kinetics of Leaching of Iron Oxide in Clay in Oxalic Acid and in Hydrochloric Acid Solutions

1Department of Materials and Metallurgical Engineering, Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology, Dhaka, Bangladesh


Materials Science and Metallurgy Engineering. 2014, 2(1), 5-10
DOI: 10.12691/msme-2-1-2
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
U K Sultana, Fahmida Gulshan, A S W Kurny. Kinetics of Leaching of Iron Oxide in Clay in Oxalic Acid and in Hydrochloric Acid Solutions. Materials Science and Metallurgy Engineering. 2014; 2(1):5-10. doi: 10.12691/msme-2-1-2.

Correspondence to: A  S W Kurny, Department of Materials and Metallurgical Engineering, Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology, Dhaka, Bangladesh. Email: aswkurny@mme.buet.ac.bd

Abstract

Iron oxide in samples of clay containing 8.15% iron oxide was leached in aqueous oxalic acid and hydrochloric acid solutions. Leaching experiments were conducted in the temperature range of 40–80°C for times up to 90 minutes in 0.2 M to 2 M acid solutions. The mixed kinetic mechanism seemed to be the most appropriate model to fit the kinetic data of leaching in oxalic acid while product layer diffusion controlled reaction model seemed to be the most appropriate one for leaching in hydrochloric acid. The Arrhenius activation energy for leaching in oxalic acid was found to be 41.035 kJ/mole while that for hydrochloric acid was 50.82 kJ/mole.

Keywords

References

[1]  J. A. Lori, A.O.Lawal and E.J. Ekanem, Characterization and optimisation of deferration of Kankara clay, 2007. ARPN Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences, 2 (2005) 60-72.
 
[2]  S. C. Baral, S. R. Das, S. N. Ghosh. Physico-chemical characterization of Maghalaya clays for use in ceramics. Transactions of Indian Ceramic Society, Vol. 52 (1993) 176-182.
 
[3]  S K Mukherji, B B Machhoya, A. K. Chakraborty, T K Dan. A study on the beneficiation of some crude china clays of Gujarat, Research and Industry, 38 (1993) 254-259.
 
[4]  F. Veglio, B. Passariello, M. Barbaro, P. Plescia, A.M. Marabini, Drum leaching tests in iron removal from quartz using oxalic and sulphuric acids, Int. J. Miner. Process, 54 (1998) 183-200.
 
[5]  Suong Oh Lee, Tam Tran, Yi Yong Park, Seong Jun kim, MyongJun Kim. 2006. Study on the kinetics of Iron oxide leaching by oxalic acid, Int. J. Miner. Process, 80 (2006) 144-152.
 
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[6]  R. Chiarizia, E.P. Horwitz, New formulations for iron oxides dissolution, Hydrometallurgy 27 (1991) 339-360.
 
[7]  D. Panias, M. Taxiarchou, I. Paspaliaris, A. Kontopoulos, Mechanisms of dissolution of Iron Oxides in aqueous oxalic acid solution, Hydrometallurgy, 42 (1996) 257-265.
 
[8]  Sung Oh Lee, Tam Tran, Byoung Hi Jung, Seong Jun Kim, Myong Jun Kim, Dissolution of Iron oxide using oxalic acid. Hydrometallurgy, 87 (2007) 91-99.
 
[9]  V.R. Ambikadevi, M. Lalithambika, Effect of organic acids on ferric iron removal from iron stained kaolinite. Applied Clay Science 16 (2000) 133-145.
 
[10]  Gulsemin Gulfen, Mustafa Gulfen, Ali Osman Aydin, Dissolution Kinetics of iron from diasporic bauxite in hydrochloric acid solution, Indian Journal of Chemical Technology, 13 (2006) 386-390.
 
[11]  Alafara, A. Baba; Adekola, F A; Folashade, A. O., Quantitative Leaching of a Nigerian Iron Ore in Hydrochloric Acid. J. Appl. Sci. Environ. Mgt. 9 (2005) 15-20.
 
[12]  P. S. Sidhu, R. J. Gilkes, R. M. Cornell, A. M. Posner, J. P. Quirk, Dissolution of iron oxides and oxyhydroxides in hydrochloric and perchloric acids, Clays Clay Miner, 29 (1981) 269-276.
 
[13]  O. Levenspiel, Chemical Reaction Engineering, Third edition, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1999.
 
[14]  Ray, H.S., Kinetics of Metallurgical Reactions, Oxford & IBH Publishing Company, India 1993.
 
[15]  J. Bassett, R. C. Denney, G. H. Jeffery, J. Mendham, Vogel’s text book of Quantitative Inorganic Analysis including elementary instrumental analysis, Fourth edition, pp. 743, 1978.
 
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Article

Oven-Dewatering of Otamiri Clays Designated for Production of Porcelain and Multi-Factorial Analysis of Periodic Water Loss

1Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, NnamdiAzikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria

2Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, University of Lagos, Nigeria

3Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Enugu State University of Science & Technology, Enugu Nigeria


Materials Science and Metallurgy Engineering. 2014, 2(2), 11-16
DOI: 10.12691/msme-2-2-1
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
C. I. Nwoye, E. Obidiegwu, E. M. Ameh, S. O. Nwakpa. Oven-Dewatering of Otamiri Clays Designated for Production of Porcelain and Multi-Factorial Analysis of Periodic Water Loss. Materials Science and Metallurgy Engineering. 2014; 2(2):11-16. doi: 10.12691/msme-2-2-1.

Correspondence to: C.  I. Nwoye, Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, NnamdiAzikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria. Email: nwoyennike@gmail.com

Abstract

Oven-dewatering of Otamiri clay designated for production of porcelain was carried out over a time and temperature range: 30-130 mins. and 80-110°C respectively, following a well strategize step-wise preparation of the clay in as-mine condition. Multi-factorial analysis of periodic water loss during the drying process was also carried out using a derived empirical model. Water loss at 100°C by evaporation through a rectangular surface was found to be least compared to other drying temperatures considered irrespective of the drying time. This was basically due to the fall-back of condensed part of the water leaving the drying clay as steam, since steam can re-convert to water without any change in temperature. Evaluations from generated results indicate that the evaporation rates of the Otamiri clay and the standard error incurred in predicting water loss for each value of the drying times considered, as obtained from experiment, derived model and regression model were 0.0770, 0.0733 and 0.0733g min-1 as well as 0.8051, 2.1 x 10-4 and 3.45 x 10-5 % respectively. The maximum deviation of the model-predicted water loss (from experimental results) was less than 20%, implying a model confidence level above 80%.

Keywords

References

[1]  Amer, M., El-didamony, A. A., and El-sheikh. A. A. H. (2000).Effect of Calcination Temperature on the Clay-Limestone Mixes. Sil. Ind., 65(9-10): 95-100.
 
[2]  Waye, B. E., and Ashley, M., (1963). Vitrification and Fired Properties of An Electrical Porcelain, Trans. Brit Ceram. Soc., 62-421.
 
[3]  Chanhudri, S. P., (1982). Ceramic Properties In Relation to Mineralogical Composition and Microstructure; Dielectric Behaviour. Post-Doctoral Research work, Dept. of Applied Chemistry, Calcutta, University, India.
 
[4]  Okerulu, S. O. (1989). Effects of Pulverised Coal Ash, Palm Kernal Shell Ash, Rice Husk Ash on Transverse Strength and Electrical Resistance of Electrical Porcelain. B. Eng., Project, Anambra State University of Technology, Enugu, Nigeria.
 
[5]  Singer, F. and Singer, S.S., (1963). Industrial Ceramics, University Press Cambridge, 44-50.
 
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[6]  Nwoye, C. I., Studies on Pore Deformation Mechanism in Particles J. Eng. Appl. Sc. (in press).
 
[7]  Nwoye, C. I., Obidiegwu, E. and Mbah, C. N. (2010). Periodic Assessment and Prediction of the Quantity of Water Evaporated during Oven Drying of Otamiri Clay Designated for Development of Refractories. Journal of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering. 5(2): 48-54.
 
[8]  Nwoye, C. I., Mbuka, I. E, and Iheanacho, O. (2010). Determination of Average Grain Sizes and Water Evaporation Rates of Some Nigeria Clays at Oven Drying Temperature. Report and Opinion. 2(4): 21-28.
 
[9]  Nwoye, C. I. (2008). C-NIKBRAN ‘‘Data Analytical Memory’’- Software.
 
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Article

Sedimentation Analysis of Galena Concentrate and Predictability of Effective Particle Depth Based on Settling Time and Particle Diameter

1Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, NnamdiAzikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria

2Project Development Institute Enugu, Nigeria

3Department of Mechanical Engineering, MichealOkpara University, Umuahia, Nigeria

4Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Enugu State University of Science & Technology, Enugu Nigeria

5Department of Industrial Physics, Ebonyi State, Abakiliki, Nigeria


Materials Science and Metallurgy Engineering. 2014, 2(2), 17-25
DOI: 10.12691/msme-2-2-2
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
C. I. Nwoye, S. O. Nwakpa, I. D. Adiele, M. A. Allen, S. E. Ede, N. E. Idenyi. Sedimentation Analysis of Galena Concentrate and Predictability of Effective Particle Depth Based on Settling Time and Particle Diameter. Materials Science and Metallurgy Engineering. 2014; 2(2):17-25. doi: 10.12691/msme-2-2-2.

Correspondence to: C.  I. Nwoye, Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, NnamdiAzikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria. Email: nwoyennike@gmail.com

Abstract

Galena particles (concentrate) were analyzed by sedimentation method using conventional technique, appropriate apparatus and reagents. A critical evaluation of the relationship between effective particle depth and a consortium of factorials; settling time and particle diameter was carried out using a derived model which is two-factorial-quadratic in nature. Results of the sedimentation analysis show increased effective depth reached by the particles as a result of decrease in the descending particle diameter, and increased settling time. The validity of derived model; β = 2 x 10-5 γ2 - 5 x 10-4 γ – 1.5 x 10-3 α + 0.2176 is rooted on the core expression β - 1.5 x 10-3 = 2 x 10-5 γ2 - 5 x 10-4 γ + 0.2176 where both sides of the expression are correspondingly approximately equal to 0.2. The model validity was verified through comparative evaluation of the settling rates from experimental and model-predicted results. These settling rates are 0.002 and 0.0025 m/mins. respectively which are in proximate agreement. The standard error incurred in predicting the effective particle depth for each value of settling time & particle diameter considered as evaluated from experiment and derived model are 0.0018 and 0.0027 & 0.0005 and 0.0024 respectively. Maximum deviation of model-predicted results from experiment was less than 3%, implying a confidence applicability level of about 97%.

Keywords

References

[1]  Reed, J. (1988).Principles of Ceramic Processing, Wiley Interscience Publication Canada, pp. 460-476.
 
[2]  McGeary, R. K. (1961).Mechanical Packing Spherical Particles. American Ceramic Society, pp. 44 10:513-520.
 
[3]  David, R.W. (1979). Mechanical Behaviour of Ceramics 1st Edition, Cambridge University Press, pp. 67-78.
 
[4]  Barsoum, M. (1997). Fundamentals of Ceramics. McGraw Hill Incorporated, Singapore, pp. 400-410.
 
[5]  Singer, F and Singer, S. S. (1963).Industrial Ceramics, University Press Cambridge, pp. 34- 44.
 
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[11]  Brakke, M. K. (1953). Basic Theory of Particles Size Analysis by Sedimentation. Arch., Biochem., Biophysics., 45:275-290.
 
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Article

Enhancement of Mechanical Properties of AA 6351 Using Equal Channel Angular Extrusion (ECAE)

1Department of Mechanical engineering, Wollo University, South wollo, Ethiopia

2Department of Mechanical engineering, Bannari Amman Institute of Technology, Sathyamangalam, India


Materials Science and Metallurgy Engineering. 2014, 2(2), 26-30
DOI: 10.12691/msme-2-2-3
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Raja Thiyagarajan, A. Gopinath. Enhancement of Mechanical Properties of AA 6351 Using Equal Channel Angular Extrusion (ECAE). Materials Science and Metallurgy Engineering. 2014; 2(2):26-30. doi: 10.12691/msme-2-2-3.

Correspondence to: Raja  Thiyagarajan, Department of Mechanical engineering, Wollo University, South wollo, Ethiopia. Email: rajaktraja@gmail.com

Abstract

The Equal Channel Angular Extrusion (ECAE) process is a promising technique for imparting large plastic deformation to materials without a resultant decrease in cross-sectional area. The die consists of two channels of equal cross section intersecting at an angle of 110°C. The work piece is placed in one channel and extruded into the other using a punch. In the present study, Influence of equal channel angular extrusion on room temperature, the mechanical properties of Aluminum Alloy AA 6351 alloy was investigated. The results show that, the mechanical properties of Aluminum AA 6351alloy, such as yield strength, ultimate tensile strength and elongation, can be improved heavily by equal channel angular extrusion. Processing routes, processing temperature and extrusion passes have important influence on room temperature mechanical properties of processed Aluminum AA 6351alloy by equal channel angular extrusion. The mechanical properties such as yield strength and ultimate tensile strength can be enhanced when Aluminum AA 6351 alloy was processed by equal channel angular extrusion for single pass at route A at 303 K.

Keywords

References

[1]  Jong-Woo Park, Jin-Yoo Suh “Effect of Die Shape on the Deformation Behavior in Equal-Channel Angular Pressing” Metallurgical and materials transactions A, Volume 32A, Dec 2001. pg.3007.
 
[2]  Dr Hu Banghong “Numerical Analysis in Equal Channel Angular Extrusion of Nanostructured Light Alloys” Forming Technology Group, 2002.
 
[3]  Fuqian Yang, Aditi Saran, Kenji Okazaki “Finite element simulation of equal channel angular extrusion” Journal of Materials Processing Technology 166 (2005) ELSEVIER pg.71-78.
 
[4]  A.V. Nagasekhar, Yip Tick-Hon, H.P. Seow (2007) “Deformation behavior and strain homogeneity in equal channel angular extrusion/pressing” ELSEVIER, Journal of Materials Processing Technology 192–193 (2007) 449-452.
 
[5]  Seung Chae Yoon, Hyoung Seop Kim “Finite element analysis of the effect of the inner corner angle in equal channel angular pressing” ELSEVIER, Materials Science and Engineering A 490 (2008) 438-444.
 
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[6]  Langdon T G. The principles of grain refinement in equal-channel angular pressing [J]. Materials Science and Engineering A, 2007, 462: 3-11.
 
[7]  Reihanian M, Ebrahimi R, Moshksar M M, Terada D,Tsuji n. Microstructure quantification and correlation with flow stress of ultrafine grained commercially pure Al fabricated by equal channel angular pressing (ECAP) [J]. Materials Characterization, 2008, 59: 1312-1323.
 
[8]  Zhilyaev A P, Swisher D L, Oh-Ishi K, Langdon T G, Mcnelley t r. Microtexture and microstructure evolution during processing of pure aluminum by repetitive ECAP [J]. Materials Science and Engineering A, 2006, 429: 137-148.
 
[9]  Chen Y B, Li Y L, He L Z, Lu C, Ding H, Li Q Y. The influence of cryoECAP on microstructure and property of commercial pure aluminium [J]. Materials Letters, 2008, 62: 2821-2824.
 
[10]  Sklenicka V, Dvorak J, Kral P, Stonawska Z, Svoboda m. Creep processes in pure aluminium processed by equal-channel angular pressing [J]. Materials Science and Engineering A, 2005, 410/411: 408-412.
 
[11]  Fang D R, Duan Q Q, Zhao N Q, Li J J, Wu S D, Zhang Z F. Tensile properties and fracture mechanism of Al-Mg alloy subjected to equal channel angular pressing [J]. Materials Science and Engineering A, 2007, 459: 137-144.
 
[12]  Nagarajan D, Chakkingal U, Venugopal P. Influence of cold extrusion on the microstructure and mechanical properties of an aluminium alloy previously subjected to equal channel angular pressing [J]. Journal of Materials Processing Technology, 2007, 182: 363-368.
 
[13]  Del Valle J A, Carreno F, Ruano O A.Influence of texture and grain size on work hardening and ductility in magnesium-based alloys processed by ECAP and rolling [J]. Acta Materialia, 2006, 54: 4247-4259.
 
[14]  Saravanan M, Pillai R M, Ravi K R, Pai B C, Brahmakumar M. Development of ultrafine grain aluminium-graphite metal matrix composite by equal channel angular pressing [J]. Composites Science and Technology, 2007, 67: 1275-1279.
 
[15]  Sabirov I, Kolednik O, Valiev R Z, Pippan R. Equal channel angular pressing of metal matrix composites: Effect on particle distribution and fracture toughness [J]. Acta Materialia, 2005.
 
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Article

The Effect of Holding Time on the Hardness of Case Hardened Mild Steel

1Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Uyo, PMB 1017 Uyo, Akwaibom State-Nigeria


Materials Science and Metallurgy Engineering. 2014, 2(3), 31-34
DOI: 10.12691/msme-2-3-1
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Ihom P. Aondona, Aniekan Offiong. The Effect of Holding Time on the Hardness of Case Hardened Mild Steel. Materials Science and Metallurgy Engineering. 2014; 2(3):31-34. doi: 10.12691/msme-2-3-1.

Correspondence to: Ihom  P. Aondona, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Uyo, PMB 1017 Uyo, Akwaibom State-Nigeria. Email: draondonaphilip@gmail.com

Abstract

The study “the effect of holding time on the hardness of mild steel case hardened with carburizing material energized by cow-bone” has been x-rayed. The mild steel specimens used for the study were carburized in the furnace at 900C at various holding times of 2 hrs, 4 hrs, 6 hrs, and 8 hrs, using 65% charcoal / 35% cow-bone as carburizing material. Hardness values were obtained using Vickers Micro-hardness Tester Machine, from the hardness values, hardness profiles were plotted. The result of the study clearly showed that the hardness of the carburized steel increased with increase in holding time. The hardness profile results were higher for higher holding time (surface hardness: 830 Hv for 2 hrs, 850 Hv for 4 hrs, 900 Hv for 6 hrs and 1000 Hv for 8 hrs) and also the plot of the profile for 8 hrs holding time was higher than that of 6 hrs, and that of 6 hrs was higher than that of 4 hrs, and in that order. This clearly showed that holding time has effect on the hardness of case hardened steel.

Keywords

References

[1]  Ihom, A.P. Case Hardening of Mild Steeling using Cow-bones, B.ENG Degree Project Submitted to the Department of Materials and Metallurgical Engineering, University of Jos, 1991, 1-35.
 
[2]  Ihom, A.P. heat treatment parameters control and their effect on quality, in house seminar presented at National Metallurgical Development Centre, Jos, 2002, 1-20.
 
[3]  Aramide, F.O., Simeon A. I., Isiaka O.O. and Joseph O. B. Pack Carburization of Mild Steel, using Pulverized Bone as Carburize Optimizing Process Parameters, Leonardo Electronic Journal of Practices and Technologies ISSN 1583-1078 16, 2010, 1-12.
 
[4]   Ihom, A.P., Yaro, S.A., Aigbodion, V.S. The Effect of Carburization on the Corrosion Resistance of Mild Steel in Four Different Media, Journal of Corrosion Science and Technology, 3, 2005, 18-21.
 
[5]  Shragger, A.M., Elementary Metallurgy and Metallography, 2ND Edition, Dover Publications New York, 1961, p 175-176.
 
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[6]  Ihom, A.P., Nyior, G.B., and Ambayin, M. Surface Hardness Improvement of Mild Carbon Steel using Arecaceae Waste Flower Droppings, the Pacific Journal of Science and Technology 13, 1, 2012, 133-138.
 
[7]  ASM Committee on Gas Carburizing American Society for Metals, USA, 1977, 1-46.
 
[8]  Higgins, R.A. Properties of Engineering Materials 6th edition Hodder and Stoughton Educational Great Britain, 1983, 199-200.
 
[9]  Ihom, A,P. and Nyior, G.B., Suleiman, M.U. and Ibrahim, G.Z. Improving Surface Hardness of Steel using Rice Husk Waste, Nigerian Journal of Tropical Engineering, 1, 2, 2011, 107-115.
 
[10]  Ihom, A.P., Nyior, G.B., Alabi, O.O., Segun, S, Nor, I.J. and Ogbodo, J.N. The Potentials of Waste Organic Materials for Surface Hardness Improvement of Mild Steel, International Journal of Scientific and Engineering Research, 3, 11, 2012, 1-20.
 
[11]  Ihom, A.P., Nyior, G.B., Nor, I.J., Ogbodo, N.J. Investigation of Egg Shell Waste as an Enhancer in the Carburisation of Mild Steel, American Journal of Material Science and Engineering, 1, 2, 2013, 29-33.
 
[12]  Ihom, A.P., Nor, J.I., Alabi, O.O., and Usman, A.W. Recent Trends and Developments in Surface Hardening Technology: A Focus on New Ceramics for Surface Modification in Industry, International Journal of Science and Engineering Research, 3, 11, 2012, 1-27.
 
[13]  Okongwu, D.A. Assessment of the Efficacy of Some Carbonate Minerals as Energizers in Pack Carburization of Mild Steel, J. NSE, 1989, 30-35.
 
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Article

Structural Modification of Hypereutectic Al-16.5mass%Si Alloy by Thermo-Mechanical Treatment with ECAP

1Department of Technological Studies of Hydroextrusion Processes, Donetsk O.O.Galkin Institute for Physics and Engineering, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Donetsk, Ukraine

2Department of Constitution and Properties of Solid Solutions, G.V.Kurdyumov Institute for Metal Physics, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kyiv, Ukraine

3Department of magnetohydrodynamics, Physico-Technological Institute of Metals and Alloys, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kyiv, Ukraine


Materials Science and Metallurgy Engineering. 2014, 2(3), 35-40
DOI: 10.12691/msme-2-3-2
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Victor Spuskanyuk, Alla Berezina, Victor Dubodelov, Oleksandr Davydenko, Vladyslav Fikssen, Kristina Sliva, Tetyana Monastyrska. Structural Modification of Hypereutectic Al-16.5mass%Si Alloy by Thermo-Mechanical Treatment with ECAP. Materials Science and Metallurgy Engineering. 2014; 2(3):35-40. doi: 10.12691/msme-2-3-2.

Correspondence to: Oleksandr  Davydenko, Department of Technological Studies of Hydroextrusion Processes, Donetsk O.O.Galkin Institute for Physics and Engineering, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Donetsk, Ukraine. Email: dav76@ukr.net

Abstract

Evolution of the microstructure and mechanical properties of the hypereutectic Al-16.5mass%Si-3.77mass%Cu alloy by treatment in the liquid state by magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) and hydrodynamic (HD) methods, followed by processing in the solid state by equal channel angular pressing (ECAP) method and thermal treatment has been investigated. This alloy has in initial state a very low value of plasticity at room temperature. Optical microscopy technique was employed in order to determine the evolution of the microstructure after different operating conditions of ECAP and thermal treatments. It was demonstrated that it is possible to significantly improve mechanical properties of this alloy by means of combining a low number of ECAP passes after an adequate combination of MHD+HD processing and thermal treatments.

Keywords

References

[1]  Ma, A., Suzuki, K., Saito, N., Nishida, Y., Takagi, M., Shigematsu, I., Iwata, H. “Impact toughness of an ingot hypereutectic Al-23mass% Si alloy improved by rotary-die equal-channel angular pressing,” Mater. Sci. Eng. A, 399, 181-189, 2005.
 
[2]  Yoon, S. C., Hong, S. J., Hong, S. I., Kim, H. S., “Mechanical properties of equal channel angular pressed powder extrudates of a rapidly solidified hypereutectic Al-20 wt% Si alloy,” Mater. Sci. Eng. A, 449-451, 966-970, 2007.
 
[3]  Chuvildeev, V.N., Gryaznov, M.Yu., Kopylov, V.I., Sysoev, A.N., “Superplasticity of microcrystalline Al-Si alloys,” Physics Status Solid, Vestnik Nizhegorodski Univercity, 4, 42-48, 2010.
 
[4]  Dubodelov, V., Fikssen, V., Slazhniev, M., Goryuk, M., Skorobagatko, Yu., Berezina, A., Monastyrska, T., Davydenko, O., Spuskanyuk, V. “Improving of Al-Si alloys by their combined MHD and thermo-forced processing in liquid and solid states,” Magnetohydrodynamics, 48 (2), 379-386, 2012.
 
[5]  Berezina, A., Monastyrska, T., Dubodelov, V., Segida, O., Fikssen, V. “Effects of Melt Treatment in the Magnetodynamic Installation on the Structure of Al-Si Alloys,” Aluminum Alloys, ICAAII, DGM, v.1, pp. 470-476, 2008.
 
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[6]  Beloshenko, V., Spuskanyuk, V. “ECAE Methods of Structure Modification of Materials,” International Journal of Materials and Chemistry, 2(4), 145-150, 2012.
 
[7]  Berezina, A.L., Dubodelov, V.I., Monastyrska, T.O., Fikssen, V.N., Slaznev, M.A., Skorobagat'ko, Yu.P. “Impact of Magnetohydrodynamic Treatment of Cuprous Hypereutectic Silumins on Processes of Formation of Strengthening Nanoparticles During the Ageing,” Metallofizika i Noveishie Tekhnologii, 33 (5), 651-66, 2011.
 
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