American Journal of Marine Science

ISSN (Print): ISSN Pending

ISSN (Online): ISSN Pending

Website: http://www.sciepub.com/journal/MARINE

Article

Simulation on Some Aspect of Air-sea Interaction Parameters over Bay of Bengal (Indian Ocean) Using One-dimensional Numerical Model

1CAS, Indian Institute of Technology, Hauz Khas, New Delhi, India

2Research and Modelling Division, AIR Worldwide India Private Limited Rockdale, Somajiguda, Hyderabad, A. P., India


American Journal of Marine Science. 2014, 2(1), 9-18
DOI: 10.12691/marine-2-1-2
Copyright © 2013 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Yashvant Das, U. C. Mohanty (Rtd.). Simulation on Some Aspect of Air-sea Interaction Parameters over Bay of Bengal (Indian Ocean) Using One-dimensional Numerical Model. American Journal of Marine Science. 2014; 2(1):9-18. doi: 10.12691/marine-2-1-2.

Correspondence to: Yashvant  Das, CAS, Indian Institute of Technology, Hauz Khas, New Delhi, India. Email: yashvantdas@rediffmail.com

Abstract

Air-sea interaction plays a dominant role in modulating the ocean-atmospheric circulation pattern and in bringing about changes in global weather and climatic systems. In the present paper a one-dimensional multi-level numerical planetary boundary layer (PBL) model with a TKE-ε closure scheme was applied to simulate the air-sea interaction parameters over northern part of Bay of Bengal (Indian Ocean). The oceanographic research ship observed high-resolution sounding data comprising of the vertical profiles of temperature, humidity, zonal and meridional component of wind was used as initial and boundary conditions to integrate the model. The temporal evolution of turbulent kinetic energy (TKE), marine boundary layer (MBL) height, sensible and latent heat fluxes are simulated for the duration of study. The model simulated vertical profiles of potential temperature, specific humidity, zonal and meridional wind compare reasonably well with the observations.

Keywords

References

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Article

Physico Chemical Properties of Water Sample Collected From Mangrove Ecosystem of Mahanadi River Delta, Odisha, India

1Department of Biotechnology, North Orissa University, Baripada, Odisha, India

2Department of Biotechnology, MITS School of Biotechnology, Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India

3Department of Biotechnology and Medical Engineering, Environmental Laboratory, National Institute of Technology, Rourkela, Odisha, India

4Centre for Ecological Sciences, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, India

5Department of Biotechnology, College of Engineering and Technology, Biju Pattnaik University of Technology, Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India


American Journal of Marine Science. 2014, 2(1), 19-24
DOI: 10.12691/marine-2-1-3
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
B.C. Behera, R.R. Mishra, J.K. Patra, S.K. Dutta, H.N Thatoi. Physico Chemical Properties of Water Sample Collected From Mangrove Ecosystem of Mahanadi River Delta, Odisha, India. American Journal of Marine Science. 2014; 2(1):19-24. doi: 10.12691/marine-2-1-3.

Correspondence to: H.N  Thatoi, Department of Biotechnology, College of Engineering and Technology, Biju Pattnaik University of Technology, Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India. Email: hn_thatoi@rediffmail.com

Abstract

In the present study, physico-chemical parameters of water samples were compared with the water quality standard of Bureau of Indian standard and the state pollution control board. Variations of different parameters investigated were as follows: Temperature (24.2-30.9°C), dissolved oxygen (2.9-10.9 mg/L), pH (6.05-8.6), electrical conductivity (5.16–17.33 mS/cm), TDS (4510–11900 mg/L), chloride content (4389-12575 mg/l), nitrate (13.03-24.01 mg/l), phosphate (0.55-2.59 mg/l), calcium (125.4-400.8 mg/l), magnesium (153.16-474.13 mg/l) and total hardness (800-2090 mg/l). The significant variations of p among different study sites with high load of calcium, chloride, nitrate and phosphate in most of the study sites indicating the pollution status of the estuarine water.

Keywords

References

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Article

Collective Review in Particular Reference to Soil Erosion around Maritime Structures, Effects of the Angle of Wave: Attack on Coastal Areas Formation and Variation on Transport Rates

185 Mostapha Kamel St., Fleming, Alexandria, Egypt

221 El Hoda St. El Betach " Agamy ", Alexandria, Egypt


American Journal of Marine Science. 2014, 2(1), 25-32
DOI: 10.12691/marine-2-1-4
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
M. A. Khalifa, Kh. A. Zahra. Collective Review in Particular Reference to Soil Erosion around Maritime Structures, Effects of the Angle of Wave: Attack on Coastal Areas Formation and Variation on Transport Rates. American Journal of Marine Science. 2014; 2(1):25-32. doi: 10.12691/marine-2-1-4.

Correspondence to: M.  A. Khalifa, 85 Mostapha Kamel St., Fleming, Alexandria, Egypt. Email: ramzy24@hotmail.com

Abstract

Hydraulic structures cause disturbances in uniform flow and sediment transport. Downstream of these structures flow velocities increase due to constriction of the channel. Bed protection is often constructed in order to decrease the maximum scour hole and to shift the scour holes that involve a potential risk to structural stability to a greater distance from the hydraulic structure. Both hydraulic and geotechnical characteristics influence these two design parameters and are treated in more detail in subsequent sub-sections. Attention is paid to the processes relevant to sedimentation and consolidation, because these affect the erosion behavior of beds with cohesive sediments. The scour which may occur near a structure can be considered to be a result of bed scour caused by different processes. Owing to shear failures or flow slides, the scour process may progressively damage the bed protection. This will lead to the failure of hydraulic structures. The paper also discussed the effects of the angle of wave attack on coastal areas formation and the effect of wave attack angle variation on the sediment transport rates.

Keywords

References

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Article

Evaluation of Occupational Hazards of Quay Side Crane Operator Using Job Safety Analysis

1Department of Marine Transports, Faculty of Maritime Economics & Management, Khoramshahr University of Marine Science and Technology, Iran


American Journal of Marine Science. 2014, 2(2), 33-37
DOI: 10.12691/marine-2-2-1
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Hassan Jafari. Evaluation of Occupational Hazards of Quay Side Crane Operator Using Job Safety Analysis. American Journal of Marine Science. 2014; 2(2):33-37. doi: 10.12691/marine-2-2-1.

Correspondence to: Hassan  Jafari, Department of Marine Transports, Faculty of Maritime Economics & Management, Khoramshahr University of Marine Science and Technology, Iran. Email: hassanport53@yahoo.com

Abstract

Nowadays the development speed of the technology is beyond of the human perception. However, every new and innovate profession is not completely safe and sound. How to identify and recognize those work menace and risks is the question that in this study we want to clarify it. There are many methods to concern about risks assessment and here we can refer to Job safety analysis, Safety Audit and etc. What do we mean by Job safety analysis is to put all the processes and activities into a detailed analysis in order to reach the main goal of the work. In this analytical-descriptive study, the vintage is mainly focus on the identification and Job safety analysis of the quay side cranes operator in Imam Khomeini port and offering convenient controlling strategies for reduction and prevention of the probable incidents and unfavorable events. The resulted data of the risks evaluation showed that in the checking level for the facilitating before the start, the risk of the insufficient room in the powerhouse and the body parts contact with the considered items attends the risk priority of 54 and in the discharging level: the risks of the wires cut and falling of the cargo on the stuff and the trucks attends the risk priority of 100 and in the discharging and loading ironware level: the risk of the hook wire cut attends the risk priority of 100 respectively. Finally for each mentioned risk, some suggestive control methods were presented.

Keywords

References

[1]  Cousineau, J. M., Lacroix, R., & Girard, A. M. (1992). Occupational hazard and wage compensating differentials. The Review of Economics and Statistics, 166-169.
 
[2]  Debrah, Y. A., & Ofori, G. (2001). Subcontracting, foreign workers and job safety in the Singapore construction industry. Asia Pacific Business Review, 8(1), 145-166.
 
[3]  Jafari, H., Saeidi, karimi. (2013). Importance - Performance Analysis of Port’s Services Quality Form Perspective of Containerized Liner Shipping. Management Science Letters, 3 (6): 1743-1750.
 
[4]  Gerking, S., Haan, M., & Schulze, W. (1988). The marginal value of job safety: A contingent valuation study. Journal of risk and uncertainty, 1(2), 185-199.
 
[5]  Jafari, H. Saeidi, N. Saffari, r. (2013). Development of FMEA as Effective Tool for Risks Assessment in the Iraqi Container Terminals. World of Sciences Journal. 1(11): 26-32.
 
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[7]  Ramsay, J., Denny, F., Szirotnyak, K., Thomas, J., Corneliuson, E., & Paxton, K. L. (2006). Identifying nursing hazards in the emergency department: a new approach to nursing job hazard analysis. Journal of safety research, 37(1), 63.
 
[8]  Rebitzer, J. B. (1995). Job safety and contract workers in the petrochemical industry. Industrial Relations: A Journal of Economy and Society, 34(1), 40-57.
 
[9]  Roughton, J. E., & Crutchfield, N. (2008). Job Hazard Analysis: A Guide for Voluntary Compliance and Beyond: from Hazard to Risk: Transforming the JHA from a Tool to a Process. Butterworth-Heinemann.
 
[10]  Jafari, H., and dadkhah, A. (2013). Risks Analysis of Container Handling Operation Using ELECTRE and Shannon's Entropy Methods. International Journal of Basic Sciences & Applied Research. 2 (4): 484-493.
 
[11]  Swartz, G. (2001). Job Hazard Analysis- A Guide to Identifying Risks in the Workplace. GOVERNMENT INSTITUTES, ROCKVILLE, MD 20850-3226 (USA). 200, 200.
 
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Article

Study of Some Morphometric and Meristic Characters of Saddle Grunt Fish, Pomadasys maculatus (Bloch, 1793), off Karachi Coast, Pakistan

1Department of Zoology, Sir Syed Govt. Girls College NazimAbad, Karachi, Pakistan

2Department of Zoology, University of Karachi


American Journal of Marine Science. 2014, 2(2), 38-42
DOI: 10.12691/marine-2-2-2
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Amtyaz Safi, M. Atiqullah Khan, M. Zaheer Khan. Study of Some Morphometric and Meristic Characters of Saddle Grunt Fish, Pomadasys maculatus (Bloch, 1793), off Karachi Coast, Pakistan. American Journal of Marine Science. 2014; 2(2):38-42. doi: 10.12691/marine-2-2-2.

Correspondence to: Amtyaz  Safi, Department of Zoology, Sir Syed Govt. Girls College NazimAbad, Karachi, Pakistan. Email: imtiazsafi76@gmail.com

Abstract

In morphometry of Pomadasys maculatus, the total length was recorded as 79 mm to 220 mm while mean total length was 162.72 mm in male, whereas total body length in female recorded as 82 mm to 219 mm while mean total length was 173.36. Mean body weight in male was 69.88g, while mean body weight in female was 84.52g. Mean value of Head length in percentage of total body length was found to be 25.32 and snout length was found to be 7.92, Mean value of eye diameter was found as 7.51 and mean value of caudal peduncle length was recorded as 10.07 in male. In female specimens the mean value of Head length in percentage of total body length was found to be 25.87 and snout length was found to be 8.26, mean eye diameter was found as 7.94 and mean value of caudal peduncle length was recorded as 10.49. The meristic characters like dorsal fin rays, anal fin rays, Lateral line scales, gill rakers on lower arm and scales in transversal line were counted. No sexual dimorphism was found in Pomadasys maculatus. In the present study the average total length of females were 152.47 mm TL and the average total length of males were 151.95 mm TL.

Keywords

References

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[3]  Amtyaz, Khan, M. A, Khan, M. Z, & Hashmi, M. U, A. The Sex Ratio, Gonadosomatic Index & Stages of Gonadal Development of Saddle Grunt fish, Pomadasys maculatum (Bloch, 1793) of Karachi Coast, Pakistan. Canadian Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences. 2014. 8(1): 2721-2726.
 
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[5]  Amtyaz, Khan, M. A, Khan, M. Z, & Hashmi, M. U, A. Observation on the food and feeding habits of striped piggy, Pomadasys stridens (Forsskal, 1775) (Family: Pomadasyidae) From Karachi Coast Pakistan. International Journal of Fauna and Biological Studies. 2013. 1(1): 7-14.
 
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[10]  Khan, M. A. and Amtyaz. Studies on the Fecundity and sex ratio of the Saddle Grunt Fish, Pomadasys maculatum (BLOCH, 1793) (Family: Pomadasyidae) From Karachi Coast Pakistan. International Journal of biology and biotechnology. 2004. 1(1): 111-115.
 
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[21]  Kapiris, K., Kallias, E. and Conides, A. 2008. Preliminary biological data on Pomadasys incisus in the Aegean Sea, Greece. Mediterranean marine science. 9(2): 53-62.
 
[22]  Agbugui, M.O and Oniye, S.J. 2013. Some Morphometric Parameters of Pomadasys Jubelini in the New Calabar – Bonny River, Porthacourt, Nigeria. Academia Arena. 5(8): 1-4.
 
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Article

Water and Sediment Quality Assesment of Poonthura Backwater in the Southwest Coast of India

1Department of Biotechnology, Vinayaka Missions University, Salem, India


American Journal of Marine Science. 2014, 2(2), 43-46
DOI: 10.12691/marine-2-2-3
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Leena Grace Beslin. Water and Sediment Quality Assesment of Poonthura Backwater in the Southwest Coast of India. American Journal of Marine Science. 2014; 2(2):43-46. doi: 10.12691/marine-2-2-3.

Correspondence to: Leena  Grace Beslin, Department of Biotechnology, Vinayaka Missions University, Salem, India. Email: drblgrace@rediffmail.com

Abstract

The fate and effect of different pollutants entering into the estuaries can be obtained from the existing physico-chemical parameters and it is worthwhile to acquire the hydrographical features of the estuaries at different seasons. This determines the tropic dynamics of the water body. The present study has been made to detail the hydro-geo dynamics of Poonthura estuary. Sewage and retting materials were the main sources of Poonthura estuary. The physico-chemical parameters analyzed include temperature, pH, salinity and alkalinity and dissolved oxygen. The toxic gases hydrogen sulphide, ammonia nitrogen and nutrients viz. nitrite-nitrogen, phosphate phosphorous and silicate-silicon of water samples and the sediment parameters viz. organic carbon, total nitrogen, total phosphorus. From the present study the parameters which are unsuitable for the healthy environment increases during premonsoon due to concentration of pollutants. The winter season showed fewer nutrients with normal level of dissolved oxygen.

Keywords

References

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Article

Symbiotic Association between Athanas dorsalis (Alpheidae) and Stomopneustes variolaris (Echinoidea) from Visakhapatnam Coast, India

1Department of Marine Living Resources, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh, India


American Journal of Marine Science. 2014, 2(3), 47-50
DOI: 10.12691/marine-2-3-1
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Archana Ayyagari, Ramesh Babu Kondamudi. Symbiotic Association between Athanas dorsalis (Alpheidae) and Stomopneustes variolaris (Echinoidea) from Visakhapatnam Coast, India. American Journal of Marine Science. 2014; 2(3):47-50. doi: 10.12691/marine-2-3-1.

Correspondence to: Archana  Ayyagari, Department of Marine Living Resources, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh, India. Email: archana.ayyagari@yahoo.com

Abstract

The alpheid shrimp, Athanas dorsalis (Stimpson, 1865) is reported for the first time at Bay of Bengal (Visakhapatnam, east coast of India). The present study reports a new association between the rock boring intertidal dwelling sea urchin Stomopneustes variolaris (Lamarck, 1816) and the alpheidae, A. dorsalis. These shrimps were found among the spines between ambital region and oral end, preferring more towards oral surface. One to three individuals were found to inhabit sea urchins of diameter in the range of 48 mm to 76 mm. The black colour of the shrimp renders it cryptic by being camouflaged with the similar colour of the spines of the host. Thus the shrimp is protected from the predators. Also the shrimp derives its food from the algal bits nibbled by the host. The host does not seem to have any obvious advantage out of this association. Hence the relationship between the host and the shrimp is commensalism.

Keywords

References

[1]  Coppard, S.E., Campbell, A.C., “Organisms associated with diadematid echinoids in Fiji,” in Echinoderms: Munchen, Taylor & Francis, London, UK, 2004.
 
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[7]  Suzuki, H., “Taxonomic review of four alpheid shrimps belonging to the genus Athanas, with reference to their sexual phenomena,” Sci. Rep. Yokohama Natl. Univ. Sect. II, 17: 1-38, 1970.
 
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Article

Some Expected Environmental Impacts according to New Ports Construction and Development

1(Senior Civil Engineer - Coastal and Port Engineering, PhD Alex. Univ. – Egypt) 20 El - Lahoun St., Zezinea - Alexandria – Egypt


American Journal of Marine Science. 2014, 2(3), 51-57
DOI: 10.12691/marine-2-3-2
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
M. R. A. Khalifa. Some Expected Environmental Impacts according to New Ports Construction and Development. American Journal of Marine Science. 2014; 2(3):51-57. doi: 10.12691/marine-2-3-2.

Correspondence to: M.  R. A. Khalifa, (Senior Civil Engineer - Coastal and Port Engineering, PhD Alex. Univ. – Egypt) 20 El - Lahoun St., Zezinea - Alexandria – Egypt. Email: coastportcop@yahoo.com

Abstract

The expected environmental impacts to occur due to new ports construction and development works are many and considered essential. This practical collective overview deals with some of them, which are related to dredging (as noise, visual hinder, smell, turbidity increasing, nutrient release and BOD change). The study also concentrated on some important measures to determine the suitable ones of the expected environmental impacts in the port vicinity. These measures are the accurate evaluation of the littoral drift and so the expected accumulated sediments in the port vicinity related to littoral drift movement direction. Besides, attention was given to the importance of the balance between cut and fill via a practical case study. The study gave a group of practical conclusion for the expected environmental impacts reduction/alleviation in the new constructed/developed port area.

Keywords

References

[1]  BS-6349 (2000). Code of practice for maritime structures "Part-1"-General Criteria, British Standards Institution, UK, pp 20-65.
 
[2]  DMC B.V. (1999). Conceptual planning of a new container port, HPG seminar, The Netherlands, pp 35-84.
 
[3]  Geense M. 2001, Interaction of Environmental Issues in Port Planning and Design, TU Delft Lecture Notes No. (CT4330), The Netherlands, pp 28-72.
 
[4]  Geense M. 2001, Environmental Aspects of Harbors-Maintenance and Development, IHE Delft Lecture Notes No. (HH320/001), The Netherlands, pp 35-75.
 
[5]  Goda, Y., 1985. Random Seas and Design of Maritime Structures. Tokyo: University of Tokyo Press, Japan, pp 65-128.
 
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[7]  IAPH (2009). http://www.iaphworldports.org, (accessed: March 2014), pp 20-68.
 
[8]  Khalifa, M. R. A. (2002). Planning and Design of a New Container Port in Hambantota, Sri Lanka. M.Sc. Thesis, UNESCO Institute for Water Education, UNESCO IHE, Delf, The Netherlands.
 
[9]  Khalifa, M. R. A.; El Ganainy, M.A., and Nasr, R.I., 2009. Parameter uncertainty and bootstrap analysis for waves in the Egyptian norther n coast, a case study application. Journal of Coastal Research, 25 (2), pp 474-487.
 
[10]  Khalifa, M. R. A.; El Ganainy, M.A., and Nasr, R.I., 2009. Wave transformation and longshore sediment transport evaluation for the Egyptian northern coast, via extending modern formulae. Journal of Coastal Research, 25 (3), pp 755-767.
 
[11]  Khalifa, M. R. A.; El Ganainy, M. A., and Nasr, R. I., 2009. Statistical and uncertainty analysis of longshore sediment transport evaluations for the Egyptian northern coast, a case study application. Journal of Coastal Research, 25 (4), pp 1002-1014.
 
[12]  Ligteringen H., 2000. Ports and terminals, Delft University of Technology (TU Delft) press, The Netherlands.
 
[13]  Ris, R. C.; Booij, N.; Holthuijsen, L.H., and Haagsma, I.J.G., 1998. Swan User Manual, cycle II. Delft, Delft University of Technology (TU Delft) press, The Netherlands.
 
[14]  Smith E. R.; Ebersole B.A. and Wang P., 2004. Dependence of total longshore sediment transport rates on incident wave parameters and breaker type. ERDC/CHL CHETN-IV-62, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers publications, USA.
 
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Article

Numerical Investigation of the Performance of Voith Schneider Propulsion

1Department of Ocean Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran, Iran


American Journal of Marine Science. 2014, 2(3), 58-62
DOI: 10.12691/marine-2-3-3
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Ehsan Esmailian, Hassan Ghassemi, Seyyed Abbas Heidari. Numerical Investigation of the Performance of Voith Schneider Propulsion. American Journal of Marine Science. 2014; 2(3):58-62. doi: 10.12691/marine-2-3-3.

Correspondence to: Ehsan  Esmailian, Department of Ocean Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran, Iran. Email: ehsanesmaelian@aut.ac.ir

Abstract

The research explained in this article was carried out to investigate the numerical hydrodynamic characteristics of the Voith Schneider Propeller (VSP) system. The system has four vertical blades connected to the horizontal disk. Each blade has two speeds, one around a disk and second local rational along its axis. The method is finite volume CFD code (Fluent v14) with RNG k-ε turbulence model. For the purposes of this research, a VSP with 4 blades is analyzed at various operating conditions. Hydrodynamic characteristic parameters including moment, thrust and efficiency are presented as functions of advance velocity coefficients at three different pitch rations.

Keywords

References

[1]  www.en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Voith_Schneider_Propeller.
 
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[3]  Dirk Jürgens, Michael Palm, “VSP - An Efficient Propulsion System for DP Controlled Vessels”, Voith Turbo Schneider Propulsions, October 2009.
 
[4]  Dirk Jurgens, Michael Palm, Sebastian Singer, Karsten Urban, “Numerical optimization of the Voith-Schneider Propeller”, Journal of Applied Mathematics and Mechanics, October 2007.
 
[5]  Jens-Erk Bartels, Dirk Jürgens, The Voith Schneider Propeller: Current Applications and New Developments, Voith Turbo Marine GmbH & Company KG, 2006
 
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[9]  Jürgens, Birgit; Fork, Faszination, “Voith Schneider propeller”, Geschichte und technik, Humburg 2002.
 
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Article

Impact of the Tropical Cyclonic Storm ‘Hudhud’ on Northeast Coastal Waters of Visakhapatnam

1Department of Marine Living Resources, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh, India

2Department of Zoology, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh, India


American Journal of Marine Science. 2014, 2(3), 63-66
DOI: 10.12691/marine-2-3-4
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
K. Ramesh Babu, T. Joseph Uday Ranjan, K. V. Siva Reddy, M. Ratna Raju. Impact of the Tropical Cyclonic Storm ‘Hudhud’ on Northeast Coastal Waters of Visakhapatnam. American Journal of Marine Science. 2014; 2(3):63-66. doi: 10.12691/marine-2-3-4.

Correspondence to: T.  Joseph Uday Ranjan, Department of Marine Living Resources, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh, India. Email: ranjan.uday@gmail.com

Abstract

Large-scale tropical cyclones, such as tropical storms and hurricanes, can generate both short and long-term disturbances in estuarine systems. The main objective of the present study was to explore and elevate the impact of Hudhud cyclone at three stations of coastal waters along the coast of Visakhapatnam. The physicochemical characteristics of the coastal water vary with pre and post Hudhud cyclone phase. Significant fluctuations were noticed among the hydrographical parameters like salinity, dissolved oxygen, chemical oxygen demand and along with that inorganic nutrients were also enriched during post cyclone event. Collectively, these results demonstrate that storm water runoff from the domestic and sewage drains negatively impacts coastal water quality, both in the surf zone and offshore. However, the extent of this impact and its human health significance is influenced by numerous factors, including prevailing ocean currents, within-plume processing of particles and pathogens and the timing, magnitude and nature of runoff discharged from river outlets over the course of a storm.

Keywords

References

[1]  Chittibabu, P., Dube, S.K., MacNabb, J.B., Murty, T.S., Rao, A.D., Sinha, P.C., “Mitigation of flooding and cyclone hazard in Orissa, India”. Natural Hazards 31: 455-485. 2004.
 
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